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1.  Intradural Migration of a Sequestrated Lumbar Disc Fragment Masquerading as a Spinal Intradural Tumor 
Intervertebral intradural lumbar disc herniation (ILDH) is a quite rare pathology, and isolated intradural lumbar disc herniation is even more rare. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not be able to reveal ILDHs, especially if MRI findings show an intact lumbar disc annulus and posterior longitudinal ligament. Here, we present an exceedingly rare case of an isolated IDLH that we initially misidentified as a spinal intradural tumor, in a 54-year-old man hospitalized with a 2-month history of back pain and right sciatica. Neurologic examination revealed a positive straight leg raise test on the right side, but he presented no other sensory, motor, or sphincter disturbances. A gadolinium-enhanced MRI revealed what we believed to be an intradural extramedullary tumor compressing the cauda equina leftward in the thecal sac, at the L2 vertebral level. The patient underwent total L2 laminectomy, and we extirpated the intradural mass under microscopic guidance. Histologic examination of the mass revealed a degenerated nucleus pulposus.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.2.156
PMCID: PMC3467376  PMID: 23091677
Intradural disc herniation; Spinal intradural tumor; Magnetic resonance imaging
2.  Intradural Lumbar Disc Herniations Associated with Epidural Adhesion : Report of Two Cases 
Intradural lumbar disc herniation (ILDH) is rare. In this report, authors present 2 cases of ILDHs associated with severe adhesion between the dural sac and posterior longitudinal ligament. In a 40-year-old man, ILDH occurred in association with epidural adhesion due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). In other 31-year-old man, ILDH occurred in presence of epidural adhesion due to previous spine surgery.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.2.168
PMCID: PMC2744029  PMID: 19763222
Intradural lumbar disc herniation; Ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament; Epidural adhesion
3.  Cauda equina entrapment in a pseudomeningocele after lumbar Schwannoma extirpation 
European Spine Journal  2009;19(Suppl 2):158-161.
Incidental or intentional durotomy causing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, leading to the formation of a pseudomeningocele is a known complication in spinal surgery. Herniation of nerve roots into such a pseudomeningocele is very rare, but can occur up to years after initial durotomy and has been described to cause permanent neurologic deficit. However, cauda equina fiber herniation and entrapment into a pseudomeningocele has not been reported before. Here, we present a case of symptomatic transdural cauda equina herniation and incarceration into a pseudomeningocele, 3 months after extirpation of a lumbar Schwannoma. A 59-year-old man, who previously underwent intradural Schwannoma extirpation presented 3 months after surgery with back pain, sciatica and loss of bladder filling sensation caused by cauda equina fiber entrapment into a defect in the wall of a pseudomeningocele, diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging. On re-operation, the pseudomeningocele was resected and the herniated and entrapped cauda fibers were released and replaced intradurally. The dura defect was closed and the patient recovered completely. In conclusion, CSF leakage can cause neurological deficit up to years after durotomy by transdural nerve root herniation and subsequent entrapment. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of this potentially devastating complication. The present case also underlines the importance of meticulous dura closure in spinal surgery.
doi:10.1007/s00586-009-1219-y
PMCID: PMC2899623  PMID: 19924448
Pseudomeningocele; Dura defect; Nerve root entrapment
4.  Redundant Nerve Roots of Cauda Equina Mimicking Intradural Disc Herniation: A Case Report 
Korean Journal of Spine  2013;10(1):41-43.
Redundant Nerve Roots (RNRs) is an uncommon clinical condition characterized by a tortuous, serpentine, large and elongated nerve root of the cauda equina. To our knowledge, most cases of RNRs are associated with lumbar stenosis, and RNRs associated with lumbar disc herniation has not been reported until now.
Here we present a rare case of unusual RNRs associated with lumbar disc herniation mimicking intradural disc herniation.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2013.10.1.41
PMCID: PMC3941734  PMID: 24757458
Redundant nerve roots; Lumbar disc herniation
5.  Cauda equina lesions as a complication of spinal surgery 
European Spine Journal  2009;19(3):451-457.
