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1.  The Role of Hyaluronan and Hyaluronan Binding Proteins in Human Asthma 
The characteristics of human asthma are chronic inflammation and airway remodeling. Hyaluronan (HA), a major extracellular matrix component, accumulates during inflammatory lung diseases including asthma. Hyaluronan fragments stimulate macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that HA and its receptors would play a role in human asthma.
To investigate the role of HA and HA binding proteins in human asthma.
Twenty-one subjects with asthma and 25 normal control subjects underwent bronchoscopy with endobronchial biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Fibroblasts were cultured, HA and HA synthase expression was determined at baseline and after exposure to several mediators relevant to asthma pathobiology. The expression of HA binding proteins, CD44, TLR2 and TLR4 on BAL macrophages was determined by flow cytometry. IL-8 production by macrophages in response to HA fragment stimulation was compared.
Airway fibroblasts from asthma patients produced significantly increased concentrations of lower molecular weight HA compared to those of normal fibroblasts. Hyaluronan synthase 2 mRNA was markedly increased in asthmatic fibroblasts. Asthmatic macrophages showed a decrease in cell surface CD44 expression and an increase in TLR2 and TLR4 expression. Macrophages from asthmatic subjects showed an increase in responsiveness to low molecular weight HA stimulation, as demonstrated by increased IL-8 production.
HA homeostasis is deranged in asthma with increased production by fibroblasts and decreased CD44 expression on alveolar macrophages. Upregulation of TLR2 and TLR4 on macrophages with increased sensitivity to HA fragments suggests a novel pro-inflammatory mechanism by which persistence of HA fragments could contribute to chronic inflammation and airway remodeling in asthma.
PMCID: PMC3149736  PMID: 21570715
Asthma; Hyaluronan; Cytokines; Fibroblasts; Macrophages
2.  Effects of formoterol-budesonide on airway remodeling in patients with moderate asthma 
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica  2010;32(1):126-132.
To evaluate the effect of inhaled formoterol-budesonide on airway remodeling in adult patients with moderate asthma.
Thirty asthmatic patients and thirty control subjects were enrolled. Asthmatic subjects used inhaled Symbicort 4.5/160 μg twice daily for one year. The effect of formoterol-budesonide on airway remodeling was assessed with comparing high-resolution computer tomography (HRCT) images of asthmatic patients and controls, as well as expression levels of cytokines and growth factors, inflammatory cell count in induced sputum, and airway hyper-responsiveness.
The differences in age and gender between the two groups were not significant. However, differences in FVC %pred, FEV1 %pred, and PC20 between the two groups were significant. After treatment with formoterol-budesonide, the asthma patients' symptoms were relieved, and their lung function was improved. The WT and WA% of HRCT images in patients with asthma was increased, whereas treatment with formoterol-budesonide caused these values to decrease. The expression of MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TGF-β1 in induced sputum samples increased in patients with asthma and decreased dramatically after treatment with formoterol-budesonide. The WT and WA% are correlated with the expression levels of cytokines and growth factors, inflammatory cell count in induced sputum, and airway hyper-responsiveness, while these same values are correlated negatively with FEV1/FVC and FEV1%.
Formoterol-budesonide might interfere in chronic inflammation and airway remodeling in asthmatic patients. HRCT can be used to effectively evaluate airway remodeling in asthmatic patients.
PMCID: PMC4003310  PMID: 21170080
asthma; hyper-responsiveness; airway remodeling; high-resolution computer tomography; formoterol-budesonide; induced sputum; single-center, open-label study
3.  Immunohistochemical localisation of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-3 and MMP-9 within the airways in asthma 
Thorax  1999;54(7):590-596.
BACKGROUND—The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes MMP-3 and MMP-9 have relevance to the chronic structural airway changes in asthma. These proteinases can be generated by structural and inflammatory cells, and have the ability to degrade proteoglycans and thus potentially enhance airway fibrosis and smooth muscle proliferation through their ability to release and activate latent matrix bound growth factors.
METHODS—Immunostaining for MMP-3 and MMP-9 as well as for mast cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils was undertaken in acetone fixed and glycolmethacrylate embedded endobronchial biopsy specimens obtained by fibreoptic bronchoscopy under local anaesthesia. The findings from 17 asthmatic subjects (nine with mild to moderate non-steroid treated asthma and eight with chronic persistent steroid-dependent asthma) were compared with those from eight healthy controls. The cell associated MMP immunoreactivity was co-localised to mast cells, eosinophils, or neutrophils and represented as cells/mm2, based on the area of the biopsy specimen. Extracellular matrix immunoreactivity was assessed by an image analysis system and visually with ranking and the two approaches were compared.
RESULTS—The biopsy specimens from asthmatic subjects contained significantly more eosinophils (p<0.001) than those from the non-asthmatic subjects. Both MMP-9 and MMP-3 immunoreactivity could be identified in endobronchial biopsy specimens. Gelatinase B (MMP-9) immunoreactivity was prominent within the extracellular matrix as well as exhibiting distinct cell immunoreactivity which predominantly co-localised to neutrophils. Stromelysin (MMP-3) was co-localised to mast cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils as well as being present in the epithelium, the lamina reticularis and, to a lesser extent, the extracellular matrix. There was no significant difference in the extent of matrix immunoreactivity for either MMP-3 or MMP-9 between healthy controls or subjects with mild or severe asthma.
CONCLUSION—Although immunostaining cannot distinguish between active and inactive forms of MMPs, the presence of MMP-3 and MMP-9 within endobronchial biopsy specimens, the co-localisation to inflammatory cells of relevance to asthma (mast cells and eosinophils), and the identification of matrix binding, indicative of MMP-matrix interactions, points to the potential for disease related changes in MMP release that influence airway remodelling in asthma.

