In many European countries, the level of pneumococcal resistance to macrolides has now passed the level of resistance to penicillin G. A total of 82 erythromycin A-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were collected by 11 laboratories in seven European countries. All of the isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, analyzed for clonal relatedness by multilocus sequence typing, and characterized for macrolide resistance genotypes. The prevalence of the macrolide resistance genotypes varied substantially between countries. In France (87.5% of all strains), Spain (77.3%), Switzerland (80%), and Poland (100%), strains were predominantly erm(B) positive, whereas higher levels of mef(A)-positive strains were reported from Greece (100%) and Germany (33.3%). Macrolide resistance was caused by the oligoclonal spread of some multilocus sequence types, but significant differences in clonal distribution were noted between France and Spain, countries from which high levels of macrolide resistance have been reported. Overall, sequence type 81 (Spain23F-1 clone) was by far the most widespread. The mainly erm(B)-positive serotype 14 clone (sequence type 143), first reported in Poland in the mid-1990s, is now widespread in France.
Norway has a low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, including macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (MRSP). In a nationwide surveillance program, a total of 2,200 S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from blood cultures and respiratory tract specimens. Macrolide resistance was detected in 2.7%. M-type macrolide resistance was found in 60% of resistant isolates, and these were mainly mef(A)-positive, serotype-14 invasive isolates. The erm(B)-encoded macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) type dominated among the noninvasive isolates. One strain had an A2058G mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. Coresistance to other antibiotics was seen in 96% of the MLSB-type isolates, whereas 92% of the M-type isolates were susceptible to other commonly used antimicrobial agents. Serotypes 14, 6B, and 19F accounted for 84% of the macrolide-resistant isolates, with serotype 14 alone accounting for 67% of the invasive isolates. A total of 29 different sequence types (STs) were detected by multilocus sequence typing. Twelve STs were previously reported international resistant clones, and 75% of the macrolide-resistant isolates had STs identical or closely related to these clones. Eleven isolates displayed 10 novel STs, and 7/11 of these “Norwegian strains” coexpressed MLSB and tetracycline resistance, indicating the presence of Tn1545. The invasive serotype-14 isolates were all classified as ST9 or single-locus variants of this clone. ST9 is a mef-positive M-type clone, commonly known as England14-9, reported from several European countries. These observations suggest that the import of major international MRSP clones and the local spread of Tn1545 are the major mechanisms involved in the evolution and dissemination of MRSP in Norway.
The in vitro activities of modithromycin against Gram-positive and -negative respiratory pathogens, including macrolide-resistant cocci with different resistance mechanisms, were compared with those of other macrolide and ketolide agents. MICs were determined by the broth microdilution method. All 595 test strains used in this study were isolated from Japanese medical facilities. The erm (ribosome methylase) and/or mef (efflux pump) gene, which correlated with resistance to erythromycin as well as clarithromycin and azithromycin, was found in 81.8%, 21.3%, and 23.2% of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains, respectively. Modithromycin showed MIC90s of 0.125 μg/ml against these three cocci, including macrolide-resistant strains. In particular, the MIC of modithromycin against ermB-carrying S. pyogenes was ≥32-fold lower than that of telithromycin. The activities of modithromycin as well as telithromycin were little affected by the presence of mefA or mefE in both streptococci. Against Gram-negative pathogens, modithromycin showed MIC90s of 0.5, 8, and 0.031 μg/ml against Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Legionella spp., respectively. The MICs of modithromycin against M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae were higher than those of telithromycin and azithromycin. However, modithromycin showed the most potent anti-Legionella activity among the macrolide and ketolide agents tested. These results suggested that the bicyclolide agent modithromycin is a novel class of macrolides with improved antibacterial activity against Gram-positive cocci, including telithromycin-resistant streptococci and intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the Legionella species.
Macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has emerged as an important clinical problem worldwide over the past decade. The aim of this study was to analyze the phenotypes (serotype and antibiotic susceptibility), genotypes (multilocus sequence type [MLST] and antibiotic resistance gene/transposon profiles) among the 31% (102/328) of invasive isolates from children in New South Wales, Australia, in 2005 that were resistant to erythromycin. Three serotypes—19F (47 isolates [46%]), 14 (27 isolates [26%]), and 6B (12 isolates [12%])—accounted for 86 (84%) of these 102 isolates. Seventy four (73%) isolates had the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance phenotype and carried Tn916 transposons (most commonly Tn6002); of these, 73 (99%) contained the erythromycin ribosomal methylase gene [erm(B)], 34 (47%) also carried the macrolide efflux gene [mef(E)], and 41 (55%) belonged to serotype 19F. Of 28 (27%) isolates with the M phenotype, 22 (79%) carried mef(A), including 16 (57%) belonging to serotype 14, and only six (19%) carried Tn916 transposons. Most (84%) isolates which contained mef also contained one of the msr(A) homologues, mel or msr(D); 38 of 40 (95%) isolates with mef(E) (on mega) carried mel, and of 28 (39%) isolates with mef(A), 10 (39%) carried mel and another 11(39%) carried msr(D), on Tn1207.1. Two predominant macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae clonal clusters (CCs) were identified in this population. CC-271 contained 44% of isolates, most of which belonged to serotype 19F, had the MLSB phenotype, were multidrug resistant, and carried transposons of the Tn916 family; CC-15 contained 23% of isolates, most of which were serotype 14, had the M phenotype, and carried mef(A) on Tn1207.1. Erythromycin resistance among S. pneumoniae isolates in New South Wales is mainly due to the dissemination of multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae strains or horizontal spread of the Tn916 family of transposons.
The aim of this study was to analyze the distributions of antibiotic susceptibility patterns, serotypes, phenotypes, genotypes, and macrolide resistance genes among 125 nonduplicated erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates collected in a Spanish point prevalence study. The prevalence of resistance to macrolides in this study was 34.7%. Multiresistance (to three or more antimicrobials) was observed in 81.6% of these strains. Among 15 antimicrobials studied, cefotaxime, moxifloxacin, telithromycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin were the most active drugs. The most frequent serotypes of erythromycin-resistant isolates were 19F (25%), 19A (17%), 6B (12%), 14 (10%), and 23F (10%). Of the 125 strains, 109 (87.2%) showed the MLSB phenotype [103 had the erm(B) gene and 6 had both erm(B) and mef(E) genes]. Sixteen (12.8%) strains showed the M phenotype [14 with mef(E) and 2 with mef(A)]. All isolates were tested by PCR for the presence of the int, xis, tnpR, and tnpA genes associated with conjugative transposons (Tn916 family and Tn917). Positive detection of erm(B), tet(M), int, and xis genes related to the Tn916 family was found in 77.1% of MLSB phenotype strains. In 16 strains, only the tndX, erm(B), and tet(M) genes were detected, suggesting the presence of Tn1116, a transposon recently described for Streptococcus pyogenes. Five clones, namely, Sweden15A-25, clone19F ST87, Spain23F-1, Spain6B-2, and clone19A ST276, accounted for half of the MLSB strains. In conclusion, the majority of erythromycin-resistant pneumococci isolated in Spain had the MLSB phenotype, belonged to multiresistant international clones, and carried the erm(B), tet(M), xis, and int genes, suggesting the spread of transposons of the Tn916 family.
Erythromycin resistance rates among penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae were 38 and 92% among penicillin-intermediate and -resistant S. pneumoniae isolates from Hong Kong, respectively, and 27% (43 of 158) of the isolates showed the MLSB phenotype, and the majority carried the ermB gene; 73% (115 of 158) displayed the M phenotype, and all possessed the mef gene. The MLSB phenotype was predominant in penicillin-susceptible, macrolide-resistant isolates and in penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates of serotype 6B, whilst the M phenotype was predominant in penicillin-intermediate or -resistant isolates belonging to serotype 23F or 19F. Extensive spread of clones of drug-resistant pneumococci has led to the widespread presence of macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae in Hong Kong.