Although the most common aetiology of cauda equina lesions is lumbar intervertebral disc herniation, iatrogenic lesions may also be the cause. The aim of this study was to identify and present patients in whom cauda equina lesions occurred after spinal surgery. From the author’s series of patients with cauda equina lesions, those with the appearance of sacral symptoms after spinal surgery were identified. To demonstrate lesions more objectively, electrodiagnostic studies were performed in addition to history and clinical examination. Imaging studies were also reviewed. Of 69 patients from the series, 11 patients in whom a cauda equina lesion developed after spinal surgery were identified. The aetiology comprised surgery for herniated intervertebral disc in 5 (4 performed by a single surgeon), spinal stenosis surgery in 4, and postoperative lumbar epidural haematoma in 2 patients (each performed by a different surgeon). Proportion of spinal surgeries with this complication varied from 0 to 6.6‰ in different centres. Patients with iatrogenic cauda equina lesion were significantly older (p < 0.001), and reported more severe urinary, but similar bowel and sexual symptoms compared to other patients in the series. In conclusion the study identified spinal surgery as the cause of approximately 15% of cauda equina lesions. More than a third of lesions developed after procedures performed by a single surgeon. Most of the remaining lesions could probably be avoided by better surgical technique (e.g. the use of a high-speed drill instead of a Kerrison rongeur in patients with severe spinal stenosis), or prevented by closer postoperative monitoring (e.g. in patients with postoperative lumbar epidural haematoma).
doi:10.1007/s00586-009-1170-y
PMCID: PMC2899755  PMID: 19768646
Cauda equina; Disc herniation; Spinal stenosis; Spinal surgery; Sacral
6.  Intradural Disc Herniation at L5-S1 Mimicking an Intradural Extramedullary Spinal Tumor: A Case Report 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(4):778-780.
Intradural lumbar disc herniation is a rare pathological entity. The pathogenesis of intradural lumbar disc herniation is not known clearly. Intradural disc herniations usually occurred at the L4-L5 levels but have also been reported at other levels. However, intradural disc herniation at L5-S1 is quite rare. There are approximately nine reports in the English literature of intraradicular disc herniation at L5-S1. We described a 61-yr-old man with suspected intradural mass at the level of L5-S1 space. The patient presented with pain in the lower back and both lower legs for 4 months and a sudden exacerbation of the symptoms for 3 days. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a large disc herniation at the L5-S1 level with an intradural component. L5 and S1 laminectomy was performed, and dura was swollen and immobile. Subsequent durotomy was performed and an intradural disc fragment was removed. The patient had full recovery in 3 months. Intradural lumbar disc herniation must be considered in the differential diagnosis of mass lesions in the spinal canal. Contrast-enhanced MRI scans are useful to differentiate a herniated disc from a disc space infection or tumor.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2006.21.4.778
PMCID: PMC2729910  PMID: 16891832
Intervertebral Disk Displacement; Spinal Cord Neoplasms; Intradural Disc Herniation; L5-S1; Magnetic Resonance Imaging
7.  Dorsal Extradural Lumbar Disc Herniation Causing Cauda Equina Syndrome : A Case Report and Review of Literature 
A 73-year-old male presented with a rare dorsally sequestrated lumbar disc herniation manifesting as severe radiating pain in both leg, progressively worsening weakness in both lower extremities, and urinary incontinence, suggesting cauda equina syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging suggested the sequestrated disc fragment located in the extradural space at the L4-L5 level had surrounded and compressed the dural sac from the lateral to dorsal sides. A bilateral decompressive laminectomy was performed under an operating microscope. A large extruded disc was found to have migrated from the ventral aspect, around the thecal sac, and into the dorsal aspect, which compressed the sac to the right. After removal of the disc fragment, his sciatica was relieved and the patient felt strength of lower extremity improved.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.3.217
PMCID: PMC2851086  PMID: 20379476
Lumbar disc herniation; Dorsal; Intradural; Migrated
8.  Intradural lumbar disc herniation: report of five cases with literature review 
European Spine Journal  2012;22(Suppl 3):404-408.
Introduction
Intradural lumbar disc herniations are uncommon presentations of a relatively frequent pathology, representing less than 1% of all lumbar disc hernias. They show specific features concerning their clinical diagnosis, with a higher incidence of cauda equina syndrome, and their surgical treatment requires a transdural approach.
Methods
In this article, we describe five cases of this pathology and review the literature as well as some considerations about the difficulties in the preoperative diagnostic issues and the surgical technique.
Conclusion
We concluded that for intradural disc herniations the diagnosis is mainly intraoperative, and the surgical technique has some special aspects.
doi:10.1007/s00586-012-2516-4
PMCID: PMC3641279  PMID: 23014741
Intradural herniation; Lumbar herniated disc; Cauda equina syndrome; Microdiscectomy
9.  Radicular interdural lumbar disc herniation 
European Spine Journal  2009;19(Suppl 2):149-152.
