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1.  Why do so few patients with heart failure participate in cardiac rehabilitation? A cross-sectional survey from England, Wales and Northern Ireland 
BMJ Open  2012;2(2):e000787.
Objectives
To determine why so few patients with chronic heart failure in England, Wales and Northern Ireland take part in cardiac rehabilitation.
Design
Two-stage, postal questionnaire-based national survey.
Participants and setting
Stage 1: 277 cardiac rehabilitation centres that provided phase 3 cardiac rehabilitation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland registered on the National Audit of Cardiac Rehabilitation register. Stage 2: 35 centres that indicated in stage 1 that they provide a separate cardiac rehabilitation programme for patients with heart failure.
Results
Full data were available for 224/277 (81%) cardiac rehabilitation centres. Only 90/224 (40%) routinely offered phase 3 cardiac rehabilitation to patients with heart failure. Of these 90 centres that offered rehabilitation, 43% did so only when heart failure was secondary to myocardial infarction or revascularisation. Less than half (39%) had a specific rehabilitation programme for heart failure. Of those 134 centres not providing for patients with heart failure, 84% considered a lack of resources and 55% exclusion from commissioning contracts as the reason for not recruiting patients with heart failure. Overall, only 35/224 (16%) centres provided a separate rehabilitation programme for people with heart failure.
Conclusions
Patients with heart failure as a primary diagnosis are excluded from most cardiac rehabilitation programmes in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. A lack of resources and direct exclusion from local commissioning agreements are the main barriers for not offering rehabilitation to patients with heart failure.
Article summary
Article focus
To determine why so few patients with chronic heart failure in England, Wales and Northern Ireland take part in cardiac rehabilitation.
To find out the features of cardiac rehabilitation centres that offer a service to patients with heart failure.
Key messages
Most cardiac rehabilitation centres in England, Wales and Northern Ireland do not routinely offer cardiac rehabilitation to people with chronic heart failure.
Only one in six cardiac rehabilitation centres offers a dedicated cardiac rehabilitation programme for patients with heart failure.
Those with heart failure (New York Heart Association stages 1–2) after myocardial infarction or coronary revascularisation have the best chance of getting on a cardiac rehabilitation programme.
Lack of resources and exclusion from local commissioning agreements are seen as the main reasons for not offering cardiac rehabilitation to people with heart failure.
Strengths and limitations of this study
The first comprehensive national survey of cardiac rehabilitation services for patients with heart failure with a response rate of 84% conducted with the National Audit of Cardiac Rehabilitation.
The conclusions that can be drawn from stage 2 of the survey are limited because of the low response rate.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000787
PMCID: PMC3323807  PMID: 22454188
2.  Inpatient or Outpatient Rehabilitation after Herniated Disc Surgery? – Setting-Specific Preferences, Participation and Outcome of Rehabilitation 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e89200.
Objective
To examine rehabilitation preferences, participation and determinants for the choice of a certain rehabilitation setting (inpatient vs. outpatient) and setting-specific rehabilitation outcomes.
Methods
The longitudinal observational study referred to 534 consecutive disc surgery patients (18–55 years). Face-to-face baseline interviews took place about 3.6 days after disc surgery during acute hospital stay. 486 patients also participated in a follow-up interview via telephone three months later (dropout-rate: 9%). The following instruments were used: depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), pain intensity (numeric analog scale), health-related quality of life (Short Form 36 Health Survey), subjective prognosis of gainful employment (SPE-scale) as well as questions on rehabilitation attendance, return to work, and amount of sick leave days.
Results
The vast majority of patients undergoing surgery for a herniated disc attended a post-hospital rehabilitation treatment program (93%). Thereby two-thirds of these patients took part in an inpatient rehabilitation program (67.9%). Physical, psychological, vocational and health-related quality of life characteristics differed widely before as well as after rehabilitation depending on the setting. Inpatient rehabilitees were significantly older, reported more pain, worse physical quality of life, more anxiety and depression and a worse subjective prognosis of gainful employment before rehabilitation. Pre-rehabilitation differences remained significant after rehabilitation. More than half of the outpatient rehabilitees (56%) compared to only one third of the inpatient rehabilitees (33%) returned to work three months after disc surgery (p<.001).
Conclusion
The results suggest a “pre-selection” of patients with better health status in outpatient rehabilitation. Gaining better knowledge about setting-specific selection processes may help optimizing rehabilitation allocation procedures and improve rehabilitation effects such as return to work.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089200
PMCID: PMC3943731  PMID: 24598904
3.  Evaluation of medical and health economic effectiveness of non-pharmacological secondary prevention of coronary heart disease 
Background
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a common and potentially fatal malady with a life time prevalence of over 20%. For Germany, the mortality attributable to chronic ischemic heart disease or acute myocardial infarction is estimated at 140,000 deaths per year. An association between prognosis of CHD and lifestyle risk factors has been consistently shown. To positively influence lifestyle risk factors in patients with CHD, non-pharmaceutical secondary prevention strategies are frequently recommended and implemented.
Objectives
The aim of this HTA (HTA = Health Technology Assessment) is to summarise the current literature on strategies for non-pharmaceutical secondary prevention in patients with CHD and to evaluate their medical effectiveness/efficacy and cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal implications. In addition, this report aims to compare the effectiveness and efficacy of different intervention components and to evaluate the generalisability with regard to the German context.
Methods
Relevant publications were identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed through the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI). In addition, a manual search of identified reference lists was conducted. The present report includes German and English literature published between January 2003 and September 2008 targeting adults with CHD. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed according to pre-defined quality criteria, based on the criteria of evidence based medicine.
Results
Among 9,074 publications 43 medical publications met the inclusion criteria. Overall study quality is satisfactory, but only half the studies report overall mortality or cardiac mortality as an outcome, while the remaining studies report less reliable outcome parameters. The follow-up duration varies between twelve and 120 months. Although overall effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical secondary prevention programs shows considerable heterogeneity, there is evidence for the long-term effectiveness concerning mortality, recurrent cardiac events and quality of life. Interventions based on exercise and also multicomponent interventions report more conclusive evidence for reducing mortality, while interventions focusing on psychosocial risk factors seem to be more effective in improving quality of life. Only two studies from Germany fulfill the methodological criteria and are included in this report.
Additionally, 25 economic publications met the inclusion criteria. Both, quantity and quality of publications dealing with combined interventions are higher compared with those investigating single component interventions. However, there are difficulties in transferring the international results into the German health care system, because of its specific structure of the rehabilitation system. While international literature mostly shows a positive cost-effectiveness ratio of combined programs, almost without exception, studies investigate out-of hospital or home-based programs. The examination of publications evaluating the cost-effectiveness of single interventions merely shows a positive trend of exercise-based and smoking cessation programs. Due to a lack of appropriate studies, no conclusive evidence regarding psychosocial and dietary interventions is available.
Altogether eleven publications concerned with ethical or social issues of non-pharmacological secondary prevention strategies are included. These studies are relatively confirm the assumption that patients with a lower socioeconomic background reflect a population at increased risk and therefore have specific needs to participate in rehabilitation programs. However, there currently remains uncertainty, whether these patients participate in rehabilitation more or less often. As barriers, which deter patients from attending, aspects like a lack of motivation, family commitments or the distance between home and rehabilitation centres are identified. Psychological factors like anxiety, depression and uncertainty as well as physical constraints are also pointed out.
Discussion
Non-pharmacological secondary preventive strategies are safe and effective in improving mortality, morbidity and quality of life in patients with CHD. Because of the small number of reliable studies with long term follow up over 60 months, sustainability of observed intervention effects has to be regarded with caution. Due to a lack of suitable studies, it was not possible to determine the effectiveness of interventions in important patient subgroups as well as the comparative effectiveness of different intervention strategies, conclusively. Future research should, amongst others, attempt to investigate these questions in methodologically rigorous studies.
