In epithelial cells, Sec3 associates with Exocyst complexes enriched at desmosomes and centrosomes, distinct from Sec6/8 complexes at the apical junctional complex. RNAi-mediated suppression of Sec3 alters trafficking of desmosomal cadherins and impairs desmosome morphology and function, without noticeable effect on adherens junctions.
The Exocyst is a conserved multisubunit complex involved in the docking of post-Golgi transport vesicles to sites of membrane remodeling during cellular processes such as polarization, migration, and division. In mammalian epithelial cells, Exocyst complexes are recruited to nascent sites of cell–cell contact in response to E-cadherin–mediated adhesive interactions, and this event is an important early step in the assembly of intercellular junctions. Sec3 has been hypothesized to function as a spatial landmark for the development of polarity in budding yeast, but its role in epithelial cells has not been investigated. Here, we provide evidence in support of a function for a Sec3-containing Exocyst complex in the assembly or maintenance of desmosomes, adhesive junctions that link intermediate filament networks to sites of strong intercellular adhesion. We show that Sec3 associates with a subset of Exocyst complexes that are enriched at desmosomes. Moreover, we found that membrane recruitment of Sec3 is dependent on cadherin-mediated adhesion but occurs later than that of the known Exocyst components Sec6 and Sec8 that are recruited to adherens junctions. RNA interference-mediated suppression of Sec3 expression led to specific impairment of both the morphology and function of desmosomes, without noticeable effect on adherens junctions. These results suggest that two different exocyst complexes may function in basal–lateral membrane trafficking and will enable us to better understand how exocytosis is spatially organized during development of epithelial plasma membrane domains.
Polarized exocytosis plays a major role in development and cell differentiation but the mechanisms that target exocytosis to specific membrane domains in animal cells are still poorly understood. We characterized Drosophila Sec6, a component of the exocyst complex that is believed to tether secretory vesicles to specific plasma membrane sites. sec6 mutations cause cell lethality and disrupt plasma membrane growth. In developing photoreceptor cells (PRCs), Sec6 but not Sec5 or Sec8 shows accumulation at adherens junctions. In late PRCs, Sec6, Sec5, and Sec8 colocalize at the rhabdomere, the light sensing subdomain of the apical membrane. PRCs with reduced Sec6 function accumulate secretory vesicles and fail to transport proteins to the rhabdomere, but show normal localization of proteins to the apical stalk membrane and the basolateral membrane. Furthermore, we show that Rab11 forms a complex with Sec5 and that Sec5 interacts with Sec6 suggesting that the exocyst is a Rab11 effector that facilitates protein transport to the apical rhabdomere in Drosophila PRCs.
The localization of various Ca2+ transport and signaling proteins in secretory cells is highly restricted, resulting in polarized agonist-stimulated Ca2+ waves. In the present work, we examined the possible roles of the Sec6/8 complex or the exocyst in polarized Ca2+ signaling in pancreatic acinar cells. Immunolocalization by confocal microscopy showed that the Sec6/8 complex is excluded from tight junctions and secretory granules in these cells. The Sec6/8 complex was found in at least two cellular compartments, part of the complex showed similar, but not identical, localization with the Golgi apparatus and part of the complex associated with Ca2+ signaling proteins next to the plasma membrane at the apical pole. Accordingly, immunoprecipitation (IP) of Sec8 did not coimmunoprecipitate βCOP, Golgi 58K protein, or mannosidase II, all Golgi-resident proteins. By contrast, IP of Sec8 coimmunoprecipitates Sec6, type 3 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3R3), and the Gβγ subunit of G proteins from pancreatic acinar cell extracts. Furthermore, the anti-Sec8 antibodies coimmunoprecipitate actin, Sec6, the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump, the G protein subunits Gαq and Gβγ, the β1 isoform of phospholipase C, and the ER resident IP3R1 from brain microsomal extracts. Antibodies against the various signaling and Ca2+ transport proteins coimmunoprecipitate Sec8 and the other signaling proteins. Dissociation of actin filaments in the immunoprecipitate had no effect on the interaction between Sec6 and Sec8, but released the actin and dissociated the interaction between the Sec6/8 complex and Ca2+ signaling proteins. Hence, the interaction between the Sec6/8 and Ca2+ signaling complexes is likely mediated by the actin cytoskeleton. The anti-Sec6 and anti-Sec8 antibodies inhibited Ca2+ signaling at a step upstream of Ca2+ release by IP3. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with latrunculin B in intact cells resulted in partial translocation of Sec6 and Sec8 from membranes to the cytosol and interfered with propagation of agonist-evoked Ca2+ waves. Our results suggest that the Sec6/8 complex has multiple roles in secretory cells including governing the polarized expression of Ca2+ signaling complexes and regulation of their activity.
