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1.  Vitamin B12 deficiency in the brain leads to DNA hypomethylation in the TCblR/CD320 knockout mouse 
Background
DNA methylation is an epigenetic phenomenon that can modulate gene function by up or downregulation of gene expression. Vitamin B12 and folate pathways are involved in the production of S-Adenosylmethionine, the universal methyl donor.
Findings
Brain vitamin B12 concentration and global DNA methylation was determined in transcobalamin receptor (TCblR/CD320) knock out (KO) (n = 4) and control mice (n = 4) at 20–24 weeks of age. Median [IQR] brain vitamin B12 concentrations (pg/mg) in TCblR/CD320 KO mice compared with control mice was 8.59 [0.52] vs 112.42 [33.12]; p < 0.05. Global DNA methylation levels in brain genomic DNA were lower in TCblR/CD320 KO compared with control mice (Median [IQR]: 0.31[0.16] % vs 0.55[0.15] %; p < 0.05.).
Conclusions
In TCblR/CD320 KO mice, brain vitamin B12 drops precipitously by as much as 90% during a 20 week period. This decrease is associated with a 40% decrease in global DNA methylation in the brain. Future research will reveal whether the disruption in gene expression profiles due to changes in DNA hypomethylation contribute to central nervous system pathologies that are frequently seen in vitamin B12 deficiency.
doi:10.1186/1743-7075-9-41
PMCID: PMC3433370  PMID: 22607050
Vitamin B12 deficiency; Brain; Global DNA methylation; Transcobalamin receptor knock out mice
2.  Positive Newborn Screen for Methylmalonic Aciduria Identifies the First Mutation in TCblR/CD320, the Gene for Cellular Uptake of Transcobalamin-bound Vitamin B12 
Human mutation  2010;31(8):924-929.
Elevated methylmalonic acid in five asymptomatic newborns whose fibroblasts showed decreased uptake of transcobalamin-bound cobalamin (holo-TC), suggested a defect in the cellular uptake of cobalamin. Analysis of TCblR/CD320, the gene for the receptor for cellular uptake of holo-TC, identified a homozygous single codon deletion, c.262_264GAG (p.E88del), resulting in the loss of a glutamic acid residue in the low-density lipoprotein receptor type A-like domain. Inserting the codon by site-directed mutagenesis fully restored TCblR function.
doi:10.1002/humu.21297
PMCID: PMC2909035  PMID: 20524213
methylmalonic acid; homocysteine; transcobalamin-receptor; cobalamin; vitamin B12; TCblR; CD320
3.  Maternal Risk for Down Syndrome Is Modulated by Genes Involved in Folate Metabolism 
Disease markers  2012;32(2):73-81.
Studies have shown that the maternal risk for Down syndrome (DS) may be modulated by alterations in folate metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 12 genetic polymorphisms involved in folate metabolism on maternal risk for DS. In addition, we evaluated the impact of these polymorphisms on serum folate and plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA, an indicator of vitamin B12 status) concentrations. The polymorphisms transcobalamin II (TCN2) c.776C>G, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) c.742A>G, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (NAD(P)H) (MTHFR) c.677 C>T and the MTHFR 677C-1298A-1317T haplotype modulate DS risk. The polymorphisms MTHFR c.677C>T and solute carrier family 19 (folate transporter), member 1 (SLC19A1) c.80 A>G modulate folate concentrations, whereas the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR) c.66A>G polymorphism affects the MMA concentration. These results are consistent with the modulation of the maternal risk for DS by these polymorphisms.
doi:10.3233/DMA-2011-0869
PMCID: PMC3826801  PMID: 22377700
Down syndrome; genetic polymorphism; folate metabolism
4.  MTHFR Genetic Polymorphism As a Risk Factor in Egyptian Mothers with Down Syndrome Children 
Disease markers  2007;24(1):19-26.