PMCID: PMC1745517  PMID: 10377203
4.  Co-Culture of Human Bronchial Fibroblasts and CD4+ T Cells Increases Th17 Cytokine Signature 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e81983.
Airway inflammation is an important characteristic of asthma and has been associated with airway remodelling and bronchial hyperreactivity. The mucosal microenvironment composed of structural cells and highly specialised extracellular matrix is able to amplify and promote inflammation. This microenvironment leads to the development and maintenance of a specific adaptive response characterized by Th2 and Th17. Bronchial fibroblasts produce multiple mediators that may play a role in maintaining and amplifying this response in asthma.
To investigate the role of bronchial fibroblasts obtained from asthmatic subjects and healthy controls in regulating Th17 response by creating a local micro-environment that promotes this response in the airways.
Human bronchial fibroblasts and CD4+T cells were isolated from atopic asthmatics and non-atopic healthy controls. CD4+T were co-cultured with bronchial fibroblasts of asthmatic subjects and healthy controls. RORc gene expression was detected by qPCR. Phosphorylated STAT-3 and RORγt were evaluated by western blots. Th17 phenotype was measured by flow cytometry. IL-22, IL17, IL-6 TGF-β and IL1-β were assessed by qPCR and ELISA.
Co-culture of CD4+T cells with bronchial fibroblasts significantly stimulated RORc expression and induced a significant increase in Th17 cells as characterized by the percentage of IL-17+/CCR6+ staining in asthmatic conditions. IL-17 and IL-22 were increased in both normal and asthmatic conditions with a significantly higher amount in asthmatics compared to controls. IL-6, IL-1β, TGF-β and IL-23 were significantly elevated in fibroblasts from asthmatic subjects upon co-culture with CD4+T cells. IL-23 stimulates IL-6 and IL-1β expression by bronchial fibroblasts.
Interaction between bronchial fibroblasts and T cells seems to promote specifically Th17 cells profile in asthma. These results suggest that cellular interaction particularly between T cells and fibroblasts may play a pivotal role in the regulation of the inflammatory response in asthma.
PMCID: PMC3857794  PMID: 24349168
5.  Phenotype of airway epithelial cells suggests epithelial to mesenchymal cell transition in clinically stable lung transplant recipients 
Thorax  2005;60(10):865-871.
Background: Obliterative bronchiolitis in chronic rejection of lung allografts is characterised by airway epithelial damage and fibrosis. The process whereby normal epithelium is lost and replaced by fibroblastic scar tissue is poorly understood, but recent findings suggest that epithelial cells can become fibroblasts through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). It is hypothesised that EMT occurs in lung allografts and plays a potential role in airway remodelling.
Methods: Sixteen stable lung transplant recipients underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), endobronchial biopsies, and bronchial brushings. Biopsy sections were stained for the fibroblast marker S100A4. Brushings were cultured on collagen, stained with anti-S100A4, and examined for further EMT markers including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) zymographic activity and epithelial invasion through collagen coated filters.
Results: A median 15% (0–48%) of the biopsy epithelium stained for S100A4 in stable lung transplant recipients and MMP-7 co-localisation was observed. In non-stimulated epithelial cultures from lung allografts, S100A4 staining was identified with MMP-2 and MMP-9 production and zymographic activity. MMP total protein and activity was increased following stimulation with transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1. Non-stimulated transplant epithelial cells were invasive and penetration of collagen coated filters increased following TGF-ß1 stimulation.
Conclusions: This study provides evidence of EMT markers in lung allografts of patients without loss of lung function. The EMT process may represent a final common pathway following injury in more common diseases characterised by airway remodelling.
PMCID: PMC1747194  PMID: 15972366
6.  Airway remodeling measured by multidetector computed tomography is increased in severe asthma and correlates with pathology 
Chest  2008;134(6):1183-1191.
To prospectively apply an automated, quantitative 3-D approach to imaging and airway analysis to assess airway remodeling in asthma.
Using the Pulmonary Workstation (VIDA Diagnostics) that enables quantitative airway segment measurements of low-dose, thin section (0.625-1.25 mm) multidetector-row CT (MDCT), we compared airway wall thickness (WT) and area (WA) in 123 subjects participating in a prospective multicenter cohort study, NIH Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP): severe asthma (n=63), mild-moderate asthma (n=35), and normal (n=25). A subset of these subjects underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy and endobronchial biopsies (n=32). WT and WA were corrected for total airway diameter and area - WT%, WA%.
Subjects with severe asthma had significantly greater WT% than mild-moderate asthma and normals [17.2±1.5 v 16.5±1.6, p=0.014 and 16.3±1.2, p=0.031, respectively] and greater WA% compared to mild-moderate asthma and normal [56.6±2.9 v 54.7±3.3, p=.005 and 54.6±2.4, p=0.003, respectively]. Both WT% and WA% were inversely correlated with baseline FEV1% (r=-0.39, p<0.0001 and -0.40, p<0.0001, respectively) and positively correlated with response to bronchodilator (r=0.28, p=0.002 and r=0.35, p<0.0001, respectively). Airway epithelial thickness on biopsy correlated with WT% (r=0.47, p=0.007) and WA% (r=0.52, p=0.003). In the same individual, there is considerable regional heterogeneity in airway wall thickness.
Severe asthmatics have thicker airway walls on MDCT than mild asthmatics or normals, which correlates with pathologic measures of remodeling and the degree of airflow obstruction. MDCT may be a useful technique for assessing airway remodeling in asthma, but overlap among groups limits the diagnostic value in individual subjects.
PMCID: PMC2859729  PMID: 18641116
Asthma; airway remodeling; chest CT
7.  Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)-4 and BMP-7 regulate differentially Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β1 in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF) 
Respiratory Research  2010;11(1):85.
