We aimed to assess the oral health status and risk factors for dental caries and periodontal disease among Sudanese adults resident in Khartoum State. To date, this information was not available to health policy planners in Sudan.
A descriptive population-based survey of Sudanese adults aged ≥ 16 years was conducted. After stratified sampling, 1,888 adult patients from public dental hospitals and dental health centres scattered across Khartoum State, including different ethnic groups present in Sudan, were examined in 2009-10. Data were collected using patient interviews and clinical examinations. Dental status was recorded using the DMFT index, community periodontal index (CPI), and a validated tooth wear index.
Caries prevalence was high, with 87.7% of teeth examined having untreated decay. Periodontal disease increased in extent and severity with age. For 25.8% of adults, tooth wear was mild; 8.7% had moderate and 1% severe toothwear. Multivariate analysis revealed that decay was less prevalent in older age groups but more prevalent in southern tribes and frequent problem based attenders; western tribes and people with dry mouths who presented with less than18 sound, untreated natural teeth (SUNT). Older age groups were more likely to present with tooth wear; increasing age and gender were associated with having periodontal pocketing ≥ 4 mm.
The prevalence of untreated caries and periodontal disease was high in this population. There appear to be some barriers to restorative dental care, with frequent use of dental extractions to treat caries and limited use of restorative dentistry. Implementation of population-based strategies tailored to the circumstances of Sudanese population is important to improve oral health status in Sudan.
To determine oral health status and identify predictors of oral health in a representative sample of psychiatric in-patients in Serbia.
The study included 186 psychiatric in-patients and 186 control participants without psychiatric illness matched to the study group by age, sex, marital status, education level, employment, and monthly income. Dental examinations were done in both groups to measure the following indices of oral health: decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index; community periodontal index; and plaque index. Participants were also interviewed about their dental health behavior and their medical records were examined.
Psychiatric in-patients had higher caries prevalence, poorer periodontal health, and poorer oral hygiene than controls. The average DMFT score in the patient group was 24.4 and 16.1 in the control group (P < 0.001). Periodontal diseases were significantly more prevalent among psychiatric in-patients than among controls (P < 0.001). The average plaque index for patients was 2.78 and 1.40 for controls (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that 1) DMFT index was associated with age, male sex, duration of mental illness, use of antidepressants, time since the last visit to the dentist, and snacking frequency; 2) community periodontal index was associated with male sex; and 3) plaque index was associated with age, male sex, education level, employment, monthly income, tooth brushing technique, and snacking frequency.
Psychiatric in-patients in Serbia have poorer oral health than healthy controls. It is necessary to intensify preventive dental care in this vulnerable population.
Dental caries is a major public health problem in many countries. Since the last territority-wide dental survey of Hong Kong preschool children was conducted in 2001, a survey to update the information is necessary. This study aimed to describe the dental caries experience of preschool children in Hong Kong and factors affecting their dental caries status.
A stratified random sample of children from seven kindergartens in Hong Kong was surveyed in 2009. Ethical approval from IRB and parental consent was obtained. Clinical examinations of the children were performed by two calibrated examiners using disposable dental mirrors, an intra-oral LED light and ball-ended periodontal probes. A questionnaire to investigate possible explanatory factors for caries status was completed by the children’s parents. Caries experience was recorded using the dmft index. Multifactor-ANOVA was used to study the relationship between dental caries experience, and the background and oral health-related behaviours of the children.
Seven hundred children (53% boys), mean age 5.3 ± 0.7 years were examined. The mean dmft score of the surveyed children was 2.2 and 51% of them had no caries experience (dmft = 0). Most (>95%) of the decayed teeth were untreated. Statistically significant correlations were found between dental caries experience of the children and their oral health-related habits, family income, parental education level and parental dental knowledge.
Early childhood dental caries was prevalent among the preschool children in Hong Kong. Their caries experience was associated with their oral health-related behaviours, socio-economic background, and parental education and dental knowledge.
