While many recent cases of colonic epiploic appendage causing acute abdomen have been reported, such appendages of the small bowel are extremely rare. We present a 59-year-old woman in whom a small bowel epiploic appendage caused volvulus. She presented with abdominal pain and vomiting in the absence of previous abdominal operations. A diagnosis of small bowel obstruction from strangulation was made. Laparotomy disclosed bloody peritoneal fluid and a closed loop of strangulated small intestine. An adherent band composed of an epiploic appendage and intestine had completely encircled a loop of jejunum, leading to obstruction. This band was released, and approximately 80 cm of gangrenous bowel was resected. Four epiploic appendages 5–6 cm in length were attached to the ileum at the mesenteric border, beginning at a point 70 cm proximal to the terminal ileum.
Epiploic appendage strangulation; Small bowel; Volvulus
Jejunal diverticulosis is uncommon and often asymptomatic. It can produce significant complications, and some complications are potentially life threatening and require early surgical treatment, such as obstruction, hemorrhage and perforation. There is no consensus on the management of this disease. Only a few cases of jejunal diverticulosis with midgut volvulus have been reported. We herein report a case of 57-year-old woman with jejunal diverticulosis causing small bowel volvulus who complained of intermittent upper abdominal pin-prick for 5 years that eventually progressed to a complete obstruction. The computed tomography scans revealed a mesenteric vessel "whirlpool" and laparotomy showed midgut volvulus secondary to jejunal diverticula. This case highlights jejunal diverticulosis causing small bowel volvulus as an uncommon mechanism of small bowel obstruction, which should be included in the differential diagnosis of small bowel obstruction.
Jejunal diverticulosis; Midgut volvulus; Intestinal obstruction; Computed tomography; Surgery
Meckel's diverticulum affects 1 - 3% of general population and is known as the most common anomaly of gastrointestinal tract. However, its estimated lifetime complication rate is approximately 4%. Intestinal obstruction is most common complication of Meckel's diverticulum in adult population.
In the present study, we reported a 42-year-old female patient with a gangrenous Meckel's diverticulum in a strangulated umbilical hernia sac treated by dissection of diverticulomesenteric bands and diverticulectomy. In 36 months follow-up, there was neither any complication nor recurrence of hernia.
This case represents a gangrenous Meckel's diverticulum in a strangulated umbilical hernia sac diagnosed in case of emergency. Although it is a very rare phenomenon, we should be vigilant for this entity especially in case of emergency.
Massive gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding can occur with multiple jejunal diverticulosis. However, significant bleeding in the setting of few diverticulae is very unusual and rare. We report a case of massive gastrointestinal bleeding from an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) within a jejunal diverticulum to underscore the significance of such coexisting pathologies. Mesenteric angiogram was chosen to help identify the source of bleeding and to offer an intervention. Despite endovascular coiling, emergent intestinal resection of the bleeding jejunal segment was warranted to ensure definitive treatment. However several reports have shown jejunal diverticulosis as a rare cause of massive GI bleeding. The coexistence of jejunal diverticulum and AVM is rare and massive bleeding from an acquired Dieulafoy-like AVM within a diverticulum has never previously been described. Awareness of Dieulafoy-like AVM within jejunoileal diverticulosis is useful in preventing delay in treatment.
Small intestine diverticulosis is a rare entity that is asymptomatic in the majority of cases. However, it may cause serious complications, such as infection, hemorrhage, intestinal obstruction and diverticulitis. Kayexalate (sodium polystyrene sulfonate) in sorbitol has been associated with colonic necrosis and less frequently with upper gastrointestinal injuries in a subset of uremic patients treated for hyperkalemia. We report a case of jejunal diverticulosis with mucosal injury and diverticulitis in a uremic patient treated with Kayexalate and discuss the potential role of Kayexalate in the pathogenesis of diverticulitis.