Airway remodelling is thought to be under the control of a complex group of molecules belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-superfamily. The Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) belong to this family and have been shown to regulate fibrosis in kidney and liver diseases. However, the role of BMPs in lung remodelling remains unclear. BMPs may regulate tissue remodelling in asthma by controlling TGF-β-induced profibrotic functions in lung fibroblasts.
Cell cultures were exposed to TGF-β1 alone or in the presence of BMP-4 or BMP-7; control cultures were exposed to medium only. Cell proliferation was assessed by quantification of the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine. The expression of the mRNA encoding collagen type I and IV, tenascin C and fibronectin in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF) was determined by real-time quantitative PCR and the main results were confirmed by ELISA. Cell differentiation was determined by the analysis of the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The effect on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was assessed by zymography.
We have demonstrated TGF-β1 induced upregulation of mRNAs encoding the extracellular matrix proteins, tenascin C, fibronectin and collagen type I and IV when compared to unstimulated NHLF, and confirmed these results at the protein level. BMP-4, but not BMP-7, reduced TGF-β1-induced extracellular matrix protein production. TGF-β1 induced an increase in the activity of the pro-form of MMP-2 which was inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Both BMP-4 and BMP-7 downregulated TGF-β1-induced MMP-13 release compared to untreated and TGF-β1-treated cells. TGF-β1 also induced a myofibroblast-like transformation which was partially inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4.
Our study suggests that some regulatory properties of BMP-7 may be tissue or cell type specific and unveil a potential regulatory role for BMP-4 in the regulation of lung fibroblast function.
PMCID: PMC2898775  PMID: 20573231
8.  Extra-Cellular Matrix Proteins Induce Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) Activity and Increase Airway Smooth Muscle Contraction in Asthma 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e90565.
Airway remodelling describes the histopathological changes leading to fixed airway obstruction in patients with asthma and includes extra-cellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is present in remodelled airways but its relationship with ECM proteins and the resulting functional consequences are unknown. We used airway smooth muscle cells (ASM) and bronchial biopsies from control donors and patients with asthma to examine the regulation of MMP-1 by ECM in ASM cells and the effect of MMP-1 on ASM contraction. Collagen-I and tenascin-C induced MMP-1 protein expression, which for tenascin-C, was greater in asthma derived ASM cells. Tenascin-C induced MMP-1 expression was dependent on ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPK activation and attenuated by function blocking antibodies against the β1 and β3 integrin subunits. Tenascin-C and MMP-1 were not expressed in normal airways but co-localised in the ASM bundles and reticular basement membrane of patients with asthma. Further, ECM from asthma derived ASM cells stimulated MMP-1 expression to a greater degree than ECM from normal ASM. Bradykinin induced contraction of ASM cells seeded in 3D collagen gels was reduced by the MMP inhibitor ilomastat and by siRNA knockdown of MMP-1. In summary, the induction of MMP-1 in ASM cells by tenascin-C occurs in part via integrin mediated MAPK signalling. MMP-1 and tenascin-C are co-localised in the smooth muscle bundles of patients with asthma where this interaction may contribute to enhanced airway contraction. Our findings suggest that ECM changes in airway remodelling via MMP-1 could contribute to an environment promoting greater airway narrowing in response to broncho-constrictor stimuli and worsening asthma symptoms.
PMCID: PMC3938782  PMID: 24587395
9.  Allergen-Induced Coexpression of bFGF and TGF-β1 by Macrophages in a Mouse Model of Airway Remodeling: bFGF Induces Macrophage TGF-β1 Expression in vitro 
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a cytokine that is mitogenic for fibroblasts and smooth muscle and may play a role in airway remodeling in asthma. We have used a mouse model of chronic ovalbumin (OVA) allergen-induced airway remodeling to determine whether bFGF and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 are expressed and regulated by corticosteroids in the airway, as well as to determine whether bFGF mediates expression of another proremodeling cytokine, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1.
The airway levels and localization of bFGF, FGF receptor-1 and TGF-β1 were determined by ELISA, immunohistology and image analysis in the remodeled airways of chronic OVA-challenged mice treated with either corticosteroids or diluent. In vitro cultures of bone narrow-derived macrophages were used to determine whether bFGF induced TGF-β1 expression.
Mice chronically challenged with OVA developed significant airway remodeling that was associated with significantly increased levels of bFGF and TGF-β1. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated significantly increased bFGF and FGF receptor-1 expression by peri- bronchial F4/80+ cells. Double-label immunofluorescence microscopy studies demonstrated that peribronchial macrophages coexpressed bFGF and TGF-β1. In vitro studies demonstrated that incubation of bone marrow-derived macrophages with bFGF induced expression of TGF-β1. Mice treated with corticosteroids and subjected to chronic OVA challenge had significantly reduced levels of bFGF, FGF receptor-1, peribronchial TGF-β1+ cells and airway remodeling.
Overall, this study demonstrates that allergen challenge stimulates peribronchial macrophages to coexpress bFGF and TGF-β1 and that bFGF may potentiate macrophage release of TGF-β1 through autocrine and/or paracrine pathways.
PMCID: PMC2997445  PMID: 21109744
Eosinophils; Allergy; Transforming growth factor-β1; Basic fibroblast growth factor
10.  Cultured Lung Fibroblasts from Ovalbumin-Challenged “Asthmatic” Mice Differ Functionally from Normal 
Asthmatic airway remodeling is characterized by goblet cell hyperplasia, angiogenesis, smooth muscle hypertrophy, and subepithelial fibrosis. This study evaluated whether acquired changes in fibroblast phenotype could contribute to this remodeling. Airway and parenchymal fibroblasts from control or chronically ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and challenged “asthmatic” mice were assessed for several functions related to repair and remodeling ± exogenous transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. All OVA-challenged mouse fibroblasts demonstrated augmented gel contraction (P < 0.05) and chemotaxis (P < 0.05); increased TGF-β1 (P < 0.05), fibronectin (P < 0.05), and vascular endothelial growth factor (P < 0.05) release; and expressed more α-smooth muscle actin (P < 0.05). TGF-β1 stimulated both control and asthmatic fibroblasts, which retained all differences from control fibroblasts for all features(P < 0.05, all comparisons). Parenchymal fibroblasts proliferated more rapidly (P < 0.05), while airway fibroblasts proliferated similarly compared with control fibroblasts (P = 0.25). Thus, in this animal model, OVA-challenged mouse fibroblasts acquire a distinct phenotype that differs from control fibroblasts. The augmented profibrotic activity and mediator release of asthmatic fibroblasts could contribute to airway remodeling in asthma.
