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1.  Antiproliferative role of Indigofera aspalathoides on 20 methylcholanthrene induced fibrosarcoma in rats 
To find out the anticancer effect of Indigofera aspalathoides (I. aspalathoides) on 20-methylcholanthrene induced fibrosarcoma in rats.
Fibrosarcoma was induced in Wistar strain male albino rats by 20-methylcholanthrene. Intraperitoneous (i.p.) administration of 250 mg/kg body weight/day of aqueous extract of I. aspalathoides for 30 d effectively suppressed chemically induced tumors. Parameters such as body weight, liver and kidney weight, tumor weight, mean survival time, behavioral changes, blood glucose, blood glycogen and marker enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and 5′-nucleiotidase (5′-NT) in serum, liver and kidney and lipid profiles such as total cholesterol, phospholipids, free fatty acids in liver and kidney of control and experimental animals were studied.
Fibrosarcoma bearing animals were ferocious and anxious. The mean survival time was found to increase after the treatment. The body weights were significantly decreased (P<0.001) in group II fibrosarcoma animals which steadily increased after the treatment with I. aspalathoides. The liver and kidney weights were significantly increased whereas the tumor weights decreased as compared to the weights in untreated fibrosarcoma bearing rats. The blood glucose and the liver and kidney glycogen levels were found to decrease significantly (P<0.001) in group II animals. Elevated activities of marker enzymes were observed in serum, liver and kidney of fibrosarcoma bearing Group II animals which were normalize after I. aspalathoides treatment. In the liver and kidney of Group II animals the total cholesterol increased whereas the phospholipids and free fatty acid levels decreased (P<0.001) which were normalized after treatment.
The treatment by I. aspalathoides on fibrosarcoma bearing rats has improved the levels of various parameters indicating its antiproliferative and anticancer activity.
PMCID: PMC3621473  PMID: 23593577
Chemoprevention; Tumor weight; Mean survival time; Glucose; Glycogen; Marker enzymes
2.  Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Leaves of Cassia sophera Linn. 
In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts of Cassia sophera Linn. leaves was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, changes in serum enzymes, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and total protein levels. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and total bilirubin were restored towards the normalization significantly by the extracts. The decreased serum total protein level was significantly normalized. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Cassia sophera leaves have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. This study suggests that possible activity may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extracts.
PMCID: PMC3368335  PMID: 22690244
Ancient Science of Life  2010;29(4):29-34.
The ethanolic fruit extract of Pedalium murex to ethylene glycol intoxicated rats reverted the levels of the liver and kidney markers to near normal levels protecting liver and renal tissues from damage and also prevents the crystal retention in tissues. The levels of ACP, ALP, AST, ALT in serum andurine were significantly increased due to the damaged structural integrity of renal and hepatic cells causing the enzymes which are located in the cytoplasm to be released into the circulation. The levels of ACP and ALP, AST, ALT in renal and hepatic tissues of ethylene glycol induced rats might be due to leakage of the enzyme into the general circulation from the collateral circulation. LDH levels in serum, urine and tissues were increased on ethylene glycol intoxication is due to the oxalate induced renal and hepatic cellular damage.
PMCID: PMC3336290  PMID: 22557365
Marker enzymes; urolithiasis; ethylene glycol; Pedalium murex
4.  Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Garcinia indica fruit rind in ethanol-induced hepatic damage in rodents 
Interdisciplinary Toxicology  2012;5(4):207-213.
The protective effects of aqueous extracts of the fruit rind of Garcinia indica (GIE) on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and the probable mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated in rats. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering ethanol (5 g/kg, 20% w/v p.o.) once daily for 21 days. GIE at 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg and the reference drug silymarin (200 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days to ethanol treated rats, this treatment beginning 7 days prior to the commencement of ethanol administration. Levels of marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)), triglyceride (sTG), albumin (Alb) and total protein (TP) were evaluated in serum. Antioxidant parameters (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)), hepatic triglycerides (hTG) and the lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in liver. GIE and silymarin elicited significant hepatoprotective activity by attenuating the ethanol–elevated levels of AST, ALT, ALP, sTG, hTG and MDA and restored the ethanol-depleted levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, Alb and TP. GIE 800 mg/kg demonstrated greater hepatoprotection than GIE 400 mg/kg. The present findings indicate that hepatoprotective effects of GIE in ethanol-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in liver.
