Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) in humans is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by giant neuroaxonal swellings (spheroids) within the CNS white matter. Symptoms are variable and can include personality and behavioural changes. Patients with this disease have mutations in the protein kinase domain of the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) which is a tyrosine kinase receptor essential for microglia development. We investigated the effects of these mutations on Csf1r signalling using a factor dependent cell line. Corresponding mutant forms of murine Csf1r were expressed on the cell surface at normal levels, and bound CSF1, but were not able to sustain cell proliferation. Since Csf1r signaling requires receptor dimerization initiated by CSF1 binding, the data suggest a mechanism for phenotypic dominance of the mutant allele in HDLS.
To describe the brain MRI characteristics of hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) with known mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor gene (CSF1R) on chromosome 5.
We reviewed 20 brain MRI scans of 15 patients with autopsy- or biopsy-verified HDLS and CSF1R mutations. We assessed sagittal T1-, axial T1-, T2-, proton density-weighted and axial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images for distribution of white matter lesions (WMLs), gray matter involvement, and atrophy. We calculated a severity score based on a point system (0−57) for each MRI scan.
Of the patients, 93% (14 of 15) demonstrated localized WMLs with deep and subcortical involvement, whereas one patient revealed generalized WMLs. All WMLs were bilateral but asymmetric and predominantly frontal. Fourteen patients had a rapidly progressive clinical course with an initial MRI mean total severity score of 16.7 points (range 10−33.5). Gray matter pathology and brainstem atrophy were absent, and the corticospinal tracts were involved late in the disease course. There was no enhancement, and there was minimal cerebellar pathology.
Recognition of the typical MRI patterns of HDLS and the use of an MRI severity score might help during the diagnostic evaluation to characterize the natural history and to monitor potential future treatments. Indicators of rapid disease progression were symptomatic disease onset before 45 years, female sex, WMLs extending beyond the frontal regions, a MRI severity score greater than 15 points, and mutation type of deletion.
Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS) and familial pigmentary orthochromatic leukodystrophy (POLD) present as adult-onset dementia with motor impairment and epilepsy. They are regarded as distinct diseases. We review data from the literature that support their being a single entity. Apart from a slightly older age at onset, a more rapid course, and more prominent pyramidal tract involvement, familial POLD is clinically similar to HDLS. Moreover, the pathologic hallmarks of the two diseases, axonal spheroids in HDLS and pigmented macrophages in POLD, can be identified in both conditions. This supports HDLS and POLD being referred collectively as adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP).
= adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia;
= hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids;
= orthochromatic leukodystrophy;
= pigmentary orthochromatic leukodystrophy.
We identify an autosomal mutation in the CSF3R gene in a family with a chronic neutrophilia. This T617N mutation energetically favors dimerization of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptor transmembrane domain, and thus, strongly promotes constitutive activation of the receptor and hypersensitivity to G-CSF for proliferation and differentiation, which ultimately leads to chronic neutrophilia. Mutant hematopoietic stem cells yield a myeloproliferative-like disorder in xenotransplantation and syngenic mouse bone marrow engraftment assays. The survey of 12 affected individuals during three generations indicates that only one patient had a myelodysplastic syndrome. Our data thus indicate that mutations in the CSF3R gene can be responsible for hereditary neutrophilia mimicking a myeloproliferative disorder.
To report a new American family with hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS), including serial, presymptomatic and symptomatic, cranial MRIs from the proband.
We report clinical and genealogic investigations of an HDLS family, sequential brain MRIs of the proband, and autopsy slides of brain tissue from the proband’s father.
We identified seven affected family members (five deceased). The mean age at symptomatic disease onset was 35 years (range: 20–57), and the mean disease duration was 16 years (range: 3–46). Five affected individuals initially manifested memory disturbance and behavioral changes, whereas two experienced a mood disorder as their presenting symptom. Our proband’s father had been diagnosed clinically with vascular dementia, but his brain autopsy was consistent with HDLS. The proband had a cranial MRI prior to symptom onset, with two subsequent MRIs performed during follow-up. These serial images reveal a progressive, confluent, frontal-predominant leukoencephalopathy with symmetric cortical atrophy.
The proband of our newly identified hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) kindred had subtle evidence of an incipient leukoencephalopathy on a presymptomatic cranial MRI. Conceivably, MRI may facilitate identifying affected presymptomatic individuals within known HDLS kindreds, increasing the likelihood of isolating the causative genes.
= diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids;
= fluid-attenuated inversion recovery;
= hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids;
= leukoencephalopathy with neuroaxonal spheroids;
= Luxol fast blue;
= neuroaxonal leukodystrophy;
= pigmentary type of orthochromatic leukodystrophy.
The colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) receptor is a protein-tyrosine kinase that regulates cell division, differentiation, and development. In response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), the CSF-1 receptor is subject to proteolytic processing. Use of chimeric receptors indicates that the CSF-1 receptor is cleaved at least two times, once in the extracellular domain and once in the transmembrane domain. Cleavage in the extracellular domain results in ectodomain shedding while the cytoplasmic domain remains associated with the membrane. Intramembrane cleavage depends on the sequence of the transmembrane domain and results in the release of the cytoplasmic domain. This process can be blocked by γ-secretase inhibitors. The cytoplasmic domain localizes partially to the nucleus, displays limited stability, and is degraded by the proteosome. CSF-1 receptors are continuously subject to down-modulation and regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). RIP is stimulated by granulocyte-macrophage-CSF, CSF-1, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, lipopolysaccharide, and PMA and may provide the CSF-1 receptor with an additional mechanism for signal transduction.
Interleukin-34 (IL-34) and colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) both signal through the CSF-1R receptor tyrosine kinase, but they have no sequence homology, and their functions and signaling activities are not identical. We report the crystal structures of mouse IL-34 alone and in complex with the N-terminal three immunoglobulin-like domains (D1-D3) of mouse CSF-1R. IL-34 is structurally related to other helical hematopoietic cytokines, but contains two additional helices integrally associated with the four shared helices. The non-covalently linked IL-34 homodimer recruits two copies of CSF-1R on the sides of the helical bundles, with an overall shape similar to the CSF-1:CSF-1R complex, but the flexible linker between CSF-1R D2 and D3 allows these domains to clamp IL-34 and CSF-1 at different angles. Functional dissection of the IL-34:CSF-1R interface indicates that the hydrophobic interactions, rather than the salt bridge network, dominate the biological activity of IL-34. To degenerately recognize two ligands with completely different surfaces, CSF-1R apparently takes advantage of different subsets of a chemically inert surface that can be tuned to fit different ligand shapes. Differentiated signaling between IL-34 and CSF-1 is likely achieved by the relative thermodynamic independence of IL-34 vs. negative cooperativity of CSF-1 at the receptor-recognition sites, in combination with the difference in hydrophobicity which dictates a more stable IL-34:CSF-1R complex compared to the CSF-1:CSF-1R complex.
interleukin-34; colony stimulating factor-1 receptor; growth factor; receptor tyrosine kinase; X-ray crystallography; ligand/receptor binding
Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) was originally described in a large Swedish pedigree. Since then, 22 reports describing a total of 13 kindred's and 11 sporadic cases have been published. Inheritance is autosomal dominant, albeit the gene is unknown. Here we report on the clinical findings, genealogical data, brain MRI data, and autopsy/biopsy findings of four probands from three independently ascertained novel families from Norway, Germany and US.
We identified a 39-year-old female and her twin sister, a 52-year-old male and a 47-year-old male with progressive neurological illness characterized by personality changes, cognitive decline and motor impairments, such as gait problems, bradykinesia, tremor and rigidity. Brain MRI showed white matter abnormalities with frontal prominence. Brain biopsy/autopsies were consistent with HDLS.
HDLS is an under-recognized disease and in reporting these cases, we aim to increase the awareness of the disorder. Due to varied and wide phenotypic presentations, which may imitate several neurodegenerative diseases, HDLS can be difficult to diagnose. Definitive diagnosis can be established only by direct brain tissue examination. Familiarity with the clinical presentation and typical neuroimaging findings may be helpful in narrowing the diagnosis.