Recent reports linking Down syndrome (DS) to maternal polymorphisms at the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene locus have generated great interest among investigators in the field. The present study aimed at evaluation of MTHFR 677C/T and 1298A/C polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene as maternal risk factors for DS. Forty two mothers of proven DS outcomes and forty eight control mothers with normal offspring were included. Complete medical and nutritional histories for all mothers were taken with special emphasis on folate intake. Folic acid intake from food or vitamin supplements was significantly low (below the Recommended Daily Allowance) in the group of case mothers compared to control mothers. Frequencies of MTHFR 677T and MTHFR 1298C alleles were significantly higher among case mothers (32.1% and 57.1%, respectively) compared to control mothers (18.7% and 32.3%, respectively). Heterozygous and homozygous genotype frequencies of MTHFR at position 677 (CT and TT) were higher among case mothers than controls (40.5% versus 25% and 11.9% versus 6.2%, respectively) with an odds ratio of 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93–5.89) and 2.75 (95% CI 0.95–12.77), respectively. Interestingly, the homozygous genotype frequency (CC) at position 1298 was significantly higher in case mothers than in controls (33.3% versus 2.1% respectively) with an odds ratio of 31.5 (95% CI 3.51 to 282.33) indicating that this polymorphism may have more genetic impact than 677 polymorphism. Heterozygous genotype (AC) did not show significant difference between the two groups. We here report on the first pilot study of the possible genetic association between DS and MTHFR 1298A/C genotypes among Egyptians. Further extended studies are recommended to confirm the present work.
doi:10.1155/2008/214027
PMCID: PMC3850629  PMID: 18057532
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR); Down syndrome; polymorphism; MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism; MTHFR 1298A/C polymorphism; Egyptian
5.  Neural Tube Defects and Folate Pathway Genes: Family-Based Association Tests of Gene–Gene and Gene–Environment Interactions 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2006;114(10):1547-1552.
Background
Folate metabolism pathway genes have been examined for association with neural tube defects (NTDs) because folic acid supplementation reduces the risk of this debilitating birth defect. Most studies addressed these genes individually, often with different populations providing conflicting results.
Objectives
Our study evaluates several folate pathway genes for association with human NTDs, incorporating an environmental cofactor: maternal folate supplementation.
Methods
In 304 Caucasian American NTD families with myelomeningocele or anencephaly, we examined 28 polymorphisms in 11 genes: folate receptor 1, folate receptor 2, solute carrier family 19 member 1, transcobalamin II, methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1, serine hydroxymethyl-transferase 1, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homo-cysteine methyltransferase, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), and cystathionine-beta-synthase.
Results
Only single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BHMT were significantly associated in the overall data set; this significance was strongest when mothers took folate-containing nutritional supplements before conception. The BHMT SNP rs3733890 was more significant when the data were stratified by preferential transmission of the MTHFR rs1801133 thermolabile T allele from parent to offspring. Other SNPs in folate pathway genes were marginally significant in some analyses when stratified by maternal supplementation, MTHFR, or BHMT allele transmission.
Conclusions
BHMT rs3733890 is significantly associated in our data set, whereas MTHFR rs1801133 is not a major risk factor. Further investigation of folate and methionine cycle genes will require extensive SNP genotyping and/or resequencing to identify novel variants, inclusion of environmental factors, and investigation of gene–gene interactions in large data sets.
doi:10.1289/ehp.9166
PMCID: PMC1626421  PMID: 17035141
folate; folic acid supplementation; genetic association; neural tube defects
6.  MTHFR Polymorphisms, Folate Intake, and Carcinogen DNA Adducts in the Lung 
The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes and folate in one-carbon metabolism are essential for DNA methylation and synthesis. However, their role in carcinogen DNA damage in target lung tissue, a dosimeter for cancer risk, is not known. Our study aimed to investigate the association between genetic and nutritional one-carbon metabolism factors and DNA adducts in target lung. Data on 135 lung cancer cases from the Massachusetts General Hospital were studied. Genotyping was completed for MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131). Information on dietary intake for one-carbon related micronutrients, folate and other B vitamin, was derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire. DNA adducts in lung were measured by 32P-postlabeling. After adjusting for potential confounders, DNA adduct levels in lung significantly increased by 69.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.5% to 171.5%] for the MTHFR 1298AC+CC genotype. The high risk group, combining the A1298C (AC+CC) plus C677T (CT+TT) genotypes, had significantly enhanced levels of lung adducts by 210.7% (95% CI, 21.4% to 695.2%) in contrast to the A1298C (AA) plus C677T (CC) genotypes. Elevation of DNA adduct was pronounced - 111.3% (95% CI, −3.0 to 360.5%) among 1298AC+CC patients who consumed the lowest level of folate intake as compared with 1298AA individuals with highest tertile of intake. These results indicate that DNA adducts levels are influenced by MTHFR polymorphisms and low folate consumption, suggesting an important role of genetic and nutritional factors in protecting DNA damage from lung carcinogen in at-risk populations.
doi:10.1002/ijc.27338
PMCID: PMC3293105  PMID: 22052259
MTHFR; folate; genetic polymorphisms; DNA adducts; one carbon metabolism
7.  Down-regulation of Transcobalamin Receptor TCblR/CD320 by siRNA Inhibits Cobalamin uptake and Proliferation of Cells in Culture 
Experimental cell research  2011;317(11):1603-1607.
