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1.  Rapid Detection of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia by a Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC Capsular Polysaccharide-Specific Antigen Detection Latex Agglutination Test 
A latex agglutination test (LAT) has been developed for the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). The latex microspheres were coated with MmmSC polyclonal immunoglobulin G antiserum and detected MmmSC antigen in the serum of cattle infected with CBPP and in growth medium containing MmmSC. The specific antigen recognizsed by this test appeared to be the capsular polysaccharide (CPS). The LAT recognized all 23 strains of MmmSC examined in this study, with a sensitivity level of 2 ng of CPS, or the equivalent of 5 × 103 CFU, in a reaction volume of 0.03 ml. Therefore, rapid identification of MmmSC cultures should be possible. Agglutination was also observed with the related goat pathogens and “Mycoplasma mycoides” cluster members Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony biotype (four of six strains positive) and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (three of six strains positive), in agreement with the suggestion that these latter two mycoplasmas may in fact represent a single species (although collectively exhibiting two capsular serotypes). Comparisons in diagnosis with the complement fixation test (CFT) were made by using African field sera from CBPP-infected cattle. After 2 (or 3) min of incubation, the test detected 55% (or 61%) of CFT-positive sera and 29% (or 40%) of CFT-negative sera, with an overall correlation in diagnosis of 62% (or 61%). The rates for false-positive diagnoses made by using “known” CBPP-negative sera from the United Kingdom were 3 or 13% after 2 or 3 min of incubation, respectively. The data agree with previous findings that some CBPP CFT-negative misdiagnoses may occur due to “antibody eclipsing” by excess circulating antigen. The LAT combines low cost and high specificity with ease of application in the field, without the need for any specialist training or equipment.
doi:10.1128/CDLI.10.2.233-240.2003
PMCID: PMC150542  PMID: 12626448
2.  Characterization of Strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony Type Isolated from Recent Outbreaks of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia in Botswana and Tanzania: Evidence for a New Biotype 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2000;38(4):1419-1425.
Four strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (MmmSC) isolated from recent outbreaks of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Africa have been investigated. One Botswanan strain, M375, displayed numerous and significant phenotypic differences from both contemporary field isolates and older field and vaccine strains (African, Australian, and European strains dating back to 1936). Differences include altered morphology, reduced capsular polysaccharide production, high sensitivity to MmmSC rabbit hyperimmune antisera in vitro, and unique polymorphisms following immunoblotting. While insertion sequence analysis using IS1634 clearly indicates a close evolutionary relationship to west African strains, hybridization with IS1296 shows the absence of a band present in all other strains of MmmSC examined. The data suggest that a deletion has occurred in strain M375, which may explain its altered phenotype, including poor growth in vitro and a relative inability to cause septicemia in mice. These characteristics are also exhibited by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia [CCPP]), against which M375 antiserum exhibited some activity in vitro (unique among the various MmmSC antisera tested). These findings may have evolutionary implications, since CCPP is believed to be lung specific and without a septicemic phase (unlike CBPP). Since M375 was isolated from a clinical case of CBPP, this novel biotype may be fairly widespread but not normally isolated due to difficulty of culture and/or a potentially altered disease syndrome. Bovine convalescent antisera (obtained from contemporary naturally infected cattle in Botswana) were active against strain M375 in an in vitro growth inhibition test but not against any other strains of MmmSC tested. There exists the possibility therefore, that strain M375 may possess a set of protective antigens different from those of other strains of MmmSC (including vaccine strains). These findings have implications for the control of the current CBPP epidemic in Africa.
PMCID: PMC86456  PMID: 10747118
3.  Identification of genes coding for B cell antigens of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC) by using phage display 
BMC Microbiology  2009;9:215.
Background
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a mycoplasmal disease caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC (MmmSC). Since the disease is a serious problem that can affect cattle production in parts of Africa, there is a need for an effective and economical vaccine. Identifying which of the causative agent's proteins trigger potentially protective immune responses is an important step towards developing a subunit vaccine. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine whether phage display combined with bioinformatics could be used to narrow the search for genes that code for potentially immunogenic proteins of MmmSC. Since the production of IgG2 and IgA are associated with a Th1 cellular immune response which is implicated in protection against CBPP, antigens which elicit these immunoglobulin subclasses may be useful in developing a subunit vaccine.
Results
A filamentous phage library displaying a repertoire of peptides expressed by fragments of the genome of MmmSC was constructed. It was subjected to selection using antibodies from naturally- and experimentally-infected cattle. Mycoplasmal genes were identified by matching the nucleotide sequences of DNA from immunoselected phage particles with the mycoplasmal genome. This allowed a catalogue of genes coding for the proteins that elicited an immune response to be compiled. Using this method together with computer algorithms designed to score parameters that influence surface accessibility and hence potential antigenicity, five genes (abc, gapN, glpO, lppB and ptsG) were chosen to be expressed in Escherichia coli. After appropriate site-directed mutagenesis, polypeptides representing portions of each of these proteins were tested for immunoreactivity. Of these five, polypeptides representing expression products of abc and lppB were recognised on immunoblots by sera obtained from cattle during a natural outbreak of the disease.
