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1.  Endometrial Glandular Dysplasia (EmGD): morphologically and biologically distinctive putative precursor lesions of Type II endometrial cancers 
In this article, the authors briefly review the historical evolution of the various putative precursor lesions for Type II endometrial cancers, with an emphasis on the newly defined "Endometrial Glandular Dysplasia (EmGD)". The evidentiary basis for delineating serous EmGD as the most probable precursor lesions to endometrial serous carcinoma is reviewed in detail. An argument is advanced for the discontinuation of the term serous "endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC)" as a descriptor for a supposedly intraepithelial, precancerous lesion. Preliminary evidence is also presented that suggests that there is a morphologically recognizable "clear cell EmGD" that probably represents a precancerous lesion to endometrial clear cell carcinomas.
doi:10.1186/1746-1596-3-6
PMCID: PMC2266702  PMID: 18261213
2.  Identification of Molecular Pathway Aberrations in Uterine Serous Carcinoma by Genome-wide Analyses 
Background
Uterine cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women, and uterine serous carcinoma is the most aggressive subtype. However, the molecular pathogenesis of uterine serous carcinoma is largely unknown. We analyzed the genomes of uterine serous carcinoma samples to better understand the molecular genetic characteristics of this cancer.
Methods
Whole-exome sequencing was performed on 10 uterine serous carcinomas and the matched normal blood or tissue samples. Somatically acquired sequence mutations were further verified by Sanger sequencing. The most frequent molecular genetic changes were further validated by Sanger sequencing in 66 additional uterine serous carcinomas and in nine serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinomas (the preinvasive precursor of uterine serous carcinoma) that were isolated by laser capture microdissection. In addition, gene copy number was characterized by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays in 23 uterine serous carcinomas, including 10 that were subjected to whole-exome sequencing.
Results
We found frequent somatic mutations in TP53 (81.6%), PIK3CA (23.7%), FBXW7 (19.7%), and PPP2R1A (18.4%) among the 76 uterine serous carcinomas examined. All nine serous carcinomas that had an associated serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma had concordant PIK3CA, PPP2R1A, and TP53 mutation status between uterine serous carcinoma and the concurrent serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma component. DNA copy number analysis revealed frequent genomic amplification of the CCNE1 locus (which encodes cyclin E, a known substrate of FBXW7) and deletion of the FBXW7 locus. Among 23 uterine serous carcinomas that were subjected to SNP array analysis, seven tumors with FBXW7 mutations (four tumors with point mutations, three tumors with hemizygous deletions) did not have CCNE1 amplification, and 13 (57%) tumors had either a molecular genetic alteration in FBXW7 or CCNE1 amplification. Nearly half of these uterine serous carcinomas (48%) harbored PIK3CA mutation and/or PIK3CA amplification.
Conclusion
Molecular genetic aberrations involving the p53, cyclin E–FBXW7, and PI3K pathways represent major mechanisms in the development of uterine serous carcinoma.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djs345
PMCID: PMC3692380  PMID: 22923510
3.  Multiple brain metastases in a patient with uterine papillary serous adenocarcinoma: Treatment options for this rarely seen metastatic brain tumor 
Background:
Uterine papillary serous adenocarcinoma (UPSAC) occurs 10-fold less frequently than endometrial carcinoma, and is referred to type 2 endometrial adenocarcinoma. The prognosis of UPSAC is worse than that of type I endometrial carcinoma. Herein we report what is only the second case of UPSAC, but it should prove to be more informative than the first reported case.
Case Description:
A 71-year-old female had three different metastases in the brain; two of the metastases were located in the posterior fossa within the cerebellar parenchyma with perilesional edema, but no mass effect, and the third metastasis was located in the right frontal lobe, and caused hemispheric edema and subfalcine herniation. The lesion that caused mass effect was completely extirpated without any surgical complications. The patient's recovery was excellent. She is able to walk independently, and use her left hand and left arm. Her Karnofsky performance score 5 months postsurgery was 80/100.
Conclusion:
Based on the outcome in the presented case, we think that in any UPSAC patient with a metastatic brain tumor causing mass effect the symptomatic metastatic tumor must be removed, regardless of disease grade, to ensure optimal quality of life.
doi:10.4103/2152-7806.117176
PMCID: PMC3768168  PMID: 24032086
Adenocarcinoma cerebrum; cerebellum; metastases; uterine
4.  Differential Analysis of Ovarian and Endometrial Cancers Identifies a Methylator Phenotype 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e32941.