Dental caries; Oral hygiene; Oral health; Toothbrushing; Preschool children; Hong Kong; China
Dental epidemiology has indicated that immigrants and minority ethnic groups should be regarded as high risk populations on the verge of oral health deterioration. The objectives of this study were to measure the changing pattern of dental caries, periodontal health status and tooth cleaning behaviour among a cohort of Ethiopian immigrants to Israel between the years 1999–2005.
Increment of dental caries and periodontal health status was recorded among a cohort of 672 Ethiopian immigrants, utilizing the DMFT and CPI indices. Data were gathered during 1999–2000 and five years later, during 2004–2005. Participants were asked about their oral hygiene habits in Ethiopia and in Israel five years since their immigration.
Regarding dental caries, at baseline 70.1% of the examinees were caries-free, as compared to 57.3% after five years. DMFT had increased from 1.48 to 2.31. For periodontal health status, at baseline, 94.7% demonstrated no periodontal pockets (CPI scores 0–2) and 5.3% revealed periodontal pockets (CPI scores 3&4), compared to 75.6% and 24.4%, respectively after five years. At baseline, 74% reported cleaning their teeth exclusively utilizing chewing and cleaning sticks common in Ethiopia. After five years, 97% reported cleaning their teeth exclusively utilizing toothbrushes.
The deterioration in the oral health status, especially the alarming and significant worsening of periodontal health status, among this immigrant group, emphasizes the need for health promotion and maintenance among immigrants and minority groups in changing societies. An "acclimatizing and integrating" model of oral health promotion among minority and immigrant groups is suggested.
Limited information on oral health status for young adults aged 18 year-olds is known, and no available data exists in Hong Kong. The aims of this study were to investigate the oral health status and its risk indicators among young adults in Hong Kong using negative binomial regression.
A survey was conducted in a representative sample of Hong Kong young adults aged 18 years. Clinical examinations were taken to assess oral health status using DMFT index and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) according to WHO criteria. Negative binomial regressions for DMFT score and the number of sextants with healthy gums were performed to identify the risk indicators of oral health status.
A total of 324 young adults were examined. Prevalence of dental caries experience among the subjects was 59% and the overall mean DMFT score was 1.4. Most subjects (95%) had a score of 2 as their highest CPI score. Negative binomial regression analyses revealed that subjects who had a dental visit within 3 years had significantly higher DMFT scores (IRR = 1.68, p < 0.001). Subjects who brushed their teeth more frequently (IRR = 1.93, p < 0.001) and those with better dental knowledge (IRR = 1.09, p = 0.002) had significantly more sextants with healthy gums.
Dental caries experience of the young adults aged 18 years in Hong Kong was not high but their periodontal condition was unsatisfactory. Their oral health status was related to their dental visit behavior, oral hygiene habit, and oral health knowledge.
Dental caries; Periodontal disease; Negative binomial regression
Evidence from Western countries indicates that there are fundamental discrepancies between self-perceived illness of immigrants and the provision of health care, according to the Western bio-medical health service model. These need to be understood in the planning and implementation stages of public health care programs for new immigrants. The objectives of the present study were to investigate self-perceived versus clinically diagnosed dental and periodontal health status among immigrants from Ethiopia.
During 2004–2005, dental and periodontal health status was recorded among 340 Ethiopian immigrants, utilizing the DMFT and CPI indices. Additionally, participants were interviewed using a questionnaire which included perceived dental and periodontal health status. Sensitivity and specificity levels of this perception were calculated and compared with the published scientific literature.
Regarding dental caries, according to the three operational cut-off points, sensitivity ranged from 70% to 81%, and specificity ranged from 56% to 67%. Regarding periodontal status, 75% of the subjects clinically diagnosed with periodontal pockets self-perceived a "bad" health status of gums (sensitivity) and 54% of the subjects diagnosed without periodontal pockets, reported a "good" health status of gums (specificity). These indications of perception levels were higher than a previous study conducted among native born Israelis.
Minority ethnic groups should not be prejudicially regarded as less knowledgeable. This is illustrated by the unexpected high level of oral health status perception in the present population. Oral health promotion initiatives among immigrants should be based upon optimal descriptive data in order to accomplish the inherent social commitment to these diverse populations.