With regard to the cost-effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions, overall, international studies show positive results. However, there are considerable limitations due to the qualitative and quantitative deficiencies of identified studies. The special characteristics of the German rehabilitation system with its primarily inpatient offers result in further difficulties, when trying to transfer international study results to the German health care system. Both, studies demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of inpatient programs and those investigating the cost-effectiveness of single interventions are currently not available. To examine the German rehabilitation programs concerning their efficiency and their potential for optimisation, there is a need for further research.
Concerning social and ethical issues, a lack of studies addressing the structure of rehabilitation participants in Germany is striking. The same applies to studies examining the reasons for none participation in non-pharmacological secondary prevention programs. Evidence regarding these questions would provide an informative basis for optimising rehabilitation programs in Germany.
Conclusion
Non-pharmacological secondary prevention interventions are safe and able to reduce mortality from CHD and cardiac events, as well as to imporve patient’s quality of life. Nevertheless, there is considerable need for research; especially the effectiveness of interventions for important subgroups of CHD patients has to be evaluated. In addition to intervention effectiveness, there is also some evidence that interventions generate an appropriate cost-effectiveness ratio. However, future research should investigate this further. The same applies to the sustainability of secondary prevention programs and patient’s reasons for not attending them.
doi:10.3205/hta000078
PMCID: PMC3011286  PMID: 21289903
Coronary heart disease; secondary prevention; prevention, non-pharmacological; effectiveness; cost-effectiveness; efficiency; intervention, psychosocial; intervention, multimodal; exercise; training; reduction, stress; smoking cessation; dietary change; rehabilitation
4.  Estimates of Outcomes Up to Ten Years after Stroke: Analysis from the Prospective South London Stroke Register 
PLoS Medicine  2011;8(5):e1001033.
Charles Wolfe and colleagues collected data from the South London Stroke Register on 3,373 first strokes registered between 1995 and 2006 and showed that between 20% and 30% of survivors have poor outcomes up to 10 years after stroke.
Background
Although stroke is acknowledged as a long-term condition, population estimates of outcomes longer term are lacking. Such estimates would be useful for planning health services and developing research that might ultimately improve outcomes. This burden of disease study provides population-based estimates of outcomes with a focus on disability, cognition, and psychological outcomes up to 10 y after initial stroke event in a multi-ethnic European population.
Methods and Findings
Data were collected from the population-based South London Stroke Register, a prospective population-based register documenting all first in a lifetime strokes since 1 January 1995 in a multi-ethnic inner city population. The outcomes assessed are reported as estimates of need and included disability (Barthel Index <15), inactivity (Frenchay Activities Index <15), cognitive impairment (Abbreviated Mental Test < 8 or Mini-Mental State Exam <24), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale >10), and mental and physical domain scores of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item short form (SF-12) health survey. Estimates were stratified by age, gender, and ethnicity, and age-adjusted using the standard European population. Plots of outcome estimates over time were constructed to examine temporal trends and sociodemographic differences. Between 1995 and 2006, 3,373 first-ever strokes were registered: 20%–30% of survivors had a poor outcome over 10 y of follow-up. The highest rate of disability was observed 7 d after stroke and remained at around 110 per 1,000 stroke survivors from 3 mo to 10 y. Rates of inactivity and cognitive impairment both declined up to 1 y (280/1,000 and 180/1,000 survivors, respectively); thereafter rates of inactivity remained stable till year eight, then increased, whereas rates of cognitive impairment fluctuated till year eight, then increased. Anxiety and depression showed some fluctuation over time, with a rate of 350 and 310 per 1,000 stroke survivors, respectively. SF-12 scores showed little variation from 3 mo to 10 y after stroke. Inactivity was higher in males at all time points, and in white compared to black stroke survivors, although black survivors reported better outcomes in the SF-12 physical domain. No other major differences were observed by gender or ethnicity. Increased age was associated with higher rates of disability, inactivity, and cognitive impairment.
Conclusions
Between 20% and 30% of stroke survivors have a poor range of outcomes up to 10 y after stroke. Such epidemiological data demonstrate the sociodemographic groups that are most affected longer term and should be used to develop longer term management strategies that reduce the significant poor outcomes of this group, for whom effective interventions are currently elusive.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Every year, 15 million people have a stroke. About 5 million of these people die within a few days, and another 5 million are left disabled. Stroke occurs when the brain's blood supply is suddenly interrupted by a blood clot blocking a blood vessel in the brain (ischemic stroke, the commonest type of stroke) or by a blood vessel in the brain bursting (hemorrhagic stroke). Deprived of the oxygen normally carried to them by the blood, the brain cells near the blockage die. The symptoms of stroke depend on which part of the brain is damaged but include sudden weakness or paralysis along one side of the body, vision loss in one or both eyes, and confusion or trouble speaking or understanding speech. Anyone experiencing these symptoms should seek immediate medical attention because prompt treatment can limit the damage to the brain. Risk factors for stroke include age (three-quarters of strokes occur in people over 65 years old), high blood pressure, and heart disease.
Why Was This Study Done?
Post-stroke rehabilitation can help individuals overcome the physical disabilities caused by stroke, and drugs and behavioral counseling can reduce the risk of a second stroke. However, people can also have problems with cognition (thinking, awareness, attention, learning, judgment, and memory) after a stroke, and they can become depressed or anxious. These “outcomes” can persist for many years, but although stroke is acknowledged as a long-term condition, most existing data on stroke outcomes are limited to a year after the stroke and often focus on disability alone. Longer term, more extensive information is needed to help plan services and to help develop research to improve outcomes. In this burden of disease analysis, the researchers use follow-up data collected by the prospective South London Stroke Register (SLSR) to provide long-term population-based estimates of disability, cognition, and psychological outcomes after a first stroke. The SLSR has recorded and followed all patients of all ages in an inner area of South London after their first-ever stroke since 1995.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
Between 1995 and 2006, the SLSR recorded 3,373 first-ever strokes. Patients were examined within 48 hours of referral to SLSR, their stroke diagnosis was verified, and their sociodemographic characteristics (including age, gender, and ethnic origin) were recorded. Study nurses and fieldworkers then assessed the patients at three months and annually after the stroke for disability (using the Barthel Index, which measures the ability to, for example, eat unaided), inactivity (using the Frenchay Activities Index, which measures participation in social activities), and cognitive impairment (using the Abbreviated Mental Test or the Mini-Mental State Exam). Anxiety and depression and the patients' perceptions of their mental and physical capabilities were also assessed. Using preset cut-offs for each outcome, 20%–30% of stroke survivors had a poor outcome over ten years of follow-up. So, for example, 110 individuals per 1,000 population were judged disabled from three months to ten years, rates of inactivity remained constant from year one to year eight, at 280 affected individuals per 1,000 survivors, and rates of anxiety and depression fluctuated over time but affected about a third of the population. Notably, levels of inactivity were higher among men than women at all time points and were higher in white than in black stroke survivors. Finally, increased age was associated with higher rates of disability, inactivity, and cognitive impairment.
What Do These Findings Mean?
Although the accuracy of these findings may be affected by the loss of some patients to follow-up, these population-based estimates of outcome measures for survivors of a first-ever stroke for up to ten years after the event provide concrete evidence that stroke is a lifelong condition with ongoing poor outcomes. They also identify the sociodemographic groups of patients that are most affected in the longer term. Importantly, most of the measured outcomes remain relatively constant (and worse than outcomes in an age-matched non-stroke-affected population) after 3–12 months, a result that needs to be considered when planning services for stroke survivors. In other words, these findings highlight the need for health and social services to provide long-term, ongoing assessment and rehabilitation for patients for many years after a stroke.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001033.