Despite improved outcomes in the past 30 years, less than half of all women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer live five years beyond their diagnosis. Although typically treated as a single disease, epithelial ovarian cancer includes several distinct histological subtypes, such as papillary serous and endometrioid carcinomas. To address whether the morphological differences seen in these carcinomas represent distinct characteristics at the molecular level we analyzed DNA methylation patterns in 11 papillary serous tumors, 9 endometrioid ovarian tumors, 4 normal fallopian tube samples and 6 normal endometrial tissues, plus 8 normal fallopian tube and 4 serous samples from TCGA. For comparison within the endometrioid subtype we added 6 primary uterine endometrioid tumors and 5 endometrioid metastases from uterus to ovary. Data was obtained from 27,578 CpG dinucleotides occurring in or near promoter regions of 14,495 genes. We identified 36 locations with significant increases or decreases in methylation in comparisons of serous tumors and normal fallopian tube samples. Moreover, unsupervised clustering techniques applied to all samples showed three major profiles comprising mostly normal samples, serous tumors, and endometrioid tumors including ovarian, uterine and metastatic origins. The clustering analysis identified 60 differentially methylated sites between the serous group and the normal group. An unrelated set of 25 serous tumors validated the reproducibility of the methylation patterns. In contrast, >1,000 genes were differentially methylated between endometrioid tumors and normal samples. This finding is consistent with a generalized regulatory disruption caused by a methylator phenotype. Through DNA methylation analyses we have identified genes with known roles in ovarian carcinoma etiology, whereas pathway analyses provided biological insight to the role of novel genes. Our finding of differences between serous and endometrioid ovarian tumors indicates that intervention strategies could be developed to specifically address subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032941
PMCID: PMC3293923  PMID: 22403726
5.  Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma: a case series and literature review 
Background
Minimal uterine serous cancer (MUSC) or serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC) has been described by many different names since 1998. There have been very few cases reported in literature since EIC/MUSC was recognized as a separate entity. The World health Organization (WHO) Classification favors the term serous EIC. Although serous EIC is confined to the uterine endometrium at initial histology diagnosis, a significant number of patients could have distal metastasis at diagnosis, without symptoms. Serous EIC is considered as being the precursor of uterine serous cancer (USC), but pure serous EIC also has an aggressive behavior similar to USC. It is therefore prudent to have an accurate diagnosis and appropriate surgical staging. There are very few published articles in literature that discuss the pure form of serous EIC. The aim of this series is to share our experience and review evidence for optimum management of serous EIC.
Patients and methods
We report a series of five women treated in our institute in the last 3 years. We reviewed the relevant literature on serous EIC and various management strategies, to recommend best clinical practice.
Conclusion
Pure serous EIC is a difficult histopathological diagnosis, which requires ancillary immunohistochemical staining. It can have an aggressive clinical behavior with early recurrence and poor survival. Optimum surgical staging, with appropriate adjuvant treatment, should be discussed when treating these patients.
doi:10.2147/CMAR.S45141
PMCID: PMC3704304  PMID: 23861597
serous EIC; minimal uterine serous cancer; papillary serous endometrial cancer
6.  Induction of tumour-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes by tumour lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cells in patients with uterine serous papillary cancer 
British Journal of Cancer  2002;86(1):151-157.
Uterine serous papillary carcinoma is a highly aggressive variant of endometrial cancer histologically similar to high grade ovarian cancer. Unlike ovarian cancer, however, it is a chemoresistant disease from onset, with responses to combined cisplatinum-based chemotherapy in the order of 20% and an extremely poor prognosis. In this study, we demonstrate that tumour lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cells can elicit a specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte response against autologous tumour target cells in three patients with uterine serous papillary cancer. CTL from patients 1 and 2 expressed strong cytolytic activity against autologous tumour cells, did not lyse autologous lymphoblasts or autologous EBV-transformed cell lines, and were variably cytotoxic against the NK-sensitive cell line K-562. Patient 3 CD8+ T cells expressed a modest but reproducible cytotoxicity against autologous tumour cells only at the time of the first priming. Further priming attempts with PBL collected from patient 3 after tumour progression in the lumboaortic lymph nodes were unsuccesful. Cytotoxicity against autologous tumour cells could be significantly inhibited by anti-HLA class I (W6/32) and anti-LFA-1 MAbs. Highly cytotoxic CD8+ T cells from patients 1 and 2 showed a heterogeneous CD56 expression while CD56 was not expressed by non-cytotoxic CD8+ T cells from patient 3. Using two colour flow cytometric analysis of intracellular cytokine expression at the single cell level, a striking dominance of IFN-γ expressors was detectable in CTL populations of patients 1 and 2 while in patient 3 a dominant population of CD8+ T cells expressing IL-4 and IL-10 was consistently detected. Taken together, these data demonstrate that tumour lysate-pulsed DC can be an effective tool in inducing uterine serous papillary cancer-specific CD8+ CTL able to kill autologous tumour cells in vitro. However, high levels of tumour specific tolerance in some patients may impose a significant barrier to therapeutic vaccination. These results may have important implications for the treatment in the adjuvant setting of uterine serous papillary cancer patients with active or adoptive immunotherapy.
