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1.  Antihyperglycemic Effects of Separate and Composite Extract of Root of Musa Paradisiaca and Leaf of Coccinia Indica in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat 
We evaluated the antihyperglycaemic properties of aqueous-methanolic (40:60) extract of root of Musa paradisiaca and leaf of Coccinia indica in separate as well as in composite manner by conducting experiment on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. We measured food and water intake ability, the fasting blood glucose level, glucose tolerance, activities of important carbohydrate metabolic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hexokinase in liver along with quantification of glycogen in liver and in skeletal muscle and serum insulin level. We noted that after treatment of aqueous methanolic extract of above plant parts in separate as well as in composite manner at a concentration of 80mg/100g body weight/day to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat resulted in a significant remedial effect on blood glucose level as well as carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and the quantity of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen. Serum insulin level that was diminished in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat recovered significantly after the co-administration of extract of above plant parts. All the above parameters showed a more potent remedial effect after composite extract treatment with respect to separate treatment and none of the extract has any general metabolic toxicity induction.
PMCID: PMC2816485  PMID: 20161901
Diabetes; Glycaemic index; Insulin; Musa paradisiaca; Coccinia indica
2.  Effect ofCoccinia indica (L.) andAbroma augusta (L.) on glycemia, lipid profile and on indicators of end-organ damage in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats 
InAyurvedic system of medicine in India, not only extracts of one plant or the other but also a combination of plant extracts are used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present paper reports the combined effect ofAbroma augusta andCoccinia indica known to be useful for the treatment of diabetes in Ayurveda on the fasting blood sugar, glucose tolerance and lipid profile of Streptozotocin (STZ) induced albino rats. 300mg of water extract of the mixture of dried powdered roots ofA. augusta and leaves ofC. indica in equal proportions was given once daily for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks of treatment of Streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats, the fasting blood sugar came down to almost normal value and improvement in glucose tolerance and serum lipid profile were also observed.
doi:10.1007/BF02867368
PMCID: PMC3453865  PMID: 23105393
Hypoglycaemic plants; Abroma augusta, Coccinia indica; Streptozotocin (STZ), diabetes neuropathy
3.  Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Melothria maderaspatana and Coccinia indica in Streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats 
Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of ethanol extract of aerial parts of Melothria maderaspatana and Coccinia indica were evaluated in STZ induced diabetes in Sprague–Dawley rats. The rats were concurrently treated with 100 or 200 mg/kg b.w. p.o. for 14 days. The changes in fasting blood glucose level and body weight were measured in 5 days interval. After 14 days experimental period, rats were sacrificed by cervical decapitation, blood and liver samples were collected. Biochemical estimation of plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, SGOT, SGPT and ALP were done from blood sample. The liver glycogen content was estimated using standard procedure from homogenized liver sample. Administration of EEMm or EECi to STZ-diabetic rats caused significant antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects (p < 0.001). The extracts were also found to be significantly effective (p < 0.001; p < 0.05) on recovery of altered biochemical parameters and decreased body weight in treated animals. Glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg b.w.) was used as standard in present study.
doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2010.05.009
PMCID: PMC3730986  PMID: 23964177
M. maderaspatana; C. indica; Antihyperglycemic effect; Hypolipidemic effect
4.  Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic effect of Coccinia indica Wight & Arn in alloxan induced diabetic rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2007;27(2):34-37.
Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by elevated plasma glucose concentrations resulting from insufficient insulin. The present study was aimed to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of Coccinia indica aqueous leaf extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The results of this study revealed that a continuous administration of Coccinia indica extract for 21 days prevents the elevation of the level of serum lipids secondary to the diabetes state
PMCID: PMC3330846  PMID: 22557267
Diabetes mellitus; Coccinia indica
5.  ANTIHEPATOTOXIC ACTICITY OF COCCINIA INDICA 
Ancient Science of Life  2001;21(1):12-15.
Aqueous, light petroleum, chloroform, alcohol, benzene and acetone extracts of the leaves of Coccinia indica. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) were screened for antihepatotoxic activity. The extracts were given after the liver was damaged with Ccl4 Liver function was assessed based on liver to body weight ratio pentobarbitone sleep time, serum levels of transaminase (SGPT, SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP and bilirubin. Alcohol and light petroleum was found to have good anti-hepatotoxic activity.