Intraradicular lumbar disc herniation is a rare complication of disc disease that is generally diagnosed only during surgery. The mechanism for herniated disc penetration into the intradural space is not known with certainty, but adhesion between the radicular dura and the posterior longitudinal ligament was suggested as the most important condition. The authors report the first case of an intraradicular lumbar disc herniation without subdural penetration; the disc hernia was lodged between the two radicular dura layers. The patient, a 34-year-old soldier, was admitted with a 12-month history of low back pain and episodic left sciatica. Neurologic examination showed a positive straight leg raising test on the left side without sensory, motor or sphincter disturbances. Spinal CT scan and MRI exploration revealed a left posterolateral osteophyte formation at the L5–S1 level with an irregular large disc herniation, which migrated superiorly. An intradural extension was suspected. A left L5 hemilaminectomy and S1 foraminotomy were performed. The exploration revealed a large fragment of disc material located between the inner and outer layers of the left S1 radicular dura. The mass was extirpated without cerebrospinal fluid outflow. The postoperative course was uneventful. Radicular interdural lumbar disc herniation should be suspected when a swollen, hard and immobile nerve root is present intraoperatively.
doi:10.1007/s00586-009-1200-9
PMCID: PMC2899617  PMID: 19888608
Intradural disc herniation; Intraradicular lumbar disc; Magnetic resonance imaging; Spinal nerve root compression
10.  Chronic dura erosion and intradural lumbar disc herniation: CT and MR imaging and intraoperative photographs of a transdural sequestrectomy 
European Spine Journal  2011;21(Suppl 4):453-457.
Introduction
A 47-year-old male with a history of recurrent low-back pain presented with acute left radiculopathy.
Material and methods
The CT and MR scans showed a severe osteochondrosis of the L4/5 segment, a broad protrusion of the disc annulus and extrusion of nucleus material into the spinal canal on the left side.
Results
The caudally dislocated sequester pieces were visualised intradurally and the intraoperative finding confirmed this rare pathology. After dorsal durotomy-free sequester material was found between the nerve rootlets within the subarachnoid space and altogether ten fragments were removed. Further transdural exploration visualised ventrally a round dura defect surrounded by a thickened arachnoid layer with enlarged veins as a sign of a chronic erosive process.
Discussion
Patients history, imaging and the intraoperative findings support the thesis, that chronic degenerative disc disease and adhesions between the posterior longitudinal ligament and the dura are the predisposing pathogenetic factors for an intradural disc herniation.
Conclusion
Intradural disc herniation is a rare condition and requires durotomy to remove the pathology. Therefore an actual high resolution MRI is mandatory in all cases of intraspinal space occupying lesions.
doi:10.1007/s00586-011-2073-2
PMCID: PMC3369034  PMID: 22109565
Lumbar disc herniation; Intradural sequester; Transdural sequestrectomy; Dura erosion
11.  Intradural disc herniation at L5 level mimicking an intradural spinal tumor 
European Spine Journal  2011;20(Suppl 2):326-329.
Intradural lumbar disc herniation is a rare complication of disc disease. The reason for the tearing of the dura matter by a herniated disc is not clearly known. Intradural disc herniations usually occur at the disc levels and are often seen at L4–L5 level but have also been reported at other intervertebral disc levels. However, intradural disc herniation at mid-vertebral levels is rare in the literature and mimics an intradural extramedullary spinal tumor lesion in radiological evaluation. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium is useful in the diagnosis of this condition, preoperative correct diagnosis is usually difficult and the definitive diagnosis must be made during surgery. We describe here a 50-year-old female patient who presented with pain in the lower back for 6 months and a sudden exacerbation of the pain that spread to the left leg as well as numbness in both legs for 2 weeks. MRI demonstrated an intradural mass at the level of L5. Laminectomy was performed, and subsequently durotomy was also performed. An intradural disc fragment was found and completely removed. The patient recovered fully in 3 months. Intradural lumbar disc herniation must be considered in the differential diagnosis of mass lesions in the spinal canal.
doi:10.1007/s00586-011-1772-z
PMCID: PMC3111494  PMID: 21424915
Intervertebral disc herniation; Intradural disc herniation; Intraspinal tumor; L5
12.  Episodic cauda equina compression from an intradural lumbar herniated disc: a case of ‘floppy disc’ 
Intradural disc herniation (IDDH) is a rare complication of intervertebral disc disease and comprises 0.26-0.30% of all herniated discs, with 92% of them located in the lumbar region (1). We present a case of IDDH that presented with intermittent symptoms and signs of cauda equina compression. We were unable to find in the literature, any previously described cases of intermittent cauda equina compression from a herniated intradural disc fragment leading to a “floppy disc syndrome”.