The US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke provides information about all aspects of stroke (in English and Spanish); the US National Institute of Health SeniorHealth Web site has additional information about stroke
The Internet Stroke Center provides detailed information about stroke for patients, families, and health professionals (in English and Spanish)
The UK National Health Service Choices Web site also provides information about stroke for patients and their families
MedlinePlus has links to additional resources about stroke (in English and Spanish)
More information about the South London Stroke Register is available
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001033
PMCID: PMC3096613  PMID: 21610863
5.  Psychological rehabilitation after myocardial infarction: multicentre randomised controlled trial. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1996;313(7071):1517-1521.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate rehabilitation after myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial of rehabilitation in unselected myocardial infarction patients in six centres, baseline data being collected on admission and by structured interview (of patients and spouses) shortly after discharge and outcome being assessed by structured interview at six months and clinical examination at 12 months. SETTING: Six district general hospitals. SUBJECTS: All 2328 eligible patients admitted over two years with confirmed myocardial infarction and discharged home within 28 days. INTERVENTIONS: Rehabilitation programmes comprising psychological therapy, counselling, relaxation training, and stress management training over seven weekly group outpatient sessions for patients and spouses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anxiety, depression, quality of life, morbidity, use of medication, and mortality. RESULTS: At six months there were no significant differences between rehabilitation patients and controls in reported anxiety (prevalence 33%) or depression (19%). Rehabilitation patients reported a lower frequency of angina (median three versus four episodes a week), medication, and physical activity. At 12 months there were no differences in clinical complications, clinical sequelae, or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Rehabilitation programmes based on psychological therapy, counselling, relaxation training, and stress management seem to offer little objective benefit to patients who have experienced myocardial infarction compared with previous reports of smaller trials.
PMCID: PMC2353074  PMID: 8978226
6.  Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 
Executive Summary
In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions.
After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses.
The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework
Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Long-term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Home Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy Model
Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical Literature
For more information on the qualitative review, please contact Mita Giacomini at: http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/ceb/faculty member_giacomini.htm.
For more information on the economic analysis, please visit the PATH website: http://www.path-hta.ca/About-Us/Contact-Us.aspx.
The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: http://theta.utoronto.ca/static/contact.
Objective
The objective of this evidence-based review was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Technology
Pulmonary rehabilitation refers to a multidisciplinary program of care for patients with chronic respiratory impairment that is individually tailored and designed to optimize physical and social performance and autonomy. Exercise training is the cornerstone of pulmonary rehabilitation programs, though they may also include components such as patient education and psychological support. Pulmonary rehabilitation is recommended as the standard of care in the treatment and rehabilitation of patients with COPD who remain symptomatic despite treatment with bronchodilators.
For the purpose of this review, the Medical Advisory Secretariat focused on pulmonary rehabilitation programs as defined by the Cochrane Collaboration—that is, any inpatient, outpatient, or home-based rehabilitation program lasting at least 4 weeks that includes exercise therapy with or without any form of education and/or psychological support delivered to patients with exercise limitations attributable to COPD.
Research Questions
What is the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation compared with usual care (UC) for patients with stable COPD?
Does early pulmonary rehabilitation (within 1 month of hospital discharge) in patients who had an acute exacerbation of COPD improve outcomes compared with UC (or no rehabilitation)?
Do maintenance or postrehabilitation programs for patients with COPD who have completed a pulmonary rehabilitation program improve outcomes compared with UC?
Research Methods
Literature Search
Search Strategy
For Research Questions 1and 2, a literature search was performed on August 10, 2010 for studies published from January 1, 2004 to July 31, 2010. For Research Question 3, a literature search was performed on February 3, 2011 for studies published from January 1, 2000 to February 3, 2011. Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Reference lists and health technology assessment websites were also examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the systematic search.
Inclusion Criteria
Research questions 1 and 2:
published between January 1, 2004 and July 31, 2010
randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses
COPD study population
studies comparing pulmonary rehabilitation with UC (no pulmonary rehabilitation)
duration of pulmonary rehabilitation program ≥ 6 weeks
pulmonary rehabilitation program had to include at minimum exercise training
Research question 3:
published between January 1, 2000 and February 3, 2011
randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses
COPD study population
studies comparing a maintenance or postrehabilitation program with UC (standard follow-up)
duration of pulmonary rehabilitation program ≥ 6 weeks
initial pulmonary rehabilitation program had to include at minimum exercise training
Exclusion Criteria
Research questions 1, 2, and 3:
grey literature
duplicate publications
non-English language publications
study population ≤ 18 years of age
studies conducted in a palliative population
studies that did not report primary outcome of interest
Additional exclusion criteria for research question 3:
studies with ≤ 2 sessions/visits per month
Outcomes of Interest
The primary outcomes of interest for the stable COPD population were exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). For the COPD population following an exacerbation, the primary outcomes of interest were hospital readmissions and HRQOL. The primary outcomes of interest for the COPD population undertaking maintenance programs were functional exercise capacity and HRQOL.
Quality of Evidence
The quality of each included study was assessed taking into consideration allocation concealment, randomization, blinding, power/sample size, withdrawals/dropouts, and intention-to-treat analyses.
The quality of the body of evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to the GRADE Working Group criteria. The following definitions of quality were used in grading the quality of the evidence:
Summary of Findings
Research Question 1: Effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Outcomes in Stable COPD
Seventeen randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review.
The following conclusions are based on moderate quality of evidence.
Pulmonary rehabilitation including at least 4 weeks of exercise training leads to clinically and statistically significant improvements in HRQOL in patients with COPD.1
Pulmonary rehabilitation also leads to a clinically and statistically significant improvement in functional exercise capacity2 (weighted mean difference, 54.83 m; 95% confidence interval, 35.63–74.03; P < 0.001).
Research Question 2: Effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Outcomes Following an Acute Exacerbation of COPD
Five randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and are included in this review. The following conclusion is based on moderate quality of evidence.
Pulmonary rehabilitation (within 1 month of hospital discharge) after acute exacerbation significantly reduces hospital readmissions (relative risk, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.33–0.77; P = 0.001) and leads to a statistically and clinically significant improvement in HRQOL.3
Research Question 3: Effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation Maintenance Programs on COPD Outcomes
Three randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and are included in this review. The conclusions are based on a low quality of evidence and must therefore be considered with caution.
Maintenance programs have a nonsignificant effect on HRQOL and hospitalizations.
Maintenance programs have a statistically but not clinically significant effect on exercise capacity (P = 0.01). When subgrouped by intensity and quality of study, maintenance programs have a statistically and marginally clinically significant effect on exercise capacity.
PMCID: PMC3384375  PMID: 23074434
7.  Achieving national service framework standards for cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2003;326(7387):481-484.
Problem
Integrated care for patients who survive a myocardial infarction is lacking. Many patients are not offered cardiac rehabilitation, and secondary prevention is not optimal.
Design
12 month audit of 106 patients who survived an acute myocardial infarction.
Background and setting
Carrick Primary Care Trust in Cornwall (population 98 500) and one district general hospital.
Key measures for improvement
Proportion of patients who complete a cardiac rehabilitation programme after a myocardial infarction. Proportion of patients with optimal secondary prevention, as measured by smoking status, body mass index, cholesterol <5.0 mmol/l, and blood pressure <140/85 mm Hg.
Strategies for change
We set up a novel, integrated, and seamless system for cardiac rehabilitation. We employed a cardiac liaison nurse to identify and assess in hospital all patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. The nurse offered patients the choice of home based rehabilitation with the Heart Manual or hospital based rehabilitation. The nurse gave discharge details to the patient's general practice; these were to be included on a practice based register of coronary heart disease.
Effects of change
All 106 eligible patients were offered cardiac rehabilitation and were included in a practice based register of coronary heart disease to facilitate long term follow up in primary care. 47 (44%) patients chose home based rehabilitation with the Heart Manual, and 41 (87%) of these completed the programme; 35 (33%) patients chose hospital based rehabilitation, and 17 (49%) of these completed the programme. The numbers of patients achieving secondary prevention targets improved significantly: those with serum cholesterol <5.0 mmol/l at discharge increased from 28% at baseline to 75% at 12 months. Optimal care (at least 80-90% uptake of an intervention) was seen with antiplatelet and statin treatments and with smoking cessation. Significantly more patients were prescribed statins at follow up than at baseline (77/106 v 80/91, P=0.005).