Although macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains possessing either the ermB or mefA gene are very common in Japan, clinical and microbial factors in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by different macrolide resistance genotypes have not been evaluated. A multicenter study of CAP caused by S. pneumoniae was performed in Japan from 2003 to 2005. A total of 156 isolates were tested for susceptibility to antibiotics correlated with ermB and mefA genotyping. Independent relationships between tested variables and possession of either the ermB or the mefA gene were identified. Of 156 isolates, 127 (81.4%) were resistant to erythromycin, with the following distribution of resistance genotypes: ermB alone (50.0%), mefA alone (23.7%), and both ermB and mefA (7.1%). All isolates were susceptible to telithromycin. By multivariate analysis, oxygen saturation of <90% on admission increased the risk for ermB-positive pneumococcal pneumonia (odds ratio [OR] = 11.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30 to 95.0; P = 0.03), but there were no associations with mefA or with ermB mefA positivity. Penicillin nonsusceptibility was associated with mefA-positive and with ermB- and mefA-positive isolates (OR = 14.2; 95% CI = 4.27 to 46.9; P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively) but not with ermB-positive isolates. The overall patient mortality was 5.1%. Mortality, the duration of hospitalization, and the resolution of several clinical markers were not associated with the different erythromycin resistance genotypes. In Japan, S. pneumoniae with erythromycin resistance or possession of ermB, mefA, or both genes was highly prevalent in patients with CAP. The risk factors for ermB-positive, mefA-positive, and double ermB-mefA-positive pneumococcal pneumonia were different, but the clinical outcomes did not differ.
The activity of a new ketolide, ABT-773, was compared to the activity of the ketolide telithromycin (HMR-3647) against over 600 gram-positive clinical isolates, including 356 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 167 Staphylococcus aureus, and 136 Streptococcus pyogenes isolates. Macrolide-susceptible isolates as well as macrolide-resistant isolates with ribosomal methylase (Erm), macrolide efflux (Mef), and ribosomal mutations were tested using the NCCLS reference broth microdilution method. Both compounds were extremely active against macrolide-susceptible isolates, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited (MIC90s) for susceptible streptococci and staphylococci ranging from 0.002 to 0.03 μg/ml for ABT-773 and 0.008 to 0.06 μg/ml for telithromycin. ABT-773 had increased activities against macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae (Erm MIC90, 0.015 μg/ml; Mef MIC90, 0.12 μg/ml) compared to those of telithromycin (Erm MIC90, 0.12 μg/ml; Mef MIC90, 1 μg/ml). Both compounds were active against strains with rRNA or ribosomal protein mutations (MIC90, 0.12 μg/ml). ABT-773 was also more active against macrolide-resistant S. pyogenes (ABT-773 Erm MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; ABT-773 Mef MIC90, 0.12 μg/ml; telithromycin Erm MIC90, >8 μg/ml; telithromycin Mef MIC90, 1.0 μg/ml). Both compounds lacked activity against constitutive macrolide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus but had good activities against inducibly resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ABT-773 MIC90, 0.06 μg/ml; telithromycin MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml). ABT-773 has superior activity against macrolide-resistant streptococci compared to that of telithromycin.