HDLS; White matter disease; Autosomal dominant; Personality changes; Cognitive problems; Depression; Parkinsonism
Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by cerebral white matter degeneration with myelin loss and axonal swellings (spheroids) leading to progressive cognitive and motor dysfunction. Histopathology of HDLS has been well characterized, but ultrastructural details are lacking. Here we report ultrastructural and immunoelectron microscopic characterization of spheroids and capillary basal lamina in white matter of HDLS brains. Spheroids had thin or discontinuous or no myelin sheaths. They contained various combinations of aggregated neurofilaments (NF), cytoplasmic organelles, dense bodies, and laminated figures. Aggregated filaments labeled with antibodies to phosphorylated NF (pNF), non-pNF and amyloid precursor protein. The gliotic white matter had many reactive astrocytes, and lipid-laden macrophages with membranous and fingerprint-like bodies. The basal laminas (BL) of many capillaries were dilated, and the enlarged space was heavily deposited with banded collagen type I and III. Some BL had focal thickenings and duplications. Fibronectin, not collagen IV, was found associated with banded collagen. The various types of axonal spheroids and changes in capillary basal lamina have not been emphasized previously. It remains to be determined if they are a reactive process or a primary mechanism of white matter degeneration in HDLS.
Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy; spheroids; capillary basal lamina; ultrastructure; immunoelectron microscopy
To investigate the role(s) of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) on the development of early endometriosis in a murine model by comparing rate of lesion formation in mice  homozygous for a CSF-1 mutation versus syngeneic controls and  after treatment with imatinib, a commercially available tyrosine kinase inhibitor that alters interaction(s) between CSF-1 and its receptor, c-fms.
Prospective, placebo-controlled animal study.
Academic medical center.
Six- to 8-week old female FVB, wild-type C57BL/6, and CSF-1 op/op mice.
Endometrial tissue from donor mice was used to induce endometriosis in murine recipients. In some experiments, mice homozygous for a CSF-1 mutation (CSF-1 op/op) were donors or recipients. In other experiments, donor and/or recipient mice received imatinib.
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Histologic confirmation of endometriosis, rate of lesion formation.
By 40 hours, recipient mice developed a mean of 7.2 ± 0.9 endometriotic lesions that had invaded host surfaces, and mesothelial cells had proliferated over the entire surface of the implants. The CSF-1 op/op mice developed significantly fewer (mean 0.9 ± 0.3) endometriotic lesions versus syngeneic controls. Imatinib treatment resulted in significantly fewer lesions when compared with sham-treated controls.
Colony-stimulating factor 1 has a role in establishing early endometriotic lesions. Agents targeting CSF-1 or its actions have therapeutic potential for treating endometriosis.
Endometriosis; animal model; colony-stimulating factor 1; CSF-1; imatinib
The receptor for colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) is a receptor protein-tyrosine kinase. To study the possible function of CSF-1 receptor autophosphorylation, two autophosphorylation sites, Tyr-706, located in the kinase insert, and Tyr-807, a residue conserved in all protein-tyrosine kinases, were changed independently to either phenylalanine or glycine. Wild-type and mutant receptors were stably expressed in Rat-2 cells. In response to CSF-1, cells expressing Phe- or Gly-706 mutant receptors showed increased growth rate and altered cell morphology. Both the Phe- and Gly-706 mutant receptors associated with and phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase at levels comparable with those of wild-type receptors. However, these mutant receptors differed subtly from each other and from the wild-type receptor in their ability to induce different aspects of the response to CSF-1. The Phe-706 mutant receptor was most strongly affected in its ability to increase growth rate or elevate the levels of c-fos and NGF1A mRNAs, whereas the Gly-706 mutant receptor was most markedly affected in its ability to induce a change in cell morphology or increase the levels of c-jun and NGF1A mRNAs. These findings indicate that Tyr-706 itself, or this region of the receptor, may be important for interaction of the CSF-1 receptor with different signalling pathways. Gly-807 mutant receptors lacked protein-tyrosine kinase activity, failed to respond to CSF-1, and were defective in biosynthetic processing. Phe-807 mutant receptors had 40 to 60% reduced protein-tyrosine kinase activity in vitro. Although cells expressing Phe-807 receptors were able to respond to CSF-1, the changes in growth rate and cell morphology were significantly less than seen with wild-type receptors, and the induction of early response genes was also slightly lower than for the wild-type receptor. In contrast, Phe-807 receptors were equivalent to wild-type receptors when tested for their ability to interact with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. These findings indicate that phosphorylation of Tyr-807 may be important for full activation of the receptor.
Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) induces expression of immediate
early gene, such as c-myc and c-fos and delayed early genes such as
D-type cyclins (D1 and D2), whose products play essential roles in the
G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle. Little is known, however,
about the cytoplasmic signal transduction pathways that connect the
surface CSF-1 receptor to these genes in the nucleus. We have
investigated the signaling mechanism of CSF-1-induced D2 expression.
Analyses of CSF-1 receptor autophosphorylation mutants show that,
although certain individual mutation has a partial inhibitory effect,
only multiple combined mutations completely block induction of D2 in
response to CSF-1. We report that at least three parallel pathways, the
Src pathway, the MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK)/extracellular
signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, and the c-myc pathway,
are involved. Induction of D2 is partially inhibited in
Src−/− bone marrow-derived macrophages and by Src
inhibitor PP1 and is enhanced in v-Src-overexpressing cells. Activation
of myc's transactivating activity selectively induces D2 but not D1.
Blockade of c-myc expression partially blocks CSF-1-induced D2
expression. Complete inhibition of the MEK/ERK pathway causes 50%
decrease of D2 expression. Finally, simultaneous inhibition of Src, MEK
activation, and c-myc expression additively blocks CSF-1-induced D2
expression. This study indicates that multiple signaling pathways are
involved in full induction of a single gene, and this finding may also
apply broadly to other growth factor-inducible genes.
NIH 3T3 cells cotransfected with the human c-fms proto-oncogene together with a 1.6-kilobase cDNA clone encoding a 256-amino-acid precursor of the human mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor CSF-1 (M-CSF) undergo transformation by an autocrine mechanism. The number of CSF-1 receptors on the surface of transformed cells was regulated by ligand-induced receptor degradation and was inversely proportional to the quantity of CSF-1 produced. A tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutation at position 969 near the receptor carboxyl terminus potentiated its transforming efficiency in cells cotransfected by the CSF-1 gene but did not affect receptor downmodulation. CSF-1 was synthesized as an integral transmembrane glycoprotein that was rapidly dimerized through disulfide bonds. The homodimer was externalized at the cell surface, where it underwent proteolysis to yield the soluble growth factor. Trypsin treatment of viable cells cleaved the plasma membrane form of CSF-1 to molecules of a size indistinguishable from that of the extracellular growth factor, suggesting that trypsinlike proteases regulate the rate of CSF-1 release from transformed cells. The data raise the possibility that this form of membrane-bound CSF-1 might stimulate receptors on adjacent cells through direct cell-cell interactions.
We report a family with a novel CSF1R mutation causing hereditary diffuse leucoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids. Family members presented with neuropsychiatric and behavioural symptoms, with subsequent development of motor symptoms and gait disturbance. MRI brain showed extensive white matter change with a frontal predominance and associated atrophy in two members of the family. Genetic testing revealed a novel mutation c.2342C > T (p.A781V) in the CSF1R gene in two brothers of the family. This report highlights the difficulties in diagnosing HDLS and discusses the indications for testing for mutations in the CSF1R gene.
CSF1R; HDLS; Leucoencephalopathy; Dementia; Frontal dementia; Behavioural change
The high-affinity receptor for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) consists of a unique alpha chain and a beta c subunit that is shared with the receptors for interleukin-3 (IL-3) and IL-5. Two regions of the beta c chain have been defined; these include a membrane-proximal region of the cytoplasmic domain that is required for mitogenesis and a membrane-distal region that is required for activation of Ras, Raf-1, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and S6 kinase. Recent studies have implicated the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase JAK2 in signalling through a number of the cytokine receptors, including the IL-3 and erythropoietin receptors. In the studies described here, we demonstrate that GM-CSF stimulation of cells induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2 and activates its in vitro kinase activity. Mutational analysis of the beta c chain demonstrates that only the membrane-proximal 62 amino acids of the cytosolic domain are required for JAK2 activation. Thus, JAK2 activation is correlated with induction of mitogenesis but does not, alone, activate the Ras pathway. Carboxyl truncations of the alpha chain, which inactivate the receptor for mitogenesis, are unable to mediate GM-CSF-induced JAK2 activation. Using baculovirus-expressed proteins, we further demonstrate that JAK2 physically associates with the beta c chain but not with the alpha chain. Together, the results further support the hypothesis that the JAK family of kinase are critical to coupling cytokine binding to tyrosine phosphorylation and ultimately mitogenesis.
Colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1 or M-CSF) is the major physiological regulator of the proliferation, differentiation and survival of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage. CSF-1 binds to a receptor tyrosine kinase, the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R). Multiple pathways are activated downstream of the CSF-1R; however, it is not clear which pathways regulate proliferation and survival. Here, we investigated the role of atypical protein kinase Cs (PKCζ) in a myeloid progenitor cell line that expressed CSF-1R (32D.R) and in primary murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs). In 32D.R cells, CSF-1 induced the phosphorylation of PKCζ and increased its kinase activity. PKC inhibitors and transfections with mutant PKCs showed that optimal CSF-1-dependent Erk activation and proliferation depended on the activity of PKCζ. We previously reported that CSF-1 activated the Erk pathway through an A-Raf-dependent and an A-Raf independent pathway (Lee and States, Mol. Cell. Biol. 18, 6779). PKC inhibitors did not affect CSF-1 induced Ras and A-Raf activity but markedly reduced MEK and Erk activity, implying that PKCζ regulated the CSF-1-Erk pathway at the level of MEK. PKCζ has been implicated in activating the NF-κB pathway. However, CSF-1 promoted proliferation in an NF-κB independent manner. We established stable 32D.R cell lines that overexpressed PKCζ. Overexpression of PKCζ increased the intensity and duration of CSF-1 induced Erk activity and rendered cells more responsive to CSF-1 mediated proliferation. In contrast to 32D.R cells, PKCζ inhibition in BMMs had only a modest effect on proliferation. Moreover, PKCζ -specific and pan-PKC inhibitors induced a paradoxical increase in MEK-Erk phosphorylation suggesting that PKCs targeted a common negative regulatory step upstream of MEK. Our results demonstrated that CSF-1 dependent Erk activation and proliferation are regulated differentially in progenitors and differentiated cells.
The receptor for colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) is a ligand-activated protein-tyrosine kinase. It has been shown previously that the CSF-1 receptor is phosphorylated on serine in vivo and that phosphorylation on tyrosine can be induced by stimulation with CSF-1. We studied the phosphorylation of the CSF-1 receptor by using the BAC1.2F5 murine macrophage cell line, which naturally expresses CSF-1 receptors. Two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide mapping showed that the CSF-1 receptor is phosphorylated on several different serine residues in vivo. Stimulation with CSF-1 at 37 degrees C resulted in rapid phosphorylation on tyrosine at one major site and one or two minor sites. We identified the major site as Tyr-706. The identity of Tyr-706 was confirmed by mutagenesis. This residue is located within the kinase insert domain. There was no evidence that Tyr-973 (equivalent to Tyr-969 in the human CSF-1 receptor) was phosphorylated following CSF-1 stimulation. When cells were stimulated with CSF-1 at 4 degrees C, additional phosphotyrosine-containing phosphopeptides were detected and the level of phosphorylation of the individual phosphotyrosine-containing phosphopeptides was substantially increased. In addition, we show that CSF-1 receptors are capable of autophosphorylation at six to eight major sites in vitro.
The receptor for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can mediate differentiation and proliferation of hemopoietic cells. A proliferative signal is associated with activation of the ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. To determine whether other MAPK pathways are activated by G-CSF signalling, we have investigated activation of JNK/SAPK in cells proliferating in response to G-CSF. Here we show that G-CSF and interleukin-3 activate JNK/SAPK in two hemopoietic cell lines. The region of the G-CSF receptor required for G-CSF-induced JNK/SAPK activation is located within the C-terminal 68 amino acids of the cytoplasmic domain, which contains Tyr 763. Mutation of Tyr 763 to Phe completely blocks JNK/SAPK activation. However, the C-terminal 68 amino acids are not required for ERK2 activation. We show that activation of JNK/SAPK, like that of ERK2, is dependent on Ras but that higher levels of Ras-GTP are associated with activation of JNK/SAPK than with activation of ERK2. Two separate functional regions of the G-CSF receptor contribute to activation of Ras. The Y763F mutation reduces G-CSF-induced Ras activation from 30 to 35% Ras-GTP to 10 to 13% Ras-GTP. Low levels of Ras activation (10 to 13% Ras-GTP), which are sufficient for ERK2 activation, require only the 100 membrane-proximal amino acids. High levels of Ras-GTP provided by expression of oncogenic Ras are not sufficient to activate JNK/SAPK. An additional signal, also mediated by Tyr 763, is required for activation of JNK/SAPK.