The clinical phenotype of cobalamin (Cbl) deficiency is dictated by the essential role of this vitamin in two key enzymatic reactions. Multiple proteins and receptors participate in the absorption, transport and delivery of this vitamin to tissue cells. Cellular uptake of Cbl is mediated by transcobalamin (TC), a plasma protein and a transmembrane receptor (TCblR) with high affinity for TC saturated with Cbl. Knockdown of TCblR with siRNA results in decreased TC-Cbl uptake. The ensuing Cbl deficiency leads to an increase in doubling time and decreased proliferation of these cells. The study confirms the seminal role of this receptor in the cellular uptake of Cbl and its down-regulation as a potential strategy to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells.
doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2011.02.016
PMCID: PMC3103659  PMID: 21377459
8.  Characterization of the promoter region of TCblR/CD320 gene, the receptor for cellular uptake of transcobalamin-bound cobalamin 
Gene  2010;466(1-2):49-55.
Cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl) is mediated by the transcobalamin receptor (TCblR) that binds and internalizes transcobalamin (TC) saturated with Cbl. These receptors are expressed in actively proliferating cells and are down regulated in quiescent cells. The 5′ region of TCblR gene was analyzed for promoter activity to determine transcriptional regulation of TCblR expression. The region −668 to −455 appears to regulate TCblR expression. We have identified transcription factors MZF-1 (myeloid zinc finger 1) / RREB-1 (Ras-responsive element binding protein 1), C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein) / HNF-3ß (hepatocyte nuclear factor 3) and AP-1(activator protein 1) as proteins likely to be involved in this regulation with the former region primarily involved in up regulation and the latter two regions involved in suppression of TCblR expression. These transcription factors are involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Thus the cell cycle associated expression of TCblR appears to be tightly regulated in synchrony with the proliferative phase of the cell cycle.
doi:10.1016/j.gene.2010.07.004
PMCID: PMC2947791  PMID: 20627121
Transcobalamin; Receptor; TCblR/CD320; vitamin B12; Cobalamin; Promoter; Transcription
9.  Cellular Uptake of Cobalamin: Transcobalamin and the TCblR/CD320 Receptor 
Biochimie  2013;95(5):1008-1018.
Cellular uptake of cobalamin is facilitated by a receptor mediated endocytosis process involving transcobalamin, a plasma protein that binds cobalamin and a cell surface receptor that specifically binds transcobalamin saturated with cobalamin. Intracellular Cbl concentration is maintained by modulating the expression of the receptor, which is cell cycle associated with highest expression in actively proliferating cells and an efflux system that shunts the excess cobalamin out of the cells for mobilization to other tissues where it is most needed. This review describes the process, proteins involved and genes encoding these proteins.
doi:10.1016/j.biochi.2013.02.004
PMCID: PMC3902480  PMID: 23415653
10.  Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and transcobalamin genetic polymorphisms in human spontaneous abortion: biological and clinical implications 
The pathogenesis of human spontaneous abortion involves a complex interaction of several genetic and environmental factors. The firm association between increased homocysteine concentration and neural tube defects (NTD) has led to the hypothesis that high concentrations of homocysteine might be embryotoxic and lead to decreased fetal viability. There are several genetic polymorphisms that are associated with defects in folate- and vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine metabolism. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms cause elevated homocysteine concentration and are associated with an increased risk of NTD. Additionally, low concentration of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) or transcobalamin that delivers vitamin B12 to the cells of the body leads to hyperhomocysteinemia and is associated with NTD. This effect involves the transcobalamin (TC) 776C>G polymorphism. Importantly, the biochemical consequences of these polymorphisms can be modified by folate and vitamin B12 supplementation. In this review, I focus on recent studies on the role of hyperhomocysteinemia-associated polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of human spontaneous abortion and discuss the possibility that periconceptional supplementation with folate and vitamin B12 might lower the incidence of miscarriage in women planning a pregnancy.
doi:10.1186/1477-7827-2-7
PMCID: PMC356929  PMID: 14969589
11.  Dietary intake of folate and co-factors in folate metabolism, MTHFR polymorphisms, and reduced rectal cancer 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2007;18(2):153-163.
