PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (1130462)

Clipboard (0)
None

Related Articles

1.  Autofluorescence bronchoscopy for lung cancer surveillance based on risk assessment 
Thorax  2006;62(4):335-340.
Background
This is a preliminary report of an ongoing prospective bimodality lung cancer surveillance trial for high‐risk patients. Bimodality surveillance incorporates autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) and spiral CT (SCT) scanning in high‐risk patients as a primary lung cancer surveillance strategy, based entirely on risk factors. AFB was used for surveillance and findings were compared with conventional sputum cytology for the detection of malignancy and pre‐malignant central airway lesions.
Methods
402 patients registering at Roswell Park Cancer Institute were evaluated with spirometric testing, chest radiography, history and physical examination, of which 207 were deemed eligible for the study. For eligibility, patients were required to have at least two of the following risk factors: (1) ⩾20 pack year history of tobacco use, (2) asbestos‐related lung disease on the chest radiograph, (3) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) <70% of predicted, and (4) prior aerodigestive cancer treated with curative intent, with no evidence of disease for >2 years. All eligible patients underwent AFB, a low‐dose SCT scan of the chest without contrast, and a sputum sample was collected for cytological examination. Bronchoscopic biopsy findings were correlated with sputum cytology results, SCT‐detected pulmonary nodules and surveillance‐detected cancers. To date, 186 have been enrolled with 169 completing the surveillance procedures.
Results
Thirteen lung cancers (7%) were detected in the 169 subjects who have completed all three surveillance studies to date. Pre‐malignant changes were common and 66% of patients had squamous metaplasia or worse. Conventional sputum cytology missed 100% of the dysplasias and 68% of the metaplasias detected by AFB, and failed to detect any cases of carcinoma or carcinoma‐in‐situ in this patient cohort. Sputum cytology exhibited 33% sensitivity and 64% specificity for the presence of metaplasia. Seven of 13 lung cancers (58%) were stage Ia or less, including three patients with squamous cell carcinoma. Patients with peripheral pulmonary nodules identified by SCT scanning of the chest were 3.16 times more likely to exhibit pre‐malignant changes on AFB (p<0.001).
Conclusion
Bimodality surveillance will detect central lung cancer and pre‐malignancy in patients with multiple lung cancer risk factors, even when conventional sputum cytology is negative. AFB should be considered in high‐risk patients, regardless of sputum cytology findings.
doi:10.1136/thx.2006.068999
PMCID: PMC2092474  PMID: 17101735
2.  Is it useful to combine sputum cytology and low-dose spiral computed tomography for early detection of lung cancer in formerly asbestos-exposed power industry workers? 
Background
Low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDSCT) in comparison to conventional chest X-ray proved to be a highly sensitive method of diagnosing early stage lung cancer. However, centrally located early stage lung tumours remain a diagnostic challenge. We determined the practicability and efficacy of early detection of lung cancer when combining LDSCT and sputum cytology.
Methods
Of a cohort of 4446 formerly asbestos exposed power industry workers, we examined a subgroup of 187 (4.2%) high risk participants for lung cancer at least once with both LDSCT and sputum cytology. After the examination period the participants were followed-up for more than three years.
Results
The examinations resulted in the diagnosis of lung cancer in 12 participants (6.4%). Six were in clinical stage I. We found 10 non-small cell lung carcinomas and one small cell lung carcinoma. Sputum specimens showed suspicious pathological findings in seven cases and in 11 cases the results of LDSCT indicated malignancies. The overall sensitivity and specificity of sputum cytology was 58.0% and 98% with positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of 70% and 97%. For LDSCT we calculated the sensitivity and specificity of 92% and 97%. The PPV and NPV were 65% and 99% respectively.
Conclusions
Our results confirmed that in surveillance programmes a combination of sputum cytology and LDSCT is well feasible and accepted by the participants. Sputum examination alone is not effective enough for the detection of lung cancer, especially at early stage. Even in well- defined risk groups highly exposed to asbestos, we cannot recommend the use of combined LDSCT and sputum cytology examinations as long as no survival benefit has been proved for the combination of both methods. For ensuring low rates of false-positive and false-negative results, programme planners must closely cooperate with experienced medical practitioners and pathologists in a well-functioning interdisciplinary network.
doi:10.1186/1745-6673-9-14
PMCID: PMC4002204  PMID: 24739456
Lung cancer; Sputum cytology; Computed tomography; Asbestos
3.  Chromosomal aneusomy in sputum, as detected by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) predicts lung cancer incidence 
Lung cancer is usually disseminated at diagnosis making prognosis poor. Smokers are at high risk for lung cancer and are targets for prevention and early detection strategies. Sputum is a potential source for lung cancer biomarkers, but no test is currently available with sufficient sensitivity and specificity for clinical screening utility. Chromosomal aneusomy (CA) was measured in sputum samples collected prospectively from 100 incident lung cancer cases and 96 controls matched on age, gender, and date of collection. The CA-FISH assay was performed using a four-target DNA FISH probe including EGFR, MYC, 5p15 and CEP6. Sensitivity for a positive CA-FISH assay (abnormal for ≥ 2 of the 4 markers) was substantially higher for samples collected within 18 months (76%) than >18 months before lung cancer diagnosis (31%). Specificity for a positive FISH by this same definition was 85%. Among subjects providing sputum sample within 18 months before diagnosis, sensitivity was higher for squamous cell cancers (94%) than for other histologic types (69%). The adjusted odds ratios for specimens collected within 18 months of cancer diagnosis were higher using the CA-FISH assay (OR=27.2, 95% CI 7.8 to 94.1) than previous studies assessing cytologic atypia (OR=2.3, CI 0.8 to 6.4) or gene promoter methylation (OR=6.5; CI 1.2 to 35.5). In conclusion, chromosomal aneusomy in sputum is a promising biomarker for prediction of lung cancer risk. Evaluation of the 4-DNA targets was more effective than any single marker and had highest sensitivity for samples collected ≤ 18 months to lung cancer diagnosis and patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma.
doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-09-0165
PMCID: PMC2939746  PMID: 20332298
Sputum; Lung Cancer; FISH; biomarker; Chromosomal Abnormality
4.  Histology Verification Demonstrates That Biospectroscopy Analysis of Cervical Cytology Identifies Underlying Disease More Accurately than Conventional Screening: Removing the Confounder of Discordance 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e82416.
Background
Subjective visual assessment of cervical cytology is flawed, and this can manifest itself by inter- and intra-observer variability resulting ultimately in the degree of discordance in the grading categorisation of samples in screening vs. representative histology. Biospectroscopy methods have been suggested as sensor-based tools that can deliver objective assessments of cytology. However, studies to date have been apparently flawed by a corresponding lack of diagnostic efficiency when samples have previously been classed using cytology screening. This raises the question as to whether categorisation of cervical cytology based on imperfect conventional screening reduces the diagnostic accuracy of biospectroscopy approaches; are these latter methods more accurate and diagnose underlying disease? The purpose of this study was to compare the objective accuracy of infrared (IR) spectroscopy of cervical cytology samples using conventional cytology vs. histology-based categorisation.