Objectives: To study the dental status and treatment needs of institutionalized older adults with chronic mental illness compared to a non-psychiatric control sample.
Study Design: The sample size was 100, in which 50 were psychogeriatric patients (study group; SG) classified according to DSM-IV, with a mean age of 69.6 ± 6.7 years, and 50 non-psychiatric patients (control group; CG), with a mean age of 68.3 ± 6.9 years. Clinical oral health examinations were conducted and caries were recorded clinically using the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMFT). Results were analyzed statistically using the Student’s t-test or analysis of variance.
Results: Caries prevalence was 58% and 62% in SG and CG, respectively. DMFT index was 28.3 ± 6.6 in SG and 21.4 ± 6.07 in CG (p < 0.01). Mean number of decayed teeth was higher in SG (3.1) compared to CG (1.8) (p=0.047). Mean number of missing teeth were 25.2 and 16.4 in SG and CG respectively (p<0.05). DMFT scores were higher in SG in all the age groups (p < 0.01). Mean number of teeth per person needing treatment was 3.4 in SG and 1.9 in CG (p= 0.037). The need for restorative dental care was significantly lower in the SG (0.8 teeth per person) than in the CG (1.7 teeth per person) (p = 0.043).
Conclusions: Institutionalized psychiatric patients have significantly worse dental status and more dental treatment needs than non-psychiatric patients.
Key words:Gerodontology, oral health, older adult, psychiatric patients, schizophrenia.
The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of dental caries, periodontal diseases and tooth wear in bariatric patients, and relate the oral health conditions to saliva flow.
Fifty-two patients who had undergone bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) and 50 severely obese patients indicated for bariatric surgery were submitted to clinical examinations with regard to dental caries (DMFT index), periodontal condition (CPI index), dental wear (DWI index – Dental wear index) and saliva flow. The data were statistically analyzed by the Student’s-t, Mann-Whitney, Spearman Correlation and Chi-square (χ2) tests at 5% significance level.
The DMFT index was 16.11±5.19 in the surgical group and 16.06±6.29 in the control group (P>.05). The mean CPI was 3.05±0.84 for the operated group and 2.66±1.25 for the obese patients with no significant difference between them (P>.05). There was statistically significant difference between the groups for the presence of periodontal pockets (P=.021). All the patients presented some degree of tooth wear, however, with no significant difference between the two groups (P=.82). The mean saliva flow values of the surgical group and control group were 0.64±0.46 mL/min and 0.66±0.49 mL/min, respectively. There was no significant difference in saliva flow and all oral conditions analyzed (P>.05).
The prevalence of oral diseases was similar in severely obese patients who were candidates for bariatric surgery and in patients who had been submitted to bariatric surgery. Nevertheless, there was higher prevalence of periodontal pockets in the operated group.
Oral health; tooth erosion; periodontal diseases; dental caries; xerostomia; obesity; bariatric surgery
This study aimed to investigate the effects of oral hygiene care by oral professionals on periodontal health in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.
Materials and Methods
Diabetic participants were recruited at a university hospital and matched at a 1:1 ratio by age and gender, and randomly allocated into intervention (40 people) and control groups (35 people). Tooth brushing instruction, oral health education, and supra-gingival scaling were implemented in all patients at baseline. This program was repeatedly conducted in intervention patients every month for 6 months, and twice at baseline and the sixth month in the control. Oral health was measured by decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), plaque index, calculus index, bleeding index, patient hygiene performance (PHP) index, tooth mobility, Russel's periodontal index, and community periodontal index (CPI). Diabetes-related factors, oral and general health behaviors, and sociodemographic factors were interviewed as other confounding factors. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used with SPSS for Windows 14.0.
At baseline, there were no significant differences between the two groups in average of periodontal health (calculus index, bleeding index, Russel's periodontal index, CPI, and tooth mobility), diabetes-related factors (fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and HbA1c), and in distribution of sociodemographic factors and health behaviors. In intervention group, plaque index, dental calculus index, bleeding index, and PHP index were reduced fairly and steadily from the baseline. There were significant differences in plaque index, dental calculus index, bleeding index, PHP index, and Russel's periodontal index between the two groups at sixth month after adjusted for baseline status.
