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1.  Hepatoprotective Activity of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. Fruitagainst CCl4 Inducesd Hepatic Damage in Rats 
In India, a number of medicinal plants and their formulations are used to cure hepatic disorders in traditional systems of medicine. No systemic study has been done on protective effect of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae) to treat hepatic diseases. Protective action of C. trigonus fruit extracts was evaluated in this study in animal model of hepatotoxicity, which was induced by carbon tetrachloride. Forty two healthy female albino Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 200 g were divided in to seven groups of 6. Group 1 was normal control group; Group 2, the hepatotoxic group was given CCl4; Group 3 was administered standard drug (Liv-52); Groups 4-7 received pet. ether, chloroform, alcohol and aqueous fruit extract (300 mg/kg) with CCl4. The parameters studied were alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and serum bilirubin activities. The hepatoprotective activity was also supported by histopathological studies of liver tissue. Results of the biochemical studies of blood samples of CCl4 treated animals showed significant increase in the levels of serum enzyme activities, reflecting the liver injury caused by CCl4. Whereas blood samples from the animals treated with chloroform and aqueous fruit extracts showed significant and alcohol extract showed highly significant decrease in the levels of serum markers, indicating the protection of hepatic cells. The results revealed that alcoholic fruit extract of Cucumis trigonus could afford highly significant protection against CCl4 induced hepatocellular injury.
PMCID: PMC3828915  PMID: 24250357
Hepatoprotective; Hepatotoxicity; CCl4; Cucumis trigonus; Liver
2.  Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of Hordeum vulgare seeds on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2012;44(6):672-677.
Objective:
The objective was to investigate the antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Hordeum vulgare seeds (EHV) on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in Wistar albino rats.
Materials and Methods:
Urolithiasis was produced in Wistar albino rats by adding 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol (EG) to drinking water for 28 days. The ethanolic extract of Hordeum vulgare seeds (EHV) was assessed for its curative and preventive action in urolithiasis. In preventive treatment, the EHV given from 1st day to 28th day, while in the curative regimen, the EHV was given from 15th day to 28th day. Various renal functional and injury markers such as urine volume, calcium, phosphate, uric acid, magnesium, urea, and oxalate were evaluated using urine, serum, and kidney homogenate. Antioxidant parameters such as lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were also determined.
Results:
The EHV treatment (both preventive and curative) increased the urine output significantly compared to the control. The EHV treatment significantly reduced the urinary excretion of the calcium, phosphate, uric acid, magnesium, urea, and oxalate and increased the excretion of citrate compared to EG control. The increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats were significantly lowered by curative and preventive treatment with EHV. It was also observed that the treatment with EHV produced significant decrease in lipid peroxidation, and increased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase.
Conclusion:
These results suggest the usefulness of ethanolic extract of Hordeum vulgare seeds as an antiurolithiatic and antioxidant agent.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.103237
PMCID: PMC3523490  PMID: 23248392
Antioxidant; ethylene glycol; Hordeum vulgare; urolithiasis
3.  Inhibitory effect of rutin and curcumin on experimentally-induced calcium oxalate urolithiasis in rats 
Pharmacognosy Research  2010;2(6):388-392.
Background:
Renal epithelial cell injury by reactive oxygen species is pre-requisite step in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis. Rutin and curcumin are polyphenolic compounds known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, but their effect on urolithiasis is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we have investigated the inhibitory effect of rutin and curcumin on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in Wistar albino rats.
Methods:
Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced experimentally by administration of 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol with 1% w/v ammonium chloride in drinking water for three days followed by only 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol for 25 days. Rutin (20 mg/kg body weight) and curcumin (60 mg/kg body weight) were given once daily for 28 days by oral route. After treatment period, calcium and oxalate levels in urine and kidney tissue homogenate were measured. Kidney was also used for histopathological examination.
Results:
Stone-induction with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride resulted in elevated levels of calcium and oxalate in the urine and kidney sample, whereas supplementation of rutin and curcumin restored it near to normal. Histopathological study revealed minimum tissue damage and less number of calcium oxalate deposits in kidney of animal treated with rutin and curcumin as compared to calculi-induced animal.