doi:10.1093/jscr/2011.9.6
PMCID: PMC3649298  PMID: 24950507
13.  Minimally invasive surgical procedures for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation 
Introduction
In up to 30% of patients undergoing lumbar disc surgery for herniated or protruded discs outcomes are judged unfavourable. Over the last decades this problem has stimulated the development of a number of minimally-invasive operative procedures. The aim is to relieve pressure from compromised nerve roots by mechanically removing, dissolving or evaporating disc material while leaving bony structures and surrounding tissues as intact as possible. In Germany, there is hardly any utilisation data for these new procedures – data files from the statutory health insurances demonstrate that about 5% of all lumbar disc surgeries are performed using minimally-invasive techniques. Their real proportion is thought to be much higher because many procedures are offered by private hospitals and surgeries and are paid by private health insurers or patients themselves. So far no comprehensive assessment comparing efficacy, safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of minimally-invasive lumbar disc surgery to standard procedures (microdiscectomy, open discectomy) which could serve as a basis for coverage decisions, has been published in Germany.
Objective
Against this background the aim of the following assessment is:
Based on published scientific literature assess safety, efficacy and effectiveness of minimally-invasive lumbar disc surgery compared to standard procedures. To identify and critically appraise studies comparing costs and cost-effectiveness of minimally-invasive procedures to that of standard procedures. If necessary identify research and evaluation needs and point out regulative needs within the German health care system. The assessment focusses on procedures that are used in elective lumbar disc surgery as alternative treatment options to microdiscectomy or open discectomy. Chemonucleolysis, percutaneous manual discectomy, automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy, laserdiscectomy and endoscopic procedures accessing the disc by a posterolateral or posterior approach are included.
Methods
In order to assess safety, efficacy and effectiveness of minimally-invasive procedures as well as their economic implications systematic reviews of the literature are performed. A comprehensive search strategy is composed to search 23 electronic databases, among them MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Methodological quality of systematic reviews, HTA reports and primary research is assessed using checklists of the German Scientific Working Group for Health Technology Assessment. Quality and transparency of cost analyses are documented using the quality and transparency catalogues of the working group. Study results are summarised in a qualitative manner. Due to the limited number and the low methodological quality of the studies it is not possible to conduct metaanalyses. In addition to the results of controlled trials results of recent case series are introduced and discussed.
Results
The evidence-base to assess safety, efficacy and effectiveness of minimally-invasive lumbar disc surgery procedures is rather limited:
Percutaneous manual discectomy: Six case series (four after 1998)Automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy: Two RCT (one discontinued), twelve case series (one after 1998)Chemonucleolysis: Five RCT, five non-randomised controlled trials, eleven case seriesPercutaneous laserdiscectomy: One non-randomised controlled trial, 13 case series (eight after 1998)Endoscopic procedures: Three RCT, 21 case series (17 after 1998)
There are two economic analyses each retrieved for chemonucleolysis and automated percutaneous discectomy as well as one cost-minimisation analysis comparing costs of an endoscopic procedure to costs for open discectomy.
Among all minimally-invasive procedures chemonucleolysis is the only of which efficacy may be judged on the basis of results from high quality randomised controlled trials (RCT). Study results suggest that the procedure maybe (cost)effectively used as an intermediate therapeutical option between conservative and operative management of small lumbar disc herniations or protrusions causing sciatica. Two RCT comparing transforaminal endoscopic procedures with microdiscectomy in patients with sciatica and small non-sequestered disc herniations show comparable short and medium term overall success rates. Concerning speed of recovery and return to work a trend towards more favourable results for the endoscopic procedures is noted. It is doubtful though, whether these results from the eleven and five years old studies are still valid for the more advanced procedures used today. The only RCT comparing the results of automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy to those of microdiscectomy showed clearly superior results of microdiscectomy. Furthermore, success rates of automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy reported in the RCT (29%) differ extremely from success rates reported in case series (between 56% and 92%).
The literature search retrieves no controlled trials to assess efficacy and/or effectiveness of laser-discectomy, percutaneous manual discectomy or endoscopic procedures using a posterior approach in comparison to the standard procedures. Results from recent case series permit no assessment of efficacy, especially not in comparison to standard procedures. Due to highly selected patients, modi-fications of operative procedures, highly specialised surgical units and poorly standardised outcome assessment results of case series are highly variable, their generalisability is low.
The results of the five economical analyses are, due to conceptual and methodological problems, of no value for decision-making in the context of the German health care system.
Discussion
Aside from low methodological study quality three conceptual problems complicate the interpretation of results.