Methods
Within a typical clinical setting, a total of n = 322 liquid-based cytology samples were collected immediately before biopsy. Of these, it was possible to acquire subsequent histology for n = 154. Cytology samples were categorised according to conventional screening methods and subsequently interrogated employing attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform IR (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. IR spectra were pre-processed and analysed using linear discriminant analysis. Dunn’s test was applied to identify the differences in spectra. Within the diagnostic categories, histology allowed us to determine the comparative efficiency of conventional screening vs. biospectroscopy to correctly identify either true atypia or underlying disease.
Results
Conventional cytology-based screening results in poor sensitivity and specificity. IR spectra derived from cervical cytology do not appear to discriminate in a diagnostic fashion when categories were based on conventional screening. Scores plots of IR spectra exhibit marked crossover of spectral points between different cytological categories. Although, significant differences between spectral bands in different categories are noted, crossover samples point to the potential for poor specificity and hampers the development of biospectroscopy as a diagnostic tool. However, when histology-based categories are used to conduct analyses, the scores plot of IR spectra exhibit markedly better segregation.
Conclusions
Histology demonstrates that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy of liquid-based cytology identifies the presence of underlying atypia or disease missed in conventional cytology screening. This study points to an urgent need for a future biospectroscopy study where categories are based on such histology. It will allow for the validation of this approach as a screening tool.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082416
PMCID: PMC3880266  PMID: 24404130
5.  Altered miRNA Expression in Sputum for Diagnosis of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer 
SUMMARY
Analysis of molecular genetic markers in biological fluids has been proposed as a useful tool for cancer diagnosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that are frequently dysregulated in lung cancer and have shown promise as tissue-based markers for its prognostication. The aim of this study was to determine whether aberrant miRNA expression can be used as a marker in sputum specimen for the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Experimental Design: Expressions of mature miRNAs, mir-21 and mir-155, were examined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and normalized to that of control miRNA, U6B, in sputum of 23 patients with NSCLC and 17 cancer-free subjects. The data was compared with conventional sputum cytology for the diagnosis of lung cancer. All endogenous miRNAs were present in sputum in a remarkably stable form and sensitively and specifically detected by real-time RT-PCR. Mir-21 expression in the sputum specimens was significantly higher in cancer patients (76.32 ± 9.79) than cancer-free individuals (62.24±3.82) (p<0.0001). Furthermore, overexpression of mir-21 showed highly discriminative receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve profile, clearly distinguishing cancer patients from cancer-free subjects with areas under the ROC curve at 0.902 ± 0.054. Detection of mir-21 expression produced 69.66% sensitivity and 100.00% specificity in diagnosis of lung cancer, as compared with 47.82% sensitivity and 100.00% specificity by sputum cytology. The measurement of altered miRNA expression in sputum could be a useful noninvasive approach for the diagnosis of lung cancer.
doi:10.1016/j.lungcan.2009.04.004
PMCID: PMC2846426  PMID: 19446359
MicroRNA; sputum; lung cancer; real-time RT-PCR; diagnosis
6.  Nipple aspirate cytology and pathologic parameters predict residual cancer and nodal involvement after excisional breast biopsy 
British Journal of Cancer  2001;85(12):1952-1957.
We previously demonstrated that abnormal nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) cytology predicted residual breast cancer (RC) and tumour size after excisional biopsy (EB), although normal NAF cytology did not exclude RC. Tumour size correlates with the risk of lymph node (LN) metastases. LN metastases provide prognostic information allowing medical and radiation oncologists to determine the need for adjuvant therapy. We hypothesized that pathologic factors known after EB, combined with NAF cytology, would predict with a high degree of accuracy the presence of RC and LN spread. NAF cytology and pathologic parameters: tumour distance from biopsy margins, multifocal and multicentric disease, sub-type of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive cancer (IC), grade of DCIS or IC, tumour and specimen size, tumour and biopsy cavity location, presence or absence of extensive DCIS, and biopsy scar distance from the nipple were evaluated bivariately and then by logistic regression (LR) for their association with RC and involved LN (≥ 1 (+) LN, useful to determine chemotherapy need, and ≥ 4 (+) LN, useful to determine radiation need to the chest and axilla). Data were analysed using NAF cytology alone, pathologic parameters alone, and NAF cytology and pathologic parameters combined. The combined LR model was superior in predicting residual cancer (94%) to LR models using NAF cytology (36%) or pathologic parameters (75%) alone. When only subjects with normal NAF cytology were evaluated by LR, the model was 92% sensitive in predicting RC. Tumour size and NAF cytology predicted which patients had ≥ 1 (+) LN, whereas tumour and specimen size predicted which patients had ≥ 4 (+) LN. We propose an alogorithm which, if confirmed in a larger study, may allow clinicians to be more selective in their recommendations of re-excision breast biopsy or mastectomy. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
doi:10.1054/bjoc.2001.2151
PMCID: PMC2364009  PMID: 11747339
nipple aspirate fluid; mastectomy; biomarkers
7.  Decision-analytic modeling to evaluate the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HPV-DNA testing in primary cervical cancer screening in Germany 
Background
Persistent infections with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with the development of cervical neoplasia. Compared to cytology HPV testing is more sensitive in detecting high-grade cervical cancer precursors, but with lower specificity. HPV based primary screening for cervical cancer is currently discussed in Germany. Decisions should be based on a systematic evaluation of the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HPV based primary screening.
Research questions
What is the long-term clinical effectiveness (reduction in lifetime risk of cervical cancer and death due to cervical cancer, life years gained) of HPV testing and what is the cost-effectiveness in Euro per life year gained (LYG) of including HPV testing in primary cervical cancer screening in the German health care context? How can the screening program be improved with respect to test combination, age at start and end of screening and screening interval and which recommendations should be made for the German health care context?
Methods
A previously published and validated decision-analytic model for the German health care context was extended and adapted to the natural history of HPV infection and cervical cancer in order to evaluate different screening strategies that differ by screening interval, and tests, including cytology alone, HPV testing alone or in combination with cytology, and HPV testing with cytology triage for HPV-positive women. German clinical, epidemiological and economic data were used. In the absence of individual data, screening adherence was modelled independently from screening history. Test accuracy data were retrieved from international meta-analyses. Predicted outcomes included reduction in lifetime-risk for cervical cancer cases and deaths, life expectancy, lifetime costs, and discounted incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER). The perspective of the third party payer and 3% annual discount rate were adopted. Extensive sensitivity analyses were performed in order to evaluate the robustness of results and identify areas of future research.
Results
In the base case analysis screening resulted in a 53% to 97% risk reduction for cervical cancer with a discounted ICER between 2,600 Euro/LYG (cytology alone every five years) and 155,500 Euro/LYG (Annual cytology age 20 to 29 years, and annual HPV age 30 years and older). Annual cytology, the current recommended screening strategy in Germany, was dominated. In sensitivity analyses variation in the relative increase in the sensitivity of HPV testing as compared to cytology, HPV test costs, screening adherence, HPV incidence, and annual discount rate influenced the ICER results. Variation in the screening start age also influenced the ICER. All cytology strategies were dominated by HPV screening strategies, when relative sensitivity increase by HPV testing compared to cytology was higher (scenario analysis with data for test accuracy from German studies). HPV testing every one, two or three years was more effective than annual cytology. With increased screening adherence a longer screening interval and with low screening adherence a shorter interval would be more cost-effective. With a reduction in HPV incidence of more than 70% triennial HPV screening in women aged 30 years and older (and biennial Pap screening in women aged 20 to 29 years) is cost-effective. The discounted ICER increases with increasing annual discount rate. Increasing screening start age to 25 years had no relevant loss in effectiveness but resulted in lower costs. An optimal strategy may be biennial HPV testing age 30 years and older with biennial cytology at age 25 to 29 years (ICER of 23,400 Euro/LYG).