Lessons learnt
National service framework targets for cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention can be achieved in patients who survive a myocardial infarction by integrating rehabilitation services (home and hospital) with secondary prevention clinics in primary care. Nurse led clinics in primary care facilitate long term structured care and optimal secondary prevention.
PMCID: PMC150183  PMID: 12609946
8.  Effectiveness of home rehabilitation for ischemic stroke 
Neurology International  2009;1(1):e10.
The objective of this study was to develop and examine the effectiveness of an individual home rehabilitation program for patients with ischemic stroke. This was a randomized controlled trial in 60 patients with recent middle cerebral artery infarction. After hospital discharge for acute stroke care, they were randomly assigned to receive either a home rehabilitation program for three months (intervention group) or usual care (control group). We collected outcome data over three months after their discharge from the hospital. The Barthel Index (BI), the Modified Rankin Scale (MRS), the health-related quality-of-life index (EQ-5D), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score (HADs), and the Thai Mental State Examination (TMSE) were used to analyze the outcomes. In the intervention group, all outcomes were significantly better (p<0.05) than in the control group, except in the case of TMSE. A favorable outcome, which was defined as minimal or no disability as measured by BI (score 95–100), was achieved by 93.33% of patients in the intervention group, and 90% had favorable scores (0 or 1) on the MRS. This showed a benefit in reducing disability, with two being the number of patients considered as needed-to-treat (NNT) (95% CI, 1.0–1.2). All dimensions of EQ-5D in the intervention group were significantly better for quality of life and generic health status than in the control group (p=0.001). Depression was found in one patient (3.33%) in the intervention group and in two patients (6.67%) in the control group. Dementia was found in three patients (10%) in the intervention group and in four patients (13.33%) in the control group. We concluded that an early home rehabilitation program for patients with ischemic stroke in the first three-month period provides significantly better outcomes in improving function, reducing disability, increasing quality of life, and reducing depression than a program of usual care does.
doi:10.4081/ni.2009.e10
PMCID: PMC3093230  PMID: 21577347
effectiveness; home rehabilitation; ischemic stroke
9.  Home-based versus hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction or revascularisation: design and rationale of the Birmingham Rehabilitation Uptake Maximisation Study (BRUM): a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN72884263] 
Background
Cardiac rehabilitation following myocardial infarction reduces subsequent mortality, but uptake and adherence to rehabilitation programmes remains poor, particularly among women, the elderly and ethnic minority groups. Evidence of the effectiveness of home-based cardiac rehabilitation remains limited. This trial evaluates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of home-based compared to hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation.
Methods/design
A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of home-based compared with hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation in four hospitals serving a multi-ethnic inner city population in the United Kingdom was designed. The home programme is nurse-facilitated, manual-based using the Heart Manual. The hospital programmes offer comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation in an out-patient setting.
Patients
We will randomise 650 adult, English or Punjabi-speaking patients of low-medium risk following myocardial infarction, coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft who have been referred for cardiac rehabilitation.
Main outcome measures
Serum cholesterol, smoking cessation, blood pressure, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score, distance walked on Shuttle walk-test measured at 6, 12 and 24 months. Adherence to the programmes will be estimated using patient self-reports of activity.
In-depth interviews with non-attendees and non-adherers will ascertain patient views and the acceptability of the programmes and provide insights about non-attendance and aims to generate a theory of attendance at cardiac rehabilitation. The economic analysis will measure National Health Service costs using resource inputs. Patient costs will be established from the qualitative research, in particular how they affect adherence.
Discussion
More data are needed on the role of home-based versus hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation for patients following myocardial infarction and revascularisation, which would be provided by the Birmingham Rehabilitation Uptake Maximisation Study (BRUM) study and has implications for the clinical management of these patients. A novel feature of this study is the inclusion of non-English Punjabi speakers.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-3-10
PMCID: PMC200974  PMID: 12964946
Cardiac rehabilitation; Randomised controlled trial; home care services; coronary disease; economic evaluation
10.  Perioperative rehabilitation in operation for lung cancer (PROLUCA) – rationale and design 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:404.
Background
The purpose of the PROLUCA study is to investigate the efficacy of preoperative and early postoperative rehabilitation in a non-hospital setting in patients with operable lung cancer with special focus on exercise.
Methods
Using a 2x2 factorial design with continuous effect endpoint (Maximal Oxygen Uptake (VO2peak)), 380 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage I-IIIa referred for surgical resection will be randomly assigned to one of four groups: (1) preoperative and early postoperative rehabilitation (starting two weeks after surgery); (2) preoperative and late postoperative rehabilitation (starting six weeks after surgery); (3) early postoperative rehabilitation alone; (4) today’s standard care which is postoperative rehabilitation initiated six weeks after surgery. The preoperative rehabilitation program consists of an individually designed, 30-minute home-based exercise program performed daily. The postoperative rehabilitation program consists of a supervised group exercise program comprising cardiovascular and resistance training two-hour weekly for 12 weeks combined with individual counseling. The primary study endpoint is VO2peak and secondary endpoints include: Six-minute walk distance (6MWD), one-repetition-maximum (1RM), pulmonary function, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), symptoms and side effects of the cancer disease and the treatment of the disease, anxiety, depression, wellbeing, lifestyle, hospitalization time, sick leave, work status, postoperative complications (up to 30 days after surgery) and survival. Endpoints will be assessed at baseline, the day before surgery, pre-intervention, post-intervention, six months after surgery and one year after surgery.
Discussion
The results of the PROLUCA study may potentially contribute to the identification of the optimal perioperative rehabilitation for operable lung cancer patients focusing on exercise initiated immediately after diagnosis and rehabilitation shortly after surgery.
Trial Registration
NCT01893580
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-404
PMCID: PMC4053552  PMID: 24898680
Cancer; Rehabilitation; Exercise; Lung cancer; NSCLC
11.  Physiotherapy Rehabilitation After Total Knee or Hip Replacement 
Executive Summary
Objective
The objective of this health technology policy analysis was to determine, where, how, and when physiotherapy services are best delivered to optimize functional outcomes for patients after they undergo primary (first-time) total hip replacement or total knee replacement, and to determine the Ontario-specific economic impact of the best delivery strategy. The objectives of the systematic review were as follows:
To determine the effectiveness of inpatient physiotherapy after discharge from an acute care hospital compared with outpatient physiotherapy delivered in either a clinic-based or home-based setting for primary total joint replacement patients
To determine the effectiveness of outpatient physiotherapy delivered by a physiotherapist in either a clinic-based or home-based setting in addition to a home exercise program compared with a home exercise program alone for primary total joint replacement patients
To determine the effectiveness of preoperative exercise for people who are scheduled to receive primary total knee or hip replacement surgery
Clinical Need
Total hip replacements and total knee replacements are among the most commonly performed surgical procedures in Ontario. Physiotherapy rehabilitation after first-time total hip or knee replacement surgery is accepted as the standard and essential treatment. The aim is to maximize a person’s functionality and independence and minimize complications such as hip dislocation (for hip replacements), wound infection, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism.
The Therapy
The physiotherapy rehabilitation routine has 4 components: therapeutic exercise, transfer training, gait training, and instruction in the activities of daily living. Physiotherapy rehabilitation for people who have had total joint replacement surgery varies in where, how, and when it is delivered. In Ontario, after discharge from an acute care hospital, people who have had a primary total knee or hip replacement may receive inpatient or outpatient physiotherapy. Inpatient physiotherapy is delivered in a rehabilitation hospital or specialized hospital unit. Outpatient physiotherapy is done either in an outpatient clinic (clinic-based) or in the person’s home (home-based). Home-based physiotherapy may include practising an exercise program at home with or without supplemental support from a physiotherapist.