PMCID: PMC2176123  PMID: 17575074
remodeling; fibroblast; phenotype; mouse model
11.  Regional Fibroblast Heterogeneity in the Lung 
Rationale: Excessive deposition of extracellular matrix occurs in proximal airways of individuals with asthma, but fibrosis in distal lung has not been observed. Whether differing fibrotic capacities of fibroblasts from these two regions contribute to this variability is unknown.
Objectives: We compared morphologic and functional characteristics of fibroblasts isolated from proximal airways and distal lung parenchyma to determine phenotypic differences.
Methods: Concurrent proximal airway and distal lung biopsies were obtained by bronchoscopy from subjects with asthma to isolate airway and distal lung fibroblasts, respectively. The following characteristics were compared: morphology, proliferation, α-smooth muscle actin expression, and synthesis of procollagen type I and eotaxin-1.
Results: Airway fibroblasts (AFs) are morphologically distinct from distal lung fibroblasts (DLFs): they are larger (2.3-fold greater surface area vs. matched DLFs; p = 0.02), stellate in appearance, and with more cytoplasmic projections compared with the spindle-shaped DLFs. AFs synthesized more procollagen type I than did DLFs at baseline (twofold higher; p = 0.003) and after transforming growth factor-β stimulation (1.4-fold higher; p = 0.02). Similarly, AFs produced more eotaxin-1 than did DLFs at baseline (2.5-fold higher; p = 0.004) and after interleukin-13 stimulation (13-fold higher; p = 0.0001). In contrast, DLFs proliferate more than AFs with serum stimulation (about sixfold greater; p = 0.03). Unstimulated DLFs also expressed more α-smooth muscle actin than did corresponding AFs (p = 0.006).
Conclusions: These studies suggest that at least two phenotypes of fibroblast exist in the lung. These phenotypic differences may partially explain the variable responses to injury and repair between proximal airways and distal lung/parenchyma in asthma and other respiratory diseases.
PMCID: PMC2662967  PMID: 16543551
asthma; fibroblast; interleukin 13; remodeling; transforming growth factor β
12.  The Effects of Airway Microbiome on Corticosteroid Responsiveness in Asthma 
Rationale: The role of airway microbiome in corticosteroid response in asthma is unknown.
Objectives: To examine airway microbiome composition in patients with corticosteroid-resistant (CR) asthma and compare it with patients with corticosteroid-sensitive (CS) asthma and normal control subjects and explore whether bacteria in the airways of subjects with asthma may direct alterations in cellular responses to corticosteroids.
Methods: 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples of 39 subjects with asthma and 12 healthy control subjects. In subjects with asthma, corticosteroid responsiveness was characterized, BAL macrophages were stimulated with pathogenic versus commensal microorganisms, and analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction for the expression of corticosteroid-regulated genes and cellular p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation.
Measurements and Main Results: Of the 39 subjects with asthma, 29 were CR and 10 were CS. BAL microbiome from subjects with CR and CS asthma did not differ in richness, evenness, diversity, and community composition at the phylum level, but did differ at the genus level, with distinct genus expansions in 14 subjects with CR asthma. Preincubation of asthmatic airway macrophages with Haemophilus parainfluenzae, a uniquely expanded potential pathogen found only in CR asthma airways, resulted in p38 MAPK activation, increased IL-8 (P < 0.01), mitogen-activated kinase phosphatase 1 mRNA (P < 0.01) expression, and inhibition of corticosteroid responses (P < 0.05). This was not observed after exposure to commensal bacterium Prevotella melaninogenica. Inhibition of transforming growth factor-β–associated kinase-1 (TAK1), upstream activator of MAPK, but not p38 MAPK restored cellular sensitivity to corticosteroids.
Conclusions: A subset of subjects with CR asthma demonstrates airway expansion of specific gram-negative bacteria, which trigger TAK1/MAPK activation and induce corticosteroid resistance. TAK1 inhibition restored cellular sensitivity to corticosteroids.
PMCID: PMC3863730  PMID: 24024497
microbiome; asthma; corticosteroids
13.  A qPCR-based metric of Th2 airway inflammation in asthma 
Using microarray profiling of airway epithelial cells, we previously identified a Th2-high molecular phenotype of asthma based on expression of periostin, CLCA1 and serpinB2 and characterized by specific inflammatory, remodeling, and treatment response features. The goal of the current study was to develop a qPCR-based assay of Th2 inflammation to overcome the limitations of microarray-based methods.
Airway epithelial brushings were obtained by bronchoscopy from two clinical studies comprising 44 healthy controls and 62 subjects with asthma, 39 of whom were studied before and after a standardized 8 week course of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). The qPCR-based expression of periostin, CLCA1 and serpinB2 were combined into a single metric.
In asthma, the three-gene-mean of periostin, CLCA1 and serpinB2 correlated with FeNO (r = 0.75, p = 0.0002), blood eosinophils (r = 0.58, p = 0.003) and PC20 methacholine (r = -0.65, p = 0.0006), but not total serum IgE (r = 0.33, p = 0.1). Higher baseline three-gene-mean correlated with greater improvement in FEV1 with ICS at 2, 4 and 8 weeks (all p < 0.05). By ROC analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) of the three-gene-mean for FEV1 improvement with ICS at 4 and 8 weeks was 0.94 and 0.87, respectively, which are higher than the AUCs of FeNO, blood eosinophils, IgE or PC20. Th2 airway inflammation as measured by this three-gene-mean also had predictive capacity for an improvement in symptoms.