Conclusions
Based on these results, HPV-based cervical cancer screening is more effective than cytology and could be cost-effective if performed at intervals of two years or greater. Increasing the age at screening start to 25 years causes no relevant loss in effectiveness but saves resources. In the German context an optimal screening strategy could be biennial HPV testing at age 30 years and older with biennial cytology at the age of 25 to 29 years. An extension to a three-yearly screening interval requires substantially improved screening adherence or a higher relative increase in the sensitivity of HPV testing as compared to cytology. The implementation of an organised screening program for quality-controlled introduction of HPV-screening and -vaccination with continued systematic outcome evaluation is recommended.
doi:10.3205/hta000083
PMCID: PMC3010885  PMID: 21289878
cervix; cervix of uterus; cervical carcinoma; carcinoma; cancer; cytology; human papillomavirus; HPV; DNA; HPV-DNA diagnosis; diagnosis; early finding; screening; primary screening; test; decision-analytical modelling; Markov model; effectiveness; systematic review; meta-analysis; Health Technology Assessment; long-term effectiveness; cost-effectiveness; health economic evaluation
8.  Magnetic Enrichment of Bronchial Epithelial Cells From Sputum for Lung Cancer Diagnosis 
Cancer  2008;114(4):275-283.
BACKGROUND
Sputum is an easily accessible diagnostic material for lung cancer early detection by cytologic and molecular genetic analysis of exfoliated airway epithelial cells. However, the use of sputum is limited by its cellular heterogeneity, which includes >95% macrophages and neutrophils and only about 1% bronchial epithelial cells. We propose to obtain concentrated and purified bronchial epithelial cells to improve early detection of lung cancer in sputum samples.
METHODS
Sputum was collected from patients with stage I nonsmall-cell lung cancer, cancer-free smokers, and healthy nonsmokers. Magnetic-assisted cell sorting (MACS) with anti-CD14 and anti-CD16 antibody beads were used to enrich bronchial epithelial cells by depleting macrophages and neutrophils from sputum. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for detection of FHIT deletion and cytology were evaluated in the enriched specimens.
RESULTS
The bronchial epithelial cells were concentrated to 40% purity from 1.1% of the starting population, yielding an average of 36-fold enrichment and at least 2.3 × 105 cells per sample. Detecting FHIT deletions for lung cancer diagnosis produced 58% sensitivity in the enriched sputum, whereas there was 42% sensitivity in the unenriched samples (P = .02). Cytologic examination of the enriched sputum resulted in 53% sensitivity, as compared with 39% sensitivity in unenriched sputum (P = .03). Furthermore, only 2 cytocentrifuge slides of the unenriched sputum were needed for the analyses, as compared with up to 10 cytocentrifuge slides required from the unprocessed specimens.
CONCLUSIONS
The enrichment of bronchial epithelial cells could improve the diagnostic value of sputum and the efficiency of genetic and cytologic analysis of lung cancer.
doi:10.1002/cncr.23596
PMCID: PMC4255556  PMID: 18484646
magnetic-assisted cell sorting; bronchial epithelial cells; sputum; lung cancer; diagnosis
9.  Clinical application of the SurePath liquid-based Pap test in cytological screening of bronchial brushing for the diagnosis of lung cancer 
Cytotechnology  2010;62(1):53-59.
The SurePath liquid-based Pap test (LPT) is successfully and widely used to assess sputum cytology. This study aimed to compare the cytological findings and diagnostic sensitivity of LPT with those of the conventional Pap smear (CPS) method for diagnosing lung cancer. Bronchial brushing specimens from 204 patients diagnosed with lung cancer were studied. LPT slides showed decreased areas of cell monolayers, a clearer background and distinct, stereoscopic cytological features. The LPT had a significantly higher diagnostic sensitivity for lung cancer (71.6%) than the CPS method (57.8%, p < 0.05), particularly for small cell lung carcinoma and >2 cm lesions (p < 0.05). Combination of the LPT with the CPS method showed obviously higher diagnostic sensitivity for the detection of adenocarcinoma (63.6%), central lesions (85.0%) and >2 cm lesions (81.4%) compared with the CPS method alone (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). Thus, LPT is a useful and easily performed technique that can be widely applied, and is suitable for the early diagnosis of lung cancer.
doi:10.1007/s10616-010-9261-5
PMCID: PMC3303009  PMID: 20401634
Cytopathology; Liquid-based Pap test; Lung cancer; Bronchial brushing; Cytodiagnosis
10.  Anal Dysplasia Screening 
Executive Summary
Objective
This review considered the role of the anal Pap test as a screening test for anal dysplasia in patients at high risk of anal SCC. The screening process is now thought to be improved with the addition of testing for the human papillomavirus (HPV) in high-risk populations. High-resolution anoscopy (a method to view the rectal area, using an anoscope, a lighted instrument inserted into the rectum) rather than routine anoscopy-guided biopsy, is also now considered to be the diagnostic standard.
Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition
Anal cancer, like cervical cancer, is a member of a broader group of anogenital cancers known to be associated with sexually transmitted viral HPV infection. Human papillomavirus is extremely prevalent, particularly in young, sexually active populations. Sexual practices involving receptive anal intercourse lead to significantly elevated risk for anal dysplasia and cancer, particularly in those with immune dysfunctions.
Anal cancer is rare. It occurs at a rate of about 1 to 2 per 100,000 in the general population. It is the least common of the lower gastrointestinal cancers, representing about 4% of them, in contrast to colorectal cancers, which remain the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy. Certain segments of the population, however, such as HIV-positive men and women, other chronic immune-suppressed patients (e.g., after a transplant), injection drug users, and women with genital dysplasia /cancer, have a high susceptibility to anal cancer.
Those with the highest identified risk for anal cancer are HIV-positive homosexual and bisexual men, at a rate of 70 per 100,000 men. The risk for anal cancer is reported to be increasing dramatically in HIV-positive males and females, particularly since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s. The introduction of effective viral therapy has been said to have transformed the AIDS epidemic in developed countries into a chronic disease state of long-term immunosuppression. In Ontario, there are about 25,000 people living with HIV infection; more than 6,000 of these are women. About 28% of the newly diagnosed HIV infections are in women, a doubling since 1999. It has also been estimated that 1 of 3 people living with HIV do no know it.
Health Technology Description
Anal Pap test screening involves the blind insertion of a swab into the anal canal and fixing cells either on a slide or in fluid for cytological examination. Anal cytology classified by the standardized Bethesda System is the same classification used for cervical cytology. It has 4 categories: normal, atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance, or squamous intraepithelial lesions which are further classified into low- or high-grade lesions. Abnormal cytological findings are subjected to further evaluations by high-resolution anoscopy, a technique similar to cervical colposcopy, and biopsy. Several HPV deoxyribonucleic acid detection technologies such as the Hybrid 11 Capture and the polymerase chain reaction are available to detect and differentiate HPV viral strains.