Jejunal diverticulosis; Diverticulitis; Kayexalate
Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity with variable clinical and anatomical presentations. Its reported incidence varies from 0.05% to 6%. Although there is no consensus on the management of asymptomatic jejunal diverticular disease, some complications are potentially life threatening and require early surgical treatment. We report a case of an 88-year-old man investigated for acute abdominal pain with a high biological inflammatory syndrome. Inflammation of multiple giant jejunal diverticulum was discovered at abdominal computed tomography (CT). As a result of the clinical and biological signs of early peritonitis, an emergency surgical exploration was performed. The first jejunal loop showed clear signs of jejunal diverticulitis. Primary segmental jejunum resection with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Histopathology report confirmed an ulcerative jejunal diverticulitis with imminent perforation and acute local peritonitis. The patient made an excellent rapid postoperative recovery. Jejunal diverticulum is rare but may cause serious complications. It should be considered a possible etiology of acute abdomen, especially in elderly patients with unusual symptomatology. Abdominal CT is the diagnostic tool of choice. The best treatment is emergency surgical management.
Jejunal diverticulum; Diverticulitis; Surgery; Tomography
Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity with variable clinical and anatomical presentations. Although there is no consensus on the management of asymptomatic jejunal diverticular disease, some complications are potentially life-threatening and require early surgical treatment. Small bowel perforation secondary to jejunal diverticulitis by enteroliths is rare. The aim of this study was to report a case of small intestinal perforation caused by a large jejunal enterolith. An 86-year-old woman was admitted with signs of diffuse peritonitis. After initial fluid recovery the patient underwent emergency laparotomy. The surgery showed that she had small bowel diverticular disease, mainly localized in the proximal jejunum. The peritonitis was due to intestinal perforation caused by an enterolith 12 cm in length, localized inside one of these diverticula. The intestinal segment containing the perforated diverticulum with the enterolith was removed and an end-to-end anastomosis was done to reconstruct the intestinal transit. The patient recovered well and was discharged from hospital on the 5th postoperative day. There were no signs of abdominal pain 1 year after the surgical procedure. Although jejunal diverticular disease with its complications, such as formation of enteroliths, is difficult to suspect in patients with peritonitis, it should be considered as a possible source of abdominal infection in the elderly patient when more common diagnoses have been excluded.
Diverticulum; Intestines; Lithiasis; Intestinal perforation; Diverticulitis
Fetal intestinal volvulus is a rare life-threatening condition. Late diagnosis of volvulus contributes to high rate of morbidity and mortality. It has variable degrees of presentation and survival. Intrauterine volvulus may be complicated by intestinal atresia due to ischemic necrosis. To our knowledge, there are three reported cases of term fetal demise. We report a case of fetal intestinal volvulus with perinatal survival of the largest term infant described with this complication to date. The volvulus was associated with type 3A jejunal atresia and intestinal pathology was noted on prenatal ultrasound. The infant was born via urgent cesarean delivery at 376/7 weeks of gestation and underwent emergent exploratory laparotomy with resection of small bowel and primary end-to-end anastomosis. Intrauterine intestinal volvulus may be suspected on prenatal ultrasound but only definitively diagnosed postnatally. Signs of fetal distress and volvulus are rarely associated with reports of survival in the term fetus. We review reported cases of prenatally suspected volvulus in infants documented to survive past the neonatal period. As fetal volvulus and most intestinal atresias/stenoses manifest during the third trimester, we recommend that the limited fetal anatomical survey during growth ultrasounds at 32 to 36 weeks routinely include an assessment of the fetal bowel.
fetal intestinal volvulus; perinatal mortality; intussusception; intrauterine volvulus
Multiple diverticulosis of jejunum represents an uncommon pathology of the small bowel. The disease is usually asymptomatic and must be taken into consideration in cases of unexplained malabsorption, anemia, chronic abdominal pain or discomfort. Related complications such as diverticulitis, perforation, bleeding or intestinal obstruction appear in 10-30% of the patients increasing morbidity and mortality rates. We herein report a case of a 55 year-old man presented at the emergency department with acute abdominal pain, vomiting and fever. Preoperative radiological examination followed by laparotomy revealed multiple giant jejunal diverticula causing intestinal obstruction. We also review the literature for this uncommon disease.
Gallstone ileus is an uncommon complication of cholelithiasis but an established cause of mechanical bowel obstruction in the elderly. Perforation of the small intestine proximal to the obstructing gallstone is rare, and only a handful of cases have been reported. We present two cases of perforation of the jejunum in gallstone ileus, and remarkably in one case, the gallstone ileus caused perforation of a jejunal diverticulum and is to the best of our knowledge the first such case to be described.