Intensive oral hygiene care can persistently improve oral inflammation status and could slow periodontal deterioration.
Dental prophylaxis; oral hygiene; periodontal diseases; type 2 diabetes mellitus
Based on the previous national oral health survey in India, some variation was observed in oral health status and behavior between the urban and rural population. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the dental caries experience in deciduous dentition of 6-year-old urban and rural schoolchildren of Udaipur district and to evaluate the influence of socio behavioral characteristics on dental caries experience.
Materials and Methods:
A combination of multi stage and cluster sampling procedure was executed to collect a representative sample of 875, 6-year-old school children. Clinical examination for caries was conducted using dmft (decayed, missing and filled teeth) index. Socio - demographic information was collected prior to clinical examination in addition to information on oral health behavior by personal interviews.
Only 7.8% children reported of brushing their teeth twice or more than twice daily. Rural children visited the dentist less often than the urban children (P < 0.05). Greater proportion of boys (62.2%) experienced caries than girls (55.1%), decayed component constituted a major contribution for dmft. Multivariate analysis demonstrated the influence of gender, urbanization, tooth brushing frequency, dental visits, parent's education and occupation on caries occurrence.
Rural children and boys experienced greater caries than their urban and girl counterparts. Caries experience was related to the parent's occupation and education. Moreover, caries occurrence was influenced by brushing frequency and dental visiting habits.
Dental caries; education of parent; occupation of parent; urbanization
Early recognition of the signs and symptoms of mental health disorders is important because early intervention is critical to restoring the mental as well as the physical and the social health of an individual. This study sought to investigate patterns of treatment seeking behavior and associated factors for mental illness.
A quantitative, institution-based cross sectional study was conducted among 384 psychiatric patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH) located in Jimma, Ethiopia from March to April 2010. Data was collected using a pretested WHO encounter format by trained psychiatric nurses. Data was analyzed using SPSS V.16.
Major depression disorder 186 (48.4%), schizophrenia 55 (14.3%) and other psychotic disorders 47 (12.2%) were the most common diagnoses given to the respondents. The median duration of symptoms of mental illness before contact to modern mental health service was 52.1 weeks. The main sources of information for the help sought by the patients were found to be family 126 (32.8%) and other patients 75 (19.5%). Over a third of the patients 135 (35.2%), came directly to JUSH. Half of the patients sought traditional treatment from either a religious healer 116 (30.2%) or an herbalist 77 (20.1%) before they came to the hospital. The most common explanations given for the cause of the mental illness were spiritual possession 198 (51.6%) and evil eye 61 (15.9%), whereas 73 (19.0%) of the respondents said they did not know the cause of mental illnesses. Nearly all of the respondents 379 (98.7%) believed that mental illness can be cured with modern treatment. Individuals who presented with abdominal pain and headache were more likely to seek care earlier. Being in the age group 31-40 years had significant statistical association with delayed treatment seeking behavior.
There is significant delay in modern psychiatric treatment seeking in the majority of the cases. Traditional healers were the first place where help was sought for mental illness in this population. Most of the respondents claimed that mental illnesses were caused by supernatural factors. In contrast to their thoughts about the causes of mental illnesses however, most of the respondents believed that mental illnesses could be cured with biomedical treatment. Interventions targeted at improving public awareness about the causes and treatment of mental illness could reduce the delay in treatment seeking and improve treatment outcomes.
'mental illness'; 'treatment seeking'; 'pathways to care'; 'Ethiopia'
Little research has been done on the relationship between dental caries and the personal characteristics of institutionalized residents diagnosed with schizophrenia. This study investigates the individual and treatment factors associated with the dental caries among institutionalized residents with schizophrenia in Taiwan.
An oral health survey of institutionalized residents with schizophrenia in the largest public psychiatric hospital was conducted in Taiwan in 2006. Based on this data, multiple logistic analyses were used to determine the relationship between some explanatory variables and the outcome variables of dental caries among subjects with schizophrenia.