PMCID: PMC3331024  PMID: 22557027
6.  Chemoprotective potential of Coccinia indica against cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2013;45(5):502-507.
Objective:
Although cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating agent, is used in the treatment of cancer owing to its broad-spectrum efficacy, its metabolites exhibit severe undesired toxicities in normal cells. The present study was aimed to investigate the chemoprotective potential of Coccinia indica against CP-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity.
Materials and Methods:
Rodents were orally pre-treated with Coccinia indica extract (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) for five consecutive days. On 5th day, these animals were injected with CP (50 mg/kg i.p) and sacrificed after 24 hrs. for the evaluation of oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity, micronucleus formation, and chromosomal aberrations.
Results:
We found that the CP significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased catalase and glutathione (GSH) levels in brain, and it was significantly reversed by Coccinia indica extract (400 and 600 mg/kg). Further, pre-treatment with Coccinia indica extract (200, 400, 600 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently reduced micronuclei formation and incidence of aberrant cells. We also found that the CP-induced increase in the serum biomarker enzymes like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alkaline aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly reduced by Coccinia indica extract.
Conclusion:
Thus, the present results indicate the protective effect of Coccinia indica extract against CP-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity, as well as hepatotoxicity.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.117783
PMCID: PMC3793523  PMID: 24130387
Coccinia indica; cyclophosphamide; genotoxicity; oxidative stress
7.  In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of the Fractions of Coccinia Grandis L. Leaf Extract 
The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the various fractions of the hydromethanolic extract of the leaves of Coccinia grandis L. Voigt. (Cucurbitaceae). The antioxidant activities of the fractions have been evaluated by using nine in vitro assays and were compared to standard antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, curcumin and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). All the fractions showed effective H-donor activity, reducing power, free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating ability and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching. None of the fractions exerted an obvious pro-oxidant activity. The antioxidant property depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of the fractions. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the fractions. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves of C. grandis are a potential source of natural antioxidant.
PMCID: PMC2816591  PMID: 20162057
Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae); free radicals; antioxidant; pro-oxidant
8.  Effect of samh seeds supplementation (Mesembryanthemum forsskalei Hochst) on liver enzymes and lipid profiles of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats 
Thirty streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic of Wistar Albino rats were divided into five groups. The rat groups received different food (natural diet or high fat content diet) supplemented with 10% or 15% of samh seeds for 6 weeks. At the end of the study, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phophatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes have been measured in diabetic rats liver. In addition, liver lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TAG), lipid peroxide production malondialdehyde (MDA)) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in have been measured in diabetic rats liver, and the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were also determined. The samh seeds diet supplemented with cholesterol significantly increase (P < 0.05) the levels of liver peroxide production MDA, TC and TG in diabetic rats comparing to the samh diet not supplemented with the cholesterol. However, the samh seeds significantly decrease (P < 0.05) the level of GSH. These data suggest that the samh seeds diet not supplemented with the cholesterol regulated C and TG metabolism and decrease the lipid peroxidation in the diabetic rats.
doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2009.12.004
PMCID: PMC3730945  PMID: 23961054
Mesembryanthemum forsskalei Hochst seeds (samh seeds); Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats; Lipid profile; Lipid peroxidation
9.  Hepatoprotective effect of Pterocarpus marsupium against carbon tetrachloride induced damage in albino rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2007;27(1):19-25.
Medicinal plants play a key role in human health care. Pterocarpus marsupium is one of the plants used in treatment of diabetes mellitus and the present study was aimed to assess hepatoprotective effect of the plant against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I was normal control group; Group II, the hepatotoxic group was given CCl4 (2ml/kg body weight intraperitoneally); Groups III received CC14 + Plant extract (100 mg/kg b.w orally); Group IV received only the plant extract. Liver markers were assayed in serum and liver tissue. Levels of marker enzymes such as alanine transminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and bilirubin were increased significantly in Group II. These enzymes were significantly decreased in Group III treated with plant extracts. The present investigation suggest that the plant had a good protective effect on CCl4 induced hepatic injury.