Conclusion:
The data suggest that the rutin and curcumin inhibits calcium oxalate urolithiasis. This effect is mediated possibly through a lowering of urinary concentration of stone forming constituents, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
doi:10.4103/0974-8490.75462
PMCID: PMC3111700  PMID: 21713144
Calcium oxalate; curcumin; ethylene glycol; rutin; urolithiasis
4.  Biopotency of Acalypha indica Linn on Membrane Bound ATPases and Marker Enzymes urolithic Rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2011;31(1):3-9.
The ethanolic extract of Acalypha indica was tested for its biopotency on membrane bound enzymes and marker enzymes in urolithiasis in male wistar albino rats. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced by 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 30 days. There was a significant decrease in membrane bound enzymes such as Ca2+ ATPase, Mg2+ ATPase, Na+K+ ATPase and marker enzymes Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Acid phosphatase (ACP) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) in liver and kidney. The AST, ALT, ACP and ALP were increased in serum and urine of rats. Therapeutic treatment with plant extract (200mg/kg b.wt.dose-1 day-1 oral-1) has significantly ameliorated to near normalcy in the curative group. These results of the present study concluded that A. indica can play an important role in the prevention of disorders associated with kidney stone formation.
PMCID: PMC3377040  PMID: 22736883
Marker enzymes; membrane bound enzymes; Urolithiasis; ethylene glycol; Acalypha indica
5.  Study of antiurolithiatic activity of Asparagus racemosus on albino rats 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2012;44(5):576-579.
Aims:
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus on urolithiasis in rats.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6). Ethylene glycol (EG) 0.75% and ammonium chloride (AC) 2% in drinking water were fed to all groups (Groups II–VI) except normal control (Group I) rats for 10 days to induce urolithiasis. Group III–VI rats were treated with ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus at doses 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg/kg, respectively, for 10 days. Positive control (Group II) rats were treated with EG/AC alone. Group I rats were administered drinking water and distilled water (6 μl/g) by gavage. After 10 days, blood samples were collected and analyzed for serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, urea, and creatinine. The kidneys were removed and sectioned for histopathological examination. The data were presented as mean ± standard error of mean and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Student's “t”-test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Conventional windows software was used for statistical analysis.
Results:
The rats treated with ethanolic extract of A. racemosus at doses 800 and 1600 mg/ kg significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, urea, and creatinine. Histopathology of the kidneys in Groups V and VI revealed less tissue damage and were almost similar to Group I rats.
Conclusions:
The ethanolic extract of A. racemosus has protective effect against urolithiasis.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.100378
PMCID: PMC3480787  PMID: 23112416
Ammonium chloride; antiurolithiatic activity; Asparagus racemosus; ethylene glycol
6.  Exploring Antiurolithic Effects of Gokshuradi Polyherbal Ayurvedic Formulation in Ethylene-Glycol-Induced Urolithic Rats 
Gokshuradi Yog (GY) is a polyherbal ayurvedic formulation used traditionally for several decades in India for the treatment of urolithiasis. The aim of the present study was to determine the underlying mechanism of GY action in the management of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. The effect of Gokshuradi polyherbal aqueous extracts (GPAEs) was studied on various biochemical parameters involved in calcium oxalate formation by employing in vitro and in vivo methods. GPAE exhibited significant antioxidant activity against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical and inhibited lipid peroxidation in the in vitro experiments. The rat model of urolithiasis induced by 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) and 1% ammonium chloride (AC) in water caused polyuria, weight loss, impairment of renal function, and oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities in untreated control groups. However, GPAE- (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) treated groups caused diuresis accompanied by a saluretic effect and revealed significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activities along with decreased oxalate synthesizing biochemical parameters at higher doses. This study revealed the antiurolithic effect of GPAE mediated possibly through inhibiting biochemical parameters involved in calcium oxalate formation, along with its diuretic and antioxidant effects, hence supporting its use in the treatment of calcium oxalate urolithiasis.
doi:10.1155/2013/763720
PMCID: PMC3608183  PMID: 23554833
7.  Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of Mimusops elengi on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2010;42(6):380-383.
Objective:
To evaluate the potential of Mimusops elengi in the treatment of renal calculi.
