Yeast has numerous mechanisms to survive stress. Deletion of myosin type II (myo1Δ) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in a cell that has defective cytokinesis. To survive this genetically induced stress, this budding yeast up regulates the PKC1 cell wall integrity pathway (CWIP). More recently, our work indicated that TOR, another stress signaling pathway, was down regulated in myo1Δ strains. Since negative signaling by TOR is known to regulate PKC1, our objectives in this study were to understand the cross-talk between the TOR and PKC1 signaling pathways and to determine if they share upstream regulators for mounting the stress response in myo1Δ strains.
Here we proved that TORC1 signaling was down regulated in the myo1Δ strain. While a tor1Δ mutant strain had increased viability relative to myo1Δ, a combined myo1Δtor1Δ mutant strain showed significantly reduced cell viability. Synthetic rescue of the tor2-21ts lethal phenotype was observed in the myo1Δ strain in contrast to the chs2Δ strain, a chitin synthase II null mutant that also activates the PKC1 CWIP and exhibits cytokinesis defects very similar to myo1Δ, where the rescue effect was not observed. We observed two pools of Slt2p, the final Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) of the PKC1 CWIP; one pool that is up regulated by heat shock and one that is up regulated by the myo1Δ stress. The cell wall stress sensor WSC1 that activates PKC1 CWIP under other stress conditions was shown to act as a negative regulator of TORC1 in the myo1Δ mutant. Finally, the repression of TORC1 was inversely correlated with the activation of PKC1 in the myo1Δ strain.
Regulated expression of TOR1 was important in the activation of the PKC1 CWIP in a myo1Δ strain and hence its survival. We found evidence that the PKC1 and TORC1 pathways share a common upstream regulator associated with the cell wall stress sensor WSC1. Surprisingly, essential TORC2 functions were not required in the myo1Δ strain. By understanding how yeast mounts a concerted stress response, one can further design pharmacological cocktails to undermine their ability to adapt and to survive.
PKC1; SLT2/MPK1; WSC1; Tor2-21; Fungal cell wall
Myosin II-dependent contraction of the cytokinetic ring and primary septum formation by chitin synthase II are interdependent processes during cytokinesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hence, null mutants of myosin II (myo1Δ) and chitin synthase II (chs2Δ) share multiple morphological and molecular phenotypes. To understand the nature of their interdependent functions, we will seek to identify genes undergoing transcriptional regulation in chs2Δ strains and to establish a transcription signature profile for comparison with myo1Δ strains.
A total of 467 genes were commonly regulated between myo1Δ and chs2Δ mutant strains (p ≤ 0.01). Common regulated biological process categories identified by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) in both gene expression profiles were: protein biosynthesis, RNA processing, and stress response. Expression of 17/20 genes in the main transcriptional fingerprint for cell wall stress was confirmed in the chs2Δ strain versus 5/20 for the myo1Δ strain. One of these genes, SLT2/MPK1, was up-regulated in both strains and both strains accumulated the hyperphosphorylated form of Slt2p thereby confirming that the PKC1 cell wall integrity pathway (CWIP) was activated by both mutations. The SLT2/MPK1 gene, essential for myo1Δ strains, was not required in the chs2Δ strain.
Comparison of the chs2Δ and myo1Δ gene expression profiles revealed similarities in the biological process categories that respond to the chs2Δ and myo1Δ gene mutations. This supports the view that these mutations affect a common function in cytokinesis. Despite their similarities, these mutants exhibited significant differences in expression of the main transcriptional fingerprint for cell wall stress and their requirement of the CWIP for survival.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MYO1 gene encodes the myosin II heavy chain (Myo1p), a protein required for normal cytokinesis in budding yeast. Myo1p deficiency in yeast (myo1Δ) causes a cell separation defect characterized by the formation of attached cells, yet it also causes abnormal budding patterns, formation of enlarged and elongated cells, increased osmotic sensitivity, delocalized chitin deposition, increased chitin synthesis, and hypersensitivity to the chitin synthase III inhibitor Nikkomycin Z. To determine how differential expression of genes is related to these diverse cell wall phenotypes, we analyzed the global mRNA expression profile of myo1Δ strains.
Global mRNA expression profiles of myo1Δ strains and their corresponding wild type controls were obtained by hybridization to yeast oligonucleotide microarrays. Results for selected genes were confirmed by real time RT-PCR. A total of 547 differentially expressed genes (p ≤ 0.01) were identified with 263 up regulated and 284 down regulated genes in the myo1Δ strains. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed the significant over-representation of genes in the protein biosynthesis and stress response categories. The SLT2/MPK1 gene was up regulated in the microarray, and a myo1Δslt2Δ double mutant was non-viable. Overexpression of ribosomal protein genes RPL30 and RPS31 suppressed the hypersensitivity to Nikkomycin Z and increased the levels of phosphorylated Slt2p in myo1Δ strains. Increased levels of phosphorylated Slt2p were also observed in wild type strains under these conditions.
Following this analysis of global mRNA expression in yeast myo1Δ strains, we conclude that 547 genes were differentially regulated in myo1Δ strains and that the stress response and protein biosynthesis gene categories were coordinately regulated in this mutant. The SLT2/MPK1 gene was confirmed to be essential for myo1Δ strain viability, supporting that the up regulated stress response genes are regulated by the PKC1 cell integrity pathway. Suppression of Nikkomycin Z hypersensitivity together with Slt2p phosphorylation was caused by the overexpression of ribosomal protein genes RPL30 and RPS31. These ribosomal protein mRNAs were down regulated in the myo1Δ arrays, suggesting that down regulation of ribosomal biogenesis may affect cell integrity in myo1Δ strains.
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae uses two class V myosins to transport cellular material into the bud: Myo2p moves secretory vesicles and organelles, whereas Myo4p transports mRNA. To understand how Myo2p and Myo4p are adapted to transport physically distinct cargos, we characterize Myo2p and Myo4p in yeast extracts, purify active Myo2p and Myo4p from yeast lysates, and analyze their motility. We find several striking differences between Myo2p and Myo4p. First, Myo2p forms a dimer, whereas Myo4p is a monomer. Second, Myo4p generates higher actin filament velocity at lower motor density. Third, single molecules of Myo2p are weakly processive, whereas individual Myo4p motors are nonprocessive. Finally, Myo4p self-assembles into multi-motor complexes capable of processive motility. We show that the unique motility of Myo4p is not due to its motor domain and that the motor domain of Myo2p can transport ASH1 mRNA in vivo. Our results suggest that the oligomeric state of Myo4p is important for its motility and ability to transport mRNA.
Organelle inheritance occurs during cell division. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inheritance of the vacuole, and the distribution of mitochondria and cortical endoplasmic reticulum are regulated by Ptc1p, a type 2C protein phosphatase. Here we show that PTC1/VAC10 controls the distribution of additional cargoes moved by a myosin-V motor. These include peroxisomes, secretory vesicles, cargoes of Myo2p, and ASH1 mRNA, a cargo of Myo4p. We find that Ptc1p is required for the proper distribution of both Myo2p and Myo4p. Surprisingly, PTC1 is also required to maintain the steady-state levels of organelle-specific receptors, including Vac17p, Inp2p, and Mmr1p, which attach Myo2p to the vacuole, peroxisomes, and mitochondria, respectively. Furthermore, Vac17p fused to the cargo-binding domain of Myo2p suppressed the vacuole inheritance defect in ptc1Δ cells. These findings suggest that PTC1 promotes the association of myosin-V with its organelle-specific adaptor proteins. Moreover, these observations suggest that despite the existence of organelle-specific receptors, there is a higher order regulation that coordinates the movement of diverse cellular components.
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the unconventional myosin Myo2p is of fundamental importance in polarized growth. We explore the role of the neck region and its associated light chains in regulating Myo2p function. Surprisingly, we find that precise deletion of the six IQ sites in the neck region results in a myosin, Myo2-Δ6IQp, that can support the growth of a yeast strain at 90% the rate of a wild-type isogenic strain. We exploit this mutant in a characterization of the light chains of Myo2p. First, we demonstrate that the localization of calmodulin to sites of polarized growth largely depends on the IQ sites in the neck of Myo2p. Second, we demonstrate that a previously uncharacterized protein, Mlc1p, is a myosin light chain of Myo2p. MLC1 (YGL106w) is an essential gene that exhibits haploinsufficiency. Reduced levels of MYO2 overcome the haploinsufficiency of MLC1. The mutant MYO2-Δ6IQ is able to suppress haploinsufficiency but not deletion of MLC1. We used a modified gel overlay assay to demonstrate a direct interaction between Mlc1p and the neck of Myo2p. Overexpression of MYO2 is toxic, causing a severe decrease in growth rate. When MYO2 is overexpressed, Myo2p is fourfold less stable than in a wild-type strain. High copies of MLC1 completely overcome the growth defects and increase the stability of Myo2p. Our results suggest that Mlc1p is responsible for stabilizing this myosin by binding to the neck region.
myosin; polarized; stability; Myo4; cytokinesis
The myosin Myo4 is nonprocessive by itself, but when several motor subunits team up with She2 and She3, it forms an active RNP transport unit that moves ASH1 mRNA to the bud tip in dividing yeast.
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ASH1 mRNA is transported to the bud tip by the class V myosin Myo4. In vivo, Myo4 moves RNA in a rapid and continuous fashion, but in vitro Myo4 is a nonprocessive, monomeric motor that forms a complex with She3. To understand how nonprocessive motors generate continuous transport, we used a novel purification method to show that Myo4, She3, and the RNA-binding protein She2 are the sole major components of an active ribonucleoprotein transport unit. We demonstrate that a single localization element contains multiple copies of Myo4 and a tetramer of She2, which suggests that She2 may recruit multiple motors to an RNA. Furthermore, we show that increasing the number of Myo4–She3 molecules bound to ASH1 RNA in the absence of She2 increases the efficiency of RNA transport to the bud. Our data suggest that multiple, nonprocessive Myo4 motors can generate continuous transport of mRNA to the bud tip.
Myo4p is a nonessential type V myosin required for the bud tip localization of ASH1 and IST2 mRNA. These mRNAs associate with Myo4p via the She2p and She3p proteins. She3p is an adaptor protein that links Myo4p to its cargo. She2p binds to ASH1 and IST2 mRNA, while She3p binds to both She2p and Myo4p. Here we show that Myo4p and She3p, but not She2p, are required for the inheritance of cortical ER in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Consistent with this observation, we find that cortical ER inheritance is independent of mRNA transport. Cortical ER is a dynamic network that forms cytoplasmic tubular connections to the nuclear envelope. ER tubules failed to grow when actin polymerization was blocked with the drug latrunculin A (Lat-A). Additionally, a reduction in the number of cytoplasmic ER tubules was observed in Lat-A–treated and myo4Δ cells. Our results suggest that Myo4p and She3p facilitate the growth and orientation of ER tubules.
cortical ER inheritance; Myo4p; She proteins; myosin; yeast
A conserved patch of amino acids in the globular tail of type V myosin binds She3p to localize ASH1 mRNA to the bud of dividing yeast cells.
Type V myosin (MyoV)–dependent transport of cargo is an essential process in eukaryotes. Studies on yeast and vertebrate MyoV showed that their globular tails mediate binding to the cargo complexes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the MyoV motor Myo4p interacts with She3p to localize asymmetric synthesis of HO 1 (ASH1) mRNA into the bud of dividing cells. A recent study showed that localization of GFP-MS2–tethered ASH1 particles does not require the Myo4p globular tail, challenging the supposed role of this domain. We assessed ASH1 mRNA and Myo4p distribution more directly and found that their localization is impaired in cells expressing globular tail–lacking Myo4p. In vitro studies further show that the globular tail together with a more N-terminal linker region is required for efficient She3p binding. We also determined the x-ray structure of the Myo4p globular tail and identify a conserved surface patch important for She3p binding. The structure shows pronounced similarities to membrane-tethering complexes and indicates that Myo4p may not undergo auto-inhibition of its motor domain.
The antifungal protein AFPNN5353 is a defensin-like protein of Aspergillus giganteus. It belongs to a group of secretory proteins with low molecular mass, cationic character and a high content of cysteine residues. The protein inhibits the germination and growth of filamentous ascomycetes, including important human and plant pathogens and the model organsims Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger.
We determined an AFPNN5353 hypersensitive phenotype of non-functional A. nidulans mutants in the protein kinase C (Pkc)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Mpk) signalling pathway and the induction of the α-glucan synthase A (agsA) promoter in a transgenic A. niger strain which point at the activation of the cell wall integrity pathway (CWIP) and the remodelling of the cell wall in response to AFPNN5353. The activation of the CWIP by AFPNN5353, however, operates independently from RhoA which is the central regulator of CWIP signal transduction in fungi.
Furthermore, we provide evidence that calcium (Ca2+) signalling plays an important role in the mechanistic function of this antifungal protein. AFPNN5353 increased about 2-fold the cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) of a transgenic A. niger strain expressing codon optimized aequorin. Supplementation of the growth medium with CaCl2 counteracted AFPNN5353 toxicity, ameliorated the perturbation of the [Ca2+]c resting level and prevented protein uptake into Aspergillus sp. cells.
The present study contributes new insights into the molecular mechanisms of action of the A. giganteus antifungal protein AFPNN5353. We identified its antifungal activity, initiated the investigation of pathways that determine protein toxicity, namely the CWIP and the Ca2+ signalling cascade, and studied in detail the cellular uptake mechanism in sensitive target fungi. This knowledge contributes to define new potential targets for the development of novel antifungal strategies to prevent and combat infections of filamentous fungi which have severe negative impact in medicine and agriculture.
She4p/Dim1p, a member of the UNC-45/CRO1/She4p
(UCS) domain-containing protein family, is required for endocytosis,
polarization of actin cytoskeleton, and polarization of ASH1 mRNA in
Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show herein that She4p/Dim1p is involved
in endocytosis and actin polarization through interactions with the type I
myosins Myo3p and Myo5p. Two-hybrid and biochemical experiments showed that
She4p/Dim1p interacts with the motor domain of Myo3/5p through its UCS domain.
She4p/Dim1p was required for Myo5p localization to cortical patch-like
structures. Using random mutagenesis of the motor region of MYO5, we
identified four independent dominant point mutations that suppress the
temperature-sensitive growth phenotype of the she4/dim1 null mutant.
All of the amino acid substitutions caused by these mutations, V164I, N168I,
N209S, and K377M, could suppress the defects of endocytosis and actin
polarization of the she4/dim1 mutant as well. She4p/Dim1p also showed
two-hybrid interactions with the motor domain of a type II myosin Myo1p and
type V myosins Myo2p and Myo4p, and was required for proper localization of
Myo4p, which regulates polarization of ASH1 mRNA. Our results suggest
that She4p/Dim1p is required for structural integrity or regulation of the
motor domain of unconventional myosins.
In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an actomyosin-based contractile ring is present during cytokinesis, as occurs in animal cells. However, the precise requirement for this structure during budding yeast cytokinesis has been controversial. Here we show that deletion of MYO1, the single myosin II gene, is lethal in a commonly used strain background. The terminal phenotype of myo1Δ is interconnected chains of cells, suggestive of a cytokinesis defect. To further investigate the role of Myo1p in cytokinesis, we conditionally disrupted Myo1 function by using either a dominant negative Myo1p construct or a strain where expression of Myo1p can be shut-off. Both ways of disruption of Myo1 function result in a failure in cytokinesis. Additionally, we show that a myo1Δ strain previously reported to grow nearly as well as the wild type contains a single genetic suppressor that alleviates the severe cytokinesis defects of myo1Δ. Using fluorescence time-lapse imaging and electron microscopy techniques, we show that cytokinesis in this strain is achieved through formation of multiple aberrant septa. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the actomyosin ring is crucial for successful cytokinesis in budding yeast, but new cytokinetic mechanisms can evolve through genetic changes when myosin II function is impaired.
Myo2p is an unconventional myosin required for polarized growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Four lines of evidence suggest that (a) Myo2p is a target of calmodulin at sites of cell growth, and (b) the interaction between Myo2p and calmodulin is Ca2+ independent. First, as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence, the distributions of Myo2p and calmodulin are nearly indistinguishable throughout the cell cycle. Second, a genetic analysis indicates that mutations in CMD1 show allele- specific synthetic lethality with the myo2-66 conditional mutation. Mutations that inactivate the Ca(2+)-binding sites of calmodulin have little or no effect on strains carrying myo2-66, whereas an allele with a mutation outside the Ca(2+)-binding sites dramatically increases the severity of the phenotype conferred by myo2-66. Third, Myo2p coimmunoprecipitates with calmodulin in the presence of Ca2+ or EGTA. Finally, we used a modified gel overlay assay to demonstrate direct interaction between calmodulin and fusion proteins containing portions of Myo2p. Calmodulin binds specifically to the region of Myo2p containing six tandem repeats of a motif called an IQ site. Binding occurs in either Ca2+ or EGTA, and only two sites are required to observe binding.
Myosin II is important for normal cytokinesis and cell wall maintenance in yeast cells. Myosin II-deficient (myo1) strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are hypersensitive to nikkomycin Z (NZ), a competitive inhibitor of chitin synthase III (Chs3p), a phenotype that is consistent with compromised cell wall integrity in this mutant. To explain this observation, we hypothesized that the absence of myosin type II will alter the normal levels of proteins that regulate cell wall integrity and that this deficiency can be overcome by the overexpression of their corresponding genes. We further hypothesized that such genes would restore normal (wild-type) NZ resistance. A haploid myo1 strain was transformed with a yeast pRS316-GAL1-cDNA expression library and the cells were positively selected with an inhibitory dose of NZ. We found that high expression of the ubiquitin-conjugating protein cDNA, UBC4, restores NZ resistance to myo1 cells. Downregulation of the cell wall stress pathway and changes in cell wall properties in these cells suggested that changes in cell wall architecture were induced by overexpression of UBC4. UBC4-dependent resistance to NZ in myo1 cells was not prevented by the proteasome inhibitor clasto-lactacystin-β-lactone and required the expression of the vacuolar protein sorting gene VPS4, suggesting that rescue of cell wall integrity involves sorting of ubiquitinated proteins to the PVC/LE–vacuole pathway. These results point to Ubc4p as an important enzyme in the process of cell wall remodelling in myo1 cells.
yeast; MYO1; UBC4; CHS3; nikkomycin Z; ubiquitin
Intracellular and intercellular polarity requires that specific proteins be sorted to discreet locations within and between cells. One mechanism for sorting proteins is through RNA localization. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ASH1 mRNA localizes to the distal tip of the bud, resulting in the asymmetric sorting of the transcriptional repressor Ash1p. ASH1 mRNA localization requires four cis-acting localization elements and the trans-acting factors Myo4p, She3p, and She2p. Myo4p is a type V myosin motor that functions to directly transport ASH1 mRNA to the bud. She2p is an RNA-binding protein that directly interacts with the ASH1 mRNA cis-acting elements. Currently, the role for She3p in ASH1 mRNA localization is as an adaptor protein, since it can simultaneously associate with Myo4p and She2p. Here, we present data for two novel mutants of She3p, S348E and the double mutant S343E S361E, that are defective for ASH1 mRNA localization, and yet both of these mutants retain the ability to associate with Myo4p and She2p. These observations suggest that She3p possesses a novel activity required for ASH1 mRNA localization, and our data imply that this function is related to the ability of She3p to associate with ASH1 mRNA. Interestingly, we determined that She3p is phosphorylated, and global mass spectrometry approaches have determined that Ser 343, 348, and 361 are sites of phosphorylation, suggesting that the novel function for She3p could be negatively regulated by phosphorylation. The present study reveals that the current accepted model for ASH1 mRNA localization does not fully account for the function of She3p in ASH1 mRNA localization.
Programmed mRNA localization to specific subcellular compartments for localized translation is a fundamental mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation that affects many, and possibly all, mRNAs in eukaryotes. We describe her e a systematic approach to identify the RNA cargoes associated with the cytoskeletal motor proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in combination with live-cell 3D super-localization microscopy of endogenously tagged mRNAs. Our analysis identified widespread association of mRNAs with cytoskeletal motor proteins, including association of Myo3 with mRNAs encoding key regulators of actin branching and endocytosis such as WASP and WIP. Using conventional fluorescence microscopy and expression of MS2-tagged mRNAs from endogenous loci, we observed a strong bias for actin patch nucleator mRNAs to localize to the cell cortex and the actin patch in a Myo3- and F-actin dependent manner. Use of a double-helix point spread function (DH-PSF) microscope allowed super-localization measurements of single mRNPs at a spatial precision of 25 nm in x and y and 50 nm in z in live cells with 50 ms exposure times, allowing quantitative profiling of mRNP dynamics. The actin patch mRNA exhibited distinct and characteristic diffusion coefficients when compared to a control mRNA. In addition, disruption of F-actin significantly expanded the 3D confinement radius of an actin patch nucleator mRNA, providing a quantitative assessment of the contribution of the actin cytoskeleton to mRNP dynamic localization. Our results provide evidence for specific association of mRNAs with cytoskeletal motor proteins in yeast, suggest that different mRNPs have distinct and characteristic dynamics, and lend insight into the mechanism of actin patch nucleator mRNA localization to actin patches.
The sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) and the betaine cotransporter (BGT1) are essential for the accumulation of myo-inositol and betaine, and hence cell survival in a hypertonic environment. The underlying molecular mechanism involves an increase in transcription of the SMIT and BGT1 genes through binding of a trans-acting factor to enhancer elements in the 5′ flanking region of both genes, resulting in increased mRNA abundance and increased activity of the cotransporters. Current evidence regarding transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation indicates that both cotransporters are regulated in parallel.
To investigate the signal transduction of hypertonic stress, we examined the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressants on the hypertonicity-induced activity of the two cotransporters in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells.
None of the agents studied affected BGT1 activity in isotonic or hypertonic conditions. Treatment of MDCK cells with genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, increased SMIT activity in hypertonic but not isotonic conditions. The stimulation of SMIT by genistein was accompanied by a parallel increase in mRNA abundance. In contrast, treating cells with tyrphostin A23, another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressant, inhibited SMIT activity in hypertonic cells. FK506, another immunosuppressant, increased SMIT activity, but only in isotonic conditions.
These results provide the first evidence of divergent regulatory pathways modulating SMIT and BGT activity.
hypertonicity; cell volume; osmolytes; cotransport; protein phosphorylation; transcription
myo-Inositol uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was dependent on temperature, time, and substrate concentration. The transport obeyed saturation kinetics with an apparent Km for myo-inositol of 0.1 mM, myo-Inositol analogs, such as scyllo-inositol, 2-inosose, mannitol, and 1,2-cyclohexanediol, had no effect on myo-inositol uptake, myo-Inositol uptake required metabolic energy. Removal of D-glucose resulted in a loss of activity, and azide and cyanide ions were inhibitory. In the presence of D-glucose, myo-inositol was accumulated in the cells against a concentration gradient. A myo-inositol transport mutant was isolated from UV-mutagenized S. cerevisiae cells using the replica-printing technique. The defect in myo-inositol uptake was due to a single nuclear gene mutation. The activities of L-serine and D-glucose transport were not affected by the mutation. Thus it was shown that S. cerevisiae grown under the present culture conditions possessed a single and specific myo-inositol transport system. myo-Inositol transport activity was reduced by the addition of myo-inositol to the culture medium. The activity was reversibly restored by the removal of myo-inositol from the medium. This restoration of activity was completely abolished by cycloheximide.
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the class V myosin motor Myo2p propels the movement of most organelles. We recently identified Inp2p as the peroxisome-specific receptor for Myo2p. In this study, we delineate the region of Myo2p devoted to binding peroxisomes. Using mutants of Myo2p specifically impaired in peroxisome binding, we dissect cell cycle–dependent and peroxisome partitioning–dependent mechanisms of Inp2p regulation. We find that although total Inp2p levels oscillate with the cell cycle, Inp2p levels on individual peroxisomes are controlled by peroxisome inheritance, as Inp2p aberrantly accumulates and decorates all peroxisomes in mother cells when peroxisome partitioning is abolished. We also find that Inp2p is a phosphoprotein whose level of phosphorylation is coupled to the cell cycle irrespective of peroxisome positioning in the cell. Our findings demonstrate that both organelle positioning and cell cycle progression control the levels of organelle-specific receptors for molecular motors to ultimately achieve an equidistribution of compartments between mother and daughter cells.
We identified Ypt11p, a rab-type small GTPase, by its functional and two-hybrid interaction with Myo2p, a class V myosin of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The tail domain of Myo2p was coimmunoprecipitated with Ypt11p, suggesting that Ypt11p forms a complex with Myo2p at its tail domain in vivo. Mutational analysis of YPT11 suggests that Myo2p is a putative effector of Ypt11p. Deletion of YPT11 induced partial delay of mitochondrial transmission to the bud, and overexpression of YPT11 resulted in mitochondrial accumulation in the bud, indicating that Ypt11p acts positively on mitochondrial distribution toward the bud. We isolated two myo2 mutants, myo2-338 and myo2-573, which showed genetic interactions with YPT11. The myo2-573 mutation, identified by a synthetic lethal interaction with ypt11-null, induced a defect in mitochondrial distribution toward the bud, indicating that Myo2p plays a crucial role in polarized distribution of mitochondria. The myo2-338 mutation was identified as the mutation that abolished the effect of overexpressed YPT11, such as the Ypt11p-dependent accumulation of mitochondria in the bud, and the affinity of Myo2p for Ypt11p was reduced. These results indicate that complex formation of Ypt11p with Myo2p accelerates the function of Myo2p for mitochondrial distribution toward the bud.
Cytokinesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves coordination between actomyosin ring contraction and septum formation and/or targeted membrane deposition. We show that Mlc1p, a light chain for Myo2p (type V myosin) and Iqg1p (IQGAP), is the essential light chain for Myo1p, the only type II myosin in S. cerevisiae. However, disruption or reduction of Mlc1p–Myo1p interaction by deleting the Mlc1p binding site on Myo1p or by a point mutation in MLC1, mlc1-93, did not cause any obvious defect in cytokinesis. In contrast, a different point mutation, mlc1-11, displayed defects in cytokinesis and in interactions with Myo2p and Iqg1p. These data suggest that the major function of the Mlc1p–Myo1p interaction is not to regulate Myo1p activity but that Mlc1p may interact with Myo1p, Iqg1p, and Myo2p to coordinate actin ring formation and targeted membrane deposition during cytokinesis. We also identify Mlc2p as the regulatory light chain for Myo1p and demonstrate its role in Myo1p ring disassembly, a function likely conserved among eukaryotes.
septins; Myo2p; Myo4p; cytokinesis; actomyosin ring
MyoD mRNA is expressed in a subpopulation of cells within the embryonic epiblast. Most of these cells are incorporated into somites and synthesize Noggin. Ablation of MyoD-positive cells in the epiblast subsequently results in the herniation of organs through the ventral body wall, a decrease in the expression of Noggin, MyoD, Myf5, and myosin in the somites and limbs, and an increase in Pax-3–positive myogenic precursors. The addition of Noggin lateral to the somites compensates for the loss of MyoD-positive epiblast cells. Skeletal muscle stem cells that arise in the epiblast are utilized in the somites to promote muscle differentiation by serving as a source of Noggin.
Microtubules and actin filaments interact and cooperate in many processes in eukaryotic cells, but the functional implications of such interactions are not well understood. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, both cytoplasmic microtubules and actin filaments are needed for spindle orientation. In addition, this process requires the type V myosin protein Myo2, the microtubule end–binding protein Bim1, and Kar9. Here, we show that fusing Bim1 to the tail of the Myo2 is sufficient to orient spindles in the absence of Kar9, suggesting that the role of Kar9 is to link Myo2 to Bim1. In addition, we show that Myo2 localizes to the plus ends of cytoplasmic microtubules, and that the rate of movement of these cytoplasmic microtubules to the bud neck depends on the intrinsic velocity of Myo2 along actin filaments. These results support a model for spindle orientation in which a Myo2–Kar9–Bim1 complex transports microtubule ends along polarized actin cables. We also present data suggesting that a similar process plays a role in orienting cytoplasmic microtubules in mating yeast cells.
cytoskeleton; microfilaments; microtubules; mitotic spindle apparatus; myosins
Myo2 protein (Myo2p), an unconventional myosin in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been implicated in polarized growth and secretion by studies of the temperature-sensitive myo2-66 mutant. Overexpression of Smy1p, which by sequence is a kinesin-related protein, can partially compensate for defects in the myo2 mutant (Lillie, S. H. and S. S. Brown, 1992. Nature (Lond.). 356:358-361). We have now immunolocalized Smy1p and Myo2p. Both are concentrated in regions of active growth, as caps at incipient bud sites and on small buds, at the mother-bud neck just before cell separation, and in mating cells as caps on shmoo tips and at the fusion bridge of zygotes. Double labeling of cells with either Myo2p or Smy1p antibody plus phalloidin was used to compare the localization of Smy1p and Myo2p to actin, and by extrapolation, to each other. These studies confirmed that Myo2p and Smy1p colocalize, and are concentrated in the same general regions of the cell as actin spots. However, neither colocalizes with actin. We noted a correlation in the behavior of Myo2p, Smy1p, and actin, but not microtubules, under a number of circumstances. In cdc4 and cdc11 mutants, which produce multiple buds, Myo2p and Smy1p caps were found only in the subset of buds that had accumulations of actin. Mutations in actin or secretory genes perturb actin, Smy1p and Myo2p localization. The rearrangements of Myo2p and Smy1p correlate temporally with those of actin spots during the cell cycle, and upon temperature and osmotic shift. In contrast, microtubules are not grossly affected by these perturbations. Although wild-type Myo2p localization does not require Smy1p, Myo2p staining is brighter when SMY1 is overexpressed. The myo2 mutant, when shifted to restrictive temperature, shows a permanent loss in Myo2p localization and actin polarization, both of which can be restored by SMY1 overexpression. However, the lethality of MYO2 deletion is not overcome by SMY1 overexpression. We noted that the myo2 mutant can recover from osmotic shift (unlike actin mutants; Novick, P., and D. Botstein. 1985. Cell. 40:405-416). We have also determined that the myo2-66 allele encodes a Lys instead of a Glu at position 511, which lies at an actin-binding face in the motor domain.
The myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD) gene is a master regulator of myogenesis. We previously reported that the expression of MyoD mRNA oscillates over 24 h in skeletal muscle and that the circadian clock transcription factors, BMAL1 (brain and muscle ARNT-like 1) and CLOCK (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput), were bound to the core enhancer (CE) of the MyoD gene in vivo. In this study, we provide in vivo and in vitro evidence that the CE is necessary for circadian expression of MyoD in adult muscle. Gel shift assays identified a conserved non-canonical E-box within the CE that is bound by CLOCK and BMAL1. Functional analysis revealed that this E-box was required for full activation by BMAL1/CLOCK and for in vitro circadian oscillation. Expression profiling of muscle of CEloxP/loxP mice found approximately 1300 genes mis-expressed relative to wild-type. Based on the informatics results, we analyzed the respiratory function of mitochondria isolated from wild-type and CEloxP/loxP mice. These assays determined that State 5 respiration was significantly reduced in CEloxP/loxP muscle. The results of this work identify a novel element in the MyoD enhancer that confers circadian regulation to MyoD in skeletal muscle and suggest that loss of circadian regulation leads to changes in myogenic expression and downstream mitochondrial function.