Conclusion
Since phage display physically couples phenotype with genotype, it was used to compile a list of sequences that code for MmmSC proteins bearing epitopes which were recognised by antibodies in the serum of infected animals. Together with the appropriate bioinformatic analyses, this approach provided several potentially useful vaccine or diagnostic leads. The phage display step empirically identified sequences by their interaction with antibodies which accordingly reduced the number of ORFs that had to be expressed for testing. This is a particular advantage when working with MmmSC since the mycoplasmal codon for tryptophan needs to be mutated to prevent it from being translated as a stop in E. coli.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-9-215
PMCID: PMC2767359  PMID: 19818124
4.  Assessment of a novel multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of the CBPP agent Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC through experimental infection in cattle 
Background
Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC is the pathogenic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), the most important disease of cattle in Africa causing significant economic losses. The re-emergence of CBPP in Europe in the 1980s and 1990s illustrates that it is still a threat also to countries that have successfully eradicated the disease in the past. Nowadays, probe-based real-time PCR techniques are among the most advanced tools for a reliable identification and a sensitive detection of many pathogens, but only few protocols have been published so far for CBPP diagnosis. Therefore we developed a novel TaqMan®-based real-time PCR assay comprising the amplification of two independent targets (MSC_0136 and MSC_1046) and an internal exogenous amplification control in a multiplex reaction and evaluated its diagnostic performance with clinical samples.
Results
The assays detected 49 MmmSC strains from diverse temporal and geographical origin, but did not amplify DNA from 82 isolates of 20 non-target species confirming a specificity of 100%. The detection limit was determined to be 10 fg DNA per reaction for the MSC_0136 assay and 100 fg per reaction for the MSC_1046 assay corresponding to 8 and 80 genome equivalents, respectively. The diagnostic performance of the assay was evaluated with clinical samples from 19 experimentally infected cattle and from 20 cattle without CBPP and compared to those of cultivation and a conventional PCR protocol. The two rt-PCR tests proved to be the most sensitive methods and identified all 19 infected animals. The different sample types used were not equally suitable for MmmSC detection. While 94.7% of lung samples from the infected cohort were positively tested in the MSC_0136 assay, only 81% of pulmonal lymph nodes, 31% of mediastinal lymph nodes and 25% of pleural fluid samples gave a positive result.
Conclusions
The developed multiplex rt-PCR assay is recommended as an efficient tool for rapid confirmation of a presumptive CBPP diagnosis in a well-equipped laboratory environment.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-7-47
PMCID: PMC3170577  PMID: 21838878
5.  Evolutionary History of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia Using Next Generation Sequencing of Mycoplasma mycoides Subsp. mycoides “Small Colony” 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e46821.
Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides “Small Colony” (MmmSC) is responsible for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in bovidae, a notifiable disease to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Although its origin is not documented, the disease was known in Europe in 1773. It reached nearly world-wide distribution in the 19th century through the cattle trade and was eradicated from most continents by stamping-out policies. During the 20th century it persisted in Africa, and it reappeared sporadically in Southern Europe. Yet, classical epidemiology studies failed to explain the re-occurrence of the disease in Europe in the 1990s. The objectives of this study were to obtain a precise phylogeny of this pathogen, reconstruct its evolutionary history, estimate the date of its emergence, and determine the origin of the most recent European outbreaks. A large-scale genomic approach based on next-generation sequencing technologies was applied to construct a robust phylogeny of this extremely monomorphic pathogen by using 20 representative strains of various geographical origins. Sixty two polymorphic genes of the MmmSC core genome were selected, representing 83601 bp in total and resulting in 139 SNPs within the 20 strains. A robust phylogeny was obtained that identified a lineage specific to European strains; African strains were scattered in various branches. Bayesian analysis allowed dating the most recent common ancestor for MmmSC around 1700. The strains circulating in Sub-Saharan Africa today, however, were shown to descend from a strain that existed around 1810. MmmSC emerged recently, about 300 years ago, and was most probably exported from Europe to other continents, including Africa, during the 19th century. Its diversity is now greater in Africa, where CBPP is enzootic, than in Europe, where outbreaks occurred sporadically until 1999 and where CBPP may now be considered eradicated unless MmmSC remains undetected.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046821
PMCID: PMC3468273  PMID: 23071648
6.  Identification of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony Genes Coding for T-Cell Antigens ▿  
Genes of the Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony biotype (MmmSC) coding for proteins capable of eliciting protective T-cell memory responses have potential for incorporation into a recombinant subunit vaccine against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). Here we used lymphocytes from cattle that had completely recovered from infection to screen products of MmmSC genes for recognition by CD4+ effector memory (Tem) and central memory (Tcm) T lymphocytes. Six MmmSC genes (abc, gapN, glpO, lppA, lppB, and ptsG) were expressed as histidine-tagged recombinant polypeptides, or synthetic overlapping peptides, before inclusion in proliferation and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) assays. Only two MmmSC antigens, LppA and PtsG, consistently induced recall proliferation from immune CD4+ T cells and IFN-γ production in all animals tested. Moreover, LppA and PtsG were shown to possess epitopes recognized by both short-lived CD4+ Tem and long-lived CD4+ Tcm cells.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00132-10
PMCID: PMC2916241  PMID: 20534794
7.  Differentiation of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides from certain closely related caprine mycoplasmas by mycoplasmaemia and cross-protection tests in mice. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1979;82(3):407-418.