PMCID: PMC3330841  PMID: 22557255
10.  EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC FRUIT EXTRACT OF Pedalium murex Linn. IN ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED UROLITHIASIS IN MALE WISTAR ALBINO RATS 
Ancient Science of Life  2010;29(4):29-34.
The ethanolic fruit extract of Pedalium murex to ethylene glycol intoxicated rats reverted the levels of the liver and kidney markers to near normal levels protecting liver and renal tissues from damage and also prevents the crystal retention in tissues. The levels of ACP, ALP, AST, ALT in serum andurine were significantly increased due to the damaged structural integrity of renal and hepatic cells causing the enzymes which are located in the cytoplasm to be released into the circulation. The levels of ACP and ALP, AST, ALT in renal and hepatic tissues of ethylene glycol induced rats might be due to leakage of the enzyme into the general circulation from the collateral circulation. LDH levels in serum, urine and tissues were increased on ethylene glycol intoxication is due to the oxalate induced renal and hepatic cellular damage.
PMCID: PMC3336290  PMID: 22557365
Marker enzymes; urolithiasis; ethylene glycol; Pedalium murex
11.  EFFECT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA STEM BARK EXTRACT ON THE ACTIVITIES OF MARKER ENZYMES IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS 
Ancient Science of Life  2005;25(1):8-15.
Insight of evidence that some complications of diabetes mellitus due to hyperglycemia, we investigated the effect of T. arjuna bark extract on serum, liver and kidney marker enzymes in alloxan - induced diabetic rats. T. arjuna was administered orally at a doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 30 days, after which serum liver and kidney tissues were assayed for the degree of pathological changes by means of markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) resulted in a significant reduction in serum and tissue of liver and kidney marker enzymes when compared with control rats T. arjuna at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited higher efficacy.
PMCID: PMC3330897  PMID: 22557182
Terminalia arjuna; hyperglycemia; alloxan diabetes; marker enzymes
12.  Blood Sugar Lowering Effect of Coccinia grandis (L.) J. Voigt: Path for a New Drug for Diabetes Mellitus 
Experimental Diabetes Research  2011;2011:978762.
Background. Role of herbs in the management and control of diabetes has emerged fast over the years. We assessed the efficacy of Coccinia grandis (locally known as Ken, Kovakka) leaves as a hypoglycemic agent. Methods. Double-blind phase I clinical trial was conducted at the general hospital and a private hospital in Matara in August 2009. All the participants were given a common meal for dinner, and they maintained a 10-hour fasting period. Sixty-one healthy volunteers were given a meal containing 20 g of leaves of Coccinia grandis which was mixed with a measured amount of scraped coconut and table salt for breakfast, and other 61 were given the placebo meal which also contained scraped coconut and salt. Glucose tolerance test was performed blindly for the two groups. Mixed factorial design analysis of variance and student's t-test were applied. Results. Overall blood sugar levels of the experimental group were also significantly lower than those of the control group (F(1,117) 5.56, P < 0.05). Increase in the blood sugar levels from fasting to one hour (F(1,117) 6.77, P < 0.05) and two hours (F(1,117) 5.28, P < 0.05) postprandially was statistically significant for participants who were in the control group than those of in the experimental group. The mean difference of postprandial blood sugar levels (mg/dL) after one hour (20.2, 95% confidence interval, 4.81 to 35.5) and two hours (11.46, 95% confidence interval; 1.03 to 21.9) was statistically significant between the two groups. Conclusions. Coccinia grandis has a blood sugar lowering effect. However further studies are needed to validate our findings.
doi:10.1155/2011/978762
PMCID: PMC3142553  PMID: 21822423
13.  Biopotency of Acalypha indica Linn on Membrane Bound ATPases and Marker Enzymes urolithic Rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2011;31(1):3-9.