The three-gene-mean of periostin, CLCA1 and serpinB2 in airway epithelial brushings identifies Th2-high and low populations, is correlated with other Th2 biomarkers, and performs well for prediction of FEV1 improvement with ICS. The three-gene-mean provides a measurement of Th2 airway inflammation that is clinically relevant and that can serve as a valuable tool to evaluate non-invasive biomarkers to predict treatment responses to existing and emerging asthma therapies.
PMCID: PMC3724712  PMID: 23866775
Asthma; Inflammation; Endophenotypes (all MeSH terms); Biomarkers; Th2
14.  Role of Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 in Allergic Airway Remodeling 
Rationale: The hallmarks of allergic asthma are airway inflammation, obstruction, and remodeling. Airway remodeling may lead to irreversible airflow obstruction with increased morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in the treatment of asthma, the mechanisms underlying airway remodeling are still poorly understood. We reported that insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (IGFBPs) contribute to extracellular matrix deposition in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; however, their contribution to airway remodeling in asthma has not been established.
Objectives: We hypothesized that IGFBP-3 is overexpressed in asthma and contributes to airway remodeling.
Methods: We evaluated levels of IGFBP-3 in tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with asthma at baseline and 48 hours after allergen challenge, in reparative epithelium in an in vitro wounding assay, and in conditioned media from cytokine- and growth factor–stimulated primary epithelial cells.
Measurements and Main Results: IGFBP-3 levels and distribution were evaluated by Western blot, ELISA, and immunofluorescence. IGFBP-3 is increased in vivo in the airway epithelium of patients with asthma compared with normal control subjects. The concentration of IGFBP-3 is increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with asthma after allergen challenge, its levels are increased in reparative epithelium in an in vitro wounding assay and in the conditioned medium of primary airway epithelial cell cultures stimulated with IGF-I.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that one mechanism of allergic airway remodeling is through the secretion of the profibrotic IGFBP-3 from IGF-I–stimulated airway epithelial cells during allergic inflammation.
PMCID: PMC2753789  PMID: 19608721
asthma; bronchoalveolar lavage; primary epithelial cells; insulin-like growth factor binding protein; fibrosis
15.  Lactate promotes glioma migration by TGF-β2–dependent regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 
Neuro-Oncology  2009;11(4):368-380.
Lactate dehydrogenase type A (LDH-A) is a key metabolic enzyme catalyzing pyruvate into lactate and is excessively expressed by tumor cells. Transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) is a key regulator of invasion in high-grade gliomas, partially by inducing a mesenchymal phenotype and by remodeling the extracellular matrix. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that lactate metabolism regulates TGF-β2–mediated migration of glioma cells. Small interfering RNA directed against LDH-A (siLDH-A) suppresses, and lactate induces, TGF-β2 expression, suggesting that lactate metabolism is strongly associated with TGF-β2 in glioma cells. Here we demonstrate that TGF-β2 enhances expression, secretion, and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and induces the cell surface expression of integrin αvβ3 receptors. In spheroid and Boyden chamber migration assays, inhibition of MMP-2 activity using a specific MMP-2 inhibitor and blocking of integrin αvβ3 abrogated glioma cell migration stimulated by TGF-β2. Furthermore, siLDH-A inhibited MMP2 activity, leading to inhibition of glioma migration. Taken together, we define an LDH-A–induced and TGF-β2–coordinated regulatory cascade of transcriptional regulation of MMP-2 and integrin αvβ3. This novel interaction between lactate metabolism and TGF-β2 might constitute a crucial mechanism for glioma migration.
PMCID: PMC2743217  PMID: 19033423
glioma; lactate; LDH-A; MMP-2; TGF-β2
16.  501 Activation of PAR-2 Induces Myofibroblast Transformation via a TGF-β and GSK-3β/β-catenin Dependent Pathway in Tissue Remodeling in the Asthmatic Lung 
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease, and airway remodeling denotes the pathophysiologic modifications of normal airway wall structure, including changes in the composition and organization of the airway wall's cellular and molecular constituents. These structural alterations are largely irreversible in chronic severe asthma and lead to symptoms associated with chronic airflow limitation. However, the pathogenetic mechanisms leading to these responses remain unclear. According to recent reports, lung-resident fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of airway remodeling. Myofibroblasts are proposed to be the primary effector cells of lung fibrotic responses and are characterized by expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) stress fibers. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is known to induce the transformation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. Protease activated receptor (PAR)-2, a G-protein-coupled receptor activated by serine proteases such as trypsin and mast cell tryptase has been recognized as a key molecule in inflammation and fibrotic changes. We hypothesized that activation of PAR-2 induces TGF-β and α-SMA expression and hence may be one of the potential mechanisms of airway remodeling in asthma.
Cultured human lung fibroblasts (MRC5) were exposed to trypsin (5 nM) or a specific activating peptide, PAR-2AP. Secreted TGF-β was measured using ELISA. Cell associated α-SMA was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunostaining and activation of downstream signaling pathways was assessed by Western analysis.
Activation of PAR-2 by trypsin or PAR-2AP induced TGF-β secretion that peaked between 4 and 8 hours. These were correlated with activations of c-fos and c-jun. Induction of α-SMA expression peaked between 4 and 24 hours. Treatment with trypsin or PAR-2AP also induced phosphorylation of GSK-3β on serine 9 and nuclear translocation of β-catenin.
Activation of PAR-2 induces TGF-β secretion through the AP-1 transcription factor complex leading to myofibroblast transformation via the GSK-3β/β-Catenin Pathway.