Active macrolide efflux is a major mechanism of macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in many parts of the world, especially North America. In Canada, this active macrolide efflux in S. pneumoniae is predominantly due to acquisition of the mef(E) gene. In the present study, we assessed the mef(E) gene sequence as well as mef(E) expression in variety of low- and high-level macrolide-resistant, clindamycin-susceptible (M-phenotype) S. pneumoniae isolates (erythromycin MICs, 1 to 32 μg/ml; clindamycin MICs, ≤0.25 μg/ml). Southern blot hybridization with mef(E) probe and EcoRI digestion and relative real-time reverse transcription-PCR were performed to study the mef(E) gene copy number and expression. Induction of mef(E) expression was analyzed by Etest susceptibility testing pre- and postincubation with subinhibitory concentrations of erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, telithromycin, and clindamycin. The macrolide efflux gene, mef(E), was shown to be a single-copy gene in all 23 clinical S. pneumoniae isolates tested, and expression post-macrolide induction increased 4-, 6-, 20-, and 200-fold in isolates with increasing macrolide resistance (erythromycin MICs 2, 4, 8, and 32 μg/ml, respectively). Sequencing analysis of the macrolide efflux genetic assembly (mega) revealed that mef(E) had a 16-bp deletion 153 bp upstream of the putative start codon in all 23 isolates. A 119-bp intergenic region between mef(E) and mel was sequenced, and a 99-bp deletion was found in 11 of the 23 M-phenotype S. pneumoniae isolates compared to the published mega sequence. However, the mef(E) gene was fully conserved among both high- and low-level macrolide-resistant isolates. In conclusion, increased expression of mef(E) is associated with higher levels of macrolide resistance in macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae.
Susceptibility testing results for Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (n = 2,279) from eight European countries, examined in the PneumoWorld Study from 2001 to 2003, are presented. Overall, 24.6% of S. pneumoniae isolates were nonsusceptible to penicillin G and 28.0% were resistant to macrolides. The prevalence of resistance varied widely between European countries, with the highest rates of penicillin G and macrolide resistance reported from Spain and France. Serotype 14 was the leading serotype among penicillin G- and macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates. One strain (PW 158) showed a combination of an efflux type of resistance with a 23S rRNA mutation (A2061G, pneumococcal numbering; A2059G, Escherichia coli numbering). Six strains which showed negative results for mef(A) and erm(B) in repeated PCR assays had mutations in 23S rRNA or alterations in the L4 ribosomal protein (two strains). Fluoroquinolone resistance rates (levofloxacin MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml) were low (Austria, 0%; Belgium, 0.7%; France, 0.9%; Germany, 0.4%; Italy, 1.3%; Portugal, 1.2%; Spain, 1.0%; and Switzerland, 0%). Analysis of quinolone resistance-determining regions showed eight strains with a Ser81 alteration in gyrA; 13 of 18 strains showed a Ser79 alteration in parC. The clonal profile, as analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), showed that the 18 fluoroquinolone-resistant strains were genetically heterogeneous. Seven of the 18 strains belonged to new sequence types not hitherto described in the MLST database. Europe-wide surveillance for monitoring of the further spread of these antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae clones is warranted.
A strain of Streptococcus agalactiae displayed resistance to 14-, 15-, and 16-membered macrolides. In PCR assays, total genomic DNA from this strain contained neither erm nor mef genes. EcoRI-digested genomic DNA from this strain was cloned into lambda Zap II to construct a library of S. agalactiae genomic DNA. A clone, pAES63, expressing resistance to erythromycin, azithromycin, and spiramycin in Escherichia coli was recovered. Deletion derivatives of pAES63 which defined a functional region on this clone that encoded resistance to 14- and 15-membered, but not 16-membered, macrolides were produced. Studies that determined the levels of incorporation of radiolabelled erythromycin into E. coli were consistent with the presence of a macrolide efflux determinant. This putative efflux determinant was distinct from the recently described Mef pump in Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae and from the multicomponent MsrA pump in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Its gene has been designated mreA (for macrolide resistance efflux).
The bacterial pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida are major etiological agents in respiratory tract infections of cattle. Although these infections can generally be successfully treated with veterinary macrolide antibiotics, a few recent isolates have shown resistance to these drugs. Macrolide resistance in members of the family Pasteurellaceae is conferred by combinations of at least three genes: erm(42), which encodes a monomethyltransferase and confers a type I MLSB (macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B) phenotype; msr(E), which encodes a macrolide efflux pump; and mph(E), which encodes a macrolide-inactivating phosphotransferase. Here, we describe a multiplex PCR assay that detects the presence of erm(42), msr(E), and mph(E) and differentiates between these genes. In addition, the assay distinguishes P. multocida from M. haemolytica by amplifying distinctive fragments of the 23S rRNA (rrl) genes. One rrl fragment acts as a general indicator of gammaproteobacterial species and confirms whether the PCR assay has functioned as intended on strains that are negative for erm(42), msr(E), and mph(E). The multiplex system has been tested on more than 40 selected isolates of P. multocida and M. haemolytica and correlated with MICs for the veterinary macrolides tulathromycin and tilmicosin, and the newer compounds gamithromycin and tildipirosin. The multiplex PCR system gives a rapid and robustly accurate determination of macrolide resistance genotypes and bacterial genus, matching results from microbiological methods and whole-genome sequencing.