Continuous further development of technologies leads to a diversity of procedures in use which prohibits generalisation of study results. However, diversity is noted not only for minimally-invasive procedures but also for the standard techniques against which the new developments are to be compared. The second problem refers to the heterogeneity of study populations. For most studies one common inclusion criterion was "persisting sciatica after a course of conservative treatment of variable duration". Differences among study populations are noted concerning results of imaging studies. Even within every group of minimally-invasive procedure, studies define their own in- and exclusion criteria which differ concerning degree of dislocation and sequestration of disc material. There is the non-standardised assessment of outcomes which are performed postoperatively after variable periods of time. Most studies report results in a dichotomous way as success or failure while the classification of a result is performed using a variety of different assessment instruments or procedures. Very often the global subjective judgement of results by patients or surgeons is reported. There are no scientific discussions whether these judgements are generalisable or comparable, especially among studies that are conducted under differing socio-cultural conditions. Taking into account the weak evidence-base for efficacy and effectiveness of minimally-invasive procedures it is not surprising that so far there are no dependable economic analyses.
Conclusions
Conclusions that can be drawn from the results of the present assessment refer in detail to the specified minimally-invasive procedures of lumbar disc surgery but they may also be considered exemplary for other fields where optimisation of results is attempted by technological development and widening of indications (e.g. total hip replacement).
Compared to standard technologies (open discectomy, microdiscectomy) and with the exception of chemonucleolysis, the developmental status of all other minimally-invasive procedures assessed must be termed experimental. To date there is no dependable evidence-base to recommend their use in routine clinical practice. To create such a dependable evidence-base further research in two directions is needed: a) The studies need to include adequate patient populations, use realistic controls (e.g. standard operative procedures or continued conservative care) and use standardised measurements of meaningful outcomes after adequate periods of time. b) Studies that are able to report effectiveness of the procedures under everyday practice conditions and furthermore have the potential to detect rare adverse effects are needed. In Sweden this type of data is yielded by national quality registries. On the one hand their data are used for quality improvement measures and on the other hand they allow comprehensive scientific evaluations. Since the year of 2000 a continuous rise in utilisation of minimally-invasive lumbar disc surgery is observed among statutory health insurers. Examples from other areas of innovative surgical technologies (e.g. robot assisted total hip replacement) indicate that the rise will probably continue - especially because there are no legal barriers to hinder introduction of innovative treatments into routine hospital care. Upon request by payers or providers the "Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss" may assess a treatments benefit, its necessity and cost-effectiveness as a prerequisite for coverage by the statutory health insurance. In the case of minimally-invasive disc surgery it would be advisable to examine the legal framework for covering procedures only if they are provided under evaluation conditions. While in Germany coverage under evaluation conditions is established practice in ambulatory health care only (“Modellvorhaben") examples from other European countries (Great Britain, Switzerland) demonstrate that it is also feasible for hospital based interventions. In order to assure patient protection and at the same time not hinder the further development of new and promising technologies provision under evaluation conditions could also be realised in the private health care market - although in this sector coverage is not by law linked to benefit, necessity and cost-effectiveness of an intervention.
PMCID: PMC3011322  PMID: 21289928
14.  Herniated intervertebral disc associated with a lumbar spine dislocation as a cause of Cauda Equina syndrome: a case report 
European Spine Journal  2006;15(6):1015-1018.
To report a case of Cauda Equina syndrome with the completion of the paralysis after the reduction of a L4L5 dislocation due to a herniated disc. Although several articles have described a post-traumatic disc herniation in the cervical spinal canal, this is not well known in the lumbar region. A 30-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room with blunt trauma to the chest and abdomen with multiple contusions plus a dislocation of L4-L5 with an incomplete neurological injury. After an emergency open reduction and instrumentation of the dislocation, the patient developed a complete cauda equina syndrome that has resulted from an additional compression of the dural sac by a herniated disc. In a dislocation of the lumbar spine, MRI study is mandatory to check the state of the spinal canal prior to surgical reduction. A posterior approach is sufficient for reduction of the vertebral displacement, however an intra-canal exploration for bony or disc material should be systematically done.
doi:10.1007/s00586-005-0947-x
PMCID: PMC3489452  PMID: 16614853
Cauda equine; Herniated disc; Lumbar dislocation; MRI; Reduction
15.  Giant cystic intradural extramedullary pilocytic astrocytoma of Cauda equina 
Astrocytomas of Conus-Cauda equina region are rare. Astrocytomas, which are intramedullary tumors, may rarely have an extramedullary component. However, primary intradural extramedullary astrocytomas are extremely rare, with very few cases reported in the literature. We describe a giant extramedullary pilocytic astrocytoma of Cauda equina in a 20-year-old male. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in the available literature. This case highlights the fact that astrocytomas can be primarily extramedullary and emphasizes the need to consider pilocytic astrocytoma in the differential diagnosis of cystic Cauda equina tumors.
doi:10.4103/0976-3147.120217
PMCID: PMC3858770  PMID: 24347958
Cauda equina; extramedullary; giant; pilocytic astrocytoma
16.  Hydatid disease of spine: Multiple meticulous surgeries and a long term followup 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2014;48(5):529-532.