A 69 year old man presented with two days of vomiting and central abdominal pain. He underwent laparotomy for small bowel obstruction and was found to have a gallstone obstructing the mid-ileum. There was a 2 mm perforation in the anti-mesenteric border of the dilated proximal jejunum. The gallstone was removed and the perforated segment of jejunum was resected.
A 68 year old man presented with a four day history of vomiting and central abdominal pain. Chest and abdominal radiography were unremarkable however a subsequent CT scan of the abdomen showed aerobilia. At laparotomy his distal ileum was found to be obstructed by an impacted gallstone and there was a perforated diverticulum on the mesenteric surface of the mid-jejunum. An enterolithotomy and resection of the perforated small bowel was performed.
Gallstone ileus remains a diagnostic challenge despite advances in imaging techniques, and pre-operative diagnosis is often delayed. Partly due to the elderly population it affects, gallstone ileus continues to have both high morbidity and mortality rates. On reviewing the literature, the most appropriate surgical intervention remains unclear.
Jejunal perforation in gallstone ileus is extremely rare. The cases described illustrate two quite different causes of perforation complicating gallstone ileus. In the first case, perforation was probably due to pressure necrosis caused by the gallstone. The second case was complicated by the presence of a perforated jejunal diverticulum, which was likely to have been secondary to the increased intra-luminal pressure proximal to the obstructing gallstone.
These cases should raise awareness of the complications associated with both gallstone ileus, and small bowel diverticula.
Jejunal diverticulosis is an uncommon disease and usually asymptomatic. It can be complicated not only by diverticulitis, but by hemorrhage, perforation, intussusception, volvulus, malabsorption and even small bowel obstruction due to enteroliths formed and expelled from these diverticula.
We describe a case of an occult bleeding jejunal diverticulum, casually discovered in a patient that was taken to surgery for a Dieulafoy’s lesion after unsuccessful endoscopic treatment. We performed a gastric resection together with an ileocecal resection.
Macroscopic and microscopic examinations confirmed the gastric Dieulafoy’s lesion and demonstrated the presence of another source of occult bleeding in asymptomatic jejunal diverticulum.
The current case emphasizes that some gastrointestinal bleeding lesions, although rare, can be multiple and result in potentially life-threatening bleeding. The clinician must be mindful to the possibility of multisite lesions and to the correlation between results of the investigations and clinical condition of the bleeding patient.
Meckel's diverticulum is the commonest congenital abnormality of the gastrointestinal tract. Most are asymptomatic but can rarely present with varies forms of intestinal obstruction.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We present an unusual case of an elderly African woman with a massive strangulated paraumbilical hernia as a complication from a Meckel's diverticulum.
Meckel's diverticulum presenting as a strangulated paraumbilical hernia is uncommon and can be difficult to diagnose. It is often only found intraoperatively. Delay in referral due to poor access can potentially lead to adverse outcome.
Although uncommon, a through clinical assessment is of paramount importance and timely operative intervention must occur in order to provide the best outcome for these patients.
Meckels diverticulum; Intestinal obstruction; Strangulated; Paraumbilical hernia
Adult intussusception due to Meckel’s diverticulum (MD) is an uncommon cause of intestinal obstruction. However, the surgeon should still be suspicious of this condition since the non specific symptoms and the rarity of it make a preoperative diagnosis uncertain. Considering the secondary nature of adult intussusception and the necessity of early surgical intervention to avoid morbidity and mortality, we report two cases of intussusception due to MD in adults. A diverticulectomy using a TA stapler was performed in the first patient. In the second patient extensive fibrosis of the adjacent mesentery and thickening of jejunal mucosa were observed, so a segmental resection of the small bowel or affected ileal part and a hand-sewn anastomosis was performed. The postoperative period along with the long term follow-up was uneventful for both patients. The decision between diverticulectomy vs bowel resection can be based on the intussuscepted bowel condition. Early surgical intervention may ensure a favorable outcome.