Sec6/8 complex; Ca2+ signaling proteins; assembly; actin cytoskeleton; Ca2+ signaling
Activation of the rab GTPase, Sec4p, by its exchange factor, Sec2p, is needed for polarized transport of secretory vesicles to exocytic sites and for exocytosis. A small region in the C-terminal half of Sec2p regulates its localization. Loss of this region results in temperature-sensitive growth and the depolarized accumulation of secretory vesicles. Here, we show that Sec2p associates with the exocyst, an octameric effector of Sec4p involved in tethering secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane. Specifically, the exocyst subunit Sec15p directly interacts with Sec2p. This interaction normally occurs on secretory vesicles and serves to couple nucleotide exchange on Sec4p to the recruitment of the Sec4p effector. The mislocalization of Sec2p mutants correlates with dramatically enhanced binding to the exocyst complex. We propose that Sec2p is normally released from the exocyst after vesicle tethering so that it can recycle onto a new round of vesicles. The mislocalization of Sec2p mutants results from a failure to be released from Sec15p, blocking this recycling pathway.
The Sec6 subunit of the multisubunit exocyst tethering complex interacts with the Sec1/Munc18 protein Sec1 and with the t-SNARE Sec9. Assembly of the exocyst upon vesicle arrival at sites of secretion is proposed to release Sec9 for SNARE complex assembly and to recruit Sec1 for interaction with SNARE complexes to facilitate fusion.
Trafficking of protein and lipid cargo through the secretory pathway in eukaryotic cells is mediated by membrane-bound vesicles. Secretory vesicle targeting and fusion require a conserved multisubunit protein complex termed the exocyst, which has been implicated in specific tethering of vesicles to sites of polarized exocytosis. The exocyst is directly involved in regulating soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes and membrane fusion through interactions between the Sec6 subunit and the plasma membrane SNARE protein Sec9. Here we show another facet of Sec6 function—it directly binds Sec1, another SNARE regulator, but of the Sec1/Munc18 family. The Sec6–Sec1 interaction is exclusive of Sec6–Sec9 but compatible with Sec6–exocyst assembly. In contrast, the Sec6–exocyst interaction is incompatible with Sec6–Sec9. Therefore, upon vesicle arrival, Sec6 is proposed to release Sec9 in favor of Sec6–exocyst assembly and to simultaneously recruit Sec1 to sites of secretion for coordinated SNARE complex formation and membrane fusion.
Epithelial cyst and tubule formation are critical processes that
involve transient, highly choreographed changes in cell polarity.
Factors controlling these changes in polarity are largely unknown. One
candidate factor is the highly conserved eight-member protein complex
called the exocyst. We show that during tubulogenesis in an in vitro
model system the exocyst relocalized along growing tubules consistent
with changes in cell polarity. In yeast, the exocyst subunit Sec10p is
a crucial component linking polarized exocytic vesicles with the rest
of the exocyst complex and, ultimately, the plasma membrane. When the
exocyst subunit human Sec10 was exogenously expressed in
epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, there was a selective
increase in the synthesis and delivery of apical and basolateral
secretory proteins and a basolateral plasma membrane protein, but not
an apical plasma membrane protein. Overexpression of human Sec10
resulted in more efficient and rapid cyst formation and increased
tubule formation upon stimulation with hepatocyte growth factor. We
conclude that the exocyst plays a central role in the development of
epithelial cysts and tubules.