We present a long term followup (13 years) of spinal hydatid disease with multiple recurrences and intradural dissemination of the disease at the last followup. Intradural extension of the disease in our case was supposedly through the dural rent which has not been reported in English literature. An early followup of the same case has been reported previously by the authors. A 53 year-old female came with progressive left leg pain and difficulty in walking since 2 months. On examination, she had grade four power of ankle and digit dorsiflexors (L4 and L5 myotomes) on the left side (Medical Research Council grade). There was no sensory loss, no myelopathy and sphincters were intact. Plain radiographs showed consolidation at D10-D11 (old operated levels) with stable anterior column and there were no implant related problems. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a cystic lesion at L3-L4, signal intensity same as of cerebrospinal fluid in T2 and T1, displacing the cauda equina roots. The proximal extent of the lesion could not be identified because of artifacts from previous stainless steel instrumentation. Computed tomography myelogram showed complete block at L3-L4 junction with “meniscus sign”. This is the longest followup of hydatid disease of the spine that has ever been reported. Hydatid disease should always be included in the differential diagnosis of destructive or infectious lesions of the spine. Aggressive radical resection whenever possible and chemotherapy is the key to good results. Recurrence is known to occur even after that. Disease can have long remission periods. Possibility of intradural dissemination through dural injury is highly likely. Hence, it should always be repaired whenever possible.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.139886
PMCID: PMC4175872  PMID: 25298565
Hydatid cyst; intradural dissemination; recurrence; Hydatid; cyst; spinal diseases
17.  Intradural schwannoma complicated by lumbar disc herniation at the same level: A case report and review of the literature 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(2):936-938.
Intradural tumours of the spine are usually benign and have a good prognosis, if they are diagnosed and removed early. Lumbar disc herniation is a common cause of chronic, acute, or recurrent lumbar radiculopathy. However, to date, there have been no reports of progressive neurological deficiencies due to the co-existence of two significant pathologies contributing to intradural and extradural compression. The current study reports the rare case of a patient with simultaneous extradural and intradural compression of the nerve root due to co-existent intervertebral disc herniation and an intradural schwannoma at the same level. A 71-year-old female suffering from lower back pain and radiating pain of the right lower extremities was admitted to Busan Korea Hospital (Busan, Korea). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed lumbar disc herniation at L4–5 and a mass occupying the intradural space at the same level of the compressed dural sac. Using the posterior approach, surgical excision of the two pathologies was performed. Pathological diagnosis confirmed schwannoma and the symptoms markedly improved.
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.2181
PMCID: PMC4081376  PMID: 25013519
herniated intervertebral disc; intradural tumor; schwannoma
18.  A diagnostic support tool for lumbar spinal stenosis: a self-administered, self-reported history questionnaire 
Background
There is no validated gold-standard diagnostic support tool for LSS, and therefore an accurate diagnosis depends on clinical assessment. Assessment of the diagnostic value of the history of the patient requires an evaluation of the differences and overlap of symptoms of the radicular and cauda equina types; however, no tool is available for evaluation of the LSS category. We attempted to develop a self-administered, self-reported history questionnaire as a diagnostic support tool for LSS using a clinical epidemiological approach. The aim of the present study was to use this tool to assess the diagnostic value of the history of the patient for categorization of LSS.
Methods
The initial derivation study included 137 patients with LSS and 97 with lumbar disc herniation who successfully recovered following surgical treatment. The LSS patients were categorized into radicular and cauda equina types based on history, physical examinations, and MRI. Predictive factors for overlapping symptoms between the two types and for cauda equina symptoms in LSS were derived by univariate analysis. A self-administered, self-reported history questionnaire (SSHQ) was developed based on these findings. A prospective derivation study was then performed in a series of 115 patients with LSS who completed the SSHQ before surgery. All these patients recovered following surgical treatment. The sensitivity of the SSHQ was calculated and clinical prediction rules for LSS were developed. A validation study was subsequently performed on 250 outpatients who complained of lower back pain with or without leg symptoms. The sensitivity and specificity of the SSHQ were calculated, and the test-retest reliability over two weeks was investigated in 217 patients whose symptoms remained unchanged.