Materials and Methods:
Petroleum ether, chloroform, and alcohol extracts of Mimusops elengi bark were evaluated for antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity in male albino Wistar rats. Ethylene glycol (0.75%) in drinking water was fed to all the groups (Groups II–IX) except normal control (Group I) for 28 days to induce urolithiasis for curative (CR) and preventive (PR) regimen. Groups IV, V, and VI served as CR, and groups VII, VIII, and IX as PR were treated with different extracts of M. elengi bark. Groups I, II, and III served as normal control, positive control (hyperurolithiatic), and standard (cystone 750 mg/kg), respectively. Oxalate, calcium, and phosphate were monitored in the urine and kidney. Serum BUN, creatinine, and uric acid were also recorded. In vivo antioxidant parameters such as lipid peroxidation (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were also monitored.
Results:
All the extracts of M. elengi were safe orally and exhibited no gross behavioral changes in the rats. In hypercalculi animals, the oxalate, calcium, and phosphate excretion grossly increased. However, the increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats were significantly (P < 0.001) lowered by curative and preventive treatment with alcohol extract (AlE) of M. elengi. It was also observed that alcoholic extract of M. elengi produced significant (P < 0.001) decrease in MDA, and increased GSH, SOD, and CAT. These results confirm that AlE of M. elengi possess potent antiurolithiatic activity.
Conclusion:
The results obtained suggest potential usefulness of the AlE of M. elengi bark as an antiurolithiatic agent.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.71925
PMCID: PMC2991697  PMID: 21189910
Antiurolithiatic activity; BUN; creatinine; Mimusops elengi
8.  Antiurolithiatic Effects of Solanum xanthocarpum Fruit Extract on Ethylene-Glycol-Induced Nephrolithiasis in Rats 
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Solanum xanthocarpum fruit extract in ethylene-glycol-induced urolithiasis in the male Wistar rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in male Wistar rats by adding ethylene glycol (0.75%) in drinking water for 28 days. Animals were divided into six groups, each containing six viz. Vehicle control, model control, S. xanthocarpum methanol extract in different doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg p.o., Cystone (750 mg/kg, p.o.) served as a standard. Hyperoxaluria as well as an increase in the excretion of calcium, phosphate, uric acid and decrease in citrate and magnesium in urine, impairment of renal function and oxidative imbalance in kidney were observed in the calculi-induced group. Treatment with S. xanthocarpum decreases hyperoxaluria, calcium, and uric acid, improves renal function, and also produces antioxidant effects. Crystalluria was characterized by excretion calcium oxalate (CaOX) crystals, which were enormous in the lithogenic group but smaller in the drug-treated group. The histology showed that the calculi-induced group had a large deposition of CaOX crystals in kidney while the treated group had trivial and fewer deposits. The result indicates the antiurolithiatic activity of S. xanthocarpum mediated possibly by CaOX crystal inhibition, diuretic, antioxidant and maintaining balance between stone promoter and inhibitor constituents, and this study rationalized its medicinal use in urolithiasis.
doi:10.4103/0975-1483.100022
PMCID: PMC3483526  PMID: 23112535
Calcium oxalate; ethylene glycol; Solanum xanthocarpum; urolithiasis
9.  Effect of Unex on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2011;43(4):466-468.
This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Unex capsule on albino rats as a preventive agent against the development of kidney stones. The Unex capsule is a marketed product of Unijules Life Sciences, Nagpur, containing the extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa and Tribulus terrestris. Activity of Unex was studied using the ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis model. Standard drug used was Cystone. Several parameters were used including urinary volume, urine pH, urine analysis, and serum analysis to assess the activity. The results indicated that the administration of Unex to rats with ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis significantly reduced and prevented the growth of urinary stones (P < 0.01). Also, the treatment of lithiasis-induced rats by Unex restored all the elevated biochemical parameters (creatinine, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen), restored the urine pH to normal, and increased the urine volume significantly (P < 0.01) when compared to the model control drug. This study supports the usage of Unex in urolithiasis and the utility could further be confirmed in other animal models.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.83124
PMCID: PMC3153716  PMID: 21845008
Boerhaavia diffusa; ethylene glycol; Tribulus terrestris; unex; urolithiasis
10.  Prevention of renal crystal deposition by an extract of Ammi visnaga L. and its constituents khellin and visnagin in hyperoxaluric rats 
Urological research  2010;39(3):189-195.