The ethanolic extract of Acalypha indica was tested for its biopotency on membrane bound enzymes and marker enzymes in urolithiasis in male wistar albino rats. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced by 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 30 days. There was a significant decrease in membrane bound enzymes such as Ca2+ ATPase, Mg2+ ATPase, Na+K+ ATPase and marker enzymes Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Acid phosphatase (ACP) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) in liver and kidney. The AST, ALT, ACP and ALP were increased in serum and urine of rats. Therapeutic treatment with plant extract (200mg/kg b.wt.dose-1 day-1 oral-1) has significantly ameliorated to near normalcy in the curative group. These results of the present study concluded that A. indica can play an important role in the prevention of disorders associated with kidney stone formation.
PMCID: PMC3377040  PMID: 22736883
Marker enzymes; membrane bound enzymes; Urolithiasis; ethylene glycol; Acalypha indica
14.  Rhinacanthus nasutus Improves the Levels of Liver Carbohydrate, Protein, Glycogen, and Liver Markers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats 
The present study was designed to investigate the total carbohydrate, total protein, and glycogen levels in the liver and to measure functional liver markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in streptozotocin-(STZ-) induced diabetic rats after treatment with methanolic extract of Rhinacanthus nasutus (R. nasutus). The methanolic extract of R. nasutus was orally administered at 200 mg/kg/day while glibenclamide was administered at 50 mg/kg/day. All animals were treated for 30 days before being sacrificed. The amounts of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and liver markers (AST and ALT) were measured in the liver tissue of the experimental animals. The levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, and proteins were significantly reduced in the diabetic rats but were augmented considerably after 30 days of R. nasutus treatment. The elevated AST and ALT levels in diabetic rats showed a significant decline after treatment with R. nasutus for 30 days. These results show that the administration of R. nasutus ameliorates the altered levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and AST and ALT observed in diabetic rats and indicate that R. nasutus restores overall metabolism and liver function in experimental diabetic rats. In conclusion, the outcomes of the present study support the traditional belief that R. nasutus could ameliorate the diabetic state.
doi:10.1155/2013/102901
PMCID: PMC3800587  PMID: 24204387
15.  Antiproliferative role of Indigofera aspalathoides on 20 methylcholanthrene induced fibrosarcoma in rats 
Objective
To find out the anticancer effect of Indigofera aspalathoides (I. aspalathoides) on 20-methylcholanthrene induced fibrosarcoma in rats.
Methods
Fibrosarcoma was induced in Wistar strain male albino rats by 20-methylcholanthrene. Intraperitoneous (i.p.) administration of 250 mg/kg body weight/day of aqueous extract of I. aspalathoides for 30 d effectively suppressed chemically induced tumors. Parameters such as body weight, liver and kidney weight, tumor weight, mean survival time, behavioral changes, blood glucose, blood glycogen and marker enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and 5′-nucleiotidase (5′-NT) in serum, liver and kidney and lipid profiles such as total cholesterol, phospholipids, free fatty acids in liver and kidney of control and experimental animals were studied.
Results
Fibrosarcoma bearing animals were ferocious and anxious. The mean survival time was found to increase after the treatment. The body weights were significantly decreased (P<0.001) in group II fibrosarcoma animals which steadily increased after the treatment with I. aspalathoides. The liver and kidney weights were significantly increased whereas the tumor weights decreased as compared to the weights in untreated fibrosarcoma bearing rats. The blood glucose and the liver and kidney glycogen levels were found to decrease significantly (P<0.001) in group II animals. Elevated activities of marker enzymes were observed in serum, liver and kidney of fibrosarcoma bearing Group II animals which were normalize after I. aspalathoides treatment. In the liver and kidney of Group II animals the total cholesterol increased whereas the phospholipids and free fatty acid levels decreased (P<0.001) which were normalized after treatment.