In recent years, mycoplasma taxonomists have found that numerous mycoplasma strains from goats are serologically indistinguishable from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), by routinely used tests, e.g. the metabolism- and growth-inhibition tests. As a result, such organisms are now openly referred to as M. mycoides subsp. mycoides. Seven of these so-called M. mycoides subsp. mycoides strains from goats were compared with two strains of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides from CBPP, and with one strain of M. mycoides subsp. capri, by means of two in-vivo tests, namely, (1) a test of the ability of each strain, injected intraperitoneally into mice, to produce mycoplasmaemia, and (2) a cross-protection test in mice. Of the seven strains, only one ('O goat') was indistinguishable from genuine M. mycoides subsp. mycoides; it also had small colonies resembling those of genuine M. mycoides subsp. mycoides. The other six were easily distinguished from genuine M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, and they produced large colonies. These six strains and others like them should no longer be given a name that fails to distinguish them from the causative agent of CBPP. Cross-protection tests showed that the seven goat strains referred to above differed from M. mycoides subsp. capri.
PMCID: PMC2130076  PMID: 376695
8.  Isothermal loop-mediated amplification (lamp) for diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuro-pneumonia 
Background
Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is the most important chronic pulmonary disease of cattle on the African continent causing severe economic losses. The disease, caused by infection with Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is transmitted by animal contact and develops slowly into a chronic form preventing an early clinical diagnosis. Because available vaccines confer a low protection rate and short-lived immunity, the rapid diagnosis of infected animals combined with traditional curbing measures is seen as the best way to control the disease. While traditional labour-intensive bacteriological methods for the detection of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides have been replaced by molecular genetic techniques in the last two decades, these latter approaches require well-equipped laboratories and specialized personnel for the diagnosis. This is a handicap in areas where CBPP is endemic and early diagnosis is essential.
Results
We present a rapid, sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for M. mycoides subsp. mycoides detection based on isothermal loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) that is applicable to field conditions. The primer set developed is highly specific and sensitive enough to diagnose clinical cases without prior cultivation of the organism. The LAMP assay detects M. mycoides subsp. mycoides DNA directly from crude samples of pulmonary/pleural fluids and serum/plasma within an hour using a simple dilution protocol. A photometric detection of LAMP products allows the real-time visualisation of the amplification curve and the application of a melting curve/re-association analysis presents a means of quality assurance based on the predetermined strand-inherent temperature profile supporting the diagnosis.
Conclusion
The CBPP LAMP developed in a robust kit format can be run on a battery-driven mobile device to rapidly detect M. mycoides subsp. mycoides infections from clinical or post mortem samples. The stringent innate quality control allows a conclusive on-site diagnosis of CBPP such as during farm or slaughter house inspections.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-108
PMCID: PMC3671963  PMID: 23710975
CBPP Mycoplasma mycoides; Isothermal; Loop-mediated amplification LAMP; Molecular diagnostic; Field test
9.  A minor role of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the control of a primary infection of cattle with Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides 
Veterinary Research  2011;42(1):77.
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, is an important livestock disease in Africa. The current control measures rely on a vaccine with limited efficacy and occasional severe side effects. Knowledge of the protective arms of immunity involved in this disease will be beneficial for the development of an improved vaccine. In previous studies on cattle infected with M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, a correlation was detected between the levels of mycoplasma-specific IFN-γ-secreting CD4+ T lymphocytes and reduced clinical signs. However, no cause and effect has been established, and the role of such cells and of protective responses acquired during a primary infection is not known.