Among the 1,108 subjects with schizophrenia, age was the only variable independently associated with DMFT > 8 (OR = 7.74, 95% CI = 3.86-15.55, p < 0.001 in comparison to residents aged 65 + years vs. 20-44 years; OR = 3.06, 95% CI = 2.03-4.61, p < 0.001 in comparison to residents aged 55-64 years vs. 20-44 years) after making adjustments for other explanatory variables. In addition, those with an education of only elementary school (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.08-2.56, p = 0.021), low income (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02-2.44, p = 0.039), and length of stay (LOS) of > 10 years (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.30-3.37, p = 0.002) were associated with a care index < 54.7%. Older age, lower educational level, and longer hospital stays were associated with number of remaining teeth being < 24.
Aging was the most important factor related to a high level of dental caries. Low educational level, low income, and LOS were also associated with the indicators of dental caries among institutionalized subjects with schizophrenia. It is necessary to address the treatment factors such as prolonged stay in institutions when decision-makers are planning for preventive strategies of oral health for institutionalized residents with schizophrenia.
Although oral health care is a vital component of overall health, it remains one of the greatest unattended needs among the disabled. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status and oral health-related quality of life (Child-OIDP in 11-13-year-old) of the visually challenged school attendants in Khartoum State, the Sudan.
A school-based survey was conducted in Al-Nour institute [boys (66.3%), boarders (35.9%), and children with partial visual impairment (PVI) (44.6%)]. Two calibrated dentists examined the participants (n=79) using DMFT/dmft, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), dental care index, and traumatic dental injuries (TDI) index. Oral health related quality of life (C-OIDP) was administered to 82 schoolchildren.
Caries experience was 46.8%. Mean DMFT (age≥12, n=33) was 0.4 ± 0.7 (SiC 1.6), mean dmft (age<12, n=46) was 1.9 ±2.8 (SiC 3.4), mean OHIS 1.3 ± 0.9. Care Index was zero. One fifth of the children suffered TDI (19%). Almost one third (29%) of the 11–13 year old children reported an oral impact on their daily performances. A quarter of the schoolchildren (25.3%) required an urgent treatment need. Analysis showed that children with partial visual impairment (PVI) were 6.3 times (adjusted) more likely to be diagnosed with caries compared to children with complete visual impairment (CVI), and children with caries experience were 1.3 times (unadjusted) more likely to report an oral health related impact on quality of life.
Visually impaired schoolchildren are burdened with oral health problems, especially caries. Furthermore, the 11-13 year olds' burden with caries showed a significant impact on their quality of life.
Visually impaired children; Oral health; Oral health-related quality of life
Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation.
Materials and Methods:
We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0.
The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others.
Discussion and conclusion:
The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries.
Dental caries; India; tobacco; alcohol
Periodontal diseases are becoming ever growing problem, not only for stomatology, but also for medicine overall, as the final result from this disease is loss of the teeth. The main cause for the emergence of the periodontal disease is bacterial activity from dental plaque. CPI index / Community Periodontal Index is recommended from the World Health Organization for epidemiological research, and for its application, graded probe WHO for periodontal tissue, which on the top has a ball with radius of 0.5mm, is essential.
The purpose of the research:
The purpose of the research was to determine the status of periodontal tissue for the sixth, seventh and eighth-grade students, and to examine if continuous education about oral hygiene has a direct impact on the change on the value of CPI-index.
The examinees and methods:
The examinees and methods of research: during the research 300 schoolchildren (1994, 1995 and 1996 generations, (100 schoolchildren of each generation)) were examined, and these were split into three groups. In the first group, there was no education, in the second group at the beginning of the research a session was held on proper tooth - brushing and importance of oral hygiene and in the third group continuous sessions were held in the period of six months, as per pre-determined timetable (i.e. at the beginning, after seven days, after one month, after three months). The schoolchildren were examined and their CPI - index was determined at the beginning and the end of the research.
The result of the research has been shown in a tabular and graphic form. For the schoolchildren, where there was a continuous education about the importance of the oral hygiene, the values of CPI - index have significantly changed.
The status of periodontal tissue for the sixth-, seventh and eighth-grade schoolchildren is unacceptable, but the continuous education about the importance of the oral hygiene is giving very good results in the prevention of emergence of oral diseases.
prevention of periodontal disease; CPI - index; significance of continuous education.