PMCID: PMC3600525  PMID: 23554565
Garcinia indica; ethanol; hepatoprotective; antioxidant activity
Ancient Science of Life  2005;25(1):8-15.
Insight of evidence that some complications of diabetes mellitus due to hyperglycemia, we investigated the effect of T. arjuna bark extract on serum, liver and kidney marker enzymes in alloxan - induced diabetic rats. T. arjuna was administered orally at a doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 30 days, after which serum liver and kidney tissues were assayed for the degree of pathological changes by means of markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) resulted in a significant reduction in serum and tissue of liver and kidney marker enzymes when compared with control rats T. arjuna at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited higher efficacy.
PMCID: PMC3330897  PMID: 22557182
Terminalia arjuna; hyperglycemia; alloxan diabetes; marker enzymes
6.  Hepatoprotective effect of Pterocarpus marsupium against carbon tetrachloride induced damage in albino rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2007;27(1):19-25.
Medicinal plants play a key role in human health care. Pterocarpus marsupium is one of the plants used in treatment of diabetes mellitus and the present study was aimed to assess hepatoprotective effect of the plant against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I was normal control group; Group II, the hepatotoxic group was given CCl4 (2ml/kg body weight intraperitoneally); Groups III received CC14 + Plant extract (100 mg/kg b.w orally); Group IV received only the plant extract. Liver markers were assayed in serum and liver tissue. Levels of marker enzymes such as alanine transminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and bilirubin were increased significantly in Group II. These enzymes were significantly decreased in Group III treated with plant extracts. The present investigation suggest that the plant had a good protective effect on CCl4 induced hepatic injury.
PMCID: PMC3330841  PMID: 22557255
7.  Effect of vitamin E alone and in combination with lycopene on biochemical and histopathological alterations in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats 
The present study has been designed to evaluate the combined cardioprotective effect of vitamin E and lycopene on biochemical and histopathological alteration in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.
Materials and Methods:
Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain were treated with isoproterenol (200 mg/kg, s.c.) for 2 days at an interval of 24 h to develop myocardial infarction. Vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and lycopene (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) were administered alone and in combination for 30 days. Change in body weight and organ weight were monitored. Levels of serum marker enzymes (AST, ALT, LDH and CK-MB), lipid peroxidation, endogenous antioxidants (GSH, GPX, GST, SOD and CAT), membrane bound enzymes (Na+/K+ ATPases, Mg2+ ATPases and Ca2+ ATPases) were evaluated. LDH isoenzyme separation was carried out using gel electrophoresis. Histopathology of heart tissue was performed.
Induction of rats with isoproterenol resulted in a significant elevation in organ weight, lipid peroxidation, serum marker enzymes (AST, ALT, CK-MB and LDH), and Ca 2+ ATPases, whereas it caused a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in body weight, activities of endogenous antioxidants (GSH, GPx, GST, SOD and CAT), Na+/K+ and Mg2+ ATPases. ISO treated rats showed high intensity band of LDH1-LDH2 isoenzymes. Treatment with the combination of Vitamin E and lycopene for 30 days significantly attenuated these changes as compared to the individual treatment and ISO treated groups. Histopathological observations were also in correlation with the biochemical parameters.
These findings indicate the synergistic cardioprotective effects of vitamin E and lycopene during ISO-induced myocardial infarction in rats.