Unlike cervical cancer, there are no universally accepted guidelines or standards of care for anal dysplasia. Moreover, there are no formal screening programs provincially, nationally, or internationally. The New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute has recently recommended (March 2007) annual anal pap testing in high-risk groups. In Ontario, reimbursement exists only for Pap tests for cervical cancer screening. That is, there is no reimbursement for anal Pap testing in men or women, and HPV screening tests for cervical or anal cancer are also not reimbursed.
Methods
The scientific evidence base was evaluated through a systematic literature review. Assessments of current practices were obtained through consultations with various agencies and individuals including the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care AIDS Bureau; Public Health Infectious Diseases Branch, Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care; Cancer Care Ontario; HIV/AIDS researchers; pathology experts; and HIV/AIDS clinical program directors. An Ontario-based budget impact was also done.
Findings
No direct evidence was found for the existence of controlled studies evaluating the effectiveness of anal Pap test screening programs for impact on anal cancer morbidity or mortality. In addition, no studies were found on the use of HPV DNA testing in the screening or diagnostic setting for anal dysplasia. The reported prevalence of HPV infection in high-risk groups, particularly HIV-positive males, however, was sufficiently high to preclude any utility of HPV testing as an adjunct to anal Pap testing.
Nine reports involving studies in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada were identified that evaluated the performance characteristics of anal Pap test screening for anal dysplasia. All involved hospital-based specialty HIV/AIDS care clinics with mainly HIV-positive males. All studies involved experienced pathologists, so the results generally represent best-case scenarios. Estimates of anal Pap test sensitivity and specificity were highly variable, and depended on the varying prevalence of cytology abnormality and differential thresholds for abnormality for both cytology and histopathology.
In the largest study of HIV-positive males, sensitivity varied from 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36%–56%) to 69% (95% CI, 60%–78%). Specificity ranged from 59% (95% CI, 53%–65%) to 81% (95% CI, 76%–85%). In the only study of HIV-negative males, sensitivity ranged from 26% (95% CI, 5%-47%) to 47% (95% CI, 26%–68%). Specificity ranged from 81% (95% CI, 76%–85%) to 92% (95% CI, 89%–95%).
In comparison, cervical Pap testing has also been evaluated mainly in settings where there is a high prevalence of the disease, and estimates of sensitivitykij and specificity were also low and highly variable. In a systematic review involving cervical Pap testing, sensitivity ranged from 30% to 87% (mean, 47%) and specificity from 86% to 100% (mean, 95%).
Conclusions
No direct evidence exists to support the effectiveness of an anal Pap test screening program to reduce anal cancer mortality or morbidity. There are, however, strong parallels with cervical pap testing for cervical cancer. Sexually transmitted HPV viral infection is currently the acknowledged common causative agent for both anal and cervical cancer. Anal cancer rates in high-risk populations are approaching those of cervical cancer before the implementation of Pap testing.
The anal Pap test, although it has been mainly evaluated only in HIV-positive males, has similar operating characteristics of sensitivity and specificity as the cervical Pap test. In general, the treatment options for precancer dysplasia in the cervix and the anus are similar, but treatment involving a definitive surgical resection in the anus is more limited because of the higher risk of complications. A range of ablative therapies has been applied for anal dysplasia, but evidence on treatment effectiveness, tolerability and durability, particularly in the HIV-positive patient, is limited.
PMCID: PMC3377578  PMID: 23074504
11.  Evaluation of a Cervical Cancer Screening Program Based on HPV Testing and LLETZ Excision in a Low Resource Setting 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(10):e13266.
We conducted studies in Vanuatu to evaluate potential screening and treatment strategies to assist with control of cervical cancer. In a pilot study of 496 women, visual inspection and cytology were evaluated as screening tests for detection of CIN 2 or worse (CIN2+), observed in 21 of 206 subjects biopsied on the basis of abnormal visual inspection or cytology. Sensitivity of visual inspection with Lugol's Iodine for detection of CIN2+ on biopsy was 0.63, specificity was 0.32, and the positive predictive value was 0.09. For HSIL cytology, sensitivity was 0.99, specificity was 0.77, and the positive predictive value was 0.88. HSIL cytology was significantly more sensitive and had a significantly higher PPV for CIN 2+ than visual inspection (p<0.01). In a further study of 514 women, we compared testing for HR HPV and cytology as predictors of biopsy proven CIN 2+. Sensitivity of HSIL cytology for CIN2+ as established by loop excision of the cervix was 0.81, specificity was 0.94, and positive predictive value was 0.48. Sensitivity of a positive test for HR HPV for detection of CIN2+ was non-significantly different from cytology at 0.81, specificity was 0.94, and positive predictive value was 0.42. Combining the two tests gave a significantly lower sensitivity of 0.63, a specificity of 0.98, and a positive predictive value of 0.68. For women over 30 in a low resource setting without access to cytology, a single locally conduced test for high risk HPV with effective intervention could reduce cervical cancer risk as effectively as intervention based on cytology conducted in an accredited laboratory.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013266
PMCID: PMC2951361  PMID: 20949059
12.  Evaluation of the Lung Cancer Risks at Which to Screen Ever- and Never-Smokers: Screening Rules Applied to the PLCO and NLST Cohorts 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(12):e1001764.
Martin Tammemägi and colleagues evaluate which risk groups of individuals, including nonsmokers and high-risk individuals from 65 to 80 years of age, should be screened for lung cancer using computed tomography.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
Lung cancer risks at which individuals should be screened with computed tomography (CT) for lung cancer are undecided. This study's objectives are to identify a risk threshold for selecting individuals for screening, to compare its efficiency with the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) criteria for identifying screenees, and to determine whether never-smokers should be screened. Lung cancer risks are compared between smokers aged 55–64 and ≥65–80 y.
Methods and Findings
Applying the PLCOm2012 model, a model based on 6-y lung cancer incidence, we identified the risk threshold above which National Lung Screening Trial (NLST, n = 53,452) CT arm lung cancer mortality rates were consistently lower than rates in the chest X-ray (CXR) arm. We evaluated the USPSTF and PLCOm2012 risk criteria in intervention arm (CXR) smokers (n = 37,327) of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO). The numbers of smokers selected for screening, and the sensitivities, specificities, and positive predictive values (PPVs) for identifying lung cancers were assessed. A modified model (PLCOall2014) evaluated risks in never-smokers. At PLCOm2012 risk ≥0.0151, the 65th percentile of risk, the NLST CT arm mortality rates are consistently below the CXR arm's rates. The number needed to screen to prevent one lung cancer death in the 65th to 100th percentile risk group is 255 (95% CI 143 to 1,184), and in the 30th to <65th percentile risk group is 963 (95% CI 291 to −754); the number needed to screen could not be estimated in the <30th percentile risk group because of absence of lung cancer deaths. When applied to PLCO intervention arm smokers, compared to the USPSTF criteria, the PLCOm2012 risk ≥0.0151 threshold selected 8.8% fewer individuals for screening (p<0.001) but identified 12.4% more lung cancers (sensitivity 80.1% [95% CI 76.8%–83.0%] versus 71.2% [95% CI 67.6%–74.6%], p<0.001), had fewer false-positives (specificity 66.2% [95% CI 65.7%–66.7%] versus 62.7% [95% CI 62.2%–63.1%], p<0.001), and had higher PPV (4.2% [95% CI 3.9%–4.6%] versus 3.4% [95% CI 3.1%–3.7%], p<0.001). In total, 26% of individuals selected for screening based on USPSTF criteria had risks below the threshold PLCOm2012 risk ≥0.0151. Of PLCO former smokers with quit time >15 y, 8.5% had PLCOm2012 risk ≥0.0151. None of 65,711 PLCO never-smokers had PLCOm2012 risk ≥0.0151. Risks and lung cancers were significantly greater in PLCO smokers aged ≥65–80 y than in those aged 55–64 y. This study omitted cost-effectiveness analysis.