British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 151–157. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600026 www.bjcancer.com
© 2002 The Cancer Research Campaign
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600026
PMCID: PMC2746546  PMID: 11857027
serous papillary uterine cancer; CTLs; dendritic cells; tumour lysate
7.  A case of minimal uterine serous carcinoma with distant lymph node metastasis without peritoneal dissemination 
A 61-year old woman underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection under the diagnosis of endometrial cancer. Although pelvic lymph nodes were positive for adenocarcinoma with psamomma bodies, no other lesion that was a primary lesion was verified. A postoperative study revealed the existence of para-aortic lymph node and supraclavicular lymph node metastases. Therefore, the endometrial biopsy specimen was reviewed. With the findings of p53 positivity by immunohistochemistry in the papillary part, the final histopathological diagnosis was changed to endometrial serous adenocarcinoma. Postoperative chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy for supraclavicular lymph node metastasis achieved complete response. This type of tumor must be considered in a differential diagnosis when metastatic papillary serous carcinoma is detected, but the primary site remains unknown.
doi:10.3802/jgo.2011.22.1.53
PMCID: PMC3097336  PMID: 21607097
Endometrial cancer; Minimal uterine serous carcinoma; Cervical lymph node metastasis
8.  Uterine Serous Carcinoma: Increased Familial Risk for Lynch-Associated Malignancies 
Purpose
Serous uterine cancer is not a feature of any known hereditary cancer syndrome. This study evaluated familial risk of cancers for serous uterine carcinoma patients, focusing on Lynch syndrome malignancies.
Experimental design
Fifty serous or mixed serous endometrial carcinoma cases were prospectively enrolled. Pedigrees were developed for 29 probands and tumors were assessed for DNA mismatch repair abnormalities. Standardized incidence ratios for cancers in relatives were estimated. A second stage analysis was undertaken using data from GOG-210. Incidence data for cancers reported in relatives of 348 serous and mixed epithelial and 624 endometrioid carcinoma patients were compared.
Results
Nineteen of 29 (65.5%) patients in the single institution series reported a Lynch-related cancer in relatives. Endometrial and ovarian cancers were significantly over-represented and a high number of probands (6/29, 20.7%) reported pancreatic cancers. None of the probands’ tumors had DNA mismatch repair abnormalities. There was no difference in endometrial or ovarian cancer incidence in relatives of serous and endometrioid cancer probands in the case-control study. Pancreatic cancers were, however, significantly more common in relatives of serous cancer patients (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.06–5.38).
Conclusions
We identified an excess of endometrial, ovarian, and pancreatic cancers in relatives of serous cancer patients in a single institution study. Follow-up studies suggest only pancreatic cancers are over-represented in relatives. DNA mismatch repair defects in familial clustering of pancreatic and other Lynch-associated malignancies are unlikely. The excess of pancreatic cancers in relatives may reflect an as yet unidentified hereditary syndrome that includes uterine serous cancers.
doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0499
PMCID: PMC3294192  PMID: 22246618
Endometrial cancer; Uterine serous carcinoma; Lynch syndrome; Mismatch repair; Familial clustering of cancers
9.  Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2012 
Ten topics were chosen among major clinical research achievements in gynecologic oncology in 2012. For ovarian cancer, comprehensive review of the history of bevacizumab studies was followed by poly adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and other molecular targeted agents such as epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and AMG 386. For the development of genomic study in gynecologic cancers, BRCA and DICER1 mutations were covered in epithelial and nonepithelial ovarian cancer, respectively. For endometrial cancer, targeted agents including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and bevacizumab were discussed. Radiation therapy "sandwiched" between combination chemotherapy schedules for the treatment of uterine papillary serous carcinoma was also reviewed. Preoperative prediction of lymph node metastasis, definition of low-risk group, and recurrence and survival outcomes of laparoscopic approaches were addressed. For cervical cancer, we reviewed long-term benefit of human papillomavirus test and efficacy of paclitaxel/carboplatin versus paclitaxel/cisplatin in stage IVB, persistent or recurrent disease. In addition, the effect of three dimensional image-based high-dose rate brachytherapy was also reviewed. For vulvar cancer, the diagnostic value of sentinel lymph node biopsy was discussed. For breast cancer, positive results of three outstanding phase III randomized clinical trials, CLEOPATRA, EMILIA, and BOLERO-2 were introduced. Lastly, updates of major practice guidelines were summarized.
doi:10.3802/jgo.2013.24.1.66
PMCID: PMC3549510  PMID: 23346316
Bevacizumab; PARP inhibitor; Low-risk endometrial cancer; Image-based high-dose rate brachytherapy; Practice guidelines
10.  The Clinical Relevance of Rising CA-125 Levels Within the Normal Range in Patients With Uterine Papillary Serous Cancer 
Reproductive Sciences  2013;20(4):449-455.