The objective this study was to investigate the influence of clinical conditions, socioeconomic status, home environment, subjective perceptions of parents and schoolchildren about general and oral health on schoolchildren's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL).
A sample of 515 schoolchildren, aged 12 years was randomly selected by conglomerate analysis from public and private schools in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The schoolchildren were clinically examined for presence of caries lesions (DMFT and dmft index), dental trauma, enamel defects, periodontal status (presence/absence of bleeding), dental treatment and orthodontic treatment needs (DAI). The SiC index was calculated. The participants were asked to complete the Brazilian version of Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) and a questionnaire about home environment. Questions were asked about the presence of general diseases and children's self-perception of their general and oral health status. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to their parents inquiring about their socioeconomic status (family income, parents' education level, home ownership) and perceptions about the general and oral health of their school-aged children. The chi-square test was used for comparisons between proportions. Poisson's regression was used for multivariate analysis with adjustment for variances.
Univariate analysis revealed that school type, monthly family income, mother's education, family structure, number of siblings, use of cigarettes, alcohol and drugs in the family, parents' perception of oral health of schoolchildren, schoolchildren's self perception their general and oral health, orthodontic treatment needs were significantly associated with poor OHRQoL (p < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, variables were included in a Multivariate Poisson regression. It was found that the variables children's self perception of their oral health status, monthly family income, gender, orthodontic treatment need, mother's education, number of siblings, and household overcrowding showed a strong negative effect on oral health-related quality of life.
It was concluded that the clinical, socioeconomic and home environment factors evaluated exerted a negative impact on the oral health-related quality of life of schoolchildren, demonstrating the importance of health managers addressing all these factors when planning oral health promotion interventions for this population.
Clinical relevance of dental caries is often underestimated in patients with schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to examine dental caries and to identify clinical and demographic variables associated with poor dental condition in patients with schizophrenia.
Inpatients with schizophrenia received a visual oral examination of their dental caries, using the decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) index. This study was conducted in multiple sites in Japan, between October and December, 2010. A univariate general linear model was used to examine the effects of the following variables on the DMFT score: age, sex, smoking status, daily intake of sweets, dry mouth, frequency of daily tooth brushing, tremor, the Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia Overall severity score, and the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics score.
523 patients were included in this study (mean ± SD age = 55.6 ± 13.4 years; 297 men). A univariate general linear model showed significant effects of age group, smoking, frequency of daily tooth brushing, and tremor (all p’s < 0.001) on the DMFT score (Corrected Model: F(23, 483) = 3.55, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.42) . In other words, older age, smoking, tremor burden, and less frequent tooth brushing were associated with a greater DMFT score.
Given that poor dental condition has been related with an increased risk of physical co-morbidities, physicians should be aware of patients’ dental status, especially for aged smoking patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, for schizophrenia patients who do not regularly brush their teeth or who exhibit tremor, it may be advisable for caregivers to encourage and help them to perform tooth brushing more frequently.
Aging; Dental caries; Schizophrenia; Smoking; Tooth brushing; Tremor
The objective of the study was to evaluate the periodontal health status among cigarette smokers and non cigarette smokers, and oral hygiene measures.
Settings and Design:
Cross sectional study.
Materials and Methods:
The study included 400 male (200 cigarette smokers and 200 non smokers) aged 18-65 years. The subjects were randomly selected from the patients attending dental out-patient department of civil hospital and Himachal Dental College, Sundernagar. Community Periodontal Index (CPI) score was recorded for each patient and a questionnaire was completed by each patient.
Statistical Analysis Used:
Chi square and t-test.
Periodontal condition as assessed by CPI score showed that there was statistically significant difference in the findings between cigarette smokers and non-smokers.
Within the limits of this study, positive association was observed between periodontal disease and cigarette smoking. It was found that cigarette smoking was associated with lesser gingival bleeding and deeper pockets as compared to non-smokers.