PMCID: PMC3512798
17.  Vitamin D regulating TGF-β induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition 
Respiratory Research  2014;15(1):146.
Subepithelial fibrosis is a characteristic hallmark of airway remodeling in asthma. A critical regulator of fibrosis, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), can induce airway remodeling in epithelial cells through induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Vitamin D has immunomodulatory functions, however, its effect on controlling subepithelial fibrosis is not known.
Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to calcitriol followed by stimulation with TGF-β1 or TGF-β2. The protein expression and mRNA transcripts for E-cadherin, Snail, vimentin, and N-cadherin were analyzed by Western blot and qPCR. An invasion assay and scratch wound assay were performed to identify the migratory properties of the cells following treatments.
TGF-β1 decreased E-cadherin expression and increased protein expression and mRNA transcripts of Snail, vimentin, and N-cadherin together with increased cell invasion and migration. TGF-β2 elicited migratory response similar to TGF-β1 but induced the expression of EMT markers differently from that by TGF-β1. Calcitriol attenuated TGF-β1- and TGF-β2-induced cell motility. Also, calcitriol inhibited the expression of EMT markers in TGF-β1-treated epithelial cells with less effect on TGF-β2.
These data suggest that calcitriol inhibits both migration and invasion induced by TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 in human airway epithelial cells. However, the regulatory effect of vitamin D in epithelial-mesenchymal transition was more effective to TGF-β1-induced changes. Thus, calcitriol could be a potential therapeutic agent in the prevention and management of subepithelial fibrosis and airway remodeling.
PMCID: PMC4245846  PMID: 25413472
18.  Glutathione Redox Control of Asthma: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapeutic Opportunities 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2012;17(2):375-408.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways associated with airway hyper-responsiveness and airflow limitation in response to specific triggers. Whereas inflammation is important for tissue regeneration and wound healing, the profound and sustained inflammatory response associated with asthma may result in airway remodeling that involves smooth muscle hypertrophy, epithelial goblet-cell hyperplasia, and permanent deposition of airway extracellular matrix proteins. Although the specific mechanisms responsible for asthma are still being unraveled, free radicals such as reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are important mediators of airway tissue damage that are increased in subjects with asthma. There is also a growing body of literature implicating disturbances in oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions and impaired antioxidant defenses as a risk factor for asthma development and asthma severity. Ultimately, these redox-related perturbations result in a vicious cycle of airway inflammation and injury that is not always amenable to current asthma therapy, particularly in cases of severe asthma. This review will discuss disruptions of redox signaling and control in asthma with a focus on the thiol, glutathione, and reduced (thiol) form (GSH). First, GSH synthesis, GSH distribution, and GSH function and homeostasis are discussed. We then review the literature related to GSH redox balance in health and asthma, with an emphasis on human studies. Finally, therapeutic opportunities to restore the GSH redox balance in subjects with asthma are discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 375–408.
I. Introduction and Conceptual Framework
II. Glutathione Synthesis
III. Distribution of Glutathione in the Body
IV. Glutathione Function and Homeostasis
A. Glutathione as a cysteine reservoir
B. Xenobiotic conjugation and detoxification
C. Free radical scavenging
D. Maintenance of thiol equilibrium
E. Protein S-glutathionylation
F. Regulation of cell surface proteins
G. Protection against nitrosative stress from RNS
V. Glutathione Redox Balance in Health
A. Intracellular glutathione redox status
B. Plasma glutathione redox status
C. Epithelial lining fluid glutathione redox status
VI. Glutathione Redox Balance in Asthma
A. Airway glutathione concentrations in asthma, measured invasively
B. Airway glutathione concentrations in asthma, measured noninvasively
C. Systemic glutathione concentrations in asthma
D. Glutathione redox balance in asthma: Effect of corticosteroids
VII. Other Glutathione-Related Proteins and Redox Systems in Asthma
A. Glutathione peroxidases
B. Glutathione reductases
C. Glutathione-S-transferases
D. Nitrosoglutathione
E. Thioredoxins
F. Glutaredoxins
G. Peroxiredoxins
VIII. Physiological and Biological Implications of Altered Glutathione Redox Balance in Asthma
IX. Altered Glutathione Redox Balance in Asthma: Therapeutic Opportunities
A. Glutathione and glutathione-ethyl esters
B. Cysteine precursors
C. Dietary interventions
1. Selenium
2. Whey protein
3. Sulfur amino acids
4. B vitamins
5. Glutamine and glycine
X. Clinical Implications and Future Directions
PMCID: PMC3353819  PMID: 22304503
19.  Absence of α4 but not β2 integrins restrains development of chronic allergic asthma using mouse genetic models 
Experimental hematology  2009;37(6):715-727.e3.
Chronic asthma is characterized by ongoing recruitment of inflammatory cells and airway hyperresponsiveness leading to structural airway remodeling. Although α4β1 and β2 integrins regulate leukocyte migration in inflammatory diseases and play decisive roles in acute asthma, their role has not been explored under the chronic asthma setting. To extend our earlier studies with α4Δ/Δ and β2−/− mice, which showed that both a4 and b2 integrins have nonredundant regulatory roles in acute ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma, we explored to what extent these molecular pathways control development of structural airway remodeling in chronic asthma.
Materials and Methods
Control, α4Δ/Δ, and β2−/−mouse groups, sensitized by intraperitoneal OVA as allergen, received intratracheal OVA periodically over days 8 to 55 to induce a chronic asthma phenotype. Post-OVA assessment of inflammation and pulmonary function (airway hyperresponsiveness), together with airway modeling measured by goblet cell metaplasia, collagen content of lung, and transforming growth factor β1 expression in lung homogenates, were evaluated.