Conclusions
The USPSTF criteria for CT screening include some low-risk individuals and exclude some high-risk individuals. Use of the PLCOm2012 risk ≥0.0151 criterion can improve screening efficiency. Currently, never-smokers should not be screened. Smokers aged ≥65–80 y are a high-risk group who may benefit from screening.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Lung cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and the most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Like all cancers, lung cancer occurs when cells acquire genetic changes that allow them to grow uncontrollably and to move around the body (metastasize). The most common trigger for these genetic changes in lung cancer is exposure to cigarette smoke. Symptoms of lung cancer include a persistent cough and breathlessness. If lung cancer is diagnosed when it is confined to the lung (stage I), the tumor can often be removed surgically. Stage II tumors, which have spread into nearby lymph nodes, are usually treated with surgery plus chemotherapy or radiotherapy. For more advanced lung cancers that have spread throughout the chest (stage III) or the body (stage IV), surgery is rarely helpful and these tumors are treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy alone. Overall, because most lung cancers are not detected until they are advanced, less than 17% of people diagnosed with lung cancer survive for five years.
Why Was This Study Done?
Screening for lung cancer—looking for early disease in healthy people—could save lives. In the US National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), annual screening with computed tomography (CT) reduced lung cancer mortality by 20% among smokers at high risk of developing cancer compared with screening with a chest X-ray. But what criteria should be used to decide who is screened for lung cancer? The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), for example, recommends annual CT screening of people who are 55–80 years old, have smoked 30 or more pack-years (one pack-year is defined as a pack of cigarettes per day for one year), and—if they are former smokers—quit smoking less than 15 years ago. However, some experts think lung cancer risk prediction models—statistical models that estimate risk based on numerous personal characteristics—should be used to select people for screening. Here, the researchers evaluate PLCOm2012, a lung cancer risk prediction model based on the incidence of lung cancer among smokers enrolled in the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO). Specifically, the researchers use NLST and PLCO screening trial data to identify a PLCOm2012 risk threshold for selecting people for screening and to compare the efficiency of the PLCOm2012 model and the USPSTF criteria for identifying “screenees.”
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
By analyzing NLST data, the researchers calculated that at PLCOm2012 risk ≥0.0151, mortality (death) rates among NLST participants screened with CT were consistently below mortality rates among NLST participants screened with chest X-ray and that 255 people with a PLCOm2012 risk ≥0.0151 would need to be screened to prevent one lung cancer death. Next, they used data collected from smokers in the screened arm of the PLCO trial to compare the efficiency of the PLCOm2012 and USPSTF criteria for identifying screenees. They found that 8.8% fewer people had a PLCOm2012 risk ≥0.0151 than met USPSTF criteria for screening, but 12.4% more lung cancers were identified. Thus, using PLCOm2012 improved the sensitivity and specificity of the selection of individuals for lung cancer screening over using UPSTF criteria. Notably, 8.5% of PLCO former smokers with quit times of more than 15 years had PLCOm2012 risk ≥0.0151, none of the PLCO never-smokers had PLCOm2012 risk ≥0.0151, and the calculated risks and incidence of lung cancer were greater among PLCO smokers aged ≥65–80 years than among those aged 55–64 years.
What Do These Findings Mean?
Despite the absence of a cost-effectiveness analysis in this study, these findings suggest that the use of the PLCOm2012 risk ≥0.0151 threshold rather than USPSTF criteria for selecting individuals for lung cancer screening could improve screening efficiency. The findings have several other important implications. First, these findings suggest that screening may be justified in people who stopped smoking more than 15 years ago; USPSTF currently recommends that screening stop once an individual's quit time exceeds 15 years. Second, these findings do not support lung cancer screening among never-smokers. Finally, these findings suggest that smokers aged ≥65–80 years might benefit from screening, although the presence of additional illnesses and reduced life expectancy need to be considered before recommending the provision of routine lung cancer screening to this section of the population.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764.
The US National Cancer Institute provides information about all aspects of lung cancer for patients and health-care professionals, including information on lung cancer screening (in English and Spanish)
Cancer Research UK also provides detailed information about lung cancer and about lung cancer screening
The UK National Health Service Choices website has a page on lung cancer that includes personal stories
MedlinePlus provides links to other sources of information about lung cancer (in English and Spanish)
Information about the USPSTF recommendations for lung cancer screening is available
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764
PMCID: PMC4251899  PMID: 25460915
13.  MicroRNA Signature in Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Applied to “Atypia of Undetermined Significance” Cases 
Thyroid  2012;22(1):9-16.
Background
MicroRNA (miR) expression signatures are proposed to be able to differentiate thyroid cancer from benign thyroid lesions. We selected eight miRs (miR-146b, -221, -187, -197, -346, -30d, -138, and -302c) to examine the potential use of miRs to supplement diagnostic cytology in cases designated as “atypia of undetermined significance.”
Methods
: miR expression was measured in thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gene expression analyses and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were performed in a training sample set (n=60) to obtain a classification rule to predict FNA cases as benign or malignant. The predictions were cross-validated by comparing with the corresponding histological diagnoses. A validation sample set (n=68) was further tested with the established four-miR LDA classification rule.
Results
A set of four miRs (miR-146b, -221, -187, and -30d) was identified that could differentiate malignant from benign lesions. A four-miR LDA classification rule was obtained and used to predict FNA cases as benign or malignant. For the training sample set, we obtained a diagnostic accuracy of 93.3%, sensitivity of 93.2%, specificity of 93.8%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.98, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.83. For the validation sample set, we obtained a diagnostic accuracy of 85.3%, sensitivity of 88.9%, specificity of 78.3%, PPV of 0.89, and NPV of 0.78. For the 30 atypia cases in the validation sample set, we obtained a diagnostic accuracy of 73.3%, sensitivity of 63.6%, specificity of 78.9%, PPV of 0.64, and NPV of 0.79. Based on the miR predictions, we classified the atypia cases predicted as “malignant” into “high risk” and those predicted as “benign” into “low risk” categories. While thyroid carcinomas, particularly papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), were relatively enriched in the high-risk category, this particular miR panel is subject to inaccurate results in follicular neoplasias in atypia cases.
Conclusions
We demonstrate that miR amplification from FNA samples is feasible and that the particular four miR profile in this study can identify PTCs. However, further refinement is required for application to FNA cytology of “atypia of undetermined significance” cases due to low accuracy in classifying follicular neoplasias.
doi:10.1089/thy.2011.0081
PMCID: PMC3247703  PMID: 22136206
14.  Utility of molecular tests in cytopathology 
CytoJournal  2014;11:5.