One hundred eighteen erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (ERSP) strains (MICs of ≥0.5 μg/ml) from five laboratories serving the private sector in South Africa were analyzed for the genes encoding resistance to macrolides. Sixty-seven ERSP strains (56.8%) contained the erm(B) gene, and 15 isolates (12.7%) contained the mef(A) gene. Thirty-six isolates (30.5%) harbored both the erm(B) and mef(A) genes and were highly resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin. DNA fingerprinting by BOX-PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified 83% of these strains as belonging to a single multiresistant serotype 19F clone.
During year 6 of the study, the incidence rate rose from ≈30% to 35.3%.
During year 6 (2005–2006) of the Prospective Resistant Organism Tracking and Epidemiology for the Ketolide Telithromycin surveillance study, 6,747 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were collected at 119 centers. The susceptibility of these isolates to macrolides was compared with data from previous years. Macrolide resistance increased significantly in year 6 (35.3%) from the stable rate of ≈30% for the previous 3 years (p<0.0001). Macrolide resistance increased in all regions of the United States and for all patient age groups. Rates were highest in the south and for children 0–2 years of age. Lower-level efflux [mef(A)]–mediated macrolide resistance decreased in prevalence to ≈50%, and highly resistant [erm(B) + mef(A)] strains increased to 25%. Telithromycin and levofloxacin susceptibility rates were >99% and >98%, respectively, irrespective of genotype. Pneumococcal macrolide resistance in the United States showed its first significant increase since 2000. High-level macrolide resistance is also increasing.
Streptococcus pneumoniae; streptococci; macrolides; surveillance; PROTEKT US; respiratory infections; bacteria; antimicrobial resistance; United States; research
The susceptibilities of 468 recent Russian clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates and 600 Streptococcus pyogenes isolates, from 14 centers in Russia, to telithromycin, erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and penicillin G were tested. Penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae strains were rare except in Siberia, where their prevalence rate was 13.5%: most were penicillin intermediate, but for three strains (two from Smolensk and one from Novosibirsk) the MICs of penicillin G were 4 or 8 μg/ml. Overall, 2.5% of S. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Efflux was the prevalent resistance mechanism (five strains; 41.7%), followed by ribosomal methylation encoded by constitutive erm(B), which was found in four isolates. Ribosomal mutation was the mechanism of macrolide resistance in three isolates; one erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolate had an A2059G mutation in 23S rRNA, and two isolates had substitution of GTG by TPS at positions 69 to 71 in ribosomal protein L4. All S. pyogenes isolates were susceptible to penicillin, and 11% were erythromycin resistant. Ribosomal methylation was the most common resistance mechanism for S. pyogenes (89.4%). These methylases were encoded by erm(A) [subclass erm(TR)] genes, and their expression was inducible in 96.6% of isolates. The rest of the erythromycin-resistant Russian S. pyogenes isolates (7.6%) had an efflux resistance mechanism. Telithromycin was active against 100% of pneumococci and 99.2% of S. pyogenes, and levofloxacin and quinupristin-dalfopristin were active against all isolates of both species.