We investigated the role of CD4+ T lymphocytes in CBPP by comparing disease patterns and post mortem findings between CD4+ T cell depleted and non-depleted cattle. The depletion was carried out using several injections of BoCD4 specific murine monoclonal antibody on day 6 after experimental endotracheal infection with the strain Afadé. All cattle were monitored clinically daily and sacrificed 28-30 days post-infection. Statistically significant but small differences were observed in the mortality rate between the depleted and non-depleted animals. However, no differences in clinical parameters (fever, signs of respiratory distress) and pathological lesions were observed, despite elimination of CD4+ T cells for more than a week. The slightly higher mortality in the depleted group suggests a minor role of CD4+ T cells in control of CBPP.
doi:10.1186/1297-9716-42-77
PMCID: PMC3148206  PMID: 21663697
10.  Detection of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of cows based on a TaqMan real-time PCR discriminating wild type strains from an lppQ− mutant vaccine strain used for DIVA-strategies 
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is the most serious cattle disease in Africa, caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type (SC). CBPP control strategies currently rely on vaccination with a vaccine based on live attenuated strains of the organism. Recently, an lppQ− mutant of the existing vaccine strain T1/44 has been developed (Janis et al., 2008). This T1lppQ− mutant strain is devoid of lipoprotein LppQ, a potential virulence attribute of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. It is designated as a potential live DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) vaccine strain allowing both serological and etiological differentiation. The present paper reports on the validation of a control strategy for CBPP in cattle, whereby a TaqMan real-time PCR based on the lppQ gene has been developed for the direct detection of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC in ex vivo bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of cows and for the discrimination of wild type strains from the lppQ− mutant vaccine strain.
doi:10.1016/j.mimet.2010.03.025
PMCID: PMC2877883  PMID: 20381545
Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC; TaqMan real-time PCR; Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids; lppQ− mutant vaccine strain; DIVA
11.  Multiplex Screening of Surface Proteins from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony for an Antigen Cocktail Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay▿ †  
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI  2009;16(11):1665-1674.
A recombinant antigen cocktail enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) was developed after careful selection of antigens among one-third of the surface proteome proteins of the infectious agent Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (M. mycoides SC). First, a miniaturized and parallelized assay system employing antigen suspension bead array technology was used to screen 97 bovine sera for humoral immune responses toward 61 recombinant surface proteins from M. mycoides SC. Statistical analysis of the data resulted in selection of eight proteins that showed strong serologic responses in CBPP-affected sera and minimal reactivity in negative control sera, with P values of <10−6. Only minor cross-reactivity to hyperimmune sera against other mycoplasmas was observed. When applied in an ELISA, the cocktail of eight recombinant antigens allowed a fivefold signal separation between 24 CBPP-affected and 23 CBPP-free sera from different geographical origins. No false-positive results and only two false-negative results were obtained. In conclusion, the selected recombinant mycoplasma antigens qualified as highly specific markers for CBPP and could be employed in both a suspension bead array platform and a cocktail ELISA setting. This set of proteins and technologies therefore offers a powerful combination to drive and further improve serological assays toward reliable, simple, and cost-effective diagnosis of CBPP.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00223-09
PMCID: PMC2772386  PMID: 19726613
12.  Pharmacodynamics of Antimicrobials against Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides Small Colony, the Causative Agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e44158.
Background
Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC) is the causative agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a disease of substantial economic importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Failure of vaccination to curtail spread of this disease has led to calls for evaluation of the role of antimicrobials in CBPP control. Three major classes of antimicrobial are effective against mycoplasmas, namely tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and macrolides. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effector kinetics of oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin against two MmmSC field strains in artificial medium and adult bovine serum.
Methods
Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin against MmmSC strains B237 and Tan8 using a macrodilution technique, and time-kill curves were constructed for various multiples of the MIC over a 24 hour period in artificial medium and serum. Data were fitted to sigmoid Emax models to obtain 24 hour-area under curve/MIC ratios for mycoplasmastasis and, where appropriate, for mycoplasmacidal activity and virtual mycoplasmal elimination.
Results
Minimum inhibitory concentrations against B237 were 20-fold higher, 2-fold higher and approximately 330-fold lower in serum than in artificial medium for oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin, respectively. Such differences were mirrored in experiments using Tan8. Oxytetracycline was mycoplasmastatic against both strains in both matrices. Danofloxacin elicited mycoplasmacidal activity against B237 and virtual elimination of Tan8; similar maximum antimycoplasmal effects were observed in artificial medium and serum. Tulathromycin effected virtual elimination of B237 but was mycoplasmastatic against Tan8 in artificial medium. However, this drug was mycoplasmastatic against both strains in the more physiologically relevant matrix of serum.
Conclusions
Oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin are all suitable candidates for further investigation as potential treatments for CBPP. This study also highlights the importance of testing drug activity in biological matrices as well as artificial media.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044158
PMCID: PMC3428318  PMID: 22952911
13.  Domain analysis of lipoprotein LppQ in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC 
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek  2007;93(1-2):175-183.