Rho GTPases are important regulators of polarity in eukaryotic cells. In yeast they are involved in regulating the docking and fusion of secretory vesicles with the cell surface. Our analysis of a Rho3 mutant that is unable to interact with the Exo70 subunit of the exocyst reveals a normal polarization of the exocyst complex as well as other polarity markers. We also find that there is no redundancy between the Rho3–Exo70 and Rho1–Sec3 pathways in the localization of the exocyst. This suggests that Rho3 and Cdc42 act to polarize exocytosis by activating the exocytic machinery at the membrane without the need to first recruit it to sites of polarized growth. Consistent with this model, we find that the ability of Rho3 and Cdc42 to hydrolyze GTP is not required for their role in secretion. Moreover, our analysis of the Sec3 subunit of the exocyst suggests that polarization of the exocyst may be a consequence rather than a cause of polarized exocytosis.
The octameric exocyst complex is associated with the junctional complex and recycling endosomes and is proposed to selectively tether cargo vesicles directed toward the basolateral surface of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We observed that the exocyst subunits Sec6, Sec8, and Exo70 were localized to early endosomes, transferrin-positive common recycling endosomes, and Rab11a-positive apical recycling endosomes of polarized MDCK cells. Consistent with its localization to multiple populations of endosomes, addition of function-blocking Sec8 antibodies to streptolysin-O–permeabilized cells revealed exocyst requirements for several endocytic pathways including basolateral recycling, apical recycling, and basolateral-to-apical transcytosis. The latter was selectively dependent on interactions between the small GTPase Rab11a and Sec15A and was inhibited by expression of the C-terminus of Sec15A or down-regulation of Sec15A expression using shRNA. These results indicate that the exocyst complex may be a multipurpose regulator of endocytic traffic directed toward both poles of polarized epithelial cells and that transcytotic traffic is likely to require Rab11a-dependent recruitment and modulation of exocyst function, likely through interactions with Sec15A.
ZO-1 is an actin filament (F-actin)–binding protein that localizes
to tight junctions and connects claudin to the actin cytoskeleton in
epithelial cells. In nonepithelial cells that have no tight junctions,
ZO-1 localizes to adherens junctions (AJs) and may connect cadherin to
the actin cytoskeleton indirectly through β- and α-catenins as one
of many F-actin–binding proteins. Nectin is an immunoglobulin-like
adhesion molecule that localizes to AJs and is associated with the
actin cytoskeleton through afadin, an F-actin–binding protein. Ponsin
is an afadin- and vinculin-binding protein that also localizes to AJs.
The nectin-afadin complex has a potency to recruit the
E-cadherin–β-catenin complex through α-catenin in a manner
independent of ponsin. By the use of cadherin-deficient L cell lines
stably expressing various components of the cadherin-catenin and
nectin-afadin systems, and α-catenin–deficient F9 cell lines, we
examined here whether nectin recruits ZO-1 to nectin-based cell-cell
adhesion sites. Nectin showed a potency to recruit not only α-catenin
but also ZO-1 to nectin-based cell-cell adhesion sites. This
recruitment of ZO-1 was dependent on afadin but independent of
α-catenin and ponsin. These results indicate that ZO-1 localizes to
cadherin-based AJs through interactions not only with α-catenin but
also with the nectin-afadin system.
Establishment and maintenance of epithelial cell surface polarity is of vital importance for the correct function of transporting epithelia. To maintain normal cell function, the distribution of apical and basal-lateral proteins is highly regulated and defects in expression levels or plasma membrane targeting can have severe consequences. It has been shown recently that initiation of cell-surface polarity occurs immediately upon cell-cell contact, and requires components of the lateral targeting patch, the Exocyst and the lateral SNARE complex to specify delivery of basolateral proteins to the site of cell-cell adhesion. The Exocyst and SNARE complex are present in the cytoplasm in single epithelial cells before adhesion. Upon initial cell-cell adhesion, E-cadherin accumulates at the forming contact between cells. Shortly hereafter, components of the lateral targeting patch, the Exocyst and the lateral SNARE complex, co-localize with E-cadherin at the forming contact, where they function in specifying the delivery of basal-lateral proteins to the forming contact.