Finally, physiotherapy rehabilitation may be administered at several points after surgery, including immediately postoperatively (within the first 5 days) and in the early recovery period (within the first 3 months) after discharge. There is a growing interest in whether physiotherapy should start before surgery. A variety of practises exist, and evidence regarding the optimal pre- and post-acute course of rehabilitation to obtain the best outcomes is needed.
Review Strategy
The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy, which included searching the databases of Ovid MEDLINE, CINHAL, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and PEDro from 1995 to 2005. English-language articles including systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, and studies with a sample size of greater than 10 patients were included. Studies had to include patients undergoing primary total hip or total knee replacement, aged 18 years of age or older, and they had to have investigated one of the following comparisons: inpatient rehabilitation versus outpatient (clinic- or home-based therapy) rehabilitation, land-based post-acute care physiotherapy delivered by a physiotherapist compared with patient self-administered exercise and a land-based exercise program before surgery. The primary outcome was postoperative physical functioning. Secondary outcomes included the patient’s assessment of therapeutic effect (overall improvement), perceived pain intensity, health services utilization, treatment side effects, and adverse events
The quality of the methods of the included studies was assessed using the criteria outlined in the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group Quality Assessment Tool. After this, a summary of the biases threatening study validity was determined. Four methodological biases were considered: selection bias, performance bias, attrition bias, and detection bias. A meta-analysis was conducted when adequate data were available from 2 or more studies and where there was no statistical or clinical heterogeneity among studies. The GRADE system was used to summarize the overall quality of evidence.
Summary of Findings
The search yielded 422 citations; of these, 12 were included in the review including 10 primary studies (9 RCTs, 1 non-RCT) and 2 systematic reviews.
The Medical Advisory Secretariat review included 2 primary studies (N = 334) that examined the effectiveness of an inpatient physiotherapy rehabilitation program compared with an outpatient home-based physiotherapy program on functional outcomes after total knee or hip replacement surgery. One study, available only as an abstract, found no difference in functional outcome at 1 year after surgery (TKR or THR) between the treatments. The other study was an observational study that found that patients who are younger than 71 years of age on average, who do not live alone, and who do not have comorbid illnesses recover adequate function with outpatient home-based physiotherapy. However results were only measured up to 3 months after surgery, and the outcome measure they used is not considered the best one for physical functioning.
Three primary studies (N = 360) were reviewed that tested the effectiveness of outpatient home-based or clinic-based physiotherapy in addition to a self-administered home exercise program, compared with a self-administered exercise program only or in addition to using another therapy (phone calls or continuous passive movement), on postoperative physical functioning after primary TKR surgery. Two of the studies reported no difference in change from baseline in flexion range of motion between those patients receiving outpatient or home-based physiotherapy and doing a home exercise program compared with patients who did a home exercise program only with or without continuous passive movement. The other study reported no difference in the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores between patients receiving clinic-based physiotherapy and practising a home exercise program and those who received monitoring phone calls and did a home exercise program after TKR surgery.
The Medical Advisory Secretariat reviewed two systematic reviews evaluating the effects of preoperative exercise on postoperative physical functioning. One concluded that preoperative exercise is not effective in improving functional recovery or pain after TKR and any effects after THR could not be adequately determined. The other concluded that there was inconclusive evidence to determine the benefits of preoperative exercise on functional recovery after TKR. Because 2 primary studies were added to the published literature since the publication of these systematic reviews the Medical Advisory Secretariat revisited the question of effectiveness of a preoperative exercise program for patients scheduled for TKR ad THR surgery.
The Medical Advisory Secretariat also reviewed 3 primary studies (N = 184) that tested the effectiveness of preoperative exercise beginning 4-6 weeks before surgery on postoperative outcomes after primary TKR surgery. All 3 studies reported negative findings with regard to the effectiveness of preoperative exercise to improve physical functioning after TKR surgery. However, 2 failed to show an effect of the preoperative exercise program before surgery in those patients receiving preoperative exercise. The third study did not measure functional outcome immediately before surgery in the preoperative exercise treatment group; therefore the study’s authors could not document an effect of the preoperative exercise program before surgery. Regarding health services utilization, 2 of the studies did not find significant differences in either the length of the acute care hospital stay or the inpatient rehabilitation care setting between patients treated with a preoperative exercise program and those not treated. The third study did not measure health services utilization.
These results must be interpreted within the limitations and the biases of each study. Negative results do not necessarily support a lack of treatment effect but may be attributed to a type II statistical error.
Finally, the Medical Advisory Secretariat reviewed 2 primary studies (N = 136) that examined the effectiveness of preoperative exercise on postoperative functional outcomes after primary THR surgery. One study did not support the effectiveness of an exercise program beginning 8 weeks before surgery. However, results from the other did support the effectiveness of an exercise program 8 weeks before primary THR surgery on pain and functional outcomes 1 week before and 3 weeks after surgery.
Conclusions
Based on the evidence, the Medical Advisory Secretariat reached the following conclusions with respect to physiotherapy rehabilitation and physical functioning 1 year after primary TKR or THR surgery:
There is high-quality evidence from 1 large RCT to support the use of home-based physiotherapy instead of inpatient physiotherapy after primary THR or TKR surgery.
There is low-to-moderate quality evidence from 1 large RCT to support the conclusion that receiving a monitoring phone call from a physiotherapist and practising home exercises is comparable to receiving clinic-based physiotherapy and practising home exercises for people who have had primary TKR surgery. However, results may not be generalizable to those who have had THR surgery.
There is moderate evidence to suggest that an exercise program beginning 4 to 6 weeks before primary TKR surgery is not effective.
There is moderate evidence to support the effectiveness of an exercise program beginning 8 weeks before surgery to improve physical functioning 3 weeks after THR surgery.
PMCID: PMC3382414  PMID: 23074477
12.  Geriatric rehabilitation of stroke patients in nursing homes: a study protocol 
BMC Geriatrics  2010;10:15.
Background
Geriatric patients are typically underrepresented in studies on the functional outcome of rehabilitation after stroke. Moreover, most geriatric stroke patients do probably not participate in intensive rehabilitation programs as offered by rehabilitation centers. As a result, very few studies have described the successfulness of geriatric stroke rehabilitation in nursing home patients, although it appears that the majority of these patients are being discharged back to the community, rather than being transferred to residential care. Nevertheless, factors associated with the successfulness of stroke rehabilitation in nursing homes or skilled nursing facilities are largely unknown. The primary goal of this study is, therefore, to assess the factors that uniquely contribute to the successfulness of rehabilitation in geriatric stroke patients that undergo rehabilitation in nursing homes. A secondary goal is to investigate whether these factors are similar to those associated with the outcome of stroke rehabilitation in the literature.
Methods/Design
This study is part of the Geriatric Rehabilitation in AMPutation and Stroke (GRAMPS) study in the Netherlands. It is a longitudinal, observational, multicenter study in 15 nursing homes in the Southern part of the Netherlands that aims to include at least 200 patients. All participating nursing homes are selected based on the existence of a specialized rehabilitation unit and the provision of dedicated multidisciplinary care. Patient characteristics, disease characteristics, functional status, cognition, behavior, and caregiver information, are collected within two weeks after admission to the nursing home. The first follow-up is at discharge from the nursing home or one year after inclusion, and focuses on functional status and behavior. Successful rehabilitation is defined as discharge from the nursing home to an independent living situation within one year after admission. The second follow-up is three months after discharge in patients who rehabilitated successfully, and assesses functional status, behavior, and quality of life. All instruments used in this study have shown to be valid and reliable in rehabilitation research or are recommended by the Netherlands Heart Foundation guidelines for stroke rehabilitation.
Data will be analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Besides descriptive analyses, both univariate and multivariate analyses will be performed with the purpose of identifying associated factors as well as their unique contribution to determining successful rehabilitation.