A chimeric receptor composed of the extracellular domain of the human T-cell antigen CD2 (T11) joined to the membrane-spanning segment and the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of the human colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) was expressed in murine NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Stimulation of these cells with monoclonal antibodies to CD2 induced phosphorylation of the chimeric glycoprotein on tyrosine, receptor downmodulation, and mitogenesis. In contrast, neither human CSF-1R nor the chimeric receptor was able to function in interleukin-2-dependent murine T cells. In fibroblasts, then, CSF-1 per se is not required for activation of the receptor kinase or for a biological response, whereas in T cells, CSF-1R may be unable to engage the downstream signal transduction machinery.
Colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) triggers the activation of intracellular proteins in macrophages through selective assembly of signalling complexes. The separation of multimeric complexes of the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) by anion-exchange chromatography enabled the enrichment of low-stoichiometry complexes. A significant proportion of the receptor in CSF-1-stimulated cells that neither possessed detectable tyrosine kinase activity nor formed complexes was separated from the receptor pool displaying autokinase activity that formed chromatographically distinct multimeric complexes. A small pool of CSF-1R formed a multimeric complex with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3 kinase), SHP-1, Grb2, Shc, c-Src, Cbl, and a significant number of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in CSF-1-stimulated cells. The complex showed a considerable amount of CSF-1R complex-associated kinase activity. A detectable level of the complex was also present in untreated cells. PI-3 kinase in the multimeric complex displayed low lipid kinase activity despite the association with several proteins. The major pool of activated CSF-1R formed transient multimeric complexes with distinctly different tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, which included STAT3 but also PI-3 kinase, Shc, SHP-1, and Grb2. A significant level of lipid kinase activity was detected in PI-3 kinase in the latter complexes. The different specific enzyme activities of PI-3 kinase in these complexes support the notion that the activity of PI-3 kinase is modulated by its association with CSF-1R and other associated cellular proteins. Specific structural proteins associated with the separate CSF-1R multimeric complexes upon CSF-1 stimulation and the presence of the distinct pools of the CSF-1R were dependent on the integrity of the microtubular network.
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) activate multiple downstream cytosolic tyrosine kinases following ligand stimulation. SRC family kinases (SFKs), which are recruited to activated RTKs through SH2 domain interactions with RTK autophosphorylation sites, are targets of many subfamilies of RTKs. To date, there has not been a systematic analysis of the downstream substrates of such receptor-activated SFKs. Here, we conducted quantitative mass spectrometry utilizing stable isotope labeling (SILAC) analysis to profile candidate SRC-substrates induced by the CSF-1R tyrosine kinase by comparing the phosphotyrosine-containing peptides from cells expressing either CSF-1R or a mutant form of this RTK that is unable to bind to SFKs. This analysis identified previously uncharacterized changes in tyrosine phosphorylation induced by CSF-1R in mammary epithelial cells as well as a set of candidate substrates dependent on SRC recruitment to CSF-1R. Many of these candidates may be direct SRC targets as the amino acids flanking the phosphorylation sites in these proteins are similar to known SRC kinase phosphorylation motifs. The putative SRC-dependent proteins include known SRC substrates as well as previously unrecognized SRC targets. The collection of substrates includes proteins involved in multiple cellular processes including cell-cell adhesion, endocytosis, and signal transduction. Analyses of phosphoproteomic data from breast and lung cancer patient samples identified a subset of the SRC-dependent phosphorylation sites as being strongly correlated with SRC activation, which represent candidate markers of SRC activation downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases in human tumors. In summary, our data reveal quantitative site-specific changes in tyrosine phosphorylation induced by CSF-1R activation in epithelial cells and identify many candidate SRC-dependent substrates phosphorylated downstream of an RTK.
Ligand-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the human colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) could involve either an intra- or intermolecular mechanism. We therefore examined the ability of a CSF-1R carboxy-terminal truncation mutant to phosphorylate a kinase-defective receptor, CSF-1R[met 616], that contains a methionine-for-lysine substitution at its ATP-binding site. By using an antipeptide serum that specifically reacts with epitopes deleted from the enzymatically competent truncation mutant, cross-phosphorylation of CSF-1R[met 616] on tyrosine was demonstrated, both in immune-complex kinase reactions and in intact cells stimulated with CSF-1. Both in vitro and in vivo, CSF-1R[met 616] was phosphorylated on tryptic peptides identical to those derived from wild-type CSF-1R, suggesting that receptor phosphorylation on tyrosine can proceed via an intermolecular interaction between receptor monomers. When expressed alone, CSF-1R[met 616] did not undergo ligand-induced down modulation, but its phosphorylation in cells coexpressing the kinase-active truncation mutant accelerated its degradation.