The utility of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) levels as an adjunct method of monitoring patients with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) or endometrial serous carcinoma after surgery and adjuvant treatment has been reported. Our goal was to determine the significance of rising CA-125 levels within the normal range in these patients in the posttreatment surveillance setting. All patients with UPSC who underwent surgical staging and had preoperative CA-125 measurement from 1999 to 2008 were included in this analysis. Information was extracted from records to assess the changes in CA-125 values with clinical and/or radiographic detection of recurrence. Of the 56 evaluable patients, 23 (41%) recurred. Of the 23 patients that recurred, 11 had serial CA-125 levels measured in remission. Elevated CA-125 levels at diagnosis were significantly associated with disease recurrence and advanced stage (P = .01, P = .001, respectively). The rise in CA-125 by 10 U/mL in the normal range and ≥15 U/mL were associated with disease recurrence (P < .001, P < .001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, only CA-125 level ≥15 U/mL was significantly associated with worse progression-free survival. In this small cohort of patients with recurrent UPSC after remission, surveillance of CA-125 levels may have a role in disease surveillance and management.
doi:10.1177/1933719112459218
PMCID: PMC3823394  PMID: 22995987
endometrial cancer; CA-125; uterine papillary serous carcinoma; tumor markers
11.  Claudin-3 and Claudin-4 expression in serous papillary, clear cell, and endometrioid endometrial cancer 
Gynecologic oncology  2008;109(2):263-269.
The tight junction (TJ) proteins claudin-3 and claudin-4 have been reported to be differentially expressed in uterine serous papillary carcinoma (USPC), a rare form of endometrial cancer characterized by a particularly high recurrence rate and poor prognosis. Preclinical experiments suggest that increased expression of both TJ proteins may in part mediate the biologically aggressive phenotype of USPC. Our aim was to determine claudin-3 and claudin-4 expression in a large cohort of surgically staged patients with USPC and clear cell endometrial cancer (n=137), and to compare the expression pattern and prognostic relevance of both claudins with that seen in patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer (n=150). The rate of claudin-3 and claudin-4 expression was significantly higher in USPC and clear cell endometrial cancer compared to endometrioid endometrial cancer (claudin-3: 78% and 61% versus 38%, p <.0001; claudin-4: 56% and 44% versus 9%, p <.0001). Furthermore, expression of both tight junction proteins was significantly associated with poor clinical outcome (claudin-3, DFS: Risk ratio (RR) 1.70, p=.0087, OS RR 1.62, p=.0247; claudin-4, DFS RR 2.66, p<0.0001, and OS RR 2.50, p<0.0001). However, claudin-3 and claudin-4 expression did not maintain prognostic independence in multivariate analyses, as their expression was tightly associated with more advanced disease stages (p <.0001 for both), and higher nuclear grade (p <.0001 for both). These clinical observations confirm the hypothesis based on preclinical evidence that increased expression of claudin-3 and claudin-4 may contribute to the aggressive phenotype of endometrial cancer of serous papillary or clear cell histology and suggest their potential utility as diagnostic biomarkers and possible targets for therapeutic intervention.
doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2008.01.024
PMCID: PMC2453046  PMID: 18313739
Uterine serous papillary endometrial cancer; Claudin-3; Claudin-4; lapatinib; endometrium
12.  Cytologic Findings of Cervicovaginal Smears in Women with Uterine Papillary Serous Carcinoma 
The goal of this study was to evaluate the cytomorphologic features of histologically confirmed uterine papillary serous carcinomas (UPSC) of the endometrium. We reviewed cervicovaginal smears from 12 patients with UPSC who had done their cervical smears at six months to a year earlier before the time of diagnosis; nine smears (75%) were diagnosed as positive for malignancy and three smears (25%) were diagnosed as negative. The cervical smears of patients with UPSC revealed frequent papillary clusters that were composed of large pleomorphic tumor cells with prominent nucleoli in a background of necrosis. Other findings revealed from the tests were relatively frequent single malignant cells and bare nuclei. Although the Pap smear is not a sensitive screening test for endometrial carcinoma, we could depend on it to reveal the cytologic features of UPSC which are fairly characteristic and reliable for a preoperative diagnosis of UPSC. Preoperative identification of this poor prognostic variant of endometrial carcinoma may influence the surgical management of these cases and the choice of adjuvant therapy.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2005.20.1.93
PMCID: PMC2808585  PMID: 15716611
Endometrial Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Papillary; Vaginal Smears
13.  Evidence for a Latent Precursor (p53 Signature) that May Precede Serous Endometrial Intraepithelial Carcinoma 
Both serous intraepithelial carcinoma and endometrial glandular dysplasia are associated with uterine serous carcinoma. Recently a candidate serous cancer precursor containing p53 mutations (p53 signature) was described in the fallopian tube. We analyzed normal and neoplastic endometrium for a similar entity. Ten endometrial polyps involved by intraepithelial and/or invasive carcinoma and 137 benign polyps were studied. All were stained for p53 and MIB-1. A subset of p53 signatures and carcinomas were analyzed for γ-H2AX and p53 mutations. p53 signatures were identified in 7 of 10 cases intraepithelial carcinoma and were multicentric in 2. In one case, the signature was in continuity with intraepithelial carcinoma. Six of 137 benign polyps (4%) contained p53 signatures. The MIB-1 fraction in most signatures was less than 5%, and ranged from 50-90% in carcinomas. DNA damage (γ-H2AX) was demonstrated in both p53 signatures and adjacent carcinomas but not in benign polyps. Shared identical p53 mutations were found in paired signatures and carcinomas in two of three cases analyzed, including one case with multiple signatures. In one, a co-existent invasive serous cancer was not found to contain a p53 mutation. In a third, a p53 signature and an invasive cancer harbored two different p53 mutations. This is the first description of p53 signatures adjacent to carcinoma, suggesting a role for this entity in the genesis of serous malignancy. The significance of p53 signatures in benign conditions (polyps) remains to be determined.