Little is known about the contribution of polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) and the folate metabolism pathway in rectal cancer alone. Data were from participants in a case-control study conducted in Northern California and Utah (751 cases and 979 controls). We examined independent associations and interactions of folate, B vitamins, methionine, alcohol, and MTHFR polymorphisms (MTHFR C677T and A1298C) with rectal cancer. Dietary folate intake was associated with a reduction in rectal cancer OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.48-0.92 (>475 mcg day compared to < = 322 mcg) as was a combination of nutrient intakes contributing to higher methyl donor status (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.95). Risk was reduced among women with the 677 TT genotype (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.30-0.9), but not men (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.70-1.76) and with the 1298 CC genotype in combined gender analysis (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.46-0.98). These data are consistent with a protective effect of increasing dietary folate against rectal cancer and suggest a protective role of the MTHFR 677 TT genotype in women and 1298 CC in men and women. Folate intake, low methyl donor status, and MTHFR polymorphisms may play independent roles in the etiology of rectal cancer.
doi:10.1007/s10552-006-0099-2
PMCID: PMC2366030  PMID: 17245555
Diet; Pteroylpolyglutamic Acids; Rectal Neoplasms; Polymorphism; Genetic
12.  Effect of Vitamin B12 and Folate on Homocysteine levels in colorectal cancer 
Folate and cobalamin (Vitamin B12) are two essential micronutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism, which affects heart disease, neural tube defects and cancer. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, the key enzyme involved in one carbon metabolism produces methyl tetrahydrofolate from methylene tetrahydrofolate, which in turn donates methyl group to homocysteine to generate methionine. There exist two common low function polymorphic variants of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene involving nucleotides 677 C→T and 1298 A→C, which are associated with hyperhomocysteinemia. These polymorphisms are also linked with increased risk for certain cancers such as breast cancer and at the same time providing a protective effect on colorectal cancer. In this case control study, we have evaluated levels of folic acid, vitamin B12 and homocysteine in patients with colorectal cancer. Folate and homocysteine levels did not differ significantly between the two groups; however an increasing trend was noticed with increase in homocysteine levels. Vitamin B12 levels were increased in cases compared to control group.
doi:10.1007/s12291-008-0058-7
PMCID: PMC3453447  PMID: 23105766
Colorectal cancer; Folate; Vitamin B12; Homocysteine
13.  Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and interaction with smoking and alcohol consumption in lung cancer risk: a case-control study in a Japanese population 
BMC Cancer  2011;11:459.
Background
Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor of lung cancer development while the current epidemiological evidence is suggestive of an increased lung cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption. Dietary folate, which is present in a wide range of fresh fruits and vegetables, may be a micronutrient that has a beneficial impact on lung carcinogenesis. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a crucial role in regulating folate metabolism, which affects both DNA synthesis/repair and methylation. We examined if smoking or alcohol consumption modify associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and lung cancer risk.
Methods
We evaluated the role of the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) polymorphisms in a case-control study comprised of 462 lung cancer cases and 379 controls in a Japanese population. Logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).
Results
The TT genotype of the C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.42 - 3.62, P < 0.01) while the A1298C polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer risk. The minor alleles of both polymorphisms behaved in a recessive fashion. The highest risks were seen for 677TT-carriers with a history of smoking or excessive drinking (OR = 6.16, 95% CI = 3.48 - 10.9 for smoking; OR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.64 - 5.81 for drinking) compared with C-carriers without a history of smoking or excessive drinking, but no interactions were seen. The 1298CC genotype was only associated with increased risk among non-smokers (P < 0.05), and smoking was only associated with increased risks among 1298A-carriers (P < 0.01), but no significant interaction was seen. There was a synergistic interaction between the A1298C polymorphism and drinking (P < 0.05). The highest risk was seen for the CC-carriers with excessive drinking (OR = 7.24, 95% CI = 1.89 - 27.7) compared with the A-carriers without excessive drinking).