Discussion
This study will provide more information about geriatric stroke rehabilitation in Dutch nursing homes. To our knowledge, this is the first large study that focuses on the determinants of success of geriatric stroke rehabilitation in nursing home patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-10-15
PMCID: PMC2858723  PMID: 20346175
13.  Role of patients' view of their illness in predicting return to work and functioning after myocardial infarction: longitudinal study. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1996;312(7040):1191-1194.
OBJECTIVE--To examine whether patients' initial perceptions of their myocardial infarction predict subsequent attendance at a cardiac rehabilitation course, return to work, disability, and sexual dysfunction. DESIGN--Patients' perceptions of their illness were measured at admission with their first myocardial infarction and at follow up three and six months later. SETTING--Two large teaching hospitals in Auckland, New Zealand. SUBJECTS--143 consecutive patients aged under 65 with their first myocardial infarction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Attendance at rehabilitation course; time before returning to work; measures of disability with sickness impact profile questionnaire for sleep and rest, social interaction, recreational activity, and home management; and sexual dysfunction. RESULTS--Attendance at the rehabilitation course was significantly related to a stronger belief during admission that the illness could be cured or controlled (t = 2.08, P = 0.04). Return to work within six weeks was significantly predicted by the perception that the illness would last a short time (t = 2.52, P = 0.01) and have less grave consequences for the patient (t = 2.87, P = 0.005). Patients' belief that their heart disease would have serious consequences was significantly related to later disability in work around the house, recreational activities, and social interaction. A strong illness identity was significantly related to greater sexual dysfunction at both three and six months. CONCLUSIONS--Patients' initial perceptions of illness are important determinants of different aspects of recovery after myocardial infarction. Specific illness perceptions need to be identified at an early stage as a basis for optimising outcomes from rehabilitation programmes.
PMCID: PMC2350970  PMID: 8634561
14.  The effect of cardiac rehabilitation on anxiety and depression in patients undergoing cardiac bypass graft surgery in Iran 
Background
Many patients experience anxiety and depression after cardiac bypass surgery.
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cardiac rehabilitation on anxiety and depression in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in southern Iran.
Methods
For this randomized controlled trial, 80 patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited and randomly assigned to case and control groups. Anxiety was measured with the Spielberger Anxiety Scale and depression was measured using Beck’s Depression Inventory at three points in time: on discharge from the hospital, immediately after the intervention, and 2 months after cardiac rehabilitation. After measuring anxiety and depression in both groups upon discharge, the experimental group participated in 8 cardiac rehabilitation sessions over a 4-week period. The control group received only the routine follow-up care.
Results
There was a statistically significant difference in depression scores between groups at all three time-points (Mean score from 19.6 to 10 in the intervention group and from 19.5 to 14 in the control group, P = 0.0014). However, no significant difference was seen in anxiety scores between the groups (Mean score from 37 to 28 in the intervention group and from 38 to 32 in the control group, P = 0.079).
Conclusions
Cardiac rehabilitation was effective in reducing depression 2 months after surgery in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.
Trial registration
IRCTN201203262812N8
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-12-40
PMCID: PMC3420238  PMID: 22682391
Coronary artery bypass graft; Anxiety; Depression; Rehabilitation
15.  Long-term Medication Adherence after Myocardial Infarction: experience of a community 
The American journal of medicine  2009;122(10):961.e7-961.13.
Background
Adherence to evidence-based medications after myocardial infarction is associated with improved outcomes. However, long-term data on factors affecting medication adherence after myocardial infarction are lacking.
Methods
Olmsted County residents hospitalized with myocardial infarction from 1997-2006 were identified. Adherence to HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE Inhibitors), and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), were examined. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the factors associated with medication adherence over time.
Results
Among 292 persons with incident myocardial infarction (63% men, mean age 65 years), patients were followed for an average of 52±31 months. Adherence to guideline-recommended medications declined over time, with 3-year medication continuation rates of 44%, 48%, and 43% for statins, beta blockers, and ACE Inhibitors/ARB, respectively. Enrollment in a cardiac rehabilitation program was associated with an improved likelihood of continuing medications, with adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for discontinuation of statins and beta blockers among cardiac rehabilitation participants of 0.66 (0.45-0.92) and 0.70 (0.49-0.98), respectively. Smoking at the time of myocardial infarction was associated with a decreased likelihood of continuing medications, though results did not reach statistical significance. There were no observed associations between demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics of the myocardial infarction and medication adherence.
Conclusions
After myocardial infarction, a large proportion of patients discontinue use of medications over time. Enrollment in cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction is associated with improved medication adherence.
doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2008.12.021
PMCID: PMC3771524  PMID: 19560749
Myocardial infarction; drugs; adherence; cardiac rehabilitation
16.  Recovery of Functional Status After Stroke in a Tri-Ethnic Population 
Objective
To examine recovery of functional status for white, black, and Hispanic patients who have had a stroke from the time of admission to inpatient medical rehabilitation to 12 months after discharge.
Design
A longitudinal study that used information from the Stroke Recovery in Underserved Population database, a prospective observational study of persons with stroke who received inpatient medical rehabilitation services during 2005-2006.
Setting
Eleven inpatient rehabilitation facilities located across diverse regions of the United States, including California, Florida, Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, New Jersey, New York (2), Texas (2), and Washington, DC.
Participants
A total of 990 adults aged 55 years or older who had a stroke and were admitted to 1 of 11 inpatient medical rehabilitation facilities in the United States were interviewed at 4 time points, including admission to and discharge from an inpatient medical rehabilitation facility and 3 and 12 months after discharge.
Interventions
Not applicable.
Main Outcome Measure
Functional status as measured by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM).
Results
For the total sample, FIM ratings increased from admission to discharge and from discharge to 3-month follow-up, with little recovery occurring between 3 and 12 months. In random effects mixed models, at 3-month follow-up, both black and Hispanic patients had lower FIM ratings than did white patients. At 12-month follow-up, black and white patients were similar; however, Hispanic patients continued to have lower FIM ratings compare with white patients. Racial/ethnic group, age, length of stay, and medical comorbidities were significant predictors of total FIM ratings over the 4 time points.
Conclusions
Persons 55 years and older who have had a stroke, regardless of race/ethnicity, appear to benefit from inpatient medical rehabilitation. Most functional status gains occur during inpatient medical rehabilitation and continue in the first few months after discharge, with little change afterward.
doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2012.01.010
PMCID: PMC3496396  PMID: 22541375
17.  Cardiac rehabilitation in Austria: long term health-related quality of life outcomes 
Background
The goal of cardiac rehabilitation programs is not only to prolong life but also to improve physical functioning, symptoms, well-being, and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The aim of this study was to document the long-term effect of a 1-month inpatient cardiac rehabilitation intervention on HRQL in Austria.
Methods
Patients (N = 487, 64.7% male, age 60.9 ± 12.5 SD years) after myocardial infarction, with or without percutaneous interventions, coronary artery bypass grafting or valve surgery underwent inpatient cardiac rehabilitation and were included in this long-term observational study (two years follow-up). HRQL was measured with both the MacNew Heart Disease Quality of Life Instrument [MacNew] and EuroQoL-5D [EQ-5D].
Results
All MacNew scale scores improved significantly (p < 0.001) and exceeded the minimal important difference (0.5 MacNew points) by the end of rehabilitation. Although all MacNew scale scores deteriorated significantly over the two year follow-up period (p < .001), all MacNew scale scores still remained significantly higher than the pre-rehabilitation values. The mean improvement after two years in the MacNew social scale exceeded the minimal important difference while MacNew scale scores greater than the minimal important difference were reported by 40-49% of the patients.
Two years after rehabilitation the mean improvement in the EQ-5D Visual Analogue Scale score was not significant with no significant change in the proportion of patients reporting problems at this time.