In Egypt, teas prepared from the fruits of Ammi visnaga L. (syn. “Khella”) are traditionally used by patients with urolithiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oral administration of an aqueous extract prepared from the fruits of Ammi visnaga as well as two major constituents khellin and visnagin could prevent crystal deposition in stone-forming rats. Hyperoxaluria was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by giving 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) and 1% ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) via the drinking water. The Khella extract (KE; 125, 250 or 500 mg/kg) was orally administered for 14 days. The histopathological examination of the kidneys revealed that KE significantly reduced the incidence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal deposition. In addition, KE significantly increased urinary excretion of citrate along with a decrease of oxalate excretion. Comparable to the extract, khellin and visnagin significantly reduced the incidence of calcium oxalate deposition in the kidneys. However, both compounds did not affect urinary citrate or oxalate excretion indicating a mechanism of action that differs from that of the extract. For KE, a reasonably good correlation was observed between the incidence of crystal deposition, the increase in citrate excretion and urine pH suggesting a mechanisms that may interfere with citrate reabsorption. In conclusion, our data suggest that KE and its compounds, khellin and visnagin, may be beneficial in the management of kidney stone disease caused by hyperoxaluria but that it is likely that different mechanism of action are involved in mediating these effects.
doi:10.1007/s00240-010-0333-y
PMCID: PMC3663934  PMID: 21069311
Ammi visnaga; Apiaceae; nephrolithiasis; hyperoxaluria; calcium oxalate; khellin; visnagin
11.  Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant vitamins in urolithasis 
The present, study was conducted to determine the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index of free radial induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant vitamins-vitamins A, vitamin C and vitamin E in 75 confirmed cases of urolithiasis. Significantly high level of MDA (p<0.001) with significantly low levels of vitamin E (p<0.001) and vitamin A (p<0.001) with no significant decrease in vitamin C (p>0.05) were observed in the plasma of urolithiasis cases as compared to normal controls. In conclusion, it appears that a role of lipid peroxidation and oxidative function exists in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis. But, the exact mechanism how this occurs remains to be elucidated.
doi:10.1007/BF02912895
PMCID: PMC3454268  PMID: 23105666
Lipid peroxidation; Malondialdehyde (MDA); Antioxidant Vitamins; Urolithiasis
12.  Effect of Momordica dioica fruit extract on antioxidant status in liver, kidney, pancreas, and serum of diabetic rats 
Pharmacognosy Research  2014;6(1):73-79.
Background:
Fruits, leaves, and tuberous roots of Momordica dioica are used as a folk remedy for diabetes mellitus (DM) in India. The aqueous extract of Momordica dioica fruit possesses very good anti-diabetic activity and is having high margin of safety.
Objectives:
The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidative effect of Momordica dioica fruits in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods:
Effect of aqueous extract of Momordica dioica (AEMD) on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxide (HP), non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants in liver, kidney, pancreas, and serum was evaluated in diabetic rats after 21 days treatment.
Results:
Increase in the levels of TBARS, HP and decrease in the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants and activity of enzymatic antioxidants was observed in liver, kidney, pancreas, and serum of diabetic rats when compared with normal healthy rats. TBARS and HP levels were reduced while non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant enzymes activity was increased in AEMD and glibenclamide-treated rats. Furthermore, histological examination of liver, kidney, and pancreas of diabetic rats showed degenerative changes. AEMD treatment for 21 days rejuvenated liver, kidney, and pancreas histoarchitecture.
Conclusion:
In conclusion, the present results showed the protective role of AEMD on liver, kidney, and pancreas in severe diabetic rats justifying support for its anti-diabetic use in folk medicine.
doi:10.4103/0974-8490.122922
PMCID: PMC3897014  PMID: 24497747
Alloxan; momordica dioica;  oxidative stress; Wistar rat
13.  Attenuation of N-nitrosodimethylamine induced hepatotoxicity by Operculina turpethum in Swiss Albino mice 
Objective(s): To appraise the antihepatotoxic efficacy of ethanolic extract of Operculum turpethum root on the liver of Swiss albino mice.