Conclusions
The C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with lung cancer risk. Although the A1298C polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer risk, a significant interaction with drinking was observed. Future studies incorporating data on folate intake may undoubtedly lead to a more thorough understanding of the role of the MTHFR polymorphisms in lung cancer development.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-11-459
PMCID: PMC3213117  PMID: 22024018
14.  Folate and One-Carbon Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms and Their Associations With Oral Facial Clefts 
Folate metabolism plays a critical role in embryonic development. Prenatal folate supplementation reduces the risk of neural tube defects and probably oral facial clefts. Previous studies of related metabolic genes have associated polymorphisms in cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with cleft risk. We explored associations between genes related to one-carbon metabolism and clefts in a Norwegian population-based study that included 362 families with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and 191 families with cleft palate only (CPO). We previously showed a 39% reduction in risk of CL/P with folic acid supplementation in this population. In the present study we genotyped 12 polymorphisms in nine genes related to one-carbon metabolism and looked for associations of clefting risk with fetal polymorphisms, maternal polymorphisms, as well as parent-of-origin effects, using combined likelihood-ratio tests (LRT). We also stratified by maternal periconceptional intake of folic acid (>400 μg) to explore gene-exposure interactions. We found a reduced risk of CL/P with mothers who carried the CBS C699T variant (rs234706); relative risk was 0.94 with one copy of the T allele (95% CI 0.63-1.4) and 0.50 (95% CI 0.26-0.96) with two copies (P = 0.008). We found no evidence of interaction of this variant with folate status. We saw no evidence of risk from the MTHFR C677T variant (rs1801133) either overall or after stratifying by maternal folate intake. No associations were found between any of the polymorphisms and CPO. Genetic variations in the nine metabolic genes examined here do not confer a substantial degree of risk for clefts. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.†
doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.32162
PMCID: PMC2366099  PMID: 18203168
alleles; cleft lip; cleft palate; dietary supplements; folic acid; metabolism; humans; single nucleotide polymorphisms
15.  The association of idiopathic recurrent early pregnancy loss with polymorphisms in folic acid metabolism-related genes 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;9(3):402.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between polymorphisms in folic acid metabolism-related genes and idiopathic recurrent early pregnancy loss (REPL). A prospective case–control study was performed on a cohort of 82 REPL patients and 166 healthy controls. Genotyping of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C was assessed by applying polymerase chain reaction for amplification followed by DNA sequencing, for methionine synthase reductase A66G, solute carrier family 19, member 1 (SLC19A1) G80A and C696T, and genotyping was done by utilizing the Sequenom MassARRAY system. The results revealed a significant association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and idiopathic REPL. Haplotype analysis indicated that the MTHFR 677C-MTHFR 1298C allele combination was associated with REPL (P < 0.001). The MTHFR 677C-MTHFR 1298A and SLC19A1 80G-SLC19A1 696C allele combinations had lower frequencies in patients with REPL, but with P > 0.05 (P = 0.093 and P = 0.084, respectively).
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0402-x
PMCID: PMC4026427  PMID: 24728915
MTHFR; MTRR; SLC19A1; Polymorphism; Homocysteine; Folic acid
16.  MTHFR rs1801133 C>T polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of tetralogy of Fallot 
Biomedical Reports  2014;2(2):172-176.
Abnormal folate metabolism and common variants of folate-metabolizing enzymes have been described as possible risk factors for congenital heart disease (CHD). Two important folate-metabolizing enzymes involved in the folate/homocysteine metabolic pathway are 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1). MTHFR and MTHFD1 polymorphisms may be associated with CHD susceptibility. To evaluate the impact of MTHFR and MTHFD1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on CHD susceptibility, we genotyped functional MTHFR SNPs rs1801133 C>T, rs1801131 A>C and rs2274976 G>A, and MTHFD SNPs rs2236225 C>T, rs1950902 G>A and rs1076991 A>G in a hospital-based case-control study of 173 tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) cases and 207 non-CHD controls. When MTHFR rs1801133 CC homozygote genotype was used as the reference group, the TT genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk for TOF [TT vs. CC: odds ratio (OR)=1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01–2.75; P=0.046]. In the recessive model, when MTHFR rs1801133 CC/CT genotype was used as the reference group, the TT homozygote genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk for TOF (OR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.15–2.84; P=0.010). In conclusion, our findings suggest that MTHFR rs1801133 C>T polymorphism may play a role in susceptibility for TOF. Large-scale studies with a more rigorous study design including diverse ethnic populations are required to confirm these findings.