doi:10.1038/modpathol.2008.197
PMCID: PMC2649686  PMID: 19151662
14.  Serum amyloid A (SAA): a novel biomarker for uterine serous papillary cancer 
British Journal of Cancer  2009;101(2):335-341.
Background:
Uterine serous papillary carcinoma (USPC) is a biologically aggressive variant of endometrial cancer. We investigated the expression of Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and evaluated its potential as a serum biomarker in USPC patients.
Methods:
SAA gene and protein expression levels were evaluated in USPC and normal endometrial tissues (NEC) by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC), flow cytometry and by a sensitive bead-based immunoassay. SAA concentration in 123 serum samples from 51 healthy women, 42 women with benign diseases, and 30 USPC patients were also studied.
Results:
SAA gene expression levels were significantly higher in USPC when compared with NEC (mean copy number by RT–PCR=162 vs 2.21; P=0.0002). IHC revealed diffuse cytoplasmic SAA protein staining in USPC tissues. High intracellular levels of SAA were identified in primary USPC cell lines evaluated by flow cytometry and SAA was found to be actively secreted in vitro. SAA concentrations (μg ml−1) had a median (95% CIs) of 6.0 (4.0–8.9) in normal healthy females and 6.0 (4.2–8.1) in patients with benign disease (P=0.92). In contrast, SAA values in the serum of USPC patients had a median (95% CI) of 15.6 (9.2–56.2), significantly higher than those in the healthy group (P=0.0005) and benign group (P=0.0006). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis of serum SAA to classify advanced- and early-stage USPC yielded an area under the ROC curve of 0.837 (P=0.0024).
Conclusion:
SAA is not only a liver-secreted protein but is also a USPC cell product. SAA may represent a novel biomarker for USPC to assist in staging patients preoperatively, and to monitor early-disease recurrence and response to therapy.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605129
PMCID: PMC2720219  PMID: 19536090
uterine serous papillary cancer; serum amyloid A; biomarkers; endometrial carcinoma; tumour markers
15.  Papillary Tubal Hyperplasia. The Putative Precursor of Ovarian Atypical Proliferative (Borderline) Serous Tumors, Noninvasive Implants and Endosalpingiosis 
In contrast to the controversy regarding the terminology and behavior of ovarian noninvasive low-grade serous tumors (atypical proliferative serous tumor [APST] and serous borderline tumor [SBT]), little attention has been directed to their origin. Similarly, until recently, proliferative lesions in the fallopian tube have not been extensively studied. The recent proposal that ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas are derived from intraepithelial carcinoma in the fallopian tube prompted us to evaluate the possible role of the fallopian tube in the genesis of low-grade serous tumors. We have identified a lesion, designated “papillary tubal hyperplasia (PTH)”, characterized by small rounded clusters of tubal epithelial cells and small papillae, with or without associated psammoma bodies, that are present within the tubal lumen and which are frequently associated with APSTs. Twenty-two cases in this study were selected from a population-based study in Denmark of approximately 1000 patients with low-grade ovarian serous tumors in whom implants were identified on the fallopian tube. Seven additional cases were seen recently in consultation at The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH). These 7 cases were not associated with an ovarian tumor. Papillary tubal hyperplasia was found in 20 (91%) of the 22 cases in the Danish study. Based on this association of PTH with APSTs with implants and the close morphologic resemblance of PTH, not only to the primary ovarian APSTs but also to the noninvasive epithelial implants and endosalpingiosis, we speculate that the small papillae and clusters of cells from the fallopian tubes implant on ovarian and peritoneal surfaces to produce these lesions. The 7 JHH cases of PTH that were not associated with an ovarian tumor support the view that PTH is the likely precursor lesion. We propose a model for the development of ovarian and extraovarian low-grade serous proliferations (APST, noninvasive epithelial implants and endosalpingiosis) that postulates that all of these lesions are derived from PTH, which appears to be induced by chronic inflammation. If this hypothesis is confirmed, then it can be concluded that low- and high-grade ovarian tumors develop from tubal epithelium and involve the ovary secondarily.
doi:10.1097/PAS.0b013e318229449f
PMCID: PMC3193599  PMID: 21997682
16.  Uterine papillary serous and clear cell carcinomas predict for poorer survival compared to grade 3 endometrioid corpus cancers 
British Journal of Cancer  2006;94(5):642-646.