Conclusions
The treatment by I. aspalathoides on fibrosarcoma bearing rats has improved the levels of various parameters indicating its antiproliferative and anticancer activity.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60008-8
PMCID: PMC3621473  PMID: 23593577
Chemoprevention; Tumor weight; Mean survival time; Glucose; Glycogen; Marker enzymes
16.  Protective effect of Piper betle leaf extract against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction in rats 
Graphical abstract
The present study was undertaken to examine the attenuative effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) against cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative hepatic dysfunction in the liver of rats. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) treated rats showed the protective efficacy against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. Oral administration of Cd (5 mg/kg BW) for four weeks to rats significantly (P > 0.05) elevated the level of serum hepatic markers such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin (TBRNs), oxidative stress markers viz., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), protein carbonyls (PC) and conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly (P > 0.05) reduced the enzymatic antioxidants viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants Viz., reduced glutathione (GSH), total sulfhydryls (TSH), vitamin C and vitamin E in the liver. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) in Cd intoxicated rats, the altered biochemical indices and pathological changes were recovered significantly (P > 0.05) which showed ameliorative effect of PBE against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. From the above findings, we suggested that the pre-administration of P. betle leaf extract exhibited remarkable protective effects against cadmium-induced oxidative hepatic injury in rats.
doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2012.01.005
PMCID: PMC3730608  PMID: 23961183
Piper betle; Ethanolic leaf extract; Cadmium; Oxidative stress; Antioxidant; Liver; Rats
17.  Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum Suaveolens Against Hepatic Oxidative Stress in STZ Diabetic Rats 
Stereospermum suaveolens is a folk remedy for the treatment of diabetes and liver disorders in southern parts of India. In the present study, the protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract from S. suaveolens against hepatic oxidative stress was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The ethyl acetate fraction was administered orally to the STZ diabetic rats at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood glucose level was measured according to glucose oxidase method. In order to determine hepatoprotective activity, changes in the levels of serum biomarker enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) were assessed in the ethyl acetate fraction treated diabetic rats and were compared with the levels in diabetic control rats. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate fraction was evaluated using various hepatic parameters such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). It was found that administration of ethyl acetate fraction (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a significant (P < 0.001) fall in fasting blood glucose level, TBARS, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and SALP, while elevating the GSH levels, and SOD and CAT activities in diabetic rats. Histopathologic studies also revealed the protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction on the liver tissues of diabetic rats. It was concluded from this study that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of S. suaveolens modulates the activity of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and enhances the defense against hepatic oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
doi:10.4103/2225-4110.114904
PMCID: PMC3924987  PMID: 24716175
Antioxidant enzymes; Ethyl acetate fraction; Histopathology; Serum biomarker enzymes; Stereospermum suaveolens; STZ-induced diabetic rats
18.  Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Properties of Tofu (Curdle Soymilk) against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage in Rats 
The antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of tofu using acetaminophen to induce liver damage in albino rats were evaluated. Tofus were prepared using calcium chloride, alum, and steep water as coagulants. The polyphenols of tofu were extracted and their antioxidant properties were determined. The weight gain and feed intake of the rats were measured. The analysis of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and the concentrations of albumin, total protein, cholesterol, and bilirubin were analyzed. The result reveals that the antioxidant property of both soluble and bound polyphenolic extracts was significantly higher in all tofus, but the steep water coagulated tofu was recorded higher. Rats fed with various tofus and acetaminophen had their serum ALP, ALT, AST, and LDH activities; total cholesterol; and bilirubin levels significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, and total protein and albumin concentrations increased when compared with basal diet and acetaminophen administered group. Therefore, all tofus curdled with various coagulants could be used to prevent liver damage caused by oxidative stress.
doi:10.1155/2013/230142
PMCID: PMC3600259  PMID: 23533782
19.  Hepatoprotective and Hypolipidemic Effects of Satureja Khuzestanica Essential Oil in Alloxan-induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats  
In the present study, we examined the antioxidative activities of Satureja khuzestanica essential oil (SKE) and possible protective effect of SKE on lipid profile, atherogenic index and liver enzyme markers in Alloxan-induced Type 1 diabetic rats. Thirty male rats were randomly divided into three groups; group one as control, group two diabetic untreatment, and group three treatments with SKE by 500 ppm in drinking water, respectively. Diabetes was induced in the second and third groups by alloxan injection subcutaneously. After 8 weeks, the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (C), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), atherogenic index and the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of all groups were analyzed. Data were analyzed through non-parametric Man Whitney test (using SPSS 13 software) and p < 0.05 was considered significant. SKE inhibited significantly the activities of ALT and ALP and decrease FBG, TG, C, LDL and VLDL. HDL level was significantly increased when treated with the extract. The activities of AST stayed unaltered. Moreover, total antioxidant capacity of SKE was 3.20 ± 0.40 nmol of ascorbic acid equivalents/g SKE. This study showed that SKE is a source of potent antioxidants. The findings of the present study also suggest that SKE exert beneficial effects on the lipid profile, atherogenic index and liver enzymes activity in Alloxan-induced Type 1 diabetic rats.