The in vitro antibacterial activities of oral cephem antibiotics and ketolide telithromycin against major respiratory pathogens possessing β-lactam-resistant mutations (within the pbp gene) and/or macrolide-resistant genes (erm and mef) were examined in clinical isolates collected at 66 institutes in all over the Japan between 2002 and 2003. Telithromycin showed the strongest antibacterial activity against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains with and without macrolide-resistant genes, such as ermA or ermC gene. All the cephem antibiotics showed potent antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.015 mg/L or lower. Cefdinir had a much higher MIC90 against genotypic penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (gPRSP) than cefditoren and cefcapene (8 mg/L cefdinir vs. 1 mg/L cefditoren and cefcapene). The majority of gPRSP harbored either ermB or mefA, and the antibacterial activity of telithromycin against these strains was decreased however some susceptibility was still sustained. Cefditoren exerted the strongest antibacterial activity against β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae, with an MIC90 of 0.5 mg/L. These results underline the importance of checking the susceptibility and selecting an appropriate antibiotic against target pathogens.
cefditoren; telithromycin; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Minimum Inhibitory Concentration; beta-Lactams
Increased rates of erythromycin resistance among group B Streptococcus (GBS) and group A Streptococcus (GAS) have been reported. Cross-resistance to clindamycin may be present, depending on the mechanism of resistance. We determined the prevalence of macrolide-resistant determinants in GBS and GAS isolates to guide the laboratory reporting of erythromycin and clindamycin susceptibility. Susceptibilities were determined by the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Inducible and constitutive resistance to clindamycin was determined by the double-disk diffusion method. The presence of the ermTR, ermB, and mefA genes was confirmed by PCR. Of the 338 GBS isolates, 55 (17%) were resistant to erythromycin, whereas 26 (8%) were resistant to clindamycin. The erm methylase gene was identified in 48 isolates, 22 of which had inducible resistance to clindamycin and 26 of which had constitutive resistance to clindamycin. The remaining seven resistant isolates had mefA. Of the 593 GAS isolates, 49 (8%) and 6 (1%) isolates were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively. Erythromycin resistance was due to mefA in 33 isolates, whereas 14 isolates had erm-mediated resistance (9 isolates had inducible resistance and 5 isolates had constitutive resistance). In our population, erythromycin resistance in GAS was predominantly mediated by mefA and erythromycin resistance in GBS was predominantly mediated by erm. Regional differences in mechanisms of resistance need to be taken into consideration when deciding whether to report clindamycin susceptibility results on the basis of in vitro test results. Testing by the double-disk diffusion method would be an approach that could be used to address this issue, especially for GAS.
In a serotype 11A clone of erythromycin-resistant pneumococci isolated from young Greek carriers, we identified the nucleotide sequence of erm(A), a methylase gene previously described as erm(TR) in Streptococcus pyogenes. The erm(A) pneumococci were resistant to 14- and 15-member macrolides, inducibly resistant to clindamycin, and susceptible to streptogramin B. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of resistance to erythromycin in S. pneumoniae attributed solely to the carriage of the erm(A) gene.
The present study, using an in vitro model, assessed telithromycin pharmacodynamic activity at simulated clinically achievable free-drug concentrations in serum (S) and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) against efflux (mefE)-producing macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Two macrolide-susceptible (PCR negative for both mefE and ermB) and 11 efflux-producing macrolide-resistant [PCR-positive for mefE and negative for ermB) S. pneumoniae strains with various telithromycin MICs (0.015 to 1 μg/ml) were tested. The steady-state pharmacokinetics of telithromycin were modeled, simulating a dosage of 800 mg orally once daily administered at time 0 and at 24 h (free-drug maximum concentration [Cmax] in serum, 0.7 μg/ml; half-life [t1/2], 10 h; free-drug Cmax in ELF, 6.0 μg/ml; t1/2, 10 h). Starting inocula were 106 CFU/ml in Mueller-Hinton Broth with 2% lysed horse blood. Sampling at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h assessed the extent of bacterial killing (decrease in log10 CFU/ml versus initial inoculum). Free-telithromycin concentrations in serum achieved in the model were Cmax 0.9 ± 0.08 μg/ml, area under the curve to MIC (AUC0-24 h) 6.4 ± 1.5 μg · h/ml, and t1/2 of 10.6 ± 0.6 h. Telithromycin-free ELF concentrations achieved in the model were Cmax 6.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml, AUC0-24 h 45.5 ± 5.5 μg · h/ml, and t1/2 of 10.5 ± 1.7 h. Free-telithromycin S and ELF concentrations rapidly eradicated efflux-producing macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae with telithromycin MICs up to and including 0.25 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Free-telithromycin S and ELF concentrations simulating Cmax/MIC ≥ 3.5 and AUC0-24 h/MIC ≥ 25 completely eradicated (≥4 log10 killing) macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae at 24 and 48 h. Free-telithromycin concentrations in serum simulating Cmax/MIC ≥ 1.8 and AUC0-24 h/MIC ≥ 12.5 were bacteriostatic (0.1 to 0.2 log10 killing) against macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae at 24 and 48 h. In conclusion, free-telithromycin concentrations in serum and ELF simulating Cmax/MIC ≥ 3.5 and AUC0-24 h/MIC ≥ 25 completely eradicated (≥4 log10 killing) macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae at 24 and 48 h.