Materials and Methods: Hepatic fibrosis was induced in adult male albino mice through intraperitoneal administrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) at the concentration of 10 mg/kg body weight. The liver toxicity and therapeutic effect of the plant ethanolic extract was assessed by the analysis of liver marker enzymes and antioxidant enzymes and liver histopathological studies.
Results: Hepatotoxicity was manifested by significantly decreased (P<0.01) levels of the activities of the enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSH and increased levels of cholesterol, AST, ALT, ALP and lipid peroxidation. The plant extract significantly restored the antioxidant enzyme level in the liver and exhibited significant dose dependent curative effect against NDMA induced toxicity which was also supported by histopathological studies of the liver.
Conclusion: O. turpethum manifested therapeutic effects by significantly restoring the enzymatic levels and reducing the hepatic damage in mice. This work intends to aid researchers in the study of natural products which could be useful in the treatment of liver diseases including cancer.
PMCID: PMC3938890  PMID: 24592311
Hepatotoxicity; Liver; N-nitrosodimethylamine Operculina turpethum
14.  Influence of Momordica charantia on oxidative stress-induced perturbations in brain monoamines and plasma corticosterone in albino rats 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2011;43(4):424-428.
Objectives:
The objective of this study was to evaluate the antistress activity of Momordica charantia (MC) fruit extract on stress-induced changes in albino rats and also to explore attenuating effects of MC on in vitro lipid peroxidation in rat brain.
Materials and Methods:
In this study, Wistar albino rats (180–200 g) were used. Plasma corticosterone and monoamines—5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and dopamine (DA) in cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus regions of brain were determined in animals under different stressful conditions. Ethanolic fruit extract of MC, at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, was used. The oxidative stress paradigms used in in vivo models were acute stress (AS) and chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Panax quinquefolium (PQ) was used as a standard in in vivo models and ascorbic acid was used as a reference standard in the in vitro method.
Results:
Subjecting the animals to AS (immobilization for 150 min once only) resulted in significant elevation of plasma corticosterone levels and brain monoamine levels. Pretreatment with MC at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. significantly countered AS-induced changes and a similar effect was exhibited by PQ at 100 mg/kg p.o. In the CUS regimen (different stressors for 7 days), plasma corticosterone levels were significantly elevated whereas the levels of 5-HT, NE, E, and DA were depleted significantly. Pretreatment with MC (200 and 400 mg/kg) attenuated the CUS-induced changes in the levels of above monoamines in cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus regions of brain and plasma corticosterone in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, MC extract (1000–5000 μg/mL) exhibited a significant quenching effect on in vitro lipid peroxidation indicating its strong antioxidant activity which was compared with ascorbic acid.
Conclusions:
This study reveals the antistress activity of MC as it significantly reverted the stress-induced changes, and the activity might be attributed to its antioxidant activity since stress is known to involve several oxidative mechanisms.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.83114
PMCID: PMC3153706  PMID: 21844998
Corticosterone; lipid peroxidation; Momordica charantia; monoamines; oxidative stress
15.  Studies on the in vitro and in vivo antiurolithic activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica 
Urological research  2012;40(6):671-681.
Background
Holarrhena antidysenterica has a traditional use in the treatment of urolithiasis, therefore, its crude extract has been investigated for possible antiurolithic effect.
Materials and methods
The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica (Ha.Cr) was studied using the in vitro and in vivo methods.
Results
In the in vitro experiments, Ha.Cr demonstrated a concentration-dependent (0.25–4 mg/ml) inhibitory effect on the slope of aggregation. It decreased the size of crystals and transformed the calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) to calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD) crystals, in calcium oxalate metastable solutions. It also showed concentration-dependent antioxidant effect against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) free radicals and lipid peroxidation induced in rat kidney tissue homogenate. Ha.Cr (0.3 mg/ml) reduced (p < 0.05) the cell toxicity and LDH release in renal epithelial cells (MDCK) exposed to oxalate (0.5 mM) and COM (66 μg/cm2) crystals. In male Wistar rats, receiving 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) for 21 days along with 1% ammonium chloride (AC) in drinking water, Ha.Cr treatment (30–100 mg/kg) prevented the toxic changes caused by lithogenic agents; EG and AC, like loss of body weight, polyurea, oxaluria, raised serum urea and creatinine levels and crystal deposition in kidneys compared to their respective controls.