Polarity; SNARE; Exocyst; Epithelia; Review
Small rab/Ypt1/Sec4 GTPase family have been involved in the regulation of membrane traffic along the biosynthetic and endocytic pathways in eucaryotic cells. Polarized epithelial cells have morphologically and functionally distinct apical and basolateral surfaces separated by tight junctions. The establishment and maintenance of these structures require delivery of membrane proteins and lipids to these domains. In this work, we have isolated a cDNA clone from a human intestinal cDNA library encoding a small GTPase, rab13, closely related to the yeast Sec4 protein. Confocal microscopy analysis on polarized Caco-2 cells shows that rab13 protein colocalized with the tight junction marker ZO- 1. Cryostat sections of tissues confirm that rab13 localized to the junctional complex region of a variety of epithelia, including intestine, kidney, liver, and of endothelial cells. This localization requires assembly and integrity of the tight junctions. Disruption of tight junctions by incubation in low Ca2+ media induces the redistribution of rab13. In cells devoid of tight junctions, rab13 was found associated with vesicles dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Cell- cell contacts initiated by E-cadherin in transfected L cells do not recruit rab13 to the resulting adherens-like junction complexes. The participation of rab13 in polarized transport, in the assembly and/or the activity of tight junctions is discussed.
Polarized exocytosis is important for morphogenesis and cell growth. The exocyst is a multiprotein complex implicated in tethering secretory vesicles at specific sites of the plasma membrane for exocytosis. In the budding yeast, the exocyst is localized to sites of bud emergence or the tips of small daughter cells, where it mediates secretion and cell surface expansion. To understand how exocytosis is spatially controlled, we systematically analyzed the localization of Sec15p, a member of the exocyst complex and downstream effector of the rab protein Sec4p, in various mutants. We found that the polarized localization of Sec15p relies on functional upstream membrane traffic, activated rab protein Sec4p, and its guanine exchange factor Sec2p. The initial targeting of both Sec4p and Sec15p to the bud tip depends on polarized actin cable. However, different recycling mechanisms for rab and Sec15p may account for the different kinetics of polarization for these two proteins. We also found that Sec3p and Sec15p, though both members of the exocyst complex, rely on distinctive targeting mechanisms for their localization. The assembly of the exocyst may integrate various cellular signals to ensure that exocytosis is tightly controlled. Key regulators of cell polarity such as Cdc42p are important for the recruitment of the exocyst to the budding site. Conversely, we found that the proper localization of these cell polarity regulators themselves also requires a functional exocytosis pathway. We further report that Bem1p, a protein essential for the recruitment of signaling molecules for the establishment of cell polarity, interacts with the exocyst complex. We propose that a cyclical regulatory network contributes to the establishment and maintenance of polarized cell growth in yeast.
The exocyst complex is essential for many exocytic events, by tethering vesicles at the plasma membrane for fusion. In fission yeast, polarized exocytosis for growth relies on the combined action of the exocyst at cell poles and myosin-driven transport along actin cables. We report here the identification of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Sec3 protein, which we identified through sequence homology of its PH-like domain. Like other exocyst subunits, sec3 is required for secretion and cell division. Cells deleted for sec3 are only conditionally lethal and can proliferate when osmotically stabilized. Sec3 is redundant with Exo70 for viability and for the localization of other exocyst subunits, suggesting these components act as exocyst tethers at the plasma membrane. Consistently, Sec3 localizes to zones of growth independently of other exocyst subunits but depends on PIP2 and functional Cdc42. FRAP analysis shows that Sec3, like all other exocyst subunits, localizes to cell poles largely independently of the actin cytoskeleton. However, we show that Sec3, Exo70 and Sec5 are transported by the myosin V Myo52 along actin cables. These data suggest that the exocyst holocomplex, including Sec3 and Exo70, is present on exocytic vesicles, which can reach cell poles by either myosin-driven transport or random walk.
Sec6/8 complex regulates delivery of exocytic vesicles to plasma membrane docking sites, but how it is recruited to specific sites in the exocytic pathway is poorly understood. We identified an Sec6/8 complex on trans-Golgi network (TGN) and plasma membrane in normal rat kidney (NRK) cells that formed either fibroblast- (NRK-49F) or epithelial-like (NRK-52E) intercellular junctions. At both TGN and plasma membrane, Sec6/8 complex colocalizes with exocytic cargo protein, vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSVG)-tsO45. Newly synthesized Sec6/8 complex is simultaneously recruited from the cytosol to both sites. However, brefeldin A treatment inhibits recruitment to the plasma membrane and other treatments that block exocytosis (e.g., expression of kinase-inactive protein kinase D and low temperature incubation) cause accumulation of Sec6/8 on the TGN, indicating that steady-state distribution of Sec6/8 complex depends on continuous exocytic vesicle trafficking. Addition of antibodies specific for TGN- or plasma membrane–bound Sec6/8 complexes to semiintact NRK cells results in cargo accumulation in a perinuclear region or near the plasma membrane, respectively. These results indicate that Sec6/8 complex is required for several steps in exocytic transport of vesicles between TGN and plasma membrane.