The lipoprotein LppQ is the most prominent antigen of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (SC) during infection of cattle. This pathogen causes contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a devastating disease of considerable socio-economic importance in many countries worldwide. The dominant antigenicity and high specificity for M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC of lipoprotein LppQ have been exploited for serological diagnosis and for epidemiological investigations of CBPP. Scanning electron microscopy and immunogold labelling were used to provide ultrastructural evidence that LppQ is located to the cell membrane at the outer surface of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. The selectivity and specificity of this method were demonstrated through discriminating localization of extracellular (i.e., in the zone of contact with host cells) vs. integral membrane domains of LppQ. Thus, our findings support the suggestion that the accessible N-terminal domain of LppQ is surface exposed and such surface localization may be implicated in the pathogenesis of CBPP.
doi:10.1007/s10482-007-9191-1
PMCID: PMC2140093  PMID: 17674137
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP); Immunogold labeling; Lipoprotein LppQ; Domain analysis; Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC; Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
14.  Further studies on caprine and ovine mycoplasmas related to Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides 
The Journal of Hygiene  1980;85(2):247-256.
Nine caprine and ovine mycoplasma strains, said to be indistinguishable serologically from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (the causative organism of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia; CBPP) were examined in mice by (1) a mycoplasmaemia test, and (2) a cross-protection test. Of the nine strains, two from goats belonged to a small colony (SC) type; four caprine and three ovine strains belonged to a large colony (LC) type.
The two SC strains — like a single SC strain examined in an earlier study — were indistinguishable from genuine M. mycoides subsp. mycoides as isolated from CBPP. They produced mycoplasmaemia readily. In a cross-protection test, the two SC strains and a CBPP strain immunized completely against each other.
Of the seven LC strains, six — like six LC strains examined in an earlier study — were easily distinguished from genuine M. mycoides subsp. mycoides; except for one that was not tested, all were shown to lack the ability to produce mycoplasmaemia readily. In cross-protection tests all six strains immunized partially but not completely against a CBPP strain.
The seventh LC strain (Mankefår 2833) was exceptional: it produced mycoplasmaemia readily, resembling the SC strains in this respect. Like other LC strains, in cross-protection tests it protected only partially against a CBPP strain. Strain Mankefår 2833 was isolated in ca. 1965 by Brack from a Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) in a German zoo.
The ability of Mankefår 2833 to produce mycoplasmaemia enabled it to be used as a challenge strain in cross-protection tests. For the purpose of such tests the collection of nine mycoplasma strains referred to above was augmented with six LC strains from an earlier study. Partial but not complete protection against Mankefår 2833 was produced by two caprine SC strains, one CBPP strain, and nine LC strains. Three further LC strains gave protection that may have been as strong as that produced by the homologous strain, but confirmatory experiments are needed. A strain of M. mycoides subsp. capri gave no protection against Mankefår 2833.
PMCID: PMC2133930  PMID: 7005327
15.  An international collaborative study to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by monoclonal antibody-based cELISA 
Background
Few serological tests are available for detecting antibodies against Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). The complement fixation test, the test prescribed for international trade purposes, uses a crude antigen that cross-reacts with all the other mycoplasma species of the “mycoides cluster” frequently infecting goat herds. The lack of a more specific test has been a real obstacle to the evaluation of the prevalence and economic impact of CCPP worldwide. A new competitive ELISA kit for CCPP, based on a previous blocking ELISA, was formatted at CIRAD and used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in some regions of Kenya, Ethiopia, Mauritius, Tajikistan and Pakistan in an international collaborative study.
Results
The strict specificity of the test was confirmed in CCPP-free goat herds exposed to other mycoplasma species of the “mycoides cluster”. Prevalence studies were performed across the enzootic range of the disease in Africa and Asia. Seroprevalence was estimated at 14.6% in the Afar region of Ethiopia, whereas all the herds presented for CCPP vaccination in Kenya tested positive (individual seroprevalence varied from 6 to 90% within each herd). In Mauritius, where CCPP emerged in 2009, nine of 62 herds tested positive. In Central Asia, where the disease was confirmed only recently, no positive animals were detected in the Wakhan District of Afghanistan or across the border in neighboring areas of Tajikistan, whereas seroprevalence varied between 2.7% and 44.2% in the other districts investigated and in northern Pakistan. The test was also used to monitor seroconversion in vaccinated animals.
Conclusions
This newly formatted CCPP cELISA kit has retained the high specificity of the original kit. It can therefore be used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in countries or regions without vaccination programs. It could also be used to monitor the efficacy of vaccination campaigns as high-quality vaccines induce high rates of seroconversion.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-10-48
PMCID: PMC3938968  PMID: 24565080
Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia; Competitive ELISA; Seroprevalence; Kenya; Ethiopia; Mauritius; Tajikistan; Afghanistan; Pakistan; Vaccine quality control
16.  Cyto-adherence of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides to bovine lung epithelial cells 
Background
Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a respiratory disease of cattle, whereas the closely related Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) is a goat pathogen. Cyto-adherence is a crucial step in host colonization by mycoplasmas and subsequent pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between Mmm and mammalian host cells by establishing a cyto-adherence flow cytometric assay and comparing tissue and species specificity of Mmm and Mmc strains.
