Viruses have developed different survival strategies in host cells by crossing cell-membrane compartments, during different steps of their viral life cycle. In fact, the non-regenerative viral membrane of enveloped viruses needs to encounter the dynamic cell-host membrane, during early steps of the infection process, in which both membranes fuse, either at cell-surface or in an endocytic compartment, to promote viral entry and infection. Once inside the cell, many viruses accomplish their replication process through exploiting or modulating membrane traffic, and generating specialized compartments to assure viral replication, viral budding and spreading, which also serve to evade the immune responses against the pathogen. In this review, we have attempted to present some data that highlight the importance of membrane dynamics during viral entry and replicative processes, in order to understand how viruses use and move through different complex and dynamic cell-membrane structures and how they use them to persist.
membrane dynamics; viral fusion and entry; membrane-associated viral factories; viral budding; viral synapse and spreading; exosomes and trogocytosis
Many enveloped viruses complete their replication cycle by forming vesicles that bud from the plasma membrane. Some viruses encode “late” (L) domain motifs that are able to hijack host proteins involved in the vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) pathway, a cellular budding process that gives rise to multivesicular bodies and that is topologically equivalent to virus budding. Although many enveloped viruses share this mechanism, examples of viruses that require additional viral factors and viruses that appear to be independent of the VPS pathway have been identified. Alternative mechanisms for virus budding could involve other topologically similar process such as cell abscission, which occurs following cytokinesis, or virus budding could proceed spontaneously as a result of lipid microdomain accumulation of viral proteins. Further examination of novel virus-host protein interactions and characterization of other enveloped viruses for which budding requirements are currently unknown will lead to a better understanding of the cellular processes involved in virus assembly and budding.
Tetherin/BST-2 is an important host restriction factor that limits the replication of HIV and other enveloped viruses. Tetherin is a type II membrane glycoprotein with a very unusual domain structure that allows it to engage budding virions and retain them on the plasma membrane of infected cells. Following the initial report identifying tetherin as the host cell factor targeted by the HIV-1 Vpu gene, knowledge of the molecular, structural, and cellular biology of tetherin has rapidly advanced. This paper summarizes the discovery and impact of tetherin biology on the HIV field, with a focus on recent advances in understanding its structure and function. The relevance of tetherin to replication and spread of other retroviruses is also reviewed. Tetherin is a unique host restriction factor that is likely to continue to provide new insights into host-virus interactions and illustrates well the varied ways by which host organisms defend against viral pathogens.
Interferons (IFNs) are crucial for host defence against viruses. Many IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) induced by viral infection exert antiviral effects. Microarray analysis of gene expression induced in liver tissues of mice on dengue virus (DENV) infection has led to identification of the ISG gene ISG12b2. ISG12b2 is also dramatically induced on DENV infection of Hepa 1-6 cells (mouse hepatoma cell line). Here, we performed biochemical and functional analyses of ISG12b2. We demonstrate that ISG12b2 is an inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) protein containing a cleavable mitochondrial targeting sequence and multiple transmembrane segments. Overexpression of ISG12b2 in Hepa 1-6 induced release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, and caspase-8. Treatment of ISG12b2-overexpressing Hepa 1-6 with inhibitors of pan-caspase, caspase-9, or caspase-3, but not caspase-8, reduced apoptotic cell death, suggesting that ISG12b2 activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Of particular interest, we further demonstrated that ISG12b2 formed oligomers, and that ISG12b2 was able to mediate apoptosis through both Bax/Bak-dependent and Bax/Bak-independent pathways. Our study demonstrates that the ISG12b2 is a novel IMM protein induced by IFNs and regulates mitochondria-mediated apoptosis during viral infection.
interferon-stimulated gene; virus-induced apoptosis; inner mitochondrial membrane protein
Acute virus infection induces a cell-intrinsic innate immune response comprising our first line of immunity to limit virus replication and spread, but viruses have developed strategies to overcome these defenses. HIV-1 is a major public health problem; however, the virus-host interactions that regulate innate immune defenses against HIV-1 are not fully defined. We have recently identified the viral protein Vpu to be a key determinant responsible for HIV-1 targeting and degradation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a central transcription factor driving host cell innate immunity. IRF3 plays a major role in pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) signaling of innate immunity to drive the expression of type I interferon (IFN) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including a variety of HIV restriction factors, that serve to limit viral replication directly and/or program adaptive immunity. Here we interrogate the cellular responses to target cell infection with Vpu-deficient HIV-1 strains. Remarkably, in the absence of Vpu, HIV-1 triggers a potent intracellular innate immune response that suppresses infection. Thus, HIV-1 can be recognized by PRRs within the host cell to trigger an innate immune response, and this response is unmasked only in the absence of Vpu. Vpu modulation of IRF3 therefore prevents virus induction of specific innate defense programs that could otherwise limit infection. These observations show that HIV-1 can indeed be recognized as a pathogen in infected cells and provide a novel and effective platform for defining the native innate immune programs of target cells of HIV-1 infection.