PMCID: PMC3142754  PMID: 21808587
Isoproterenol; myocardial infarction; oxidative stress; vitamin E; lycopene
8.  Protective Effects of Garlic and Silymarin on NDEA-Induced Rats Hepatotoxicity 
Background ­— The present study was conducted to investigate the chemopreventive effects of garlic extract and silymarin on N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats. Methods and Results — Animals were pretreated with garlic, silymarin or both for one week prior to the injection of NDEA. Then animals received a single injection of NDEA followed by weekly subcutaneous injections of CCl4 for 6 weeks. Oral administration was then continued along with the injection of CCl4 for the duration of the experiment. Serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSR) were measured. Injection of NDEA induced a significant elevation in serum AST, ALT and ALP. In the liver, NDEA increased oxidative stress through the increase in LPO and decrease in SOD, and GSH-dependent enzymes. Although administration of garlic or silymarin significantly reduced the liver toxicity, combined administration was more effective in preventing the development of hepatotoxicity. Conclusion — These novel findings suggest that silymarin and garlic have a synergistic effect, and could be used as hepatoprotective agents against hepatotoxicity.
PMCID: PMC2737715  PMID: 19742242
Hepatotoxicity; NDEA; Garlic; Silymarin; liver enzymes; oxidative stress; rats.
9.  Antioxidant Effect of Caffeic Acid on Oxytetracycline Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats 
Caffeic acid is a well-known phenolic compound widely present in plant kingdom. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of caffeic acid (CA) against oxytetracycline (OXT) induced hepatotoxicity in male Albino Wistar rats. A total of 30 rats weighing 150–170 g were randomly divided into five groups of six rats in each group. Oral administration of OXT (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 15 days produced hepatic damage as manifested by a significant increase in serum hepatic markers namely aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bilirubin and increased plasma and hepatic lipid peroxidation indices (TBARS and hydroperoxide). The present finding shows that the levels of enzymatic antioxidants namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly decreased in OXT intoxicated rats. Upon oral administration of caffeic acid (40 mg/kg body weight/day) there were decreased hepatic marker activities, bilirubin and lipid peroxidation and increased enzymatic antioxidants in OXT + Caffeic acid group compared to Normal + OXT group(P < 0.05). Our study suggests that caffeic acid has antioxidant property and hepatoprotective ability against OXT induced toxicity.
PMCID: PMC2994573  PMID: 21966107
Caffeic acid; Oxytetracycline; Hepatoprotective and Lipid peroxidation
10.  Protective Role of Tinospora cordifolia against Lead-induced Hepatotoxicity 
Toxicology International  2010;17(1):12-17.
The importance of Tinospora cordifolia stem and leaves extract was investigated for its possible hepatoprotective effect in Swiss albino male mice against lead nitrate induced toxicity. Oral administration of plant extracts prevented the occurrence of lead nitrate induced liver damage. The decreased level of tissue enzymes, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and increased level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and acid phosphatase (ACP) were observed in mice treated with lead. Administration of aqueous stem extract (400 mg/kg body weight, orally) and aqueous leaves extract (400 mg/kg body weight, orally) along with the lead nitrate (5 mg/kg body weight, i.p. for 30 days) increased the activities of SOD and CAT and decreased the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and ACP enzymes in mice. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathology/histological examinations of liver section. Results of this study revealed that plant extract could afford protection against lead-induced hepatic damage.
PMCID: PMC2964743  PMID: 21042467
Biochemical changes; histopathology; lead nitrate; liver; mice; Tinospora cordifolia
11.  Possible recovery from an acute envenomation in male rats with LD50 of Echis coloratus crude venom: I-A seven days hematological follow-up study 
The effect of an acute LD50 dose of Echis coloratus crude venom in male albino rats was tested on blood parameters: white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), platelets count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), also serum glucose, total protein, triglycerides with alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) enzyme activities. The effect of the LD50 dose was monitored over a period of seven days, with time intervals of 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 72 h. All of the tested parameters show fluctuations with time and with tendency to regain normal control level after 12 h. At 12–24 h it seems to be crucial for the process of physiological recovery, in spite of the irreversible damage and tissue distraction. The process of physiological adaptation and recovery from the lethal destructive venom effect seems to stabilize after one week, leaving the animal alive with several biochemical altered metabolisms and disturbed physiological profile.