doi:10.3892/br.2014.222
PMCID: PMC3917760  PMID: 24649091
5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase; congenital heart disease; polymorphisms; tetralogy of Fallot; molecular epidemiology
17.  Targeted Delivery of Saporin Toxin by Monoclonal Antibody to the Transcobalamin Receptor, TCblR/CD320 
Molecular cancer therapeutics  2010;9(11):3033-3040.
Cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl) occurs by endocytosis of transcobalamin (TC) saturated with Cbl by the transcobalamin receptor (TCblR/CD320). The cell cycle associated over expression of this receptor in many cancer cells, provides a suitable target for delivering chemotherapeutic drugs and cytotoxic molecules to these cells while minimizing the effect on the normal cell population. We have used monoclonal antibodies to the extracellular domain of TCblR to deliver saporin conjugated secondary antibody to various cell lines propagating in culture. A molar ratio of 2.5:10nM of primary:secondary antibody concentration was identified as the lowest concentration needed to produce the optimum cytotoxic effect. The effect was more pronounced when cells were seeded at lower density suggesting lack of cell division in a fraction of the cells at higher density as the likely explanation. Cells in suspension culture such as K562 and U266 cells were more severely affected than adherent cultures such as SW48 and KB cells. This differential effect of the anti TCblR-saporin antibody conjugate and the ability of an anti TCblR antibody to target proliferating cells was further evident by the virtual lack of any effect on primary skin fibroblasts and minimal effect on bone marrow cells. These results indicate that preferential targeting of some cancer cells could be accomplished via the TCblR receptor.
doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-10-0513
PMCID: PMC2978776  PMID: 20858723
Transcobalamin; CD320; monoclonal antibodies; vitamin B12
18.  Serum Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid Levels and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Gene Polymorphism in Vitiligo 
Disease markers  2012;33(2):85-89.
The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C) do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo.
doi:10.3233/DMA-2012-0908
PMCID: PMC3810692  PMID: 22846211
Vitiligo; homocysteine; methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase; gene polymorphism; vitamin B12; folic acid
19.  Saporin Conjugated Monoclonal Antibody to the Transcobalamin Receptor TCblR/CD320 Is Effective in Targeting and Destroying Cancer Cells 
Journal of cancer therapy  2013;4(6):1074-1081.
Cobalamin uptake into cells is mediated by the CD320 receptor for transcobalamin-bound cobalamin. Optimum receptor expression is associated with proliferating cells and therefore, in many cancers this receptor expression is up regulated. Delivering drugs or toxins via this receptor provides increased targeting to cancer cells while minimizing toxicity to the normal tissues. Saporin conjugated monoclonal antibodies to the extracellular domain of TCblR were effectively internalized to deliver a toxic dose of Saporin to some cancer cell lines propagating in culture. Antibody concentration of 2.5 nM was effective in producing optimum inhibition of cell proliferation. The cytotoxic effect of mAb-Saporin appears to be dictated primarily by the level of receptor expression and therefore normal primary cells expressing low levels of CD320 were spared while tumor cell lines with higher CD320 expression were destroyed. Targeting the pathway for cellular uptake of vitamin B12 via the CD320 receptor with toxin-antibody conjugates appears to be a viable treatment strategy for certain cancers that over expresses this receptor.
doi:10.4236/jct.2013.46122
PMCID: PMC3917558  PMID: 24511425
Transcobalamin Receptor; CD320 Gene; Cobalamin; Cancer; Toxin
20.  Homocysteine Lowering by Folate-Rich Diet or Pharmacological Supplementations in Subjects with Moderate Hyperhomocysteinemia 
Nutrients  2013;5(5):1531-1543.