cell polarity; Golgi apparatus/secretion; cell membrane/metabolism; intercellular junctions/physiology; intracellular membranes/metabolism
The exocyst complex plays a critical role in targeting and tethering vesicles to specific sites of the plasma membrane. These events are crucial for polarized delivery of membrane components to the cell surface, which is critical for cell motility and division. Though Rho GTPases are involved in regulating actin dynamics and membrane trafficking, their role in exocyst-mediated vesicle targeting is not very clear. Herein, we present evidence that depletion of GEF-H1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho proteins, affects vesicle trafficking. Interestingly, we found that GEF-H1 directly binds to exocyst component Sec5 in a Ral GTPase-dependent manner. This interaction promotes RhoA activation, which then regulates exocyst assembly/localization and exocytosis. Taken together, our work defines a mechanism for RhoA activation in response to RalA-Sec5 signaling and involvement of GEF-H1/RhoA pathway in the regulation of vesicle trafficking.
Cystogenesis associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by perturbations in the polarized phenotype and function of cyst-lining epithelial cells. The polycystins, the protein products of the genes mutated in the majority of ADPKD cases, have been described recently, but the pathological mechanism by which causal mutations result in the mislocalization of cell membrane proteins has remained unclear. This report documents the dissociation from the ADPKD cell basolateral membrane of three molecules essential for spatial organization and exocytosis. The adherens junction protein E-cadherin, the subcellular disposition of which governs intercellular and intracellular architecture, was discovered sequestered in an internal ADPKD cell compartment. At the same time, sec6 and sec8, components of a complex critical for basolateral cargo delivery normally arrayed at the apico-lateral apex, were depleted from the ADPKD cell plasma membrane. An analysis of membrane transport revealed that basolateral trafficking of proteins and lipids was impaired as a result of delayed cargo exit from the ADPKD cell Golgi apparatus. Apical transport proceeded normally. Taken together with recent documentation of an association between polycystin-1 and E-cadherin (Huan and van Adelsberg 1999), the data suggest that causal mutations disrupt E-cadherin–dependent cytoarchitecture, adversely affecting protein assemblies crucial for basolateral trafficking.
basolateral; adherens junction; epithelia; autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD); polycystin
Nectins are cell-cell adhesion molecules involved in the formation of various intercellular junctions and the establishment of apical-basal polarity at cell-cell adhesion sites. To have a better understanding of the roles of nectins in the formation of cell-cell junctions, we searched for new cytoplasmic binding partners for nectin. We report that nectin-1α associates with membrane palmitoylated protein 3 (MPP3), one of the human homologues of a Drosophila tumor suppressor gene, Disc large. Two major forms of MPP3 at 66 and 98 kDa were detected, in conjunction with nectin-1α, suggesting that an association between the two may occur in various cell types. Nectin-1α recruits MPP3 to cell-cell contact sites, mediated by a PDZ-binding motif at the carboxyl terminus of nectin-1α. Association with MPP3 increases cell surface expression of nectin-1α and enhances nectin-1α ectodomain shedding, indicating that MPP3 regulates trafficking and processing of nectin-1α. Further study showed that MPP3 interacts with nectin-3α, but not with nectin-2α, showing that the association of nectins with MPP3 is isoform-specific. MPP5, another MPP family member, interacts with nectins with varying affinity and facilitates surface expression of nectin-1α, nectin-2α, and nectin-3α. These data suggest that wide interactions between nectins and MPP family members may occur in various cell-cell junctions and that these associations may regulate trafficking and processing of nectins.