Conclusion
These findings provide a first indication that two years following inpatient cardiac rehabilitation in Austria, the long-term improvements in HRQL are statistically significant and clinically relevant for almost 50% of the patients. Future controlled randomized trials comparing different cardiac rehabilitation programs are needed.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-7-99
PMCID: PMC3224906  PMID: 19995445
18.  Psychosocial components of cardiac recovery and rehabilitation attendance 
Heart  2001;85(3):290-294.
OBJECTIVE—To examine the relations between demographic factors, specific psychosocial factors, and cardiac rehabilitation attendance.
DESIGN—Cohort, repeated measures design.
SETTING—A large tertiary care centre in western Canada
PATIENTS—304 consecutive consenting patients discharged following acute myocardial infarction and/or coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—The Jenkins self-efficacy expectation scales and activity checklists of behaviour performance for maintaining health and role resumption, modified version of the self-motivation inventory, and the shortened social support scale.
RESULTS—Those who had higher role resumption behaviour performance scores at two weeks after discharge were significantly less likely to attend cardiac rehabilitation programmes. At six months after discharge, those who attended cardiac rehabilitation demonstrated higher health maintenance self-efficacy expectation and behaviour performance scores. Health maintenance self-efficacy expectation and behaviour performance improved over time. Women reported less social support but showed greater improvement in health maintenance self-efficacy expectation. Changes in self-efficacy scores were unrelated to—but changes in health maintenance behaviour performance scores were strongly associated with—cardiac rehabilitation attendance.
CONCLUSIONS—Cardiac patients and practitioners may have misconceptions about the mandate and potential benefits of rehabilitation programmes. Patients who resumed role related activities early and more completely apparently did not see the need to "rehabilitate" while those who attended cardiac rehabilitation programmes enhanced their secondary prevention behaviours.


Keywords: self-efficacy; motivation; social support; cardiac recovery; cardiac rehabilitation
doi:10.1136/heart.85.3.290
PMCID: PMC1729655  PMID: 11179268
19.  A Review of Stent Thrombosis Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention at Tripler Army Medical Center: 2002–2012 
Background
Stent thrombosis is a leading cause of death after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Over the past decade, 929 PCI procedures were performed. We have found that half of the 18 deaths occurring within 30-days were related to stent thrombosis, and that of 32 patients who had definite or probable stent thrombosis at up to 26 months after PCI, more than half (17) died. To reduce the incidence of this often-fatal outcome, we need to identify and avoid repeating mistakes.
Methods
We reviewed records and angiograms of 12 patients with definite stent thrombosis.
Results
Technical factors possibly relevant to stent thrombosis: only half the patients were treated with drug-eluting rather than bare metal stents. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was used to confirm adequate deployment in only 2 cases. Only 1 stent was <2.5mm i.d. and only 1 was longer than 24mm. None were considered to have a residual stenosis of >10% compared to proximal or distal reference vessel diameter. An untreated edge dissection was identified in only one case. In 5 cases multiple stents were used in bifurcation stenoses including one case of culotte stenting, a well-known risk factor for stent thrombosis. Patient factors possibly relevant to stent thrombosis: Four patients were still smoking at the time of stent thrombosis. One patient had discontinued clopidogrel 10 months after receiving a bare metal stent, and had thrombosis 4 months later. Two years after receiving a drug-eluting stent, 1 patient had stent thrombosis 16 days after discontinuing clopidogrel for a prostate biopsy. In two cases of subsequent, sub-acute stent thrombosis, the stents had been deployed emergently for, respectively, STEMI in the setting of hip surgery and coronary bypass surgery for myocardial infarction associated with 3-vessel disease.
Discussion
To reduce the incidence of the often-fatal complication of stent thrombosis, we need to try harder to get our patients to quit smoking and to continue diligently following their compliance with clopidogrel. Patient selection is important: those with diffuse disease downstream from important potential target stenoses, and those with complex bifurcation stenoses that will require multiple stents should be considered for alternative therapy. Operators need to practice better stent use by avoiding multiple stents in bifurcation lesions, minimizing stent overlap. When patients have acute infarction following major surgeries, the possibility of a pro-thrombotic state should be taken into consideration before resorting to stent deployment, since thrombectomy or balloon angioplasty alone may suffice. Whether more frequent use of IVUS-confirmation of adequate deployment would help is a matter of conjecture.
PMCID: PMC3764573
20.  Cost-effectiveness of a structured progressive task-oriented circuit class training programme to enhance walking competency after stroke: The protocol of the FIT-Stroke trial 
BMC Neurology  2009;9:43.
Background
Most patients who suffer a stroke experience reduced walking competency and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A key factor in effective stroke rehabilitation is intensive, task-specific training. Recent studies suggest that intensive, patient-tailored training can be organized as a circuit with a series of task-oriented workstations.
Primary aim of the FIT-Stroke trial is to evaluate the effects and cost-effectiveness of a structured, progressive task-oriented circuit class training (CCT) programme, compared to usual physiotherapeutic care during outpatient rehabilitation in a rehabilitation centre. The task-oriented CCT will be applied in groups of 4 to 6 patients. Outcome will be defined in terms of gait and gait-related ADLs after stroke. The trial will also investigate the generalizability of treatment effects of task-oriented CCT in terms of perceived fatigue, anxiety, depression and perceived HRQoL.
Methods/design
The multicentre single-blinded randomized trial will include 220 stroke patients discharged to the community from inpatient rehabilitation, who are able to communicate and walk at least 10 m without physical, hands-on assistance. After discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, patients in the experimental group will receive task-oriented CCT two times a week for 12 weeks at the physiotherapy department of the rehabilitation centre. Control group patients will receive usual individual, face-to-face, physiotherapy. Costs will be evaluated by having each patient keep a cost diary for the first 24 weeks after randomisation. Primary outcomes are the mobility part of the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS-3.0) and the EuroQol. Secondary outcomes are the other domains of SIS-3.0, lower limb muscle strength, walking endurance, gait speed, balance, confidence not to fall, instrumental ADL, fatigue, anxiety, depression and HRQoL.
Discussion
Based on assumptions about the effect of intensity of practice and specificity of treatment effects, FIT-Stroke will address two key aims. The first aim is to investigate the effects of task-oriented CCT on walking competency and HRQoL compared to usual face-to-face physiotherapy. The second aim is to reveal the cost-effectiveness of task-oriented CCT in the first 6 months post stroke. Both aims were recently recommended as priorities by the American Hearth Association and Stroke Council.
Trial registration
This study is registered in the Dutch Trial Register as NTR1534.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-9-43
PMCID: PMC2736157  PMID: 19674485
21.  Effects of a One Year Intensive Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Program for Patients with Huntington’s Disease: a Prospective Intervention Study 
PLoS Currents  2013;5:ecurrents.hd.9504af71e0d1f87830c25c394be47027.
Objective: To assess the effects of an intensive, multidisciplinary rehabilitation program for patients with early to mid-stage Huntington’s disease. Design: A prospective intervention study. Setting: Two Norwegian inpatient rehabilitation centers. Subjects: 37 patients, with early- to midstage Huntington’s disease Interventions: A one year rehabilitation program, consisting of three admissions of three weeks each, and a five-day evaluation stay approximately 3 months after the last rehabilitation admission. Focus was on physical exercise, social activities, and group/teaching sessions. There was also emphasis to implement of coordinated health care and social services for the patients. Main outcome measures: standard measures for motor function, including gait and balance, cognitive function, including MMSE and UHDRS cognitive assessment, anxiety and depression, activities of daily living (ADL), health related quality of life and Body Mass Index (BMI). Results: Significant improvements were observed in gait function, balance, in physical quality of life, anxiety and depression, as well as in BMI. ADL-function remained stable with no significant decline. Only one cognitive measure (SDMT) showed significant decline, while no decline was observed for the remaining cognitive measures. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary intensive rehabilitation program in patients with early and mid stage HD is associated with improved balance, gait function, physical quality of life and with reduced depressive and anxiety symptoms. Longer follow-up is needed to assess if these positive effects are sustained. There should be emphasis to establishment of long term and coordinated health care services for the HD patient
doi:10.1371/currents.hd.9504af71e0d1f87830c25c394be47027
PMCID: PMC3870917  PMID: 24459605
22.  Managing mood disorders in patients attending pulmonary rehabilitation clinics 
Background
There is good evidence for the positive benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in the prevention of hospital admissions, lower mortality, and improved health-related quality of life. There is also increasing evidence about the impact of PR on mental health and, in particular, mood disorders. We aimed to identify how depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients in Victoria, Australia, is being managed in PR, to identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms among COPD patients who attend PR, and to determine whether patients with depressive symptoms or anxiety symptoms dropped out of PR early.