PMCID: PMC3730782  PMID: 23961182
Echis coloratus; Blood parameters; Metabolites; LD50; Crude venom; Enzymes
12.  Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Properties of Tofu (Curdle Soymilk) against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage in Rats 
The antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of tofu using acetaminophen to induce liver damage in albino rats were evaluated. Tofus were prepared using calcium chloride, alum, and steep water as coagulants. The polyphenols of tofu were extracted and their antioxidant properties were determined. The weight gain and feed intake of the rats were measured. The analysis of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and the concentrations of albumin, total protein, cholesterol, and bilirubin were analyzed. The result reveals that the antioxidant property of both soluble and bound polyphenolic extracts was significantly higher in all tofus, but the steep water coagulated tofu was recorded higher. Rats fed with various tofus and acetaminophen had their serum ALP, ALT, AST, and LDH activities; total cholesterol; and bilirubin levels significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, and total protein and albumin concentrations increased when compared with basal diet and acetaminophen administered group. Therefore, all tofus curdled with various coagulants could be used to prevent liver damage caused by oxidative stress.
PMCID: PMC3600259  PMID: 23533782
13.  Leucine amino peptidase a better indicator of carcinoma of liver, biliary tract and pancreas 
Serum levels of leucine amino peptidase (LAP) was studied along with bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the ratio of AST/ALT and GGT/AST in 25 healthy subjects and 52 patients with hepatobiliary malignancies of which 12 were with hepatocellular carcinoma, 12 with liver metastasis, 6 with obstructive jaundice, 9 with carcinoma of gall bladder, 6 with carcinoma of pancreas and 7 with periampullary carcinoma. 24 Of the 52 patients studied had jaundice and 28 were without jaundice.
LAP as compared to the other enzymes AST, ALT, GGT, ALP and AST/ALT ratio and GGT/AST ratio showed 100% elevation in obstructive jaundice, carcinoma of gall bladder and pancreas and periampullary carcinoma, 91.7% elevation in hepatocellular carcinoma and 83.3% elevation in liver metastasis. On comparing the levels of these enzymes in non jaundiced and jaundiced groups, LAP was elevated in both jaundiced and non jaundiced groups in 95.8% and 92.9% cases respectively whereas the other enzymes AST showed increase from 67.9% to 100%, ALT from 21.4% to 83.3%, GGT from 71.4% to 95.4% and ALP from 82.1% to 100% in non jaundiced and jaundiced groups respectively indicating that LAP rises in hepatic dysfunction due to hepatobiliary malignancy whereas the other liver function enzymes showed increased hepatic dysfunction due to hepatobiliary malignancy with the onset of jaundice thereby indicating that LAP is a better indicator of hepatobiliary malignancy as compared to other enzymes.
The quantitative methods used for determination are reliable, accurate, simple, rapid and cost effective and therefore have better application in a clinical setting.
PMCID: PMC3453617  PMID: 23105293
Leucine amino peptidase; carcinoma; liver; biliary tract; pancreas
Ancient Science of Life  1994;14(1-2):71-76.
The hepatoprotective activity of a fraction of the leaf extract of A.indica against carbon tetrachloride : liquid paraffin (1:1) induced liver damage in rats at doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg was evaluated. A significant dose dependent hepatoprotective activity was evidenced by lowering of the elevated levels of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the serum of CCl4 : liquid paraffin (1:1) treated rats.
PMCID: PMC3336499  PMID: 22556679
15.  Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea in combination with lycopene in rats 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2011;43(5):563-567.
To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Portulaca oleracea (P. oleracea) in combination with lycopene against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Materials and Methods:
Hepatotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (0.1 ml/kg b.w for 14 days). The aqueous extract of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene (50 mg/kg b.w) was administered to the experimental animals at two selected doses for 14 days. The hepatoprotective activity of the combination was evaluated by the liver function marker enzymes in the serum [aspartate transaminases (AST), alanine transaminases (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (Alk.P), total bilirubin (TB), total protein (TP) and total cholesterol (TC)], pentobarbitone induced sleeping time (PST) and histopathological studies of liver.