Conclusion
These data indicate that Holarrhena antidysenterica possesses antiurolithic activity, possibly mediated through inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation, antioxidant and renal epithelial cell protective activities and may provide base for designing future studies to establish its efficacy and safety for clinical use.
doi:10.1007/s00240-012-0483-1
PMCID: PMC3666572  PMID: 22622371
Urolithiasis; Holarrhena antidysenterica; In vitro; In-vivo; MDCK cell line; Rats
16.  Impact of umbelliferone on erythrocyte redox status in STZ-diabetic rats. 
Oxidative stress is currently hypothesized to be a mechanism underlying diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of umbelliferone (UMB), a derivative of coumarin, on erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, and lipid profile in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult male albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing 180 to 200 g, by the administration of STZ (40 mg/kg/b-wt) intraperitonially. The normal and diabetic rats were treated with UMB in 10 percent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) dissolved in water for 45 days. The diabetic rats had elevated levels of blood glucose and lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD), and lipid hydroperoxide (HP) and decreased levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants (Vitamin C and reduced glutathione [GSH]), elevated levels of vitamin E, and elevated levels of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPx]), elevated glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and altered lipid profile (cholesterol and phospholipids) in erythrocytes. These changes were reversed by treatment with UMB. Thus, our results indicate that the administration of UMB shows promising potential for the restoration of normal blood glucose levels, erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, and lipid profile in STZ-diabetic.
PMCID: PMC2259143  PMID: 16464311
17.  Effect of Commiphora mukul gum resin on hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in pancreas and heart of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats 
Objective
To study the antioxidant efficacy of Commiphora mukul (C. mukul) gum resin ethanolic extract in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.
Methods
The male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each: Control group (C), CM-treated control group (C+CMEE), Diabetic control group (D), CM- treated diabetic group (D+CMEE). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg/ bwt). After being confirmed the diabetic rats were treated with C. mukul gum resin ethanolic extract (CMEE) for 60 days. The biochemical estimations like antioxidant, oxidative stress marker enzymes and hepatic marker enzymes of tissues were performed.
Results
The diabetic rats showed increased level of enzymatic activities aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) in liver and kidney and oxidative markers like lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein oxidation (PO) in pancreas and heart. Antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly decreased in the pancreas and heart compared to control group. Administration of CMEE (200 mg/kg bw) to diabetic rats for 60 days significantly reversed the above parameters towards normalcy.
Conclusions
In conclusion, our data indicate the preventive role of C. mukul against STZ-induced diabetic oxidative stress; hence this plant could be used as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and/or management of diabetes and aggravated antioxidant status.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60249-4
PMCID: PMC3609238  PMID: 23569867
Commiphora mukul; Antioxidants; Lipid peroxidation; Streptozotocin
18.  Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Triticum aestivum in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats 
The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Triticum aestivum were evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in the Wistar strain albino rats by injecting streptozotocin at a dose of 55 mg/kg body weight. Ethanolic extracts of Triticum aestivum at doses of 100 mg/kg body weight were administered orally for 30 days. Various parameters were studied and the treatment group with the extract showed a significant increase in the liver glycogen and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and serum marker enzyme levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein were also significantly reduced and the high density lipoprotein level was significantly increased upon treatment with the Triticum aestivum ethanol extract. A significant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxides, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidise and increase in the levels of vitamin E, catalase, and reduced glutathione were observed in Triticum aestivum treated diabetic rats. Thus, from this study we conclude that ethanolic extract of Triticum aestivum exhibited significant antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