Method
Of 61 PR clinics, 44 were invited and 22 agreed to participate. Telephone interviews were conducted to see how depression and anxiety in COPD patients were being recognized and managed in these clinics. A total of 294 questionnaires were distributed to patients by clinic coordinators to determine the prevalence of anxiety/depression, as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Coordinators were contacted to provide information on whether respondents dropped out of rehabilitation early or continued with their treatment at 2–4 months post program.
Results
Seven clinics were not aware of local guidelines on assessment/treatment/management of mood. Four clinics did not use any screening tools or other aids in the recognition and management of depression and/or anxiety. Overall, eight clinics participating in this study requested advice on suitable screening tools. The patient survey indicated that the mean depression score on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was 5.0 (standard deviation 3.0, range 1–13). The mean anxiety score was 5.5 (standard deviation 3.4, range 0–18). There was no evidence of a link between failure to complete rehabilitation and depression or anxiety scores, as only three of 105 patients failed to complete their rehabilitation.
Discussion: Awareness of management guidelines for depression and anxiety in COPD patients was variable across the clinics recruited into our study. We found no link between compliance with rehabilitation and depression, but our sample had limitations.
Conclusion
Future research needs to investigate how best to encourage more use of available guidelines regarding integrating psychological and psychosocial support to supplement the exercise and education that are currently offered routinely by all PR clinics studied in Victoria, Australia.
doi:10.2147/COPD.S36378
PMCID: PMC3540906  PMID: 23319857
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; depression; anxiety; pulmonary rehabilitation
23.  Long term benefits of rehabilitation at home on quality of life and exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 
Thorax  1995;50(8):824-828.
BACKGROUND--Pulmonary rehabilitation has been shown to have short term subjective and objective benefits for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, appropriately controlled studies have not previously been performed, nor have the benefits of different types of continuation programme for rehabilitation been investigated. Both these problems have been addressed in a single study of the long term effects of once monthly physiotherapy versus once weekly physiotherapy at home after a comprehensive home rehabilitation programme on quality of life and exercise tolerance in patients with COPD. METHODS--Thirty six patients with severe airways obstruction (mean SD) forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 1.3(0.4) 1, FEV1/inspiratory vital capacity (IVC) 37.2(7.9)%) were studied. Twenty three patients followed a rehabilitation programme at home for 18 months consisting of physiotherapy and supervision by a nurse and general practitioner. During the first three months all 23 patients visited the physiotherapist twice a week for a 0.5 hour session. Thereafter, 11 patients (group A) received a session of physiotherapy once weekly while 12 patients (group B) received a session of physiotherapy once a month. The control group C (13 patients) received no rehabilitation at all. Quality of life was assessed by the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire, exercise tolerance by the six minute walking distance, and lung function by FEV1 and IVC. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and at three, six, 12, and 18 months. RESULTS--Long term improvements in quality of life were found in patients in groups A and B, but not in those in group C compared with baseline, but these only reached significance in group B at all time points. Patients in group B had a higher quality of life than those in group C only at three and 12 months. There was a decrease in both six minute walking distance (at 12 and 18 months) and IVC (at three, 12, and 18 months) in patients in group C compared with the baseline measurement. Between groups analysis showed no differences for six minute walking distance, FEV1, and IVC. CONCLUSIONS--This study is the first to show that rehabilitation at home for three months followed by once monthly physiotherapy sessions improves quality of life over 18 months. The change in quality of life was not associated with a change in exercise tolerance.
PMCID: PMC474891  PMID: 7570431
24.  What aspects of rehabilitation provision contribute to self-reported met needs for rehabilitation one year after stroke – amount, place, operator or timing? 
Health Expectations  2013;16(3):e24-e35.
Background and ObjectiveTo a large extent, people who have suffered a stroke report unmet needs for rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to explore aspects of rehabilitation provision that potentially contribute to self-reported met needs for rehabilitation 12 months after stroke with consideration also to severity of stroke.
MethodsThe participants (n = 173) received care at the stroke units at the Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden. Using a questionnaire, the dependent variable, self-reported met needs for rehabilitation, was collected at 12 months after stroke. The independent variables were four aspects of rehabilitation provision based on data retrieved from registers and structured according to four aspects: amount of rehabilitation, service level (day care rehabilitation, primary care rehabilitation and home-based rehabilitation), operator level (physiotherapist, occupational therapist, speech therapist) and time after stroke onset. Multivariate logistic regression analyses regarding the aspects of rehabilitation were performed for the participants who were divided into three groups based on stroke severity at onset.
ResultsParticipants with moderate/severe stroke who had seen a physiotherapist at least once during each of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd–4th quarters of the first year (OR 8.36, CI 1.40–49.88 P = 0.020) were more likely to report met rehabilitation needs.
ConclusionFor people with moderate/severe stroke, continuity in rehabilitation (preferably physiotherapy) during the first year after stroke seems to be associated with self-reported met needs for rehabilitation.
doi:10.1111/hex.12095
PMCID: PMC3883089  PMID: 23796012
health care services; needs; rehabilitation; stroke; stroke severity
25.  Long-term morbidities in stroke survivors: a prospective multicenter study of Thai stroke rehabilitation registry 
BMC Geriatrics  2013;13:33.
Background
Stroke-related complications are barriers to patients’ recovery leading to increasing morbidity, mortality, and health care costs, decreasing patient’s quality of life. The purpose of this study was to quantify incidence and risk factors of stroke-related complications during the first year after discharge from rehabilitation ward.
Methods
A prospective observational study was conducted in nine tertiary-care rehabilitation centers. We evaluated the incidence of morbidities during the first year after stroke, including musculoskeletal pain, neuropathic pain, pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pressure ulcer, spasticity, shoulder subluxation, joint contracture, dysphagia, urinary incontinence, anxiety and depression. The complications at discharge and at month-12 were compared using the McNemar test. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis by forward stepwise method were used to determine factors predicting the complications at month-12.
Results
Two hundred and fourteen from 327 patients (65.4%) were included. The age was 62.1 ± 12.5 years, and 57.9% were male. In 76.8% of the patients at least one complication was found during the first year after stroke. Those complications were musculoskeletal pain (50.7%), shoulder subluxation (29.3%), depression (21.2%), spasticity (18.3%), joint contracture (15.7%) and urinary incontinence (14.4%). Other complications less than 5% were dysphagia (3.5%), pressure ulcer (2.6%), infection (1.5%), and neuropathic pain (3.0%). Nearly 60% of patients with complications at discharge still had the same complaints after one year. Only 7.6% were without any complication. Morbidity was significantly associated with age and type of stroke. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, age and physical complications at discharge were significant risk factors for physical and psychological morbidities after stroke respectively (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.2, 3.7; OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.3, 7.1).
Conclusion
Long-term complications are common in stroke survivors. More than three-fourths of the patients developed at least one during the first year after rehabilitation. Strategies to prevent complications should be concerned especially on musculoskeletal pain which was the most common complaint. Physical complications at discharge period associated with psychological complications at 1 year followed up. More attention should be emphasized on patients age older than 60 years who were the major risk group for developing such complications.
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-13-33
PMCID: PMC3635998  PMID: 23586971
Stroke; Morbidity; Registry; Multi-center study; Pain; Depression

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