Both the treatment groups showed hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity by significantly restoring the levels of serum enzymes to normal which was comparable to that of silymarin group. Besides, the results obtained from PST and histopathological results also support the study.
The oral administration of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene significantly ameliorates CCl4 hepatotoxicity in rats.
PMCID: PMC3195128  PMID: 22022001
Hepatotoxicity; hepatoprotective activity; lycopene; Portulaca oleracea
16.  Protective effect of Piper betle leaf extract against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction in rats 
Graphical abstract
The present study was undertaken to examine the attenuative effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) against cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative hepatic dysfunction in the liver of rats. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) treated rats showed the protective efficacy against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. Oral administration of Cd (5 mg/kg BW) for four weeks to rats significantly (P > 0.05) elevated the level of serum hepatic markers such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin (TBRNs), oxidative stress markers viz., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), protein carbonyls (PC) and conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly (P > 0.05) reduced the enzymatic antioxidants viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants Viz., reduced glutathione (GSH), total sulfhydryls (TSH), vitamin C and vitamin E in the liver. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) in Cd intoxicated rats, the altered biochemical indices and pathological changes were recovered significantly (P > 0.05) which showed ameliorative effect of PBE against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. From the above findings, we suggested that the pre-administration of P. betle leaf extract exhibited remarkable protective effects against cadmium-induced oxidative hepatic injury in rats.
PMCID: PMC3730608  PMID: 23961183
Piper betle; Ethanolic leaf extract; Cadmium; Oxidative stress; Antioxidant; Liver; Rats
17.  Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of Hordeum vulgare seeds on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2012;44(6):672-677.
The objective was to investigate the antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Hordeum vulgare seeds (EHV) on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in Wistar albino rats.
Materials and Methods:
Urolithiasis was produced in Wistar albino rats by adding 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol (EG) to drinking water for 28 days. The ethanolic extract of Hordeum vulgare seeds (EHV) was assessed for its curative and preventive action in urolithiasis. In preventive treatment, the EHV given from 1st day to 28th day, while in the curative regimen, the EHV was given from 15th day to 28th day. Various renal functional and injury markers such as urine volume, calcium, phosphate, uric acid, magnesium, urea, and oxalate were evaluated using urine, serum, and kidney homogenate. Antioxidant parameters such as lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were also determined.
The EHV treatment (both preventive and curative) increased the urine output significantly compared to the control. The EHV treatment significantly reduced the urinary excretion of the calcium, phosphate, uric acid, magnesium, urea, and oxalate and increased the excretion of citrate compared to EG control. The increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats were significantly lowered by curative and preventive treatment with EHV. It was also observed that the treatment with EHV produced significant decrease in lipid peroxidation, and increased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase.
These results suggest the usefulness of ethanolic extract of Hordeum vulgare seeds as an antiurolithiatic and antioxidant agent.
PMCID: PMC3523490  PMID: 23248392
Antioxidant; ethylene glycol; Hordeum vulgare; urolithiasis
18.  Protective Effect of Acacia nilotica (L.) against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatocellular Damage in Wistar Rats 
The potential biological functions of A. nilotica have long been described in traditional system of medicine. However, the protective effect of A. nilotica on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is still unknown. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of A. nilotica against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. The biochemical liver functional tests Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total protein, oxidative stress test (Lipid peroxidation), antioxidant parameter glutathione (GSH), and histopathological changes were examined. Our results show that the pretreatment with A. nilotica (250 mg/kg·bw) orally revealed attenuation of serum activities of ALT, AST, ALP, liver weight, and total bilirubin levels that were enhanced by administration of acetaminophen. Further, pretreatment with extract elevated the total protein and GSH level and decreased the level of LPO. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by acetaminophen. The present study undoubtedly provides a proof that hepatoprotective action of A. nilotica extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in rat model.
PMCID: PMC3707210  PMID: 23864853
Ancient Science of Life  2006;25(3-4):1-5.