With the popularity of interventional radiology, diagnostic material obtained can be limited requiring critical decisions on making the best use of it. Molecular testing using nanogram amounts of tissue can add useful diagnostic information by improving sensitivity and/or specificity of the diagnosis. This review examines the use of molecular tests in cervical cytology, “indeterminate” thyroid cytology specimens, pancreatic cyst fluid, urinary tract and pulmonary adenocarcinoma cytologic material. Molecular human papillomavirus (HPV) testing combined with cervical cytology increases sensitivity of detection of high grade lesions. In cytologically negative cases, the HPV negative predictive value endorses longer screening intervals. With the high prevalence of benign thyroid nodules, cytology plays a vital role in screening. However, 10-40% of the specimens obtained are cytologically indeterminate. Molecular analysis of these specimens can predict the malignant risk in these cases. Increased detection of pancreatic cysts has necessitated accurate pre-operative diagnosis delineating non-mucinous from mucinous cysts, which have a potential for progression to adenocarcinoma. Multimodal diagnosis of pancreatic cysts and molecular analysis help to clarify neoplastic risk; and in cases of limited fluid, may be the only available diagnostic information. Urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder, a common cancer with frequent recurrences, requires lifelong surveillance. The UroVysion ™ test kit can increase the sensitivity of detection of UC especially in cases of residual/recurrent carcinoma after therapy. Subsets of lung adenocarcinomas are now commonly targeted by therapies based on molecular mutation results of epidermal growth factor receptor, KRAS or echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase re-arrangements. The move toward standardization of reporting of cytology specimens commencing with cervical smears and more recently, thyroid cytology specimens is also changing the practice of cytopathology. Combining the stringent cytology criteria with ancillary molecular testing is expected to yield more discrete and diagnostic categories for research and reporting. The profession is at an exciting point of implementing novel molecular markers to refine diagnostic criteria and create clinically relevant classification systems.
doi:10.4103/1742-6413.129183
PMCID: PMC4007392  PMID: 24799949
Cytology; human papillomavirus; molecular tests; pancreatic fluid; pulmonary adenocarcinoma; thyroid; UroVysion
15.  Randomized controlled trials of the efficacy of lung cancer screening by sputum cytology revisited: a combined mortality analysis from the Johns Hopkins Lung Project and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Lung Study 
Cancer  2009;115(21):5007-5017.
Background
Two randomized controlled trials of lung cancer screening initiated in the 1970's, the Johns Hopkins Lung Project and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Lung Study, compared one arm which received annual chest x-ray and four-monthly sputum cytology (dual-screen) to a second arm which received annual chest x-ray only. Previous publications from these trials reported similar lung cancer mortality between the two groups. However, these findings were based on incomplete follow-up, and each trial on its own was underpowered to detect a modest mortality benefit.
Methods
We estimated the efficacy of lung cancer screening with sputum cytology in an intention-to-screen analysis of lung cancer mortality, using combined data from these trials (n=20,426).
Results
Over one-half of squamous cell lung cancers diagnosed in the dual-screen group were identified by cytology; these cancers tended to be more localized than squamous cancers diagnosed in the x-ray only arm. After nine years of follow-up, lung cancer mortality was slightly lower in the dual-screen than in the x-ray only arm (rate ratio (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-1.05). Reductions were seen for squamous cell cancer deaths (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.54-1.14) and in the heaviest smokers (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.67-1.00). There were also fewer deaths from large cell carcinoma in the dual-screen group, though the reason for this is unclear.
Conclusions
These data are suggestive of a modest benefit of sputum cytology screening, though we cannot rule out chance as an explanation for these findings.
doi:10.1002/cncr.24545
PMCID: PMC2767423  PMID: 19637354
lung cancer; screening; sputum cytology; chest x-ray
16.  Comparable performance of conventional and liquid-based cytology in diagnosing anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected and -uninfected Thai men who have sex with men 
Background
Anal cytology has increasingly been used to screen for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) among men who have sex with men (MSM) at increased risk for anal cancer. Use of liquid-based cytology has been reported to reduce fecal and bacterial contamination and air-drying artifact compared to conventional cytology. Costs associated with liquid-based cytology, however, may limit its use in resource-limited settings.
Methods
Anal swab samples were collected from MSM participants and used to prepare conventional and liquid-based cytology slides. Abnormal conventional cytology results triggered referral for high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) and biopsy. Agreement between the two cytology techniques and the positive predictive value (PPV) ratios of histology confirmed AIN were calculated.
Results
Among 173 MSM, abnormal anal cytology was identified in 46.2% of conventional and 32.4% of liquid-based slides. The results agreed in 62.4% of cases with a kappa (κ) value of 0.49 (P <0.001). HIV-infected MSM had a 3.6-fold increased odds of having discordant anal cytology results (95% CI 1.6–7.8, p=0.001) compared with HIV-uninfected MSM. Histological AIN 2 and 3 were identified in 20 MSM. The PPV ratios and 95% CI indicated no difference between the two techniques.
Conclusions
Conventional anal cytology may be a preferred option for resource-limited settings given comparable performances to liquid-based cytology for the detection of AIN, although the agreement between the two techniques was lower among HIV-infected MSM. Due to high prevalence of abnormal anal cytology and AIN, health systems should prepare adequate infrastructure for HRA services and AIN treatment.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182928ea6
PMCID: PMC3700600  PMID: 23535296
anal cytology; conventional; liquid-based; MSM
17.  The Utility and Management of Vaginal Cytology After Treatment For Endometrial Cancer 
Obstetrics and gynecology  2013;121(1):http://10.1097/AOG.0b013e31827499a9.
Objective
To estimate the accuracy of vaginal cytology in postoperative surveillance for detecting recurrent endometrial cancer and estimate the optimal management of squamous abnormalities detected in this setting.
Methods
This review included women who underwent hysterectomy for endometrial cancer between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010 and had at least one post-operative Pap test. Clinical and demographic data were collected and outcomes including abnormal vaginal cytology, results of colposcopic examination, and endometrial cancer recurrence were assessed. A multivariable logistic regression model to estimate the risk of abnormal cytology was created. Sensitivity, specificity and negative/positive predictive values of detecting vaginal recurrences were calculated.
Results
Four hundred thirty three women contributed 2,378 Pap tests. At least one abnormal cytology result was found during follow-up of 55 (13%) women, representing 3% of all Pap tests. No recurrent endometrial cancers were diagnosed on the basis of isolated abnormal cytology. No cases of recurrent cancer were diagnosed in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) Paps. In multivariable analysis, abnormal cytology was highly associated with prior post-operative radiation therapy (p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of an abnormal Pap test in detecting a local recurrence are 40%, 87.9%, 7.3% and 98.4%, respectively.
Conclusion
Vaginal cytology is of limited utility in detecting recurrent endometrial cancer. Pap tests read as ASC-US/LSIL can be followed without colposcopy.
PMCID: PMC3864642  PMID: 23262937
18.  ROS generation via NOX4 and its utility in the cytological diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder 
BMC Urology  2011;11:22.
Background
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via NADPH oxidase (NOX) contributes to various types of cancer progression. In the present research, we examined the pathobiological role of NADPH oxidase (NOX)4-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the urinary bladder, and demonstrated the utility of ROS labeling in urine cytology.