Results
There were little significant differences in the adherence patterns of eight different Mmm strains to adult bovine lung epithelial cells. However, there was statistically significant variation in binding to different host cells types. Highest binding was observed with lung epithelial cells, intermediate binding with endothelial cells and very low binding with fibroblasts, suggesting the presence of effective adherence of Mmm on cells lining the airways of the lung, which is the target organ for this pathogen, possibly by high expression of a specific receptor. However, binding to bovine fetal lung epithelial cells was comparably low; suggesting that the lack of severe pulmonary disease seen in many infected young calves can be explained by reduced expression of a specific receptor.
Conclusions
Mmm bound with high efficiency to adult bovine lung cells and less efficiently to calves or goat lung cells. The data show that cyto-adherence of Mmm is species- and tissue- specific confirming its role in colonization of the target host and subsequent infection and development of CBPP.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12917-015-0347-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12917-015-0347-3
PMCID: PMC4336739
Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides; Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia; Cyto-adherence; Epithelial cells
17.  Plasma levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 during a course of experimental contagious bovine pleuropneumonia 
Background
Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP), caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. The current live vaccine T1/44 has limited efficacy and occasionally leads to severe side effects in the animals. A better understanding of the immune responses triggered by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and their role in disease progression will help to facilitate the design of a rational vaccine. Currently, knowledge of cytokines involved in immunity and immunopathology in CBPP is rather limited. The aim of this study was to characterize the in vivo plasma concentrations of the cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and the overall role of CD4+ T cells in the development of cytokine levels during a primary infection. Plasma cytokine concentrations in two groups of cattle (CD4+ T cell-depleted and non-depleted cattle) experimentally infected with Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides were measured and their relationship to the clinical outcomes was investigated.
Results
Plasma cytokine concentrations varied between animals in each group. Depletion of CD4+ T cells did not induce significant changes in plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-10, suggesting a minor role of CD4+ T cells in regulation or production of the three cytokines during the time window of depletion (1-2 weeks post depletion). Unexpectedly, the IFN-γ concentrations were slightly, but statistically significantly higher in the depleted group (p < 0.05) between week three and four post infection. Three CD4+ T cell-depleted animals that experienced severe disease, had high levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ. Only one severely diseased non-depleted animal showed a high serum concentration of IL-4 post infection.
Conclusions
Comparison of most severely diseased animals, which had to be euthanized prior to the expected date, versus less severe diseased animals, irrespective of the depletion status, suggested that high TNF-α levels are correlated with more severe pathology in concomitance with high IFN-γ levels.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-44
PMCID: PMC3378467  PMID: 22533922
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia; Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides; Cytokines; TNF-α; IFN-γ; IL-4; IL-10
18.  Protein-Specific Analysis of Humoral Immune Responses in a Clinical Trial for Vaccines against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia▿ †  
Specific humoral immune responses in a clinical trial on cattle for vaccines against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) were investigated. The trial included a subunit vaccine consisting of five recombinant putative variable surface proteins of the infectious agent Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (M. mycoides SC) compared to the currently approved attenuated vaccine strain T1/44 and untreated controls. Humoral immune responses to 65 individual recombinant surface proteins of M. mycoides SC were monitored by a recently developed bead-based array assay. Responses to the subunit vaccine components were found to be weak. Animals vaccinated with this vaccine were not protected and had CBPP lesions similar to those of the untreated controls. In correlating protein-specific humoral responses to T1/44-induced immunity, five proteins associated with a protective immune response were identified by statistical evaluation, namely, MSC_1046 (LppQ), MSC_0271, MSC_0136, MSC_0079, and MSC_0431. These five proteins may be important candidates in the development of a novel subunit vaccine against CBPP.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00019-10
PMCID: PMC2863394  PMID: 20357055
19.  Development of an improved vaccine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia: an African perspective on challenges and proposed actions 
Veterinary Research  2013;44(1):122.
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is an economically very important cattle disease in sub-Saharan Africa. CBPP impacts animal health and poverty of livestock-dependent people through decreased animal productivity, reduced food supply, and the cost of control measures. CBPP is a barrier to trade in many African countries and this reduces the value of livestock and the income of many value chain stakeholders. The presence of CBPP also poses a constant threat to CBPP-free countries and creates costs in terms of the measures necessary to ensure the exclusion of disease. This opinion focuses on the biomedical research needed to foster the development of better control measures for CBPP. We suggest that different vaccine development approaches are followed in parallel. Basic immunology studies and systematic OMICs studies will be necessary in order to identify the protective arms of immunity and to shed more light on the pathogenicity mechanisms in CBPP. Moreover a robust challenge model and a close collaboration with African research units will be crucial to foster and implement a new vaccine for the progressive control of this cattle plague.
doi:10.1186/1297-9716-44-122
PMCID: PMC3910389  PMID: 24359340
20.  Mycoplasma mycoides, from "mycoides Small Colony" to "capri". A microevolutionary perspective 
BMC Genomics  2011;12:114.