The ameliorative activity of herbal powder prepared from Veronia cinerea leaves on CCl4 (0.2ml/kg body wt. intraperitoneally (ip) and liquid paraffin (0.2 ml / kg body wt:ip) induced hepatotoxicity was studied in rats. The liver marker enzymes namely alanine transmainase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were decreased in 10% w/v liver homogenates of hepatotoxicity induced rats. The results of both post treated and pre treated groups suggest the hepatoprotective activity of Veronia cinerea in CCl4 induced rats.
PMCID: PMC3335221  PMID: 22557198
CCl4 liver marker enzymes; Vernonia cinerea and hepatotoxicity
20.  Hepatoprotective activity of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride treated rats 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2009;41(1):23-27.
To estimate the hepatoprotective effects of the methanolic seed extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Myrtaceae), in Wistar albino rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).
Materials and Methods:
Liver damage in rats treated with CCl4 (1ml/kg/Bw, administered subcutaneously, on alternate days for one week) was studied by assessing parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and bilirubin (total and direct). The effect of co-administration of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p. o.) on the above parameters was investigated. These biochemical observations were supplemented by weight and histological examination of liver sections. Liv.52® was used as positive control. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA, followed by Scheff's/Dunnett's test.
Administration of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p. o.) significantly prevented carbon tetrachloride induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, ACP and bilirubin (total and direct) level. Histological examination of the liver section revealed hepatic regeneration, after administration of various doses of Eugenia jambolana Lam. The results were comparable to that of Liv.52®.
The study suggests preventive action of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity. Hepatic cell regeneration process was dose dependent.
PMCID: PMC2825009  PMID: 20177577
Carbon tetrachloride; Eugenia jambolana Lam.; marker enzymes; methanolic extract
21.  Antioxidant and toxicological evaluation of Cassia sopherain streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats 
Pharmacognosy Research  2013;5(4):225-232.
Multiple-organ failure is the main cause of death in diabetes mellitus (DM). Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is responsible for major diabetic complications, including multiple-organ failure. Medicinal plants possessing antioxidant activity may reduce oxidative stress and improve the functions of various organs affected by hyperglycemia.
This study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant effect of Aqueous Extract of Cassia sophera (AECS) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods:
AECS (200 mg/kg body weight (bw)) and the standard antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (10 mg/kgbw) were administered orally by gavaging for 28 days.
Oral administration of AECS inhibited STZ-induced increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, creatinine and urea in liver of diabetic rats. Significant increase in activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and a reduced level of glutathione (GSH), were observed in the liver, kidney, pancreas and testis on AECS treatment.
The results demonstrate that AECS is not only useful in controlling blood glucose, but also has antioxidant potential to protect the liver, kidney, pancreas and testis against damage caused by hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress.
PMCID: PMC3807985  PMID: 24174814
Antioxidants; Cassia sophera; streptozotocin
22.  Salivary enzymes as diagnostic markers for detection of gingival/periodontal disease and their correlation with the severity of the disease 
Host responses to periodontal disease include the production of different enzymes released by stromal, epithelial or inflammatory cells. Important enzymes associated with cell injury and cell death are aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase, acidic phosphatase (ALP, ACP), and gama glutamyl transferase (GGT). Changes in enzymatic activity reflect metabolic changes in the gingiva and periodontium, in the inflammation.
In this article we examined the activity of AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, and ACP in the saliva from patients with periodontal disease, before and after periodontal treatment (experimental group — 20 gingivitis patients and 20 periodontitis patients), and in the saliva from healthy subjects (control group — 20 samples).
Settings and Design:
Periodontal disease was determined based on the clinical parameters (gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL)). Patients with periodontal disease were under conventional periodontal treatment.
Materials and Methods:
The stimulated saliva of the patient was collected in a sterile test tube and analyzed using the Automatic Analyzer.
The obtained results showed statistically significant increased activity of AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, and ACP in the saliva from patients with periodontal disease, in relation to the control group. A significant reduction in the enzyme levels was seen after conventional periodontal therapy.