Adherens Junctions; cell adhesion molecule; nectins; MPP; MAGUK; protein trafficking
The exocyst complex tethers post-Golgi secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane prior to docking and fusion. In this study, we identify Sec3, the missing component of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe exocyst complex (SpSec3). SpSec3 shares many properties with its orthologs, and its mutants are rescued by human Sec3/EXOC1. Although involved in exocytosis, SpSec3 does not appear to mark the site of exocyst complex assembly at the plasma membrane. It does, however, mark the sites of actin cytoskeleton recruitment and controls the organization of all three yeast actin structures: the actin cables, endocytic actin patches and actomyosin ring. Specifically, SpSec3 physically interacts with For3 and sec3 mutants have no actin cables as a result of a failure to polarize this nucleating formin. SpSec3 also interacts with actin patch components and sec3 mutants have depolarized actin patches of reduced endocytic capacity. Finally, the constriction and disassembly of the cytokinetic actomyosin ring is compromised in these sec3 mutant cells. We propose that a role of SpSec3 is to spatially couple actin machineries and their independently polarized regulators. As a consequence of its dual role in secretion and actin organization, Sec3 appears as a major co-ordinator of cell morphology in fission yeast.
actin; endocytosis; exocyst; morphology; Schizosaccharomyces pombe
The exocyst is an octameric protein complex implicated in tethering post-Golgi secretory vesicles at the plasma membrane in preparation for fusion. However, it is not clear how the exocyst is targeted to and physically associates with specific domains of the plasma membrane and how its functions are regulated at those regions. We demonstrate that the N terminus of the exocyst component Sec3 directly interacts with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. In addition, we have identified key residues in Sec3 that are critical for its binding to the guanosine triphosphate–bound form of Cdc42. Genetic analyses indicate that the dual interactions of Sec3 with phospholipids and Cdc42 control its function in yeast cells. Disrupting these interactions not only blocks exocytosis and affects exocyst polarization but also leads to defects in cell morphogenesis. We propose that the interactions of Sec3 with phospholipids and Cdc42 play important roles in exocytosis and polarized cell growth.
The small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)–binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) 6 regulates membrane recycling to regions of plasma membrane remodeling via the endocytic pathway. Here, we show that GTP–bound ARF6 interacts with Sec10, a subunit of the exocyst complex involved in docking of vesicles with the plasma membrane. We found that Sec10 localization in the perinuclear region is not restricted to the trans-Golgi network, but extends to recycling endosomes. In addition, we report that depletion of Sec5 exocyst subunit or dominant inhibition of Sec10 affects the function and the morphology of the recycling pathway. Sec10 is found to redistribute to ruffling areas of the plasma membrane in cells expressing GTP-ARF6, whereas dominant inhibition of Sec10 interferes with ARF6-induced cell spreading. Our paper suggests that ARF6 specifies delivery and insertion of recycling membranes to regions of dynamic reorganization of the plasma membrane through interaction with the vesicle-tethering exocyst complex.
ARF6; exocyst complex; recycling; endocytosis; small GTP-binding protein
Sec3p is a component of the exocyst complex that tethers secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane at exocytic sites in preparation for fusion. Unlike all other exocyst structural genes, SEC3 is not essential for growth. Cells lacking Sec3p grow and secrete surprisingly well at 25°C; however, late markers of secretion, such as the vesicle marker Sec4p and the exocyst subunit Sec8p, localize more diffusely within the bud. Furthermore, sec3Δ cells are strikingly round relative to wild-type cells and are unable to form pointed mating projections in response to α factor. These phenotypes support the proposed role of Sec3p as a spatial landmark for secretion. We also find that cells lacking Sec3p exhibit a dramatic defect in the inheritance of cortical ER into the bud, whereas the inheritance of mitochondria and Golgi is unaffected. Overexpression of Sec3p results in a prominent patch of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker Sec61p-GFP at the bud tip. Cortical ER inheritance in yeast has been suggested to involve the capture of ER tubules at the bud tip. Sec3p may act in this process as a spatial landmark for cortical ER inheritance.
The accurate targeting of secretory vesicles to distinct sites on
the plasma membrane is necessary to achieve polarized growth and to
establish specialized domains at the surface of eukaryotic cells.