To compare the survival of women with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and clear cell carcinoma (CC) to those with grade 3 endometrioid uterine carcinoma (G3EC). Demographic, pathologic, treatment, and survival information were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program from 1988 to 2001. Data were analysed using Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression methods. Of 4180 women, 1473 had UPSC, 391 had CC, and 2316 had G3EC cancers. Uterine papillary serous carcinoma and CC patients were older (median age: 70 years and 68 vs 66 years, respectively; P<0.0001) and more likely to be black compared to G3EC (15 and 12% vs 7%; P<0.0001). A higher proportion of UPSC and CC patients had stage III–IV disease compared to G3EC patients (52 and 36% vs 29%; P<0.0001). Uterine papillary serous carcinoma, CC and G3EC patients represent 10, 3, and 15% of endometrial cancers but account for 39, 8, and 27% of cancer deaths, respectively. The 5-year disease-specific survivals for women with UPSC, CC and G3EC were 55, 68, and 77%, respectively (P<0.0001). The survival differences between UPSC, CC and G3EC persist after controlling for stage I–II (74, 82, and 86%; P<0.0001) and stage III–IV disease (33, 40, and 54; P<0.0001). On multivariate analysis, more favourable histology (G3EC), younger age, and earlier stage were independent predictors of improved survival. Women with UPSC and CC of the uterus have a significantly poorer prognosis compared to those with G3EC. These findings should be considered in the counselling, treating and designing of future trials for these high-risk patients.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603012
PMCID: PMC2361201  PMID: 16495918
uterine; papillary serous; clear cell; survival
17.  Extensive psammomatous calcification of the uterus and cervix associated with a uterine serous carcinoma 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2004;57(8):888-890.
This report describes a uterine serous carcinoma with bilateral ovarian metastasis, which was associated with widespread extensive psammomatous calcification of the uterine leiomyomata, the myometrium, and the cervical stroma. These psammoma bodies were not associated with tumour or epithelial elements. This psammomatous calcification is rare, with no previous reports of similar cases. The presence of psammoma bodies is probably related to the serous carcinoma, raising the possibility that psammoma body formation in serous carcinomas is the result of a factor secreted locally by the tumour, rather than the widely held theory that their formation is secondary to necrosis, with subsequent dystrophic calcification within a papillary neoplasm.
doi:10.1136/jcp.2004.017004
PMCID: PMC1770391  PMID: 15280415
uterus; serous carcinoma; psammoma bodies; myometrium; cervix
18.  Uterine Serous Papillary Carcinomas overexpress human trophoblast-cell-surface marker (Trop-2) and are highly sensitive to immunotherapy with hRS7, a humanized anti-Trop-2 monoclonal antibody 
Cancer  2011;117(14):3163-3172.
Background
Uterine Serous Papillary Carcinoma (USPC), is an aggressive and chemotherapy resistant variant of endometrial cancer. We evaluated the expression of human –trophoblast-cell-surface-marker (Trop-2) and the potential of hRS7, a humanized anti-Trop-2 monoclonal antibody, as a novel therapeutic strategy against USPC.
Methods
Trop-2 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a total of 23 USPC. Six primary USPC cell lines were assessed by flow cytometry and real-time-PCR for Trop-2 expression. Sensitivity to hRS7 (Immunomedics, Inc.) antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent-cytotoxicity (CDC) was tested in standard 5-hrs-51Cr-release-assays against primary USPC cell lines.
Results
Expression of Trop-2 was found in 15 out of 23 (65%) of the tumor tissues tested by IHC and in 50% (3/6) of the USPC cell lines tested by real-time-PCR and flow-cytometry [Trop-2 expression in USPC versus normal-endometrial-cells (NEC)(p < 0.005)]. USPC cell lines overexpressing Trop-2, regardless of their intrinsic resistance to natural killer cytotoxicity, were highly sensitive to hRS7-mediated ADCC in vitro (range of killing 28.2% to 64.4%) (p< 0.001). Negligible cytotoxicity against USPC was seen in the absence of hRS7 or in the presence of Rituximab control-antibody (range of killing 1.1% to 12.4%). Incubation with interleukin-2 (50 IU/ml) in addition to hRS7 further increased the cytotoxic activity against USPC cell lines overexpressing Trop-2 (p= 0.008).