In contrast to control and β2−/− mice, α4Δ/Δ mice failed to develop and maintain the composite chronic asthma phenotype evaluated as mentioned and subepithelial collagen content was comparable to baseline. These data indicate that β2 integrins, although required for inflammatory migration in acute asthma, are dispensable for structural remodeling in chronic asthma.
α4 integrins appear to have a regulatory role in directing transforming growth factor β-induced collagen deposition and structural alterations in lung architecture likely through interactions of Th2 cells, eosinophils, or mast cells with endothelium, resident airway cells, and/or extracellular matrix.
PMCID: PMC3696022  PMID: 19463772
20.  Increased circulating 92 kDa matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) activity in exacerbations of asthma 
Thorax  2003;58(9):757-760.
Background: The 72 kDa matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and the 92 kDa matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) are type IV collagenases implicated in various aspects of inflammation including accumulation of inflammatory cells, tissue injury, and development of remodelling. The role of these enzymes in the pathogenesis of asthma exacerbations is unknown.
Methods: Circulating levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins and the expression of their inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), were measured in 21 patients experiencing an asthma exacerbation and 21 age matched patients with stable asthma. Circulating gelatinolytic activity was compared during the asthma exacerbation and during subsequent convalescence by gelatin zymography in the same individuals. In addition, MMP-9 specific activity was quantified with a colorimetric assay which uses an artificial proenzyme containing a specific domain recognised by MMP-9 in the same paired samples.
Results: A significant increase in the circulating level of MMP-9 was seen in patients with an asthma exacerbation compared with patients with stable asthma (202.9 (22.0) v 107.7 (9.9) ng/ml, p=0.0003). There were no significant differences in the circulating levels of MMP-2 or TIMP-1. Gelatin zymography identified two major circulating gelatinolytic activities corresponding to MMP-2 and MMP-9, and showed that asthma exacerbations are characterised by markedly increased MMP-9 activity with no significant change in MMP-2 activity compared with the activities during convalescence in the same individuals. Direct measurement showed that MMP-9 specific activity is significantly increased during asthma exacerbations compared with subsequent convalescence (269.6 (31.7) v 170.4 (12.6) ng/ml, p=0.0099).
Conclusions: Asthma exacerbations are characterised by increased circulating MMP-9 activity. This increased activity may be related to exaggerated airway inflammation and airway remodelling.
PMCID: PMC1746799  PMID: 12947131
21.  Airway Smooth Muscle Hyperproliferation Is Regulated by MicroRNA-221 in Severe Asthma 
Increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass is a feature of asthmatic airways, and could result from augmented proliferation. We determined whether proliferation and IL-6 release are abnormal in ASM cells (ASMCs) from patients with severe asthma, and whether these features could be mediated by microRNA-221 and microRNA-222, through modulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21WAF1 and p27kip1. ASMCs cultured from bronchial biopsies of healthy subjects and patients with nonsevere or severe asthma were studied. Proliferation was measured by the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine and IL-6 by ELISA. FCS and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β caused greater proliferation and IL-6 release in patients with severe compared with nonsevere asthma and normal subjects. FCS + TGF-β inhibited p21WAF1 and p27kip1 expression, and increased microRNA-221 (miR-221) expression in ASMCs from individuals with severe asthma. miR-221, and not miR-222, mimics the increased proliferation and IL-6 release induced by FCS + TGF in healthy ASM, whereas in patients with severe asthma, the inhibition of miR-221, but not miR-222, inhibited proliferation and IL-6 release. miR-221 inhibition led to the increased expression of FCS + TGF-β–induced p21WAF1 and p27kip1. Dexamethasone suppressed proliferation in healthy subjects, but not in subjects with asthma. IL-6 was less suppressible by dexamethasone in patients with nonsevere and severe asthma, compared with healthy subjects. miR-221 did not influence the effects of dexamethasone. ASM from patients with severe asthma shows greater proliferation and IL-6 release than in patients with nonsevere asthma, but both groups show corticosteroid insensitivity. miR-221 regulates p21WAF1 and p27kip1 expression levels. Furthermore, miR-221 regulates the hyperproliferation and IL-6 release of ASMCs from patients with severe asthma, but does not regulate corticosteroid insensitivity.
PMCID: PMC3930931  PMID: 23944957
microRNA; ASM; proliferation; IL-6; steroid insensitivity
22.  Obesity and Asthma 
Rationale: Obesity is a major risk factor for asthma; the reasons for this are poorly understood, although it is thought that inflammatory changes in adipose tissue in obesity could contribute to airway inflammation and airway reactivity in individuals who are obese.
Objectives: To determine if inflammation in adipose tissue in obesity is related to late-onset asthma, and associated with increased markers of airway inflammation and reactivity.
Methods: We recruited a cohort of obese women with asthma and obese control women. We followed subjects with asthma for 12 months after bariatric surgery. We compared markers in adipose tissue and the airway from subjects with asthma and control subjects, and changes in subjects with asthma over time.
Measurements and Main Results: Subjects with asthma had increased macrophage infiltration of visceral adipose tissue (P < 0.01), with increased expression of leptin (P < 0.01) and decreased adiponectin (p < 0.001) when controlled for body mass index. Similar trends were observed in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Airway epithelial cells expressed receptors for leptin and adiponectin, and airway reactivity was significantly related to visceral fat leptin expression (rho = −0.8; P < 0.01). Bronchoalveolar lavage cytokines and cytokine production from alveolar macrophages were similar in subjects with asthma and control subjects at baseline, and tended to increase 12 months after surgery.
Conclusions: Obesity is associated with increased markers of inflammation in serum and adipose tissue, and yet decreased airway inflammation in obese people with asthma; these patterns reverse with bariatric surgery. Leptin and other adipokines may be important mediators of airway disease in obesity through direct effects on the airway rather than by enhancing airway inflammation.
PMCID: PMC3480522  PMID: 22837379
asthma; obesity; adipokine; airway hyperreactivity
23.  Relationship between airway inflammation and remodeling in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
European Journal of Medical Research  2009;14(Suppl 4):90-96.