The susceptibilities to telithromycin of 203 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates prospectively collected during 1999 and 2000 from 14 different geographical areas in Spain were tested and compared with those to erythromycin A, clindamycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, penicillin G, cefotaxime, and levofloxacin. Telithromycin was active against 98.9% of isolates (MICs, ≤0.5 μg/ml), with MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited being 0.06 μg/ml, irrespective of the resistance genotype. The corresponding values for erythromycin were 61.0% (MICs, ≤0.25 μg/ml) and >64 μg/ml. The erm(B) gene (macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance phenotype) was detected in 36.4% (n = 74) of the isolates, which corresponded to 93.6% of erythromycin-intermediate and -resistant isolates, whereas the mef(A) gene (M phenotype [resistance to erythromycin and susceptibility to clindamycin and spiramycin without blunting]) was present in only 2.4% (n = 5) of the isolates. One of the latter isolates also carried erm(B). Interestingly, in one isolate for which the erythromycin MIC was 2 μg/ml, none of these resistance genes could be detected. Erythromycin MICs for S. pneumoniae erm(B)-positive isolates were higher (range, 0.5 to >64 μg/ml) than those for erm(B)- and mef(A)-negative isolates (range, 0.008 to 2 μg/ml). The corresponding values for telithromycin were lower for both groups, with ranges of 0.004 to 1 and 0.002 to 0.06 μg/ml, respectively. The erythromycin MIC was high for a large number of erm(B)-positive isolates, but the telithromycin MIC was low for these isolates. These results indicate the potential usefulness of telithromycin for the treatment of infections caused by erythromycin-susceptible and -resistant S. pneumoniae isolates when macrolides are indicated.
We sought to characterize the temporal trends in nasopharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant pneumococci during a period with increased heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) coverage in Central Greece.
Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were recovered from 2649 nasopharyngeal samples obtained from day-care center attendees in Central Greece during 2005–2009. A phenotypic and genotypic analysis of the isolates was performed, including the identification of macrolide resistance genes mef(A), subclasses mef(A) and mef(E), as well as erm(B).
Of the 1105 typeable S. pneumoniae isolates, 265 (24%) were macrolide-resistant; 22% in 2005, 33.3% in 2006, 23.7% in 2007, and 20.5% in 2009 (P=0.398). Among these macrolide-resistant pneumococci, 28.5% possessed erm(B), 24.3% erm(B)+mef(E), 41.8% mef(E), and 5.3% mef(A). A mef gene as the sole resistance determinant was carried by 31% of macrolide-resistant isolates belonging to PCV7 serotypes and 75.8% of the non-PCV7 serotypes. Across the 4 annual surveillances, pneumococci carrying mef(A) gradually disappeared, whereas serotype 19F isolates carrying both erm(B) and mef(E) persisted without significant yearly fluctuations. Among isolates belonging to non-PCV7 serotypes, macrolide-resistance was observed in those of serotypes 6A, 19A, 10A, 15A, 15B/C, 35F, 35A, and 24F. In 2009, ie 5 years after the introduction of PCV7 in our country, 59% of macrolide-resistant pneumococci belonged to non-PCV7 serotypes.