Based on these results, it can be assumed that the salivary enzymes (AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, and ACP) can be considered as biochemical markers for evaluating the diagnosis and prognosis of the functional condition of periodontal tissues in disease and health, and in the evaluation of the therapy effects in periodontal disease.
PMCID: PMC3498704  PMID: 23162329
Enzymes; periodontal disease; saliva
23.  Zingiber officinale acts as a nutraceutical agent against liver fibrosis 
Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) (Zingiberaceae) has been cultivated for thousands of years both as a spice and for medicinal purposes. Ginger rhizomes successive extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol) were examined against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats.
The evaluation was done through measuring antioxidant parameters; glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver marker enzymes; succinate and lactate dehydrogenases (SDH and LDH), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), acid phosphatase (AP), 5'- nucleotidase (5'NT) and liver function enzymes; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) as well as cholestatic markers; alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin were estimated. Liver histopathological analysis and collagen content were also evaluated. Treatments with the selected extracts significantly increased GSH, SOD, SDH, LDH, G-6-Pase, AP and 5'NT. However, MDA, AST, ALT ALP, GGT and total bilirubin were significantly decreased.
Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanol one resulted in an attractive candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. Further studies are required in order to identify the molecules responsible of the pharmacological activity.
PMCID: PMC3199745  PMID: 21689445
Zingiber officinale; liver fibrosis; enzymes; antioxidants; histology
24.  Attenuation of Biochemical Parameters in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats by Oral Administration of Extracts and Fractions of Cephalotaxus sinensis 
Cephalotaxus sinensis (C. sinensis) large size, evergreen tree common in China and utilized for numerous effective pharmacological applications in Chinese traditional medicine. The hepato-renal effects of C. sinensis were evaluated in vivo using Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats as an tentative model. Animals were orally treated with 80% EtOH extract (aq.EE), H2O extract (WtE) and ethylacetate (EaF)/butanol fractions (BtF) of C. sinensis (200 mg/kg, b.w.) for 28 days whereas control received vehicle merely. The degree of fortification was measured by using biochemical parameters like serum transaminases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea and urine sugar. Meanwhile, the histopathological studies were conducted out to support the above parameters. Administration of C. sinensis aq.EE/BtF (p<0.05) and EaF (p<0.01) patently prevented STZ-induced elevation levels of serum ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine, urea, urine sugar and increase body weight respectively, which were comparable with the standard drug tolbutamide, while WtE did not show any significant effect (p>0.05). Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of saponins, terpenes, sterols and flavonoids in C. sinensis which could be responsible for the possible hepato-renal protective action. The results sustain the fact that the extract/fractions of C. sinensis have an immense potential to be developed further into a phytomedicine.
PMCID: PMC2212347  PMID: 18231626
hepato-renal effects; HPLC; biochemical parameters; STZ-induced diabetic rats; Cephalotaxus sinensis
25.  Ameliorative potential of Coccinia grandis extract on serum and liver marker enzymes and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2011;31(1):26-30.
Diabetes mellitus is the most severe metabolic pandemic of the 21st century, affecting essential biochemical activities in almost every cell in the body. Indian literatures have already mentioned herbal remediation for a number of human ailments. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of Coccinia grandis extract on serum and liver marker enzymes (ALP, AST, ALT and LDH) and lipid profile (total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides and free fatty acids in serum and liver) in streptozotocin induced diabetic animals. The experimental animals were treated with methanolic extract of Coccinia grandis and the levels of marker enzymes and lipid profile were estimated. The ALP, AST, ALT and LDH levels were increased in diabetic rats and restored to near normal levels after administration of plant extract. The lipid profile increased in diabetic group and after the treatment with the plant extract the levels were reverted to near normal. Thus the methanolic extract of Coccinia grandis has a potent ability to restore the marker enzymes and the lipid profile was reverted to near normal levels.
PMCID: PMC3377039  PMID: 22736887
streptozotocin; marker enzymes; lipid profile

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