Despite a number of important differences in the pathogenesis, course and prognosis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), these two entities also have common features with airway inflammation being one of them. Airway remodeling is a characteristic feature of asthma, but data on the bronchial wall thickening in COPD patients are still scarce.
To assess the relation between the inflammatory cell count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and thickness of bronchial walls assessed by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in asthma and COPD patients.
Material and methods
The study was conducted in 9 patients with mild-to-moderate asthma (M/F 4/5, mean age 35 ± 10 years) and 11 patients with mild-to-moderate COPD (M/F 7/4, mean age 57 ± 9 years). In all subjects lung function tests and HRCT scanning of the chest were performed. External (D) and internal (L) diameters of the airways were assessed at five selected lung levels. The lumen area (AL), wall area (WA), wall thickness (WT) and bronchial wall thickness (WT/D ratio) were calculated. Eight patients with asthma and 8 patients with COPD underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Total and differential cell counts were assessed in the BAL fluid.
Mean FEV1% pred was 80 ± 19%, and 73 ± 20% in asthma and COPD patients, respectively (NS). No significant differences in the total and differential cell counts in BALF were found in patients with asthma and COPD. There were no significant differences in the airway diameter or airway wall thickness. The mean inner airway diameter was 1.4 ± 0.3 and 1.2 ± 0.3 mm and the mean lumen area was 1.8 ± 0.7 and 1.6 ± 0.7 mm2 in asthma and COPD, respectively (NS). Negative correlations between the eosinophil count in BALF and inner airway diameter (r = -0.7, P < 0.05) and lumen area (r = -0.7, P < 0.05) were found in asthmatics. There was no significant relationship between the BALF cell count and airway wall thickness in COPD patients.
In mild-to-moderate asthma and COPD the airway diameter and thickness are similar. In asthmatics, the airway diameter might be associated with eosinophil count in BAL fluid.
PMCID: PMC3521369  PMID: 20156734
asthma; COPD; BALF; airway remodeling; HRCT
24.  Epithelial eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3 expression: relation to asthma severity, luminal eosinophilia and age at onset 
Thorax  2012;67(12):1061-1066.
Eosinophilic inflammation is implicated in asthma. Eotaxin 1–3 regulate eosinophil trafficking into the airways along with other chemotactic factors. However, the epithelial and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell expression of these chemokines in relation to asthma severity and eosinophilic phenotypes has not been addressed.
To measure the expression of the three eotaxin isoforms in bronchoscopically obtained samples and compare them with clinically relevant parameters between normal subjects and patients with asthma.
Normal subjects and patients with asthma of varying severity recruited through the Severe Asthma Research Program underwent clinical assessment and bronchoscopy with airway brushing and BAL. Eotaxin 1–3 mRNA/protein were measured in epithelial and BAL cells and compared with asthma severity, control and eosinophilic inflammation.
Eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3 mRNA and eotaxin-2 protein were increased in airway epithelial brushings from patients with asthma and were highest in cases of severe asthma (p values 0.0155, 0.0033 and 0.0006, respectively), with eotaxin-2 protein increased with age at onset. BAL cells normally expressed high levels of eotaxin-2 mRNA/protein but BAL fluid levels of eotaxin-2 were lowest in severe asthma. Epithelial eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3 mRNA/protein was associated with sputum eosinophilia, lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s and more asthma exacerbations. Airway epithelial cell eotaxin-2 protein differed by asthma severity only in those with late onset disease, and tended to be highest in those with late onset eosinophilic asthma.
Epithelial eotaxin-2 and 3 are increased in asthma and severe asthma. Their expression may contribute to luminal migration of eosinophils, especially in later onset disease, asthma control and severity.
PMCID: PMC3652589  PMID: 23015684
25.  In vivo imaging of the airway wall in asthma: fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy in relation to histology and lung function 
Respiratory Research  2011;12(1):85.
Airway remodelling is a feature of asthma including fragmentation of elastic fibres observed in the superficial elastin network of the airway wall. Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) is a new and non-invasive imaging technique performed during bronchoscopy that may visualize elastic fibres, as shown by in vitro spectral analysis of elastin powder. We hypothesized that FCFM images capture in vivo elastic fibre patterns within the airway wall and that such patterns correspond with airway histology. We aimed to establish the concordance between the bronchial elastic fibre pattern in histology and FCFM. Second, we examined whether elastic fibre patterns in histology and FCFM were different between asthmatic subjects and healthy controls. Finally, the association between these patterns and lung function parameters was investigated.
In a cross-sectional study comprising 16 subjects (8 atopic asthmatic patients with controlled disease and 8 healthy controls) spirometry and bronchoscopy were performed, with recording of FCFM images followed by endobronchial biopsy at the airway main carina. Elastic fibre patterns in histological sections and FCFM images were scored semi-quantitatively. Agreement between histology and FCFM was analysed using linearly weighted kappa κw.
The patterns observed in histological sections and FCFM images could be divided into 3 distinct groups. There was good agreement between elastic fibre patterns in histology and FCFM patterns (κw 0.744). The semi-quantitative pattern scores were not different between asthmatic patients and controls. Notably, there was a significant difference in post-bronchodilator FEV1 %predicted between the different patterns by histology (p = 0.001) and FCFM (p = 0.048), regardless of asthma or atopy.
FCFM captures the elastic fibre pattern within the airway wall in humans in vivo. The association between post-bronchodilator FEV1 %predicted and both histological and FCFM elastic fibre patterns points towards a structure-function relationship between extracellular matrix in the airway wall and lung function.
Trial registration
Netherlands Trial Register NTR1306
PMCID: PMC3146829  PMID: 21699692
Asthma; Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy; Extracellular Matrix; Respiratory Function Tests; Smooth muscle

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