Results
The key predictive factors for overlapping symptoms between the two categories of LSS were age > 50, lower-extremity pain or numbness, increased pain when walking, increased pain when standing, and relief of symptoms on bending forward (odds ratio ≥ 2, p < 0.05). The key predictive factors for cauda equina type symptoms were numbness around the buttocks, walking almost causes urination, a burning sensation around the buttocks, numbness in the soles of both feet, numbness in both legs, and numbness without pain (odds ratio ≥ 2, p < 0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of the SSHQ were 84% and 78%, respectively, in the validation data set. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.797 in the derivation set and 0.782 in the validation data set. In the test-retest analysis, the intraclass correlation coefficient for the first and second tests was 85%.
Conclusion
A new self-administered, self-reported history questionnaire was developed successfully as a diagnostic support tool for LSS.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-8-102
PMCID: PMC2176057  PMID: 17967201
19.  Traumatic Intradural Lumbar Disc Herniation without Bone Injury 
Korean Journal of Spine  2013;10(3):181-184.
Intradural lumbar disc herniation is a rare disease. According to the reports of intradural lumbar disc herniations, most cases have developed as a chronic degenerative disc diseases. Traumatic intradural lumbar disc herniations are even rarer. A 52-year-old man visited our emergency center with numbness in his left calf and ankle after falling accident. Initial impression by radiologic findings was a spinal subdural hematoma at the L1 level. A follow up image two weeks later, however, did not demonstrate any interval change. The patient was decided to have an operation. In operative findings, a ruptured disc particle penetrating the ventral and dorsal dura was indentified after laminectomy. It was assumed to be a traumatic outcome not a degenerative change.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2013.10.3.181
PMCID: PMC3941752  PMID: 24757484
Intradural disc herniation; Subdural hematoma; Lumbar spine
20.  Nutritional supply to the cauda equina in lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis in rats 
European Spine Journal  1999;8(4):310-316.
Laminectomy-induced cauda equina adhesion has been proved by rat experiments and postoperative serial MRI in humans. A degenerative change of the cauda equina has been proved when cauda equina adhesion has been prolonged. Since it has not been reported how the nutritional supply is changed in such a condition, we evaluated the glucose supply to the adhered cauda equina in rats. Wistar rats were divided into the following three groups: the control group which received no operation, the laminectomy group which underwent L5-L6 laminectomy only, and the koalin group which received 5 mg of kaolin on the dorsal extradural space following L5-L6 laminectomy. Based on 3H-methyl-glucose uptake study, we analyzed (1) glucose transport from the intraneural vessels to the nerve tissue, and (2) glucose transport from the cerebrospinal fluid to the nerve tissue. We evaluated the relation between the severity of cauda equina adhesion and 3H uptake into the cauda equina. Cauda equina adhesion was observed in 2 of 12 rats in the control group, in 3 of 12 rats in the laminectomy group, and in 18 of 20 rats in the kaolin group. In the 3H-methyl-glucose uptake study, at 12 weeks the glucose transport to the cauda equina from the vessels increased by 44%, and that from the cerebrospinal fluid decreased by 64% in the kaolin group compared with thecontrol group. In the condition of complete cauda equina adhesion, the glucose transport to the cauda equina from the vessels increased by 53% and that from the cerebrospinal fluid remarkably decreased by 72% compared with the normal cauda equina. Considering the greater nutritional importance of the cerebrospinal fluid in the cauda equina, it is most likely that the impairment of nutritional supply to adhered cauda equina may lead to eventual neural degeneration.
doi:10.1007/s005860050179
PMCID: PMC3611176  PMID: 10483834
Key words Cauda equina; Laminectomy; Arachnoiditis; Nutritional supply
21.  Primary spinal intradural extramedullary lymphoma causing cauda equina syndrome 
We report a case of lumbar intradural extramedullary lesion in an 11-year-old boy who presented with cauda equina syndrome and acute bladder disturbance. He underwent emergency surgical resection of the lesion, which was proved to be a lymphoma by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. He has improved neurologically and after 1 year, he is leading a normal life with near normal neurological functions. This is the second case of primary spinal intradural extramedullary lymphoma. This is the first such case in the pediatric age group and causing cauda equina syndrome. We describe the characteristics of such tumors along with pathogenesis and management.
doi:10.4103/0974-8237.116538
PMCID: PMC3777313  PMID: 24082685
Cauda equina syndrome; chemoradiation; intradural extramedullary tumors; primary spinal lymphoma
22.  Giant schwannoma with extensive scalloping of the lumbar vertebral body treated with one-stage posterior surgery: a case report 
Introduction
Schwannoma is a relatively common benign spinal cord and/or cauda equina tumor; however, giant cauda equina schwannoma with extensive scalloping of the lumbar vertebral body is a rare pathology, and the treatment strategy, including the use of surgical procedures, is controversial. In this report, we present a rare case of a giant lumbar schwannoma of the cauda equina with extremely large scalloping of the vertebral body, and we discuss the surgical strategy we used to treat this pathology.