Community periodontal index; periodontal disease; smoking
Dental caries is a common disease in children which causes pain with resultant effect on various physiological and social functions. The main objective of the study was to determine the association between dental caries and oral health knowledge and practice among children in Nairobi West and Mathira West Districts.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 639 children aged 12 years attending public primary schools in Nairobi West and Mathira West districts between August 2009-February 2010. A questionnaire was used to determine the level of knowledge and practices employed. Oral screening was performed using World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended methods. Dental caries was measured using the Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index.
Nairobi West District had significantly higher caries prevalence of 37.5% than Mathira West District (24.0%). The DMFT in Nairobi West District was 0.76±1.2, while in Mathira West District it was 0.36±0.7. On multivariate analysis high consumption of soda was found to be a significant risk factor for dental caries in Nairobi West District(Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.0). In Mathira West District having an illiterate mother was a significant risk factor for dental caries (OR = 4.3).
Countrywide intensive oral health promotion should be carried out especially in urban areas, to reduce the higher prevalence of dental caries. The school health policy should be used to promote oral health by provision of oral health instructions and highlighting harmful dietary practices. Preventive practices such as regular dental checkups should be advocated and promoted in schools.
Dental caries; children; knowledge; healthpractice; attitude; Kenya
The aim was to study oral health status, salivary function, and oral features of Chinese people with Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). Chinese people with SSc attending a university specialist clinic were invited for a questionnaire survey and a clinical examination. Ethics approval was sought (UW 08-305). Gender- and age-matched individuals without SSc who attended a university dental hospital were recruited for comparison. Forty-two SSc patients with a mean age of 54.0 ± 12.2 were examined. This study found no Chinese people with systemic sclerosis were periodontally healthy and many (76%) had periodontal pockets despite most of them (93%) practiced daily tooth-brushing. They all had caries experience (DMFT = 10.5) and many (65%) had untreated decay. Mucosal telangiectasia was a common oral feature (80%). They had lower resting salivary flow rates (0.18 ± 0.17 ml/min vs. 0.31 ± 0.21 ml/min; p = 0.003) and pH values (6.90 ± 0.40 vs. 7.28 ± 0.31; p < 0.001) and reduced maximal mouth opening (40.1 ± 6.5 mm vs. 43.6 ± 7.0 mm) than people without SSc.
Scleroderma; Systemic Sclerosis; Caries; Periodontal status; Chinese
Few studies have investigated the prevalence of dental caries among school children in the past decades in Sudan rendering it difficult to understand the status and pattern of oral health.
A school-based survey was conducted using stratified random cluster sampling in Khartoum state, Sudan. Data was collected through interviews and clinical examination by a single examiner. DMFT was measured according to WHO criteria. Gingival index (GI) of Loe & Silness and Plaque index (PI) of Silness & Loe were used.
The mean DMFT for 12-year-olds was found to be 0.42 with a significant caries index (SiC) of 1.4. Private school attendees had significantly higher DMFT (0.57) when compared to public school attendees (0.4). The untreated caries prevalence was 30.5%. In multivariate analysis caries experience (DMFT > 0) was found to be significantly and directly associated with socioeconomic status. The mean GI for the six index teeth was found to be 1.05 (CI 1.03 – 1.07) and the mean PI was 1.30 (CI 1.22 – 1.38).
The prevalence of caries was found to be low. The school children with the higher socioeconomic status formed the high risk group.
Objectives. The aim of the present pathfinder study was to screen and map the periodontal status of Georgian population in accordance with the guidelines of the World Health Organization for population based surveys.
Methods. During 2012, a pathfinder study was conducted to collect this data. For the periodontal portion of the study, 15-year-old school children were examined in the capital city of Tbilisi as well as in two other large cities and 4 smaller villages. All participants were examined by a trained dental team in a classroom using a dental mirror and a periodontal probe. Periodontal examination included plaque scores, calculus scores, probing depth measurements and bleeding on probing. These measurements were recorded for the Ramfjord index teeth.