The type I interferon system plays a critical role in limiting the spread of viral infection. Viruses induce the production of interferon (IFN), which after binding to the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR), and triggering of the JAK/STAT signaling cascade, results in the induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). These ISGs function to inhibit viral replication and to regulate the host immune response. Among these ISGs, the ubiquitin-like molecule, ISG15, is one of the most strongly induced proteins. Similar to ubiquitin, through an IFN induced conjugation cascade, ISG15 is covalently linked to a variety of cellular proteins, suggesting regulation of different cellular processes. Studies performed over the past several years have shown that ISG15 plays a central role in the host’s antiviral response against many viruses. Mice lacking ISG15 display increased susceptibility to multiple viruses. Furthermore, several viruses have developed immune evasion strategies that directly target the ISG15 pathway. Work is now underway to determine the mechanism by which ISG15 functions as an antiviral molecule, such that therapies targeting this pathway can be developed in the future.
ISG15; interferon; antiviral; ubiquitin-like molecule
The replication cycle of most pathogens, including influenza viruses, is perfectly adapted to the metabolism and signal transduction pathways of host cells. After infection, influenza viruses activate several cellular signaling cascades that support their propagation but suppress those that interfere with viral replication. Accumulation of viral RNA plays thereby a central role. Its sensing by the pattern recognition receptors of the host cells leads to the activation of several signal transduction waves that result in induction of genes, responsible for the cellular innate immune response. Type I interferon (IFN) genes and interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) coding for antiviral-acting proteins, such as MxA, OAS-1 or PKR, are primary targets of these signaling cascades. β- and γ-catenin are closely related armadillo repeat-containing proteins with dual roles. At the cell membrane they serve as adapter molecules linking cell-cell contacts to microfilaments. In the cytosol and nucleus, the proteins form a transcriptional complex with the lymphoid enhancer factor/T-cell factor (LEF/TCF), regulating the transcription of many genes, thereby controlling different cellular functions such as cell cycle progression and differentiation.
In this study, we demonstrate that β- and γ-catenin are important regulators of the innate cellular immune response to influenza A virus (IAV) infections. They inhibit viral replication in lung epithelial cells by enhancing the virus-dependent induction of the IFNB1 gene and interferon-stimulated genes. Simultaneously, the prolonged infection counteracts the antiviral effect of β- and γ-catenin. Influenza viruses suppress β-catenin-dependent transcription by misusing the RIG-I/NF-κB signaling cascade that is induced in the course of infection by viral RNA.
We identified β- and γ-catenin as novel antiviral-acting proteins. While these factors support the induction of common target genes of the cellular innate immune response, their functional activity is suppressed by pathogen evasion.
Influenza A virus; Innate immune response; β-catenin; γ-catenin; Interferon-β; Interferon-stimulated genes; β-catenin-dependent target genes
The innate immune system senses infection by detecting evolutionarily conserved molecules essential for microbial survival or abnormal location of molecules. Here we demonstrate the existence of a novel innate detection mechanism, which is induced by fusion between viral envelopes and target cells. Virus-cell fusion specifically stimulated a type I interferon (IFN) response with expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), in vivo recruitment of leukocytes, and potentiation of Toll-like receptor 7 and 9 signaling. The fusion dependent response was dependent on stimulator of interferon genes (STING) but independent of DNA, RNA and viral capsid. We suggest that membrane fusion is sensed as a danger signal with potential implications for defense against enveloped viruses and various conditions of giant cell formation.
Virus; Fusion; type I IFN; STING
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is able to down-regulate innate immune response. It is important to know the immune pathways that this virus interacts with. HCV non-structural protein 3 (NS3) plays an important role in this viral feature. HCV NS3 protein could affect the expression of antiviral protein such as viperin, and interleukin 28whichare important proteins in antiviral response.
HCV has developed different mechanisms to maintain a persistent infection, especially by disrupting type I interferon response and subsequent suppression of expression of Interferon stimulatory genes (ISGs). Viperin, a member of ISGs, is considered as a host antiviral protein, which interferes with viral replication. Since it is a good target for some viruses to evade host responses, it is interesting to study if HCV has evolved a mechanism to interfere with this member of ISGs.