In human breast carcinomas, overexpression of the macrophage colony–stimulating factor (CSF-1) and its receptor (CSF-1R) correlates with poor prognosis. To establish if there is a causal relationship between CSF-1 and breast cancer progression, we crossed a transgenic mouse susceptible to mammary cancer with mice containing a recessive null mutation in the CSF-1 gene (Csf1op) and followed tumor progression in wild-type and null mutant mice. The absence of CSF-1 affects neither the incidence nor the growth of the primary tumors but delayed their development to invasive, metastatic carcinomas. Transgenic expression of CSF-1 in the mammary epithelium of both Csf1op/Csf1op and wild-type tumor-prone mice led to an acceleration to the late stages of carcinoma and to a significant increase in pulmonary metastasis. This was associated with an enhanced infiltration of macrophages into the primary tumor. These studies demonstrate that the growth of mammary tumors and the development to malignancy are separate processes and that CSF-1 selectively promotes the latter process. CSF-1 may promote metastatic potential by regulating the infiltration and function of tumor-associated macrophages as, at the tumor site, CSF-1R expression was restricted to macrophages. Our data suggest that agents directed at CSF-1/CSF-1R activity could have important therapeutic effects.
mouse; proliferation; macrophages; metastasis; breast cancer
Colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) plays an important role in ovarian cancer biology and as a prognostic factor in ovarian cancer. Elevated levels of CSF-1 promote progression of ovarian cancer, by binding to CSF-1R (the tyrosine kinase receptor encoded by c-fms proto-oncogene).
Post-transcriptional regulation of CSF-1 mRNA by its 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR) has been studied previously. Several cis-acting elements in 3’UTR are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of CSF-1 mRNA. These include conserved protein-binding motifs as well as miRNA targets. miRNAs are 21-23nt single strand RNA which bind the complementary sequences in mRNAs, suppressing translation and enhancing mRNA degradation.
In this report, we investigate the effect of miRNAs on post-transcriptional regulation of CSF-1 mRNA in human ovarian cancer. Bioinformatics analysis predicts at least 14 miRNAs targeting CSF-1 mRNA 3’UTR. By mutations in putative miRNA targets in CSF-1 mRNA 3’UTR, we identified a common target for both miR-128 and miR-152. We have also found that both miR-128 and miR-152 down-regulate CSF-1 mRNA and protein expression in ovarian cancer cells leading to decreased cell motility and adhesion in vitro, two major aspects of the metastatic potential of cancer cells.
The major CSF-1 mRNA 3’UTR contains a common miRNA target which is involved in post-transcriptional regulation of CSF-1. Our results provide the evidence for a mechanism by which miR-128 and miR-152 down-regulate CSF-1, an important regulator of ovarian cancer.
miR-128; miR-152; CSF-1 mRNA; Post-transcriptional regulation; motility and adhesion
Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by a drastic reduction in circulating neutrophils and a maturation arrest of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow. Usually this condition can be successfully treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Here we describe the identification of a novel point mutation in the extracellular domain of the G-CSF receptor (G-CSF-R) in an SCN patient who failed to respond to G-CSF treatment. When this mutant G-CSF-R was expressed in myeloid cells, it was defective in both proliferation and survival signaling. This correlated with diminished activation of the receptor complex as determined by signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) activation, although activation of STAT5 was more affected than STAT3. Interestingly, the mutant receptor showed normal affinity for ligand, but a reduced number of ligand binding sites compared with the wild-type receptor. This suggests that the mutation in the extracellular domain affects ligand–receptor complex formation with severe consequences for intracellular signal transduction. Together these data add to our understanding of the mechanisms of cytokine receptor signaling, emphasize the role of GCSFR mutations in the etiology of SCN, and implicate such mutations in G-CSF hyporesponsiveness.
cytokine; receptor; signal transduction; cell survival; structure activity relationship