Inverted Meckel’s Diverticulum; Adult intussusception; Emergency surgery; Intestinal obstruction; Computed tomography; Diverticulectomy
In contrast to diverticulosis of the colon, jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity that often becomes clinically relevant only after exacerbations occur. The variety of symptoms and low incidence make this disease a difficult differential diagnosis.
Patients and Methods:
Data from all patients who were treated in our surgical department for complicated jejunal diverticulitis, that is, gastrointestinal hemorrhage or a diverticula perforation were collected prospectively over a 6-year period (January 2004 to January 2010) and analyzed retrospectively.
The median age among the 9 patients was 82 years (range: 54–87). Except for 2 cases (elective operation for a status postjejunal peridiverticulitis and a re-perforation of a diverticula in a patient s/p segment resection with free perforation), the diagnosis could only be confirmed with an exploratory laparotomy. Perforation was observed in 5 patients, one of which was a retroperitoneal perforation. The retroperitoneal perforation was associated with transanal hemorrhage. Hemodynamically relevant transanal hemorrhage requiring transfusion were the reason for an exploratory laparotomy in 2 further cases. In one patient, the hemorrhage was the result of a systemic vasculitis with resultant gastrointestinal involvement. A singular jejunal diverticulum caused an adhesive ileus in one patient. The extent of jejunal diverticulosis varied between a singular diverticulum to complete jejunal involvement. A tangential, transverse excision of the diverticulum was carried out in 3 patients. The indication for segment resection was made in the case of a perforation with associated peritonitis (n=4) as well as the presence of 5 or more diverticula (n=2). Histological analysis revealed chronic pandiverticulitis in all patients. Median operating time amounted to 142 minutes (range: 65–210) and the median in-hospital stay was 12 days (range: 5–45). Lethality was 0%. Major complications included secondary wound closure after s/p repeated lavage and bilateral pleural effusions in one case. Signs of malabsorption as the result of a short bowel syndrome were not observed. Minor complications included protracted intestinal atony in 2 cases and pneumonia in one case. Median follow-up was 6 months (range: 1–18).
Complicated jejunal diverticulitis often remains elusive preoperatively due to its unspecific clinical presentation. A definitive diagnosis can often only be made intraoperatively. The resection of all diverticula and/or the complete diverticula-laden segment is the goal in chronic cases. The operative approach chosen (tangential, transverse excision vs segment resection) should be based on the extent of the jejunal diverticulosis as well as the intraoperative findings.
Diverticulosis; jejunum; surgery
Jejunal diverticula are quite rare. Furthermore, small bowel diverticular disease resulting in enteroliths can lead to complications necessitating surgical intervention. In this manuscript, we report two presentations of jejunal diverticulum with complications from enteroliths followed by a review of the literature. The first case was that of a 79-year-old male who presented with abdominal pain and was found, on computed tomography (CT) scan, to have evidence of intestinal perforation. A laparotomy showed that he had perforated jejunal diverticulitis. The second case was that of an 89-year-old female who presented with recurrent episodes of bowel obstruction. A laparotomy showed that she had an enterolith impacted in her jejunum in the presence of significant diverticular disease. Although a rare entity, familiarity with jejunal diverticular disease, its complications, and its management, should be part of every surgeon’s base of knowledge when considering abdominal pathology.
Jejunum; Diverticula disease; Enterolith; Acute abdomen; Bowel obstruction
Phytobezoars are concretions of poorly digested fruit and vegetable fibers found in the alimentary tract. Previous gastric resection, gastrojejunostomy, or pyloroplasty predispose people to bezoar formation. Small-bowel bezoars normally come from the stomach, and primary small-bowel bezoars are very rare. They are seen only in patients with underlying small-bowel diseases such as diverticula, strictures, or tumors. Primary small-bowel bezoars almost always present as intestinal obstructions, although it is a very rare cause, being responsible for less than 3% of all small-bowel obstructions in one series. Jejunal diverticula are rare, with an incidence of less than 0.5%. They are usually asymptomatic pseudodiverticula of pulsion type, and complications are reported in 10% to 30% of patients. A phytobezoar in a jejunal diverticulum is an extremely rare presentation.
A 78-year-old Pakistani man presented to our clinic with small-bowel obstruction. Upon exploration, we found a primary small-bowel bezoar originating in a jejunal diverticulum and causing jejunal obstruction. Resection and anastomosis of the jejunal segment harboring the diverticulum was performed, and our patient had an uneventful recovery.