Case presentation
A 42-year-old Japanese man presented to our department with complaints of a gait disturbance and muscle weakness in the left lower limb. His muscle strength in the proximal part of the left lower limb was grade 2 or 3/5, and he exhibited a mild urinary disturbance on the first visit. X-ray and computed tomography myelography of the lumbar spine showed an extremely large erosive lesion at the L3 vertebral body. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine showed a large soft-tissue mass in the spinal canal at L2-L3 and the vertebral body at L3. A one-stage complete tumor resection and instrumented circumferential fusion were performed via a posterior approach, and a good outcome was achieved after the surgery.
Conclusions
We performed one-stage posterior surgery in a patient with a giant cauda equina schwannoma with extensive scalloping of the vertebral body, and a good post-operative outcome was achieved.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-8-421
PMCID: PMC4307628  PMID: 25495513
Giant cauda equina tumor; Posterior surgery; Scalloping lesion; Schwannoma; Transdural approach
23.  Isolated cysticercosis of the cauda equina 
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice  2013;4(Suppl 1):S117-S119.
Cysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. It is an endemic condition in developing countries, but the incidence rate is increasing in developed countries as well because of rising immigration. Spinal involvement is quite rare and it is usually associated with concomitant intracranial infective lesions. We present an unusual case of a 44-year-old woman who experienced a cauda equina syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed two intradural cystic lesions at L4-L5 level. Only after histological examination the diagnosis of cysticercosis was definitively determined. The entire neuraxis evaluation confirmed that it was a rare form of isolated intradural racemosus type cysticercosis of the cauda equina. Steroids and albendazole were administered and post-operative course was uneventful. In this paper we discuss clinical, pathogenic and therapeutic aspects of this infective pathology.
doi:10.4103/0976-3147.116440
PMCID: PMC3808039  PMID: 24174777
Cauda equina syndrome; isolated spinal cysticercosis; neurocysticercosis; parasitic infection; racemosus type; taenia solium
24.  Higher risk of dural tears and recurrent herniation with lumbar micro-endoscopic discectomy 
European Spine Journal  2010;19(3):443-450.
Existing studies on micro-endoscopic lumbar discectomy report similar outcomes to those of open and microdiscectomy and conflicting results on complications. We designed a randomised controlled trial to investigate the hypothesis of different outcomes and complications obtainable with the three techniques. 240 patients aged 18–65 years affected by posterior lumbar disc herniation and symptoms lasting over 6 weeks of conservative management were randomised to micro-endoscopic (group 1), micro (group 2) or open (group 3) discectomy. Exclusion criteria were less than 6 weeks of pain duration, cauda equina compromise, foraminal or extra-foraminal herniations, spinal stenosis, malignancy, previous spinal surgery, spinal deformity, concurrent infection and rheumatic disease. Surgery and follow-up were made at a single Institution. A biomedical researcher independently collected and reviewed the data. ODI, back and leg VAS and SF-36 were the outcome measures used preoperatively, postoperatively and at 6-, 12- and 24-month follow-up. 212/240 (91%) patients completed the 24-month follow-up period. VAS back and leg, ODI and SF36 scores showed clinically and statistically significant improvements within groups without significant difference among groups throughout follow-up. Dural tears, root injuries and recurrent herniations were significantly more common in group 1. Wound infections were similar in group 2 and 3, but did not affect patients in group 1. Overall costs were significantly higher in group 1 and lower in group 3. In conclusion, outcome measures are equivalent 2 years following lumbar discectomy with micro-endoscopy, microscopy or open technique, but severe complications are more likely and costs higher with micro-endoscopy.
doi:10.1007/s00586-010-1290-4
PMCID: PMC2899770  PMID: 20127495
Lumbar disc herniation; Discectomy; Microdiscectomy; Micro-endoscopic discectomy
25.  Endoscopic Discectomy for the Cauda Equina Syndrome During Third Trimester of Pregnancy 
Low back pain is common during pregnancy. However, the prevalence of symtomatic lumbar disc herniation is rare, and cauda equina syndrome due to disc herniation during pregnancy is even rarer. We report a rare case of lumbar disc herniation causing cauda equina syndrome during third trimester of pregnancy which successfully treated by endoscopic discectomy. This case shows that endoscopic discectomy can be the treatment option for the lumbar disc herniation during pregnancy.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2007.42.5.419
PMCID: PMC2588184  PMID: 19096583
Lumbar disc herniation; Pregnancy; Endoscopic discectomy

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