Across the study period, the annual frequency of macrolide-resistant isolates did not change significantly, but in 2009 a marked shift to non-PCV7 serotypes occurred. Overall, more than half of the macrolide-resistant isolates possessed erm(B) either alone or in combination with mef(E). erm(B) dominated among isolates belonging to PCV7 serotypes, but not among those of non-PCV7 serotypes.
Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (N = 31,001) were collected from patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections during the PROTEKT US surveillance study (2000–2003). While the macrolide (erythromycin) resistance rate remained stable at ≈29%, the prevalence of resistant isolates containing both erm(B) and mef(A) increased from 9.7% in year 1 to 16.4% in year 3, with substantial regional variability. Almost all (99.2%) dual erm(B)+mef(A) macrolide-resistant isolates exhibited multidrug resistance, whereas 98.6% and 99.0% were levofloxacin- and telithromycin-susceptible, respectively. These strains were most commonly isolated from the ear or middle-ear fluid of children. Of 152 representative erm(B)+mef(A) isolates, >90% were clonally related to the multidrug-resistant international Taiwan19F-14 clonal complex 271 (CC271). Of 366 erm(B)+mef(A) isolates from the PROTEKT global study (1999–2003), 83.3% were CC271, with the highest prevalence seen in South Africa, South Korea, and the United States. This study confirms the increasing global emergence and rapidly increasing US prevalence of this multidrug-resistant pneumococcal clone.
Keywords: human papillomavirus; Cervix neoplasms; Cost-benefit analysis; vaccines; public health
Erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from young carriers were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility; additionally, inducibility of macrolide and clindamycin resistance was investigated in pneumococci carrying erm(A), erm(B), or mef(A). Of 125 strains tested, 101 (81%) were multidrug resistant. Different levels of induction were observed with erythromycin, miocamycin, and clindamycin in erm(B) strains; however, in erm(A) strains only erythromycin was an inducer. Induction did not affect macrolide MICs in mef(A) strains.
One hundred forty M phenotype Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were evaluated by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, serotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Molecular genotyping revealed that the predominant macrolide resistance mechanism in S. pneumoniae in Canada is mef(E) and resistance dissemination is due to both spread of the genetic element MEGA as well as clonal dissemination of penicillin- and/or macrolide-resistant strains.
Susceptibilities to 13 antimicrobial agents were determined by measurement of MICs for 60 isolates of Streptococcus bovis from blood cultures. Thirty-eight isolates (63.3%) had high-level resistance to erythromycin (MICs, ≥128 μg/ml). Among the 38 erythromycin-resistant strains, 21 isolates (55%) had inducible resistance to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B (iMLS isolates) and 17 (45%) had constitutive resistance to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B (cMLS isolates). Tetracycline resistance was also found among all of the erythromycin-resistant strains. None of the strains displayed resistance to penicillin, chloramphenicol, or vancomycin. Detection of erythromycin resistance genes by PCR and sequencing indicated that all 17 cMLS isolates were positive for the ermB gene and that 7 of 21 iMLS isolates carried the ermB gene and the remaining 14 iMLS isolates carried the ermT gene. Sequence analysis of amplified partial ermB fragments (594 bp) from S. bovis isolates revealed a 99.8% nucleotide identity and a 100% amino acid homology compared with the sequences from gene banks. The sequences of amplified fragments with primers targeted for ermC were shown to be very similar to that of ermGT (ermT) from Lactobacillus reuteri (98.5% nucleotide identity). This is the first report to describe the detection of the ermT class of erythromycin resistance determinants in S. bovis. The high rate of inducible erythromycin resistance among S. bovis isolates in Taiwan was not reported before. The iMLS S. bovis isolates were shown to be heterogeneous by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. These results indicate that the prevalence of inducible erythromycin resistance in S. bovis in Taiwan is very high and that most of the resistant strains carry the ermT or the ermB gene.