Primary small-bowel bezoars are very rare but must be kept in mind as a possible cause of small-bowel obstruction.
Jejunal diverticula are an uncommon acquired disease that is usually silent and asymptomatic. When symptomatic, they present with chronic nonspecific symptoms like pain, nausea, malnutrition and sometimes with acute presentation like gastrointestinal hemorrhage, peritonitis and obstruction. The majority of complications seen as an acute abdomen similar to appendicitis, cholecystitis or colonic diverticulitis but they also may appear with atypical symptoms. We are presenting a 63-year-old male reported in emergency with painful abdomen and diagnosed as having peritonitis. On laparotomy, we incidentally found giant and multiple jejunal diverticula along with ileal perforation. Nothing was done to the jejunal diverticula, as these were multiple and non-obstructive. In the follow-up of 16 months, the patient was doing well. Jejuno-ileal diverticulosis is a rare condition that continues to present formidable challenges in diagnosis and treatment.
acute abdomen; ileum; small bowel diverticulum; perforation; surgery
We present an 80-year-old man with multiple medical problems, and acute abdominal pain with feculent emesis. An unenhanced CT examination of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated jejunal diverticulitis and findings of high-grade small bowel obstruction caused by a large enterolith. Enterolith ileus has rarely been reported in the radiology literature. This phenomenon has occasionally been reported in the surgical and gastroenterology literature. We highlight the CT findings associated with enterolith ileus in the setting of jejunal diverticulitis, to alert radiologists to this unusual diagnosis.
Meckel's diverticulum (MD) is the prevailing anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract, found in about 2% of the population; it rarely gives rise to symptoms and its discovery is usually accidental. Phytobezoar is a concretion of poorly digested fruit and vegetable fibres that is found in the alimentary tract and rarely can be the cause of small intestinal obstruction. Herein we report a rare case of intestinal obstruction due to phytobezoar formation into a MD.
Presentation of case
A 50 year-old patient, was admitted to author's institution with an history of abdominal pain, nausea and multiples episodes of vomiting. Plain X-ray showed dilated small-bowel loops. Computed tomography (CT) revealed jejunal loops with air-fluid levels. The patient underwent explorative laparotomy where we found a giant Meckel's diverticulum, filled by a phytobezoar that caused small bowel compression. We performed a segmental ileal, resection, containing the MD. The histological exam confirmed Meckel's diverticulum.
Bowel obstruction due to a phytobezoar in a Meckel's diverticulum is rare: only 7 cases have been reported in literature. MD complications are rare and phytobezoar is one of them with only few cases described in literature.
The conventional x rays studies were inconclusive whereas abdominal contrast enhanced CT led to a definitive diagnosis. Explorative laparotomy or laparoscopy is mandatory in these cases.
Meckel's diverticulum; Phytobezoar; Small bowel obstruction; Acute abdomen
An internal hernia is the herniation of an intestinal segment into an intra-peritoneal fossa, is an uncommon cause for intestinal obstruction and is difficult to diagnose preoperatively.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We report a male patient 19 years old presenting with acute abdomen due to a strangulated Waldayer's hernia.
The paraduodenal hernias are more common in males (M:F ratio 3:1). The average age at diagnosis is 38.5 years clinically presenting with chronic intermittent post-parandial abdominal pain. An accurate incidence of paraduodenal hernias in infancy and childhood is unknown, but is quite rare.
Internal complicated hernias are difficult to diagnose and once discovered intra-operative anatomical variations are present with special attribution to the management of the hernia sac.
Internal hernia; Waldayer's hernia; Right paraduodenal hernia
Perforations of jejunal diverticula are uncommon and repeated symptomatic perforations have been reported only twice before in the literature. This is the first case report of recurrent perforation of a jejunal diverticulum to be successfully managed non-operatively.
We report a recurrent perforation of a jejunal diverticulum in an 87-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a 1-week history of epigastric pain. The diagnosis of a perforated jejunal diverticulum was made from the appearances of the abdominal computed tomography scan together with the presence of jejunal diverticula noted at the time of a previous laparotomy for the first perforation of a jejunal diverticulum.