Background/Objectives: To compare the efficacy of a diet rich in natural folate and of two different folic acid supplementation protocols in subjects with “moderate” hyperhomocysteinemia, also taking into account C677T polymorphism of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Subjects/Methods: We performed a 13 week open, randomized, double blind clinical trial on 149 free living persons with mild hyperhomocyteinemia, with daily 200 μg from a natural folate-rich diet, 200 μg [6S]5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), 200 μg folic acid or placebo. Participants were stratified according to their MTHFR genotype. Results: Homocysteine (Hcy) levels were reduced after folate enriched diet, 5-MTHF or folic acid supplementation respectively by 20.1% (p < 0.002), 19.4% (p < 0.001) and 21.9% (p < 0.001), as compared to baseline levels and significantly as compared to placebo (p < 0.001, p < 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively for enriched diet, 5-MTHF and folic acid). After this enriched diet and the folic acid supplementation, Hcy in both genotype groups decreased approximately to the same level, with higher percentage decreases observed for the TT group because of their higher pre-treatment value. Similar results were not seen by genotype for 5-MTHF. A significant increase in RBC folate concentration was observed after folic acid and natural folate-rich food supplementations, as compared to placebo. Conclusions: Supplementation with natural folate-rich foods, folic acid and 5-MTHF reached a similar reduction in Hcy concentrations.
doi:10.3390/nu5051531
PMCID: PMC3708334  PMID: 23698160
folic acid; 5-MTHF; homocysteine; folate-rich diet; MTHFR genotype; clinical trial
21.  Tagging SNPs in the MTHFR Gene and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in a Chinese Population 
Stroke is currently the leading cause of functional impairments worldwide. Folate supplementation is inversely associated with risk of ischemic stroke. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme involved in folate metabolism. The aim of this study is to examine whether genetic variants in MTHFR gene are associated with the risk of ischemic stroke and fasting total serum homocysteine (tHcy) level. We genotyped nine tag SNPs in the MTHFR gene in a case-control study, including 543 ischemic stroke cases and 655 healthy controls in China. We found that subjects with the rs1801133 TT genotype and rs1801131 CC genotype had significant increased risks of ischemic stroke (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27–2.61, p = 0.004; adjusted OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.12–3.56, p = 0.01) compared with subjects with the major alleles. Haplotype analysis also found that carriers of the MTHFR CTTCGA haplotype (rs12121543-rs13306553-rs9651118-rs1801133-rs2274976-rs1801131) had a significant reduced risk of ischemic stroke (adjusted OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.35–0.82) compared with those with the CTTTGA haplotype. Besides, the MTHFR rs1801133 and rs9651118 were significantly associated with serum levels of tHcy in healthy controls (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.02). These findings suggest that variants in the MTHFR gene may influence the risk of ischemic stroke and serum tHcy.
doi:10.3390/ijms15058931
PMCID: PMC4057767  PMID: 24853127
ischemic stroke; MTHFR; polymorphism; homocysteine
22.  Association between plasma homocysteine and riboflavin status in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in children 
Remethylation of homocysteine to methionine is dependent on an adequate supply of one or more of the B vitamins like folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6. Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is also influenced by genetic factors such as polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. MTHFR is a flavo enzyme and a key player in folate metabolism and changes in its activity could modify the susceptibility to Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). In this case — control study we have examined the effect of riboflavin status as measured by erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient (EGRAC) on homocysteine levels along with vitamin B12 and folate in pediatric ALL. Folate and B12 levels were significantly lower among cases as compared to controls while EGRAC and tHcy did not differ significantly among the groups. The multivariate regression analysis revealed that in the ALL group EGRAC significantly influences tHcy levels suggesting that riboflavin availability may be a predictor of tHcy levels in patients with ALL. This finding may have implications for tHcy lowering therapy.
doi:10.1007/s12291-009-0048-4
PMCID: PMC3453319  PMID: 23105845
Homocysteine; Riboflavin; MTHFR; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
23.  Folate Intake at RDA Levels Is Inadequate for Mexican American Men with the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase 677TT Genotype123 
The Journal of nutrition  2008;138(1):67-72.