Conclusion
Trop-2 is highly expressed in uterine serous carcinoma at mRNA and protein levels. Primary USPC cell lines are highly sensitivity to hRS7-mediated-cytotoxicity in vitro. hRS7 may represent a novel therapeutic agent for USPC refractory to standard treatment modalities.
doi:10.1002/cncr.25891
PMCID: PMC3128671  PMID: 21246534
Endometrial neoplasms; Uterine Serous Papillary Carcinoma; Trop-2; trophoblast cell-surface marker; hRS7; antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity
19.  Expression of αV-Integrins in Uterine Serous Papillary Carcinomas; Implications for Targeted Therapy With Intetumumab (CNTO 95), a Fully Human Antagonist Anti–αV-Integrin Antibody 
Objective
Uterine serous papillary carcinoma (USPC) is an aggressive variant of endometrial cancer characterized by an innate resistance to chemotherapy and poor prognosis. In this study, we evaluated the expression of αV-integrins in primary USPC cell lines and the in vitro ability of intetumumab (CNTO 95), a fully human monoclonal antibody against αV-integrins, to inhibit USPC cell adhesion and migration.
Materials and Methods
The surface expression of integrins belonging to the αV-family, including αVβ3, αVβ5, and αVβ6, was evaluated in 6 primary USPC cell lines using flow cytometry analysis. To test the ability of intetumumab to inhibit USPC cell adhesion and migration, adhesion assays in the presence of vitronectin and migration assays through an 8.0-μm pore polycarbonate membrane also were performed.
Results
We found high expression of the αV-subunit on the cell surface of all 6 primary USPC cell lines tested (100% positive cells; mean fluorescence intensity range, 13.1–39.5). When the expression of single heterodimeric integrins was evaluated, αVβ3, αVβ5, and αVβ6 were expressed on 37.5%, 32.0%, and 16.3% of cells (mean fluorescence intensity range, 6.5–16.2, 9.2–32.5, and 6.2–11.5, respectively). Importantly, in functional assays, low doses of intetumumab were effective in inhibiting adhesion (0.15 μg/mL, P = 0.003) and migration (1.25 μg/mL P = 0.02) of primary USPC cell lines.
Conclusions
The αV-integrins are overexpressed on the cell surface of primary USPC cell lines. Intetumumab may significantly inhibit USPC cell adhesion and migration pathways and may therefore represent a novel treatment option for patients harboring this rare but highly aggressive variant of endometrial cancer.
doi:10.1097/IGC.0b013e3182187324
PMCID: PMC3690508  PMID: 21633302
Uterine serous papillary carcinoma; CNTO 95; Intetumumab; αV-integrin
20.  Involvement of chromosome 6 in endometrial cancer. 
British Journal of Cancer  1997;75(12):1831-1835.
Cytogenetic investigation was performed on direct preparations of 15 endometrial cancers showing different histotypes. Clonal abnormalities were found in 11 out of 13 analysable cases. The modal chromosome number was near diploid in all cases. The abnormal karyotypes contained relatively simple numerical or structural aberrations in the majority of tumours. In contrast, two neoplasms with serous papillary and mixed mullerian morphological features shared multiple complex changes as well as cytogenetic evidence of intratumoral heterogeneity. The most frequent chromosome abnormality in our series of endometrial neoplasms was 6q deletion, which was detected in serous papillary, endometrioid and mixed mullerian tumours. The loss of the 6q region, which is also frequently involved in ovarian carcinoma, suggests a relationship between endometrial and ovarian cancers based on a common histogenesis.
Images
PMCID: PMC2223627  PMID: 9192990
21.  Pancreatic Metastasis of High-Grade Papillary Serous Ovarian Carcinoma Mimicking Primary Pancreas Cancer: A Case Report 
Case Reports in Medicine  2012;2012:943280.
Introduction. Reports of epithelial ovarian carcinomas metastatic to the pancreas are very rare. We herein present a metastasis of high grade papillary serous ovarian cancer to mid portion of pancreas. Case. A 42-year-old patient was admitted with a non-specified malignant cystic lesion in midportion of pancreas. She had a history of surgical treatment for papillary serous ovarian adenocarcinoma. A cystic lesion was revealed by an abdominal computerized tomography (CT) performed in her follow up . It was considered as primary mid portion of pancreatic cancer and a distal pancreatectomy was performed. The final pathology showed high-grade papillary serous adenocarcinoma morphologically similar to the previously diagnosed ovarian cancer. Discussion. Metastatic pancreatic cancers should be considered in patients who present with a solitary pancreatic mass and had a previous non-pancreatic malignancy. Differential diagnosis of primary pancreatic neoplasm from metastatic malignancy may be very difficult. A biopsy for tissue confirmation is required to differentiate primary and secondary pancreatic tumors. Although, the value of surgical resection is poorly documented, resection may be considered in selected patients. Conclusion. Pancreatic metastasis of ovarian papillary serous adenocarcinoma has to be kept in mind when a patient with pancreatic mass has a history of ovarian malignancy.