Whilst this case report by itself does not add to the knowledge we already have of jejunal diverticula, it is one report of a rare condition and more reports are required in the future to establish the recurrence rate of jejunal diverticula perforation and how perforated jejunal diverticula are best managed.
Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital malformation of the gastrointestinal tract. It can cause complications in the form of ulceration, hemorrhage, intussusception, intestinal obstruction, perforation and, very rarely, vesicodiverticular fistulae as noted in six previously reported cases. 66-year-old woman was presented with an enterovesical fistula. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a vesico-diverticular fistula resulting from a perforated Meckel′s diverticulum. Pathologic examination revealed that the diverticulum did not contain ectopic gastric or pancreatic tissue. The patient underwent a diverticulectomy and had an uneventful postoperative course. Unlike four of the six previously reported cases, our patient had no coexisting bowel or bladder disease occurring with her vesico-diverticular fistula. Conclusion: This is only the third reported case of a vesico-diverticular fistula resulting from a perforated Meckel′s diverticulum that did not contain ectopic tissue.
Meckel's diverticulum; vesicoenteric fistula; surgery
Strangulated Inguinal hernia is one of the most common surgical emergencies dealt with by surgeons worldwide. Usually the narrow internal inguinal ring or the external inguinal ring is the site of constriction of the viscus, which forms the content of the hernia resulting in strangulation. We report a rare case of strangulated inguinal hernia where the constricting element is not the internal or external inguinal ring, but an omental band adhesion causing closed loop small bowel obstruction and gangrene within the hernial sac in the inguinal canal.
A 56-year-old Caucasian gentleman presented to us with a 6 hours history of non-reducible tender lump in his right groin. His groin was explored urgently under general anaesthesia and was found to have an omental band adhesion causing closed loop small bowel obstruction with gangrene within the hernial sac in the inguinal canal with a wide internal inguinal ring. Gangrenous small bowel was resected and primary anastomosis was performed through the same inguinal incision.
Strangulation of the inguinal hernial content is usually due to the tight constriction at the level of internal inguinal ring or at external inguinal ring. Uncommonly strangulation of the contents can occur due to other causes like omental band adhesion. Anyone presenting with clinical features of strangulated inguinal hernia with small bowel obstruction mandates prompt exploration of the inguinal canal. Although it may not change the treatment approach, one should be aware about this special entity. Resection of the gangrenous small bowel and primary anastomosis can be safely performed through the same inguinal incision.
Intestinal obstruction is a common surgical emergency caused by varied conditions. Appendicitis as a cause is both uncommon and unsuspected. Strangulation of intestine caused by appendicitis is extremely rare with very few cases reported in literature. The diagnosis of such a condition is possible only on table, with CT having questionable value. This is a very rare and dangerous complication of a very common disease which can easily be overlooked. Every emergency surgeon needs to be aware of such a possibility.
We report a case of a 24 year old male presenting with classical features of intestinal obstruction. On laparotomy strangulated bowel was seen and appendix was found to be the cause. Although we obtained a history of appendicitis in this patient, it was not correlated to the present condition due to the rarity of such a scenario. We reviewed literature to find similar cases reported in the past.
Jejunoileal diverticulae, also referred to as non-Meckelian diverticulae, are very uncommon. These diverticulae are considered to be acquired pulsion diverticulae and they mostly occur in older people. Their prevalence increases with age. About 80% of these diverticulae occur in jejunum and are usually multiple. Patients with jejunoileal diverticulae present with nonspecific symptoms. The clinical picture of a complicated jejunoileal diverticulae can be confused with other intra-abdominal acute conditions such as appendicitis, cholecystitis, perforated ulcer, etc. Nonmechanical or pseudoobstruction is related to the dyskinesia associated with this condition. The diagnosis is made by a small bowel contrast study, enteroclysis, endoscopy or computed tomography. A surgical approach is the best form of treatment for complicated jejunoileal diverticulae. Laparoscopy is very useful in diagnosing and treating this condition. The current report is about a patient who presented with recurrent subacute intestinal obstruction and was managed by laparoscopy.
Diagnostic laparoscopy; diverticulum; resection anastomosis