PMCID: PMC3813176  PMID: 24250556
Diabetes; Lipid profile; Atherogenic index; Rat; Liver. Enzymes; Total antioxidant
20.  Antioxidant and toxicological evaluation of Cassia sopherain streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats 
Pharmacognosy Research  2013;5(4):225-232.
Background:
Multiple-organ failure is the main cause of death in diabetes mellitus (DM). Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is responsible for major diabetic complications, including multiple-organ failure. Medicinal plants possessing antioxidant activity may reduce oxidative stress and improve the functions of various organs affected by hyperglycemia.
Objectives:
This study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant effect of Aqueous Extract of Cassia sophera (AECS) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods:
AECS (200 mg/kg body weight (bw)) and the standard antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (10 mg/kgbw) were administered orally by gavaging for 28 days.
Results:
Oral administration of AECS inhibited STZ-induced increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, creatinine and urea in liver of diabetic rats. Significant increase in activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and a reduced level of glutathione (GSH), were observed in the liver, kidney, pancreas and testis on AECS treatment.
Conclusion:
The results demonstrate that AECS is not only useful in controlling blood glucose, but also has antioxidant potential to protect the liver, kidney, pancreas and testis against damage caused by hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress.
doi:10.4103/0974-8490.118767
PMCID: PMC3807985  PMID: 24174814
Antioxidants; Cassia sophera; streptozotocin
21.  Antidiabetic and ameliorative potential of Ficus bengalensis bark extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats 
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and ameliorative potential of aqueous extract of Ficus bengalensis bark in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The effect of oral administration of aqueous extract of F. bengalensis bark on blood glucose, serum electrolytes, serum glycolytic enzymes, liver microsomal protein, hepatic cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxygenase enzymes and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of streptozotocin -induced diabetic rats was studied. Oral administration of Ficus bengalensis to fed, fasted and glucose loaded diabetic rats significantly [F > 0.05 (ANOVA) and P< 0.05 (DMRT)] decreased the blood glucose level at 5 hrs and restored the levels of serum electrolytes, glycolytic enzymes and hepatic cytochrome P-450 dependent enzyme systems and decreased the formation of liver and kidney lipid peroxides at the end of 12 weeks. Further, the aqueous extract of Ficus bengalensis at a dose of 500mg/kg/day exhibits significant antidiabetic and ameliorative activity as evidenced by histological studies in normal and Ficus bengalensis treated streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. On the basis of our findings, it could be used as an antidiabetic and ameliorative agent for better management of diabetes mellitus.
doi:10.1007/s12291-008-0087-2
PMCID: PMC3453136  PMID: 23105795
Ficus bengalensis; Antidiabetic activity; Ameliorative potential; Cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxygenase enzymes; Lipid peroxidation
22.  Protective Effect of Acacia nilotica (L.) against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatocellular Damage in Wistar Rats 
The potential biological functions of A. nilotica have long been described in traditional system of medicine. However, the protective effect of A. nilotica on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is still unknown. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of A. nilotica against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. The biochemical liver functional tests Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total protein, oxidative stress test (Lipid peroxidation), antioxidant parameter glutathione (GSH), and histopathological changes were examined. Our results show that the pretreatment with A. nilotica (250 mg/kg·bw) orally revealed attenuation of serum activities of ALT, AST, ALP, liver weight, and total bilirubin levels that were enhanced by administration of acetaminophen. Further, pretreatment with extract elevated the total protein and GSH level and decreased the level of LPO. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by acetaminophen. The present study undoubtedly provides a proof that hepatoprotective action of A. nilotica extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in rat model.
doi:10.1155/2013/987692
PMCID: PMC3707210  PMID: 23864853
23.  Hepatotoxicity effect of some Iranian medicinal herbal formulation on rats 
Background:
The public conviction that ‘herbal remedies are safe’ has led to an increased consumption of these products. This study was performed in view of the wide distribution of herbal remedies, the risks posed by self-treatment with these products, and the existing reports about the toxic effects of some medicinal herbs.