Results. A total of 397 15-year-old participants were examined in this pathfinder study. There were 240 females (60.45%) and 157 males (39.55%). Of the total participants 196 (49.37%) were urban adolescents while 201 (50.63%) were from rural communities. Mean probing depth was 3.34 ± 0.57 mm with a range of 1 to 10 mm; a relatively high proportion (34.26%) of these subjects presented with at least one site with pockets of 5 mm or deeper. Males presented with greater plaque, calculus and probing depths than females. When urban and rural populations were compared, urban participants presented with more plaque, probing depths and bleeding on probing. Greater pocket depths were found to be related to the presence of plaque calculus and bleeding on probing.
Conclusions. Overall, rather high incidences of periodontal pockets ≥ 5 mm were detected in this population. This data should serve to prepare further more detailed epidemiological studies that will serve to plan and implement prevent and treat strategies for periodontal diseases in Georgia and also help make manpower decisions.
Periodontal disease; Epidemiology; Periodontitis
Health education for the school age child is a specialized field within the broad discipline of education. Oral health education program are educational aspects of any curative, preventive and promotional health activity.
The study has been undertaken to evaluate the impact of oral health education on the status of plaque, gingival health and dental caries among 12 and 15 years old children attending government school in Shimla city.
Materials and Methods:
Two hundred and seventy six school children participated in the study. The study was conducted over a period of 4 months from May 2010 to August 2010 in Government Senior Secondary School, Sanjauli. Plaque, gingival and caries status was assessed by using Silness and Loe plaque index, Loe and Silness gingival index and WHO modified DMFT index, respectively. Data was analyzed using the software SPSS version 15. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank sum test were used appropriately for statistical comparisons. P value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Overall mean plaque score and gingival score decreased significantly after oral health education irrespective of gender. However, decrease in plaque score among 15 years old female children and gingival scores among 12 and 15 years old female subjects was not significant. Difference in mean caries status was statistically insignificant among all the subjects.
Short term oral health education program may be useful in improving oral hygiene and gingival health. Coordinating efforts should be enhanced between school personnel, parents and health professionals to ensure long-term benefits of such program.
Dental caries; gingival status; oral health education; plaque; school children
To assess the periodontal status among the patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to investigate whether periodontitis is a risk factor for AMI or not.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional study of 60 subjects, 30 subjects in each AMI group and control group was conducted. Details of risk factors like age, sex, smoking, and alcohol consumption were obtained through a personal interview. Medical history was retrieved from the medical file. The oral hygiene status was assessed by using a simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) and the periodontal status was assessed by community periodontal index (CPI) and loss of attachment (LOA) as per World Health Organization (WHO) methodology 1997. Chi-square test was used to analyze qualitative data whereas t-test and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used for quantitative data. Multiple regression model was applied to check the risk factors for AMI.
The mean OHI-S score for case and control group was 3.98 ± 0.70 and 3.11 ± 0.68, respectively, which was statistically highly significant ( P < 0.001). There was high severity of periodontitis (for both in terms of CPI and LOA) in the case group as compared with control group, that was found to be statistically highly significant ( P < 0.001). There was a significant result for OHI-S and LOA score with odds ratio of 0.13 and 0.79, respectively, when the multiple logistic regression model was applied.
The results of the present study show evidence that those patients who have experienced myocardial infarction exhibit poor periodontal conditions in comparison to healthy subjects and suggest an association between chronic oral infections and myocardial infarction.
Acute myocardial infarction; oral hygiene; periodontal disease; risk factors
Only a few case reports and case series dealing with oral and dental health care are available in literature until now. The aim of the present pilot study was to determine the status of dental health in comparison to matched controls and to heighten the neurologists’ and dentists’ awareness of the oral aspects of the disease.
42 Huntington’s disease (HD) participants were scored according to the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale. The dental status was assessed by using the well established score for decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) and the dental plaque score (Silness-Loe plaque index).
Compared to controls HD participants showed significantly more decayed teeth and more plaques in both plaque indices. A higher motor impairment and a lower functional status of the patients lead to a worsening in dental status.
Possible reasons for our findings are discussed. Apart from local oral complications general complications may also occur. Thus, as a consequence, we would encourage patients, caregivers, neurologists, and the dentists to ensure regular preventive dental examinations and dental treatments of individuals with Huntington’s disease even in the premanifest stage of this disease.