Members of a protein complex required for exocytosis, the exocyst, have
been localized to regions of active secretion in the budding yeast
Saccharomyces cerevisiae where they may function to
specify sites on the plasma membrane for vesicle docking and fusion. In
this study we have addressed the function of one member of the exocyst
complex, Sec10p. We have identified two functional domains of Sec10p
that act in a dominant-negative manner to inhibit cell growth upon
overexpression. Phenotypic and biochemical analysis of the
dominant-negative mutants points to a bifunctional role for Sec10p. One
domain, consisting of the amino-terminal two-thirds of Sec10p directly
interacts with Sec15p, another exocyst component. Overexpression of
this domain displaces the full-length Sec10 from the exocyst complex,
resulting in a block in exocytosis and an accumulation of secretory
vesicles. The carboxy-terminal domain of Sec10p does not interact with
other members of the exocyst complex and expression of this domain does
not cause a secretory defect. Rather, this mutant results in the
formation of elongated cells, suggesting that the second domain of
Sec10p is required for morphogenesis, perhaps regulating the
reorientation of the secretory pathway from the tip of the emerging
daughter cell toward the mother–daughter connection during cell cycle
Nectins are Ca2+-independent immunoglobulin (Ig)-like cell-cell adhesion molecules. The trans-interactions of nectins recruit cadherins to the nectin-based cell-cell adhesion, resulting in formation of cell-cell adherens junctions (AJs) in epithelial cells and fibroblasts. The trans-interaction of E-cadherin induces activation of Rac small G protein, whereas the trans-interactions of nectins induce activation of not only Rac but also Cdc42 small G protein. We showed by the fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging that the trans-interaction of E-cadherin induced dynamic activation and inactivation of Rac, which led to dynamic formation and retraction of lamellipodia. Moreover, we found here that the nectins, which did not trans-interact with other nectins (non–trans-interacting nectins), inhibited the E-cadherin–induced activation of Rac and reduced the velocity of the formation of the E-cadherin-based cell-cell AJs. The inhibitory effect of non–trans-interacting nectins was suppressed by the activation of Cdc42 induced by the trans-interactions of nectins. These results indicate a novel role of nectins in regulation of the E-cadherin–induced activation of Rac and formation of cell-cell AJs.
E-Cadherin is a Ca2+-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule at adherens junctions (AJs) of epithelial cells. A fragment of N-cadherin lacking its extracellular region serves as a dominant negative mutant (DN) and inhibits cell-cell adhesion activity of E-cadherin, but its mode of action remains to be elucidated. Nectin is a Ca2+-independent immunoglobulin-like cell-cell adhesion molecule at AJs and is associated with E-cadherin through their respective peripheral membrane proteins, afadin and catenins, which connect nectin and cadherin to the actin cytoskeleton, respectively. We showed here that overexpression of nectin capable of binding afadin, but not a mutant incapable of binding afadin, reduced the inhibitory effect of N-cadherin DN on the cell-cell adhesion activity of E-cadherin in keratinocytes. Overexpressed nectin recruited N-cadherin DN to the nectin-based cell-cell adhesion sites in an afadin-dependent manner. Moreover, overexpression of nectin enhanced the E-cadherin–based cell-cell adhesion activity. These results suggest that N-cadherin DN competitively inhibits the association of the endogenous nectin-afadin system with the endogenous E-cadherin-catenin system and thereby reduces the cell-cell adhesion activity of E-cadherin. Thus, nectin plays a role in the formation of E-cadherin–based AJs in keratinocytes.
The exocyst is an octameric complex required for polarized secretion. Some components of the exocyst are found on the plasma membrane, whereas others are recruited to Golgi membranes, suggesting that exocyst assembly tethers vesicles to their site of fusion. We have found that in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes the majority of the exocyst component Sec5 is unexpectedly present in clathrin-coated pits and vesicles at the plasma membrane. In oocytes, the major substrate for clathrin-dependent endocytosis is the vitellogenin receptor Yolkless. A truncation mutant of Sec5 (sec5E13) allows the formation of normally sized oocytes but with greatly reduced yolk uptake. We find that in sec5E13 oocytes Yolkless accumulates aberrantly in late endocytic compartments, indicating a defect in the endocytic cycling of the receptor. An analogous truncation of the yeast SEC5 gene results in normal secretion but a temperature-sensitive defect in endocytic recycling. Thus, the exocyst may act in both Golgi to plasma membrane traffic and endocytic cycling, and hence in oocytes is recruited to clathrin-coated pits to facilitate the rapid recycling of Yolkless.