Background
The Mycoplasma mycoides cluster consists of five species or subspecies that are ruminant pathogens. One subspecies, Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC), is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. Its very close relative, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc), is a more ubiquitous pathogen in small ruminants causing mastitis, arthritis, keratitis, pneumonia and septicaemia and is also found as saprophyte in the ear canal. To understand the genetics underlying these phenotypic differences, we compared the MmmSC PG1 type strain genome, which was already available, with the genome of an Mmc field strain (95010) that was sequenced in this study. We also compared the 95010 genome with the recently published genome of another Mmc strain (GM12) to evaluate Mmc strain diversity.
Results
The MmmSC PG1 genome is 1,212 kbp and that of Mmc 95010 is ca. 58 kbp shorter. Most of the sequences present in PG1 but not 95010 are highly repeated Insertion Sequences (three types of IS) and large duplicated DNA fragments. The 95010 genome contains five types of IS, present in fewer copies than in PG1, and two copies of an integrative conjugative element. These mobile genetic elements have played a key role in genome plasticity, leading to inversions of large DNA fragments. Comparison of the two genomes suggested a marked decay of the PG1 genome that seems to be correlated with a greater number of IS. The repertoire of gene families encoding surface proteins is smaller in PG1. Several genes involved in polysaccharide metabolism and protein degradation are also absent from, or degraded in, PG1.
Conclusions
The genome of MmmSC PG1 is larger than that of Mmc 95010, its very close relative, but has less coding capacity. This is the result of large genetic rearrangements due to mobile elements that have also led to marked gene decay. This is consistent with a non-adaptative genomic complexity theory, allowing duplications or pseudogenes to be maintained in the absence of adaptive selection that would lead to purifying selection and genome streamlining over longer evolutionary times. These findings also suggest that MmmSC only recently adapted to its bovine host.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-12-114
PMCID: PMC3053259  PMID: 21324191
21.  Cattle immunized against the pathogenic l-α-glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase of Mycoplasma mycoides subs. mycoides fail to generate neutralizing antibodies and succumb to disease on challenge☆ 
Vaccine  2013;31(44):5020-5025.
Highlights
•Cattle were vaccinated with Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides (Mmm) recombinant l-α-glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase.•A mouse mAb to l-α-glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase was generated.•Mouse mAb blocked H2O2 release by Mmm, but cattle antisera did not.•Cattle were not protected after challenge.
The membrane-associated enzyme l-α-glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GlpO) of Mycoplasma mycoides subs. mycoides (Mmm), the causal agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) has been identified as a virulence factor responsible for the release of toxic by-products such as H2O2 that mediate host cell injury. Since CBPP pathogenesis is based on host inflammatory reactions, we have determined the capacity of recombinant GlpO to generate in vivo protective responses against challenge in immunized cattle. We also investigated whether sera raised against recombinant GlpO in cattle and mice inhibit production of H2O2 by Mmm. Immunization of cattle with recombinant GlpO did not protect against challenge with a virulent strain of Mmm. Further, although both murine and bovine antisera raised against recombinant GlpO detected recombinant and native forms of GlpO in immunoblot assays with similar titres, only murine antibodies could neutralize GlpO enzymatic function. The data raise the possibility that Mmm has adapted to evade potential detrimental antibody responses in its definitive host.
doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.08.100
PMCID: PMC3989769  PMID: 24035434
Mycoplasma; Antibody; Vaccination; Cattle; Evolution; l-α-glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase
22.  Evaluation of Competitive ELISA for Detection of Antibodies to Brucella Infection in Domestic Animals 
Croatian Medical Journal  2010;51(4):314-319.
Aim
To evaluate competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for its suitability as an additional serological test for the diagnosis of animal brucellosis.
Methods
cELISA, which was developed at the Veterinary Laboratories Agency, has been evaluated for its accuracy and suitability as an additional serological test for the diagnosis of animal brucellosis. Samples from naturally and experimentally infected animals and those from Brucella-free flocks and herds were tested.
Results
Data obtained since 1991 were analyzed from routine surveillance, animals experimentally infected with Brucella, and stored sera to validate cELISA for the detection of antibodies to Brucella in cows, small ruminants, and pigs. The sensitivity of the test ranged from 92.31% to 100%, in comparison with 77.14% to 100% for the complement fixation test (CFT). Specificities for cELISA, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and CFT were greater than 90%.