Materials and Methods:
We evaluated the impact of NS3, NS3/4A and a mutated nonfunctional NS3 on ISGs expression such as viperin and IL-28 after the induction of IFN signaling Jak-STAT pathway using IFN-.
NS3 protein disrupted the expressions of viperin gene and IL-28, an inducer for the expression of ISGs and viperin itself. By comparing the roles of NS3 and NS3/4A protease activities in suppressing the innate immune responses, we also showed that NS3 (without NS4A) has the ability to down-regulate ISGs expression, similar to that of NS3/4A.
ISGs expression is impeded by NS3 protease activity and its interaction with Jak-STAT pathway proteins. In addition, the NS3/4A substrates spectrum seems to be similar to those of NS3.
Hepatitis C; NS3; Interferon-Lambda Protein
Restriction factors comprise an important layer of host defense to fight against viral infection. Some restriction factors are constitutively expressed whereas the majority is induced by interferon to elicit innate immunity. In addition to a number of well-characterized interferon-inducible antiviral factors such as RNaseL/OAS, ISG15, Mx, PKR, and ADAR, tetherin (BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) was recently discovered to block the release of enveloped viruses from the cell surface, which is regarded as a novel antiviral mechanism induced by interferon. Here, we briefly review the history of tetherin discovery, discuss how tetherin blocks virus production, and highlight the viral countermeasures to evade tetherin restriction.
HIV-1; Tetherin; Vpu; Virus release; Interferon
The type I interferons (IFNs), IFN-α and -β, are key effector molecules of the immune response to viruses. The anti-viral action of IFNs on virus-infected cells and surrounding tissues is mediated by expression of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes. Viperin (virus inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum-associated, IFN-inducible) is an Interferon stimulated gene (ISG), which is induced by type I, II, and III IFNs or after infection with a broad range of DNA and RNA viruses. Recent evidence indicates that Viperin disrupts lipid rafts to block influenza virus budding and release and interferes with replication of hepatitis C virus by binding to lipid droplets, small organelles involved in lipid homeostasis that are essential for hepatitis C virus replication. Viperin is also induced by nonviral microbial products such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and by a wide range of bacteria, suggesting a broader role in innate antimicrobial defenses.
Influenza viruses are enveloped, negative stranded, segmented RNA viruses belonging to Orthomyxoviridae family. Each virion consists of three major subviral components, namely (i) a viral envelope decorated with three transmembrane proteins hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) and M2, (ii) an intermediate layer of matrix protein (M1), and (iii) an innermost helical viral ribonucleocapsid [vRNP] core formed by nucleoprotein (NP) and negative strand viral RNA (vRNA). Since complete virus particles are not found inside the cell, the processes of assembly, morphogenesis, budding and release of progeny virus particles at the plasma membrane of the infected cells are critically important for the production of infectious virions and pathogenesis of influenza viruses as well. Morphogenesis and budding require that all virus components must be brought to the budding site which is the apical plasma membrane in polarized epithelial cells whether in vitro cultured cells or in vivo infected animals. HA and NA forming the outer spikes on the viral envelope possess apical sorting signals and use exocytic pathways and lipid rafts for cell surface transport and apical sorting. NP also has apical determinant(s) and is probably transported to the apical budding site similarly via lipid rafts and/or through cortical actin microfilaments. M1 binds the NP and the exposed RNAs of vRNPs, as well as to the cytoplasmic tails (CT) and transmembrane (TM) domains of HA, NA and M2, and is likely brought to the budding site on the piggy-back of vRNP and transmembrane proteins.
Budding processes involve bud initiation, bud growth and bud release. Presence of lipid rafts and assembly of viral components at the budding site can cause asymmetry of lipid bilayers and outward membrane bending leading to bud initiation and bud growth. Bud release requires fusion of the apposing viral and cellular membranes and scission of the virus buds from the infected cellular membrane. The processes involved in bud initiation, bud growth and bud scission/release require involvement both viral and host components and can affect bud closing and virus release in both positive and negative ways. Among the viral components, M1, M2 and NA play important roles in bud release and M1, M2 and NA mutations all affect the morphology of buds and released viruses. Disassembly of host cortical actin microfilaments at the pinching-off site appears to facilitate bud fission and release. Bud scission is energy dependent and only a small fraction of virus buds present on the cell surface is released. Discontinuity of M1 layer underneath the lipid bilayer, absence of outer membrane spikes, absence of lipid rafts in the lipid bilayer, as well as possible presence of M2 and disassembly of cortical actin microfilaments at the pinching off site appear to facilitate bud fission and bud release. We provide our current understanding of these important processes leading to the production of infectious influenza virus particles.