Materials and Methods:
In this study the effect of some of the most used herbal drops of A, B, C, and D on the liver function of rats was examined at different doses, namely minimum dose, maximum dose, and 2.5 times the maximum dose indicated in the brochures. The rats were administered the said doses via a feeding tube for 50 days. The liver function parameters including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein, albumin, and urea were measured using the spectrophotometric method.
Results:
The animals’ liver tissues were examined pathologically. The A drop did not change the liver function parameters significantly. The B drop increased the LDH by 34% compared to the controls, at the maximum administered dose. The C and D drops increased the ALT, AST, and LDH significantly compared to the controls. The histological findings suggest the possible effect of C and D drops on the function of hepatocytes.
Conclusions:
We recommend that the herbal formulations available in pharmaceutical markets be more closely controlled in terms of quality, as well as toxicity, especially with regard to the possible effects on the hepatic function.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.124641
PMCID: PMC3928848  PMID: 24592365
Hepatoxicity; Medicinal herb; liver function
24.  Attenuation of N-nitrosodimethylamine induced hepatotoxicity by Operculina turpethum in Swiss Albino mice 
Objective(s): To appraise the antihepatotoxic efficacy of ethanolic extract of Operculum turpethum root on the liver of Swiss albino mice.
Materials and Methods: Hepatic fibrosis was induced in adult male albino mice through intraperitoneal administrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) at the concentration of 10 mg/kg body weight. The liver toxicity and therapeutic effect of the plant ethanolic extract was assessed by the analysis of liver marker enzymes and antioxidant enzymes and liver histopathological studies.
Results: Hepatotoxicity was manifested by significantly decreased (P<0.01) levels of the activities of the enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSH and increased levels of cholesterol, AST, ALT, ALP and lipid peroxidation. The plant extract significantly restored the antioxidant enzyme level in the liver and exhibited significant dose dependent curative effect against NDMA induced toxicity which was also supported by histopathological studies of the liver.
Conclusion: O. turpethum manifested therapeutic effects by significantly restoring the enzymatic levels and reducing the hepatic damage in mice. This work intends to aid researchers in the study of natural products which could be useful in the treatment of liver diseases including cancer.
PMCID: PMC3938890  PMID: 24592311
Hepatotoxicity; Liver; N-nitrosodimethylamine Operculina turpethum
25.  Lipid-Lowering and Antioxidative Activities of Aqueous Extracts of Ocimum sanctum L. Leaves in Rats Fed with a High-Cholesterol Diet 
The present study was conducted to investigate the lipid-lowering and antioxidative activities of Ocimum sanctum L. (OS) leaf extracts in liver and heart of rats fed with high-cholesterol (HC) diet for seven weeks. The results shows that OS suppressed the high levels of serum lipid profile and hepatic lipid content without significant effects on fecal lipid excretion. Fecal bile acids excretion was increased in HC rats treated with OS. The high serum levels of TBARS as well as AST, ALT, AP, LDH, CK-MB significantly decreased in HC rats treated with OS. OS suppressed the high level of TABARS and raised the low activities of GPx and CAT without any impact on SOD in the liver. As for the cardiac tissues, OS lowered the high level of TABARS, and raised the activities of GPx, CAT, and SOD. Histopathological results show that OS preserved the liver and myocardial tissues. It can be concluded that OS leaf extracts decreased hepatic and serum lipid profile, and provided the liver and cardiac tissues with protection from hypercholesterolemia. The lipid-lowering effect is probably due to the rise of bile acids synthesis using cholesterol as precursor, and antioxidative activity to protect liver from hypercholesterolemia.
doi:10.1155/2011/962025
PMCID: PMC3178181  PMID: 21949899

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