Conclusion
cELISA can be used on a variety of animal species, and an added advantage is its suitability for use on poor-quality samples such as those affected by hemolysis.
doi:10.3325/cmj.2010.51.314
PMCID: PMC2931436  PMID: 20718084
23.  Antigenic and Genetic Characterization of Lipoprotein LppQ from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC 
Lipoprotein LppQ, a predominant 48-kDa antigen, and its corresponding gene, lppQ, were characterized in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC, the etiological agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. The lppQ gene is specific to M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC and was found in the type strain and in field strains isolated in Europe, Africa, and Australia, as well as in vaccinal strains. LppQ is encoded as a precursor with a consensus sequence for prokaryotic signal peptidase II and a lipid attachment site. The leader sequence shows significant prominent transmembrane helix structure with a predicted outside-to-inside helix formation capacity. The N-terminal domain of the mature LppQ was shown to be surface exposed. It induced a strong, specific, early, and persistent immune response in naturally and experimentally infected animals. The C-terminal domain of LppQ possesses an integral membrane structure built up of repeated units, rich in hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids, which have a pore formation potential. A recombinant peptide representing the N-terminal domain of LppQ was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis of nine Mycoplasma-specific TGA (Trp) codons into universal TGG (Trp) codons and expression in Escherichia coli hosts. It was used for serodetection of cattle infected with M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC, in which it was detected postinfection for significantly longer than conventional serological test reactions.
PMCID: PMC95919  PMID: 10882657
24.  Detection of Equine Antibodies to Babesia caballi by Recombinant B. caballi Rhoptry-Associated Protein 1 in a Competitive-Inhibition Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1999;37(7):2285-2290.
A competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was developed for detection of equine antibodies specific for Babesia caballi. The assay used recombinant B. caballi rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1) and monoclonal antibody (MAb) 79/17.18.5, which is reactive with a peptide epitope of a native 60-kDa B. caballi antigen. The gene encoding the recombinant antigen was sequenced, and database analysis revealed that the gene product is a rhoptry-associated protein. Cloning and expression of a truncated copy of the gene demonstrated that MAb 79/17.18.5 reacts with the C-terminal repeat region of the protein. The cELISA was used to evaluate 302 equine serum samples previously tested for antibodies to B. caballi by a standardized complement fixation test (CFT). The results of cELISA and CFT were 73% concordant. Seventy-two of the 77 serum samples with discordant results were CFT negative and cELISA positive. Further evaluation of the serum samples with discordant results by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) demonstrated that at a serum dilution of 1:200, 48 of the CFT-negative and cELISA-positive serum samples contained antibodies reactive with B. caballi RAP-1. Four of five CFT-positive and cELISA-negative serum samples contained antibodies reactive with B. caballi when they were tested by IFA. These data indicate that following infection with B. caballi, horses consistently produce antibody to the RAP-1 epitope defined by MAb 79/17.18.5, and when used in the cELISA format, recombinant RAP-1 is a useful antigen for the serologic detection of anti-B. caballi antibodies.
PMCID: PMC85139  PMID: 10364599
25.  Competitive Enzyme Immunoassay for Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1999;37(10):3245-3248.
The methods commonly used for human brucellosis serological testing are agglutination tests and the complement fixation test (CFT). Among the newer serological tests, primary binding assays were developed to improve sensitivity and specificity. The competitive enzyme immunoassay (CELISA) for the detection of serum antibody to Brucella is a multispecies assay which appears to be capable of differentiating vaccinal and cross-reacting antibodies from antibodies elicited by field infection in cattle. The competing monoclonal antibody used in this assay is specific for a common epitope of smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS). In this study, we compared the CELISA to the classical tests for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. The CELISA cutoff value was determined to calculate its diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. A survey was performed with 911 sera. Of the sera, 341 were from an asymptomatic population that tested negative with conventional serological tests (screening and confirmatory). Based on these samples, the CELISA specificities were determined to be 99.7 and 100% with cutoff values of 28 and 30% inhibition (%I), respectively. In a further study with 393 additional sera from an asymptomatic population found negative by the conventional screening tests, the CELISA specificities were calculated to be 96.5 and 98.8% with cutoff values of 28 and 30%I. The CELISA sensitivities were determined to be 98.3 and 94.8% with cutoff values of 28 and 30%I, respectively, for sera from 116 individuals found positive by the classical tests. For the 51 culture-positive patients, CELISA was positive for 100%, the CFT was positive for 92%, and the standard tube agglutination test (TAT) was positive for 100%. The CELISA specificity was 100% for 31 sera from patients found negative by conventional serological tests but with brucellosis-like symptoms. The CELISA is fairly rapid to perform, somewhat faster than TAT, and cross-reacts less with other antigens (or antibodies) than the conventional tests. Further, the CELISA is simpler to perform that the CFT and may readily be standardized by the use of purified S-LPS antigen and monoclonal antibody for competition.
PMCID: PMC85539  PMID: 10488186

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