doi:10.1155/2013/716073
PMCID: PMC3876669  PMID: 24416041
19.  A new agent for flap survival – Hippophae rhamnoides L. (sea buckthorn): An experimental study in rats 
Hippophae rhamnoides L. (sea buckthorn) is a member of the Elaeagnaceae family, and is a temperate bush native to Europe and Asia. The antioxidant activity of H rhamnoides L. has been shown in vitro cell culture and animal studies. Different fractions of H rhamnoides L. fruits inhibit 2,2-azobis-(2,4 dimethylvaleronitrile) and ascorbate iron-induced lipid peroxidations in vitro. H rhamnoides L., as well as vitamin E, decrease the malondialdehyde content in hyperlipidemic rabbit serum-cultured smooth muscle cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate, in a rat model, the potential effect of H rhamnoides L. on survival of random pattern skin flaps. For this purpose, 30 Wistar Albino rats were used, and a McFarlane-type caudally based skin flap was created on the dorsum of the rat (2.5 cm × 8 cm). Rats were divided into three groups: one control (group A) and two treatment groups (groups B and C). H rhamnoides L. was administered orally to the experimental groups: group B received a single 15 mg/kg dose per day and group C received 15 mg/kg twice per day. The areas and lengths of flap necrosis were measured in each group. The extent of necrotic flap areas were evaluated as length and area of total flap area, and differences were studied by Student’s t tests. The areas and lengths of necrosis of skin flaps decreased depending on H rhamnoides L., but viability of the flaps treated with 15 mg/kg/day was not significantly different from the control group. The rats receiving H rhamnoides L. 15 mg/kg twice per day had the highest flap survival rate (P<0.001). In conclusion, H rhamnoides L. may have a dose-dependent effect to increase flap survival in random skin flaps.
PMCID: PMC3822464  PMID: 24227931
Antioxidant activity; Flap survival; Hippophae rhamnoides L. (sea buckthorn); Skin flaps
20.  Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic activity of Pashanabhedadi Ghrita against experimentally induced renal calculi in rats 
Ayu  2012;33(3):429-434.
Population in an industrialized world is afflicted by urinary stone disease. Kidney stones are common in all kinds of urolithiasis. One distinguished formulation mentioned by Sushruta for management of Ashmari (urolithiasis) is Pashanabhedadi Ghrita (PBG), which is in clinical practice since centuries. Validation of drug is the requirement of time through the experimental study. In this study, trial of PBG has been made against ammonium oxalate rich diet and gentamicin injection induced renal calculi in albino rats. The calculi were induced by gentamicin injection and ammonium oxalate rich diet. Test drug was administered concomitantly in the dose of 900 mg/kg for 15 consecutive days. Rats were sacrificed on the 16th day. Parameters like kidney weight, serum biochemical, kidney tissue and histopathology of kidney were studied. Concomitant treatment of PBG attenuates blood biochemical parameters non-significantly, where as it significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation and enhanced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activities. It also decreased crystal deposition markedly into the renal tubules in number as well as size and prevented damage to the renal tubules. The findings showed that PBG is having significant anti-urolithiatic activities against ammonium oxalate rich diet plus gentamicine injection induced urolithiasis in rats.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108860
PMCID: PMC3665093  PMID: 23723654
Ammonium oxalate; Ashmari; gentamicin; Pashanabhedadi Ghrita; urolithiasis
21.  Hepatoprotective Activity of the Ethanolic Extract of Ficus caricaLinn. LeavesinCarbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicityin Rats 
The ethanolic extract of Ficus carica leaves was screened for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity in hepatotoxic Albino rats induced via carbon tetrachloride. The degree of protection was measured by estimating biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate Oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase ( SGPT),totalprotein (TP), totalalbumin (TA), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and the level of total serum bilirubin. The extract in addition reduced CCl4 induced lipid peroxidation in-vivo and in-vitro. The ethanolic extract (50 mg/kg, 100mg/kg,200mg/kg)exhibited significant hepatoprotection incarbontetra chloride in toxicated rats in a dose dependant manner. The hepatoprotective effects of the extract were comparable with the standard drug silymarin 10)mg/kg body weight, IP).