The efficient release of many enveloped viruses from cells involves the coalescence of viral components at sites of budding on the plasma membrane of infected cells. This coalescence is believed to require interactions between the cytoplasmic tails of surface glycoproteins and the matrix (M) protein. For the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5), the cytoplasmic tail of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein has been shown previously to be important for normal virus budding. To investigate a role for the cytoplasmic tail of the fusion (F) protein in virus assembly and budding, we generated a series of F cytoplasmic tail-truncated recombinant viruses. Analysis of these viruses in tissue culture indicated that the cytoplasmic tail of the F protein was dispensable for normal virus replication and budding. To investigate further the requirements for assembly and budding of SV5, we generated two double-mutant recombinant viruses that lack 8 amino acids of the predicted 17-amino-acid HN protein cytoplasmic tail in combination with truncation of either 10 or 18 amino acids from the predicted 20-amino-acid F protein cytoplasmic tail. Both of the double mutant recombinant viruses displayed a replication defect in tissue culture and a budding defect, the extent of which was dependant on the length of the remaining F cytoplasmic tail. Taken together, this work and our earlier data on virus-like particle formation (A. P. Schmitt, G. P. Leser, D. L. Waning, and R. A. Lamb, J. Virol. 76:3953-3964, 2002) suggest a redundant role for the cytoplasmic tails of the HN and F proteins in virus assembly and budding.
The paramyxoviruses define a diverse group of enveloped RNA viruses that includes a number of important human and animal pathogens. Examples include human respiratory syncytial virus and the human parainfluenza viruses, which cause respiratory illnesses in young children and the elderly; measles and mumps viruses, which have caused recent resurgences of disease in developed countries; the zoonotic Hendra and Nipah viruses, which have caused several outbreaks of fatal disease in Australia and Asia; and Newcastle disease virus, which infects chickens and other avian species. Like other enveloped viruses, paramyxoviruses form particles that assemble and bud from cellular membranes, allowing the transmission of infections to new cells and hosts. Here, we review recent advances that have improved our understanding of events involved in paramyxovirus particle formation. Contributions of viral matrix proteins, glycoproteins, nucleocapsid proteins, and accessory proteins to particle formation are discussed, as well as the importance of host factor recruitment for efficient virus budding. Trafficking of viral structural components within infected cells is described, together with mechanisms that allow for the selection of specific sites on cellular membranes for the coalescence of viral proteins in preparation of bud formation and virion release.
virus budding; virus assembly; matrix protein; paramyxovirus; virus-like particle; polarized budding; lipid raft membranes; viral trafficking
After cell hijacking and intracellular amplification, nonlytic enveloped viruses are usually released from the infected cell by budding across internal membranes or through the plasma membrane. The enveloped human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an example of virus using an intracellular compartment to form new virions. Four decades after its discovery, HBV is still the primary cause of death by cancer due to a viral infection worldwide. Despite numerous studies on HBV genome replication little is known about its morphogenesis process. In addition to viral neogenesis, the HBV envelope proteins have the capability without any other viral component to form empty subviral envelope particles (SVP) which are secreted into the blood of infected patients. A better knowledge of this process may be critical for future antiviral strategies. Previous studies have speculated that the morphogenesis of HBV and its SVP occur through the same mechanisms. However recent data clearly suggest that two different processes, including constitutive Golgi pathway or cellular machinery that generates internal vesicles of multivesicular bodies (MVB), independently form these two viral entities.
Cell Membrane; virology; Endoplasmic Reticulum; virology; Hepatitis B virus; physiology; Host-Pathogen Interactions; Humans; Models, Biological; Virion; ultrastructure; Virosomes; biosynthesis; Virus Assembly; Virus Release; viral morphogenesis, viral assembly, HBV, subviral particles
Pathogenic microorganisms encode proteins that antagonize specific aspects of innate or adaptive immunity. Just as the study of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vif led to the identification of cellular cytidine deaminases as host defense proteins, the study of HIV-1 Vpu recently led to the discovery of the interferon-induced transmembrane protein BST-2 (CD317; tetherin) as a novel component of the innate defense against enveloped viruses. BST-2 is an unusually structured protein that restricts the release of fully formed progeny virions from infected cells, presumably by a direct retention mechanism that is independent of any viral protein target. Its spectrum of activity includes at least four virus families: retroviruses, filoviruses, arenaviruses, and herpesviruses. Viral antagonists of BST-2 include HIV-1 