doi:10.1155/2012/943280
PMCID: PMC3399419  PMID: 22829843
22.  Collision of Three Histologically Distinct Endometrial Cancers of the Uterus 
A collision tumor is defined by the presence of two separate masses in one organ, which are pathologically distinct. We described a 70-yr-old patient who complained of abnormal vaginal bleeding with a collision tumor of the uterine corpus. The patient received total hysterectomy, bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy, bilateral pelvic-paraaortic lymphadenectomy, omentectomy, and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. The uterine corpus revealed three separate masses, which were located at the fundus, anterior and posterior wall. Each tumor revealed three pathologically different components, which were malignant mixed müllerian tumor, papillary serous carcinoma, and endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Among these components, only the papillary serous carcinoma component invaded the underlying myometrium and metastasized to the regional lymph node. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy were performed. The patient is still alive and has been healthy for the last 8 yr. We have reviewed previously reported cases of collision tumors which have occurred in the uterine corpus.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.1.89
PMCID: PMC3247781  PMID: 22219620
Uterus; Collision Tumor; Endometrial Neoplasms
23.  Development of targeted therapy in uterine serous carcinoma, a biologically aggressive variant of endometrial cancer 
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common female genital malignancy in the USA. Most carcinomas arising from the uterus are estrogen dependent and are associated with obesity and hypertension. They are designated type I ECs and typically, due to their early diagnosis secondary to postmenopausal bleeding, have a good prognosis. By contrast, type II ECs develop in older patients, are not hormone dependent and are responsible for most recurrences and deaths from EC. Uterine serous cancer constitutes up to 10% of all endometrial tumors, and represents the most biologically aggressive variant of type II EC. This article will describe the most salient molecular markers that have been identified in uterine serous cancer, thus far with emphasis on the use of erbB2 (HER2/neu) as the first of a series of therapeutic markers for the treatment of this highly-aggressive subset of ECs.
doi:10.1586/era.11.192
PMCID: PMC3287395  PMID: 22149431
endometrial cancer; erbB2; hRS7; molecular markers; MT-201; patupilone; pertuzumab; targeted therapy; trastuzumab; uterine serous cancer
24.  Papillary Serous Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix with Lung Metastasis 
Papillary serous carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a rare histological variant of cervical adenocarcinoma, with a very small number of cases reported. It is an aggressive tumor and is usually diagnosed at advanced stages by the time of diagnosis. Early-stage tumors can be treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy, while late-stage tumors have been treated with chemotherapy plus radical surgery with intermittent success. Here we report a case of metastatic papillary serous carcinoma observed at our hospital, which has been treated with debulking surgery and combination chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel.
doi:10.1155/2014/683103
PMCID: PMC3970363  PMID: 24716046
25.  Strategies for Molecularly Enhanced Chemotherapy to Achieve Synthetic Lethality in Endometrial Tumors with Mutant p53 
Serous uterine endometrial carcinomas are aggressive type II cancers with poor outcomes for which new treatment strategies are urgently needed, in particular, strategies that augment sensitivity to established chemotherapy regimens. The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is dysregulated in more than 90% of serous tumors, altering master regulators of the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint in unique and predictable ways and desensitizing cells to chemotherapy. We hypothesized that synthetic lethality can be achieved in endometrial cancer cells with mutant p53 by combining paclitaxel with agents to overcome G2/M arrest and induce mitotic catastrophe. The combination of BIBF1120, an investigational VEGFR, PDGFR, and FGFR multityrosine kinase inhibitor with established anti-angiogenic activity, with paclitaxel abrogated the G2/M checkpoint in p53-null endometrial cancer cells via modulation of G2/M checkpoint regulators followed by induction of mitotic cell death. In endometrial cancer cells harboring an oncogenic gain-of-function p53 mutation, synthetic lethality was created by combining paclitaxel with BIBF1120 and a histone deacetylase inhibitor, which serves to destabilize mutant p53. These cells were also sensitive to an inhibitor of the G2/M kinase Wee1 in combination with paclitaxel. These findings reveal that, in addition to antiangiogenic activity, the angiokinase inhibitor BIBF1120 can be used to restore sensitivity to paclitaxel and induce mitotic cell death in endometrial cancer cells with non-functional p53. These preclinical data serve as a critical platform for the creative design of future clinical trials utilizing molecularly enhanced chemotherapy to achieve synthetic lethality based on the mutational landscape.
doi:10.1155/2013/828165
PMCID: PMC3871910  PMID: 24381593

Results 1-25 (236444)