PMCID: PMC3828912  PMID: 24250358
Ficus carica; Hepatoprotective activity; Carbontetra chloride; Silymarin
22.  Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats 
The protective action against oxidative stress of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea) extract was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight). Throughout the experimental period (60 days), diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant increase in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in catalase activity and in the total antioxidant capacity of the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion (1 g/kg body weight) of B. oleracea extract for 60 days reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats. B. oleracea extract lowered blood glucose levels and restored renal function and body weight loss. In addition, B. oleracea extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity as well as catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity of diabetic kidneys. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of B. oleracea extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes.
doi:10.1093/ecam/nem029
PMCID: PMC2529380  PMID: 18830445
Brassica oleracea; diabetes; diabetic nephropathy; oxidative stress; red cabbage
23.  Antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects ofTephrosia purpurea seed extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats 
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of ethanolic seed extract ofTephrosia purpurea (TpEt) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia associated with an altered hexokinase and glucose 6 phosphatase activities, elevated lipid peroxidation, disturbed enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants status were observed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of “TpEt” at a dose of 300mg/kg bw showed significant antihyperglcemic and antilipidperoxidative effects as well as increased the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and levels of non enzymatic antioxidants. We also noticed that the antihyperglycemic effect of plant drug (TpEt) was comparable to that of the reference drug glibenclamide. Our results clearly indicate that “TpEt” has potent antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and therefore further studies are warranted to isolate and characterize the bioactive antidiabetic principles from “TpEt”.
doi:10.1007/BF02912886
PMCID: PMC3454248  PMID: 23105657
Streptozotocin; Tephrosia purpurea; Antioxidants; Lipid peroxidation
24.  PA01.16.Effect of sheetaprabha tablets on ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S65.
Purpose:
Sheetaprabha tablets, Ayurvedic proprietary medicine, contain Sweta Parpati & Hajrul hahood bhasma as active ingredients. Sweta parpati is mainly indicated in mootravaha srotovikara & hajrul hahood bhasma is having mootrala and ashmari bhedana actions. A survey of the literature showed that no pharmacology study was made on the sweta parpati and sheetaprabha tablets. In the present study we investigated the effect of Sheetaprabha tablets in ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats.
Method:
Urolithiasis was induced in male wistar rats by adding ethylene glycol (0.75%) in drinking water. Protective (130mg/kg & 260mg/kg) and curative effect (130mg/kg & 260mg/kg) of Sheetaprabha was studied in experimental animal models.
Result:
Ethylene glycol induced urolithiatic rats showed significant increase in blood urea nitrogen (P<0.001), creatinine & phosphorus (P<0.05) and also significant increase in SGOT, SGPT & ALP levels in serum, which were prevented by Sheetaprabha treated rats in protective groups and decreased in curative groups. Histopathologies of kidneys were prevented calcium oxalate formation and tubular degeneration, and increase in tubular regeneration was observed in protective (130mg/kg, 260mg/kg) group.
Conclusion:
The present study findings indicate that treatment with Sheetaprabha tablets, which decreases and also prevents the growth of the calcium oxalate crystals in urinary tract. It also seems that the preventive effect is more effective than its curative effect. Hence, this study confirms the traditional use of Sheetaprabha tablets in urolithiasis.
PMCID: PMC3800946
25.  Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effect of Enicostemma littorale Blume 
Objective
To investigate the hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects of aqueous leaf extract of Enicostemma littorale (E. littorale) Blume (Ens) against ethanol induced hepatic injury in albino rats.
Methods
Male albino rats of six numbers in each group were undertaken for study. Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effect of E. littorale Blume (Ens) aqueous leaf extract at a dosage of 250 mg/kg bw was evaluated.
Results
Levels of serum and tissue cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids were elevated and levels of tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and lipid hydroperoxide were increased in ethanol treated rats. The activity levels of liver antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) were decreased. After adiminstration of extract of E. littorale Blume, levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids were decreased in serum and liver tissue, levels of TBARS and lipid hydroperoxide were decreased, and liver antioxidant enzymes were increased in liver tissue.
Conclusions
It can be concluded that the aqueous leaf extract of E. littorale Blume (Ens) has potent restorative effect on hyperlipidaemic and oxidative stress.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60084-1
PMCID: PMC3614204  PMID: 23569797
Hepatoprotective; Ethanol; Antioxidant enzymes; Enicostemma littorale Blume; Oxidative stress; Hypolipidaemic effect

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