Since the establishment of the 1998 folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA), the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C→T variant has emerged as a strong modifier of folate status. This controlled feeding study investigated the adequacy of the RDA, 400 μg/d as dietary folate equivalents (DFE), for Mexican American men with the MTHFR 677CC or TT genotype. Because of the interdependency between folate and choline, the influence of choline intake on folate status was also assessed. Mexican American men (n = 60; 18–55 y) with the MTHFR 677CC (n = 31) or TT (n = 29) genotype consumed 438 μg DFE/d and total choline intakes of 300, 550 (choline adequate intake), 1100, or 2200 mg/d for 12 wk. Folate status response was assessed via serum folate (SF), RBC folate, plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), and urinary folate. SF decreased (P < 0.001) 66% to 7.9 ± 0.7 nmol/L (means ± SEM) in men with the 677TT genotype and 62% to 11.3 ± 0.9 nmol/L in the 677CC genotype. Plasma tHcy increased (P < 0.0001) 170% to 31 ± 3 μmol/L in men with the 677TT genotype and 18% to 11.6 ± 0.3 μmol/L in the 677CC genotype. At the end of the study, 34% (677TT) and 16% (677CC) had SF concentrations <6.8 nmol/L and 79% (677TT) and 7% (677CC) had tHcy concentrations >14 μmol/L. Choline intake did not influence the response of the measured variables. These data showed that the folate RDA is not adequate for men of Mexican descent, particularly for those with the MTHFR 677TT genotype, and demonstrated a lack of influence of choline intake on the folate status variables measured in this study.
PMCID: PMC2646848  PMID: 18156406
24.  Dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, genetic polymorphism of related enzymes, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Brazilian women 
BMC Cancer  2009;9:122.
Background
Several studies have determined that dietary intake of B vitamins may be associated with breast cancer risk as a result of interactions between 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase (MTR) in the one-carbon metabolism pathway. However, the association between B vitamin intake and breast cancer risk in Brazilian women in particular has not yet been investigated.
Methods
A case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil, with 458 age-matched pairs of Brazilian women. Energy-adjusted intakes of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 were derived from a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Genotyping was completed for MTHFR A1298C and C677T, and MTR A2756G polymorphisms. A logistical regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).
Results
Neither dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, or vitamin B12 nor MTHFR polymorphisms were independently associated with breast cancer risk. Analysis stratified by menopausal status showed a significant association between placement in the highest tertile of folate intake and risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.23–3.83; Ptrend = 0.010). The MTR 2756GG genotype was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer than the 2756AA genotype (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.01–3.92; Ptrend = 0.801), and statistically significant interactions with regard to risk were observed between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and folate (P = 0.024) or vitamin B6 (P = 0.043), and between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and folate (P = 0.043) or vitamin B12 (P = 0.022).
Conclusion
MTHFR polymorphisms and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 had no overall association with breast cancer risk. However, increased risk was observed in total women with the MTR 2756GG genotype and in premenopausal women with high folate intake. These findings, as well as significant interactions between MTHFR polymorphisms and B vitamins, warrant further investigation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-9-122
PMCID: PMC2684745  PMID: 19389261
25.  Congenital heart defects and genetic variants in the methylenetetrahydroflate reductase gene 
Journal of Medical Genetics  2006;43(2):162-166.
Background
Most non‐syndromic congenital heart defects (CHD) are caused by a complex interaction between maternal lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, and maternal and fetal genetic variants. Maternal periconceptional intake of folic acid containing vitamin supplements is reported to decrease the risk of CHD. The 677C→T and 1298A→C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene decrease enzyme activity.
Objective
To examine the relation between CHD and maternal and fetal MTHFR polymorphisms
Methods
375 nuclear families were studied. The transmission/disequilibrium test was used to test for transmission distortion in complete triads. A log‐linear approach was used to test for associations between CHD and maternal and offspring polymorphisms, and to estimate independently the contributions of maternal and fetal variants to relative risks. Haplotype frequencies were estimated and a haplotype transmission disequilibrium test carried out.
Results
The 1298C allele was transmitted less often than expected (p = 0.0013). There was no distortion in the transmission of the 677T allele, neither was there evidence of a parent of origin effect in the transmission of either of the single nucleotide polymorphisms. The 677C–1298C haplotype was also transmitted less often than expected (p = 0.0020). The relative risk associated with inheriting one copy of the 1298C allele was 0.64 (95% confidence interval, 0.48 to 0.87) and the that associated with inheriting two copies of the 1298C allele, 0.38 (0.21 to 0.70).
Conclusions
The apparent protective effect of the MTHFR 1298C allele against CHD could have several explanations and further study is needed.
doi:10.1136/jmg.2005.032656
PMCID: PMC2564637  PMID: 15951337
congenital heart defect; MTHFR; polymorphism; folic acid

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