Methods
NOX4 gene was silenced in vivo and in vitro by NOX4 siRNA transfection with or without atlocollagen. Cell cycle and measurement of ROS were analyzed by flowcytometry. Orthotopic implantation animal model was used in vivo experiment. NOX4 expression in urothelial carcinoma cells was observed by immunohistochemical analysis using surgical specimens of human bladder cancer. Urine cytology was performed after treatment with ROS detection reagents in addition to Papanicolaou staining.
Results
NOX4 was overexpressed in several UC cell lines and the NOX inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium reduced intracellular ROS and induced p16-dependent cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Moreover, silencing of NOX4 by siRNA significantly reduced cancer cell growth in vivo as assessed in an orthotopic mouse model. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated high expression of NOX4 in low grade/non-invasive and high grade/invasive UC including precancerous lesions such as dysplasia but not in normal urothelium. Then, we assessed the usefulness of cytological analysis of ROS producing cells in urine (ROS-C). Urine samples obtained from UC cases and normal controls were treated with fluorescent reagents labeling the hydrogen peroxide/superoxide anion and cytological atypia of ROS positive cells were analyzed. As a result, the sensitivity for detection of low grade, non-invasive UC was greatly increased (35% in conventional cytology (C-C) vs. 75% in ROS-C), and the specificity was 95%. Through ROS-C, we observed robust improvement in the accuracy of follow-up urine cytology for cases with previously diagnosed UC, especially in those with low grade/non-invasive cancer recurrence (0% in C-C vs. 64% in ROS-C).
Conclusions
This is the first report demonstrating that ROS generation through NOX4 contributes to an early step of urothelial carcinogenesis and cancer cell survival. In addition, cytology using ROS labeling could be a useful diagnostic tool in human bladder cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-11-22
PMCID: PMC3215170  PMID: 22032647
19.  Liquid-based cytological test of samples obtained by catheter aspiration is applicable for the bronchoscopic confirmation of pulmonary malignant tumors 
The aim of the present study is to confirm the value of electronic bronchoscopy-aided catheter aspiration technique with liquid-based cytological test in the diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma. A total of 815 patients of lung cancer were evaluated by bronchoscopy between February 2011 and June 2012. Catheter aspiration technique and forceps biopsy during bronchoscopy were employed to obtain adequate tissue specimens. Liquid-based cytological test and conventional smears for catheter aspiration were used for cytological detection of the tumors. For all cytological specimens, slide preparations with LCT and CS were reviewed by two senior pathologists, who were blinded to patient medical history. Complications related to electronic bronchoscopy, such as bleeding, were clinically judged as light, moderate or severe by the needs for clinical interventions. The diagnostic yield of catheter aspiration in endobronchial visible lesions (tumor, infiltrative and necrotic lesions) was 94.6% (success rates concerning malignancy), which was slightly higher than that of the forceps biopsy (91.4%, P < 0.05). The diagnostic yield of catheter aspiration in endobronchial invisible lesions (normal, compressive and nonspecific lesions) was 82.8%, which was significantly higher than that of the forceps biopsy (51.4%, P < 0.01). The combination of the forceps biopsy with the cytological analysis of the catheter aspiration increased the diagnostic sensitivity in both lesion types (P < 0.05). For catheter aspiration, the positive rate of lung cancer by liquid-based cytological test was superior to that by conventional smears (P < 0.05). The catheter aspiration is a sampling technique that produces higher diagnostic rate for lung cancers compared with forceps biopsy. Liquid-based cytological test is routinely applicable for the diagnosis of lung cancer using samples collected through electronic bronchoscopy.
PMCID: PMC4069929  PMID: 24966963
Electronic bronchoscope; lung cancer; catheter aspiration; sampling technique; liquid-based cytology test
20.  Screening for Cervical Cancer Precursors With p16/Ki-67 Dual-Stained Cytology: Results of the PALMS Study 
Background
Pap cytology is known to be more specific but less sensitive than testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). We assessed whether p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology, a biomarker combination indicative of transforming HPV infections, can provide high sensitivity for CIN2+ in screening while maintaining high specificity. Results were compared with Pap cytology and HPV testing.
Methods
A total of 27349 women 18 years or older attending routine cervical cancer screening were prospectively enrolled in five European countries. Pap cytology, p16/Ki-67 immunostaining, and HPV testing were performed on all women. Positive test results triggered colposcopy referral, except for women younger than 30 years with only positive HPV test results. Presence of CIN2+ on adjudicated histology was used as the reference standard. Two-sided bias-corrected McNemar P values were determined.
Results
The p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology positivity rates were comparable with the prevalence of abnormal Pap cytology results and less than 50% of the positivity rates observed for HPV testing. In women of all ages, dual-stained cytology was more sensitive than Pap cytology (86.7% vs 68.5%; P < .001) for detecting CIN2+, with comparable specificity (95.2% vs 95.4%; P = .15). The relative performance of the tests was similar in both groups of women: younger than age 30 and 30 years or older. HPV testing in women 30 years or older was more sensitive than dual-stained cytology (93.3% vs 84.7%; P = .03) but less specific (93.0% vs 96.2%; P < .001).
Conclusions
The p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology combines superior sensitivity and noninferior specificity over Pap cytology for detecting CIN2+. It suggests a potential role of dual-stained cytology in screening, especially in younger women where HPV testing has its limitations.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djt235
PMCID: PMC3814411  PMID: 24096620
21.  Prevalence of genital human papillomavirus infection in Wellington women. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1992;68(4):228-232.
OBJECTIVES--To determine prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in Wellington women, to identify risk factors for HPV infection, to correlate presence of HPV with cervical cytology, and to identify characteristics of women infected with HPV but with normal cytology. DESIGN--Demographic, social, personal and clinical data were collected by a confidential self-administered coded questionnaire. The presence of DNA from HPV types 6/11, 16 + 18 and 31 + 33 in cervical scrapes was determined by dot-blot DNA hybridisation. All data were correlated with cervical cytology results. SETTING AND SUBJECTS--Two thousand and twenty one women attending family planning clinics in the Wellington region participated in the study. The mean age of participants was 26 years, 33.3% currently smoked, 72.3% used hormonal contraceptives, 31.4% were married, and 91.4% were of European origin. RESULTS--We found 10.9% of the study group infected with HPV. HPV types 16 and/or 18 predominated, being detected in 71.5% of HPV-positive women either alone or with other types. Of those infected 26.2% had multiple infections. Dysplasia (n = 87) or atypia (n = 84) were observed in 26.7% of infected women (n = 221) and 6.25% of uninfected women (n = 1792). Over 8% of women with normal smears were HPV positive, and types 16/18 were most common in these women. CONCLUSIONS--Women with cervical dysplasia or atypia were six times more likely to have HPV infection than other women. The main risk factor for HPV infection, particularly with types 16 and/or 18, was multiple (> 5) sexual partners in the last year independent of other variables. Multivariate analysis of data showed no independent association between HPV infection and ethnicity, educational background, smoking history, marital status, contraceptive use, age at first sexual intercourse, or number of lifetime sexual partners.
PMCID: PMC1194878  PMID: 1328032
22.  Comparison of the novel quantitative ARMS assay and an enriched PCR–ASO assay for K-ras mutations with conventional cytology on endobiliary brush cytology from 312 consecutive extrahepatic biliary stenoses 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2005;58(12):1315-1320.
Background: Extrahepatic biliary stenosis (EBS) has malignant and benign causes. Patients with EBS are at risk of having or developing malignancy. Accurate diagnostic tests for early detection and surveillance are needed. The sensitivity of biliary cytology for malignancy is low. K-ras mutation analysis on brush cytology is a valuable adjunct, but specificity is low. A quantitative test for K-ras mutations has been developed: the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS).
Aim: To assess the test characteristics and additional value of ARMS in diagnosing the cause of EBS.
Methods: Brush samples from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography were collected from 312 patients with EBS. K-ras mutation analysis was performed using ARMS—allele specific amplification was coupled with real time fluorescent detection of PCR products. Results were compared with conventional cytology and K-ras mutation analysis using allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridisation, and evaluated in view of the final diagnosis.
Results: The test characteristics of ARMS and ASO largely agreed. Sensitivity for detecting malignancy was 49% and 42%, specificity 93% and 88%, and positive predictive value (PPV) 96% and 91%, respectively. The sensitivity of ARMS and cytology combined was 71%, and PPV was 93%. The specificity of ARMS could be increased to 100% by setting limits for the false positives, but reduced sensitivity from 49% to 43%.
Conclusions: ARMS can be considered supplementary to conventional cytology, and comparable to ASO in diagnosing malignant EBS. A specificity of 100% can be achieved with ARMS, which should be considered in the surveillance of patients at risk for pancreatic cancer.
doi:10.1136/jcp.2004.022707
PMCID: PMC1770790  PMID: 16311354
K-ras; amplification refractory mutation system; allele specific oligonucleotide; brush cytology; extrahepatic biliary stenosis
23.  Protecting the underscreened women in developed countries: the value of HPV test 
BMC Cancer  2014;14(1):574.
Background
Poor attendance to cervical cancer (CC) screening is a major risk factor for CC. Efforts to capture underscreened women are considerable and once women agree to participate, the provision of longitudinal validity of the screening test is of paramount relevance. We evaluate the addition of high risk HPV test (HPV) to cervical cytology as a primary screening test among underscreened women in the longitudinal prediction of intraepithelial lesions grade 2 or worse (CIN2+).
Methods
Women were included in the study if they were older than 39 years and with no evidence of cervical cytology in the previous five years within the Public Primary Health Care System in Catalonia (Spain). 1,832 underscreened women from eight public primary health areas were identified during 2007–2008 and followed-up for over three years to estimate longitudinal detection of CIN2+. Accuracy of each screening test and the combination of both to detect CIN2+ was estimated. The risk of developing CIN2+ lesions according to histology data by cytology and HPV test results at baseline was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method.
Results
At baseline, 6.7% of participants were HPV positive, 2.2% had an abnormal cytology and 1.3% had both tests positive. At the end of follow-up, 18 out of 767 (2.3%) underscreened women had a CIN2+, two of which were invasive CC. The three-year longitudinal sensitivity and specificity estimates to detect CIN2+ were 90.5% and 93.0% for HPV test and 38.2% and 97.8% for cytology. The negative predictive value was >99.0% for each test. No additional gains in validity parameters of HPV test were observed when adding cytology as co-test. The referral to colposcopy was higher for HPV but generated 53% higher detection of CIN2+ compared to cytology.
Conclusions
Underscreened women had high burden of cervical disease. Primary HPV screening followed by cytology triage could be the optimal strategy to identify CIN2+ leading to longer and safe screen intervals.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-574
PMCID: PMC4137095  PMID: 25102758
Human papilloma virus; Cervical cytology; Pap smear; Cervical cancer screening; HC2 testing; HPV test; Sensitivity; Specificity; Underscreened women
24.  Application of ThinPrep Bronchial Brushing Cytology in the Early Diagnosis of Lung Cancer: A Retrospective Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e90163.
The majority of lung cancer patients are diagnosed at advanced stages of disease. This study evaluated the diagnostic value of ThinPrep (TP) bronchial brushing cytology in lung cancer. A total of 595 patients with suspicious lung cancer were enrolled in this study. The bronchial brushing samples were prepared by TP. The data were then compared to histology of lung tissue samples. Histologically, 479 of these 595 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer, including 223 cases of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 77 cases of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC), and 152 cases of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). The TP cytology revealed a total of 460 cases of lung cancer (including 232 SCCs, 91 ADCs, and 108 SCLCs). The TP cytological technique had 87.06% sensitivity and 62.93% specificity in the diagnosis of lung cancer. Specifically, TP cytology confirmed 195 of 223 SCCs, 47 of 77 ADCs, and 94 of 152 SCLCs. The TP cytology showed 87.44% sensitivity and 90.05% specificity for the diagnosis of SCC, with a Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.820; while the sensitivity was reduced to 61.04% and the specificity was 90.93% for the diagnosis of ADC, with a MCC of 0.464. For the diagnosis of SCLC, the sensitivity was 61.84% and the specificity was 96.84%, with a MCC of 0.648. Thus, this study demonstrated the usefulness of TP bronchial brushing cytology in the early diagnosis of lung cancer, especially the early stage of lung SCC. A prospective clinical trial will verify these data before being translated into the clinic.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090163
PMCID: PMC3997333  PMID: 24759600
25.  NIPPLE ASPIRATE FLUID AND DUCTOSCOPY TO DETECT BREAST CANCER 
Diagnostic Cytopathology  2010;38(4):244-251.
Background
We prospectively performed cytologic assessment and image analysis (IA) on matched nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and mammary ductoscopy (MD) specimens to determine 1) the accuracy of these methods in cancer detection, and 2) whether the two collection methods provide complementary information.
Methods
NAF and MD specimens were collected from 84 breasts from 75 women (nine bilateral samples) who underwent breast surgery. Cytologic evaluation was performed on all samples. Image analysis was performed on slides with sufficient epithelial cells.
Results
Cytologic evaluation proved more accurate in patients without pathologic spontaneous nipple discharge (PND) than those with PND, mainly because of the potential false positive diagnosis in the latter. While the sensitivity of NAF and MD cytology was low (10% and 14%, respectively), both were 100% specific in cancer detection in the non-PND cohort. Combining NAF and MD cytology information improved sensitivity (24%) without sacrificing specificity. Similar to cytology, image analysis was more accurate in patients without PND having high specificity (100% for aneuploid IA), but relatively low sensitivity (36%). Combining NAF and MD cytology with aneuploid IA improved the sensitivity (45%) while maintaining high specificity (100%). The best predictive model was positive NAF cytology and/or MD cytology combined with IA aneuploidy, which resulted in 55% sensitivity and 100% specificity in breast cancer detection.
Conclusions
Cytologic evaluation and IA of NAF and MD specimens are complementary. The presence of atypical cells arising from an intraductal papilloma in ductoscopic specimens is a potential source of false positive diagnosis in patients with nipple discharge.
doi:10.1002/dc.21177
PMCID: PMC3390775  PMID: 19795490
nipple aspirate fluid; mammary ductoscopy; image analysis; cytology; breast cancer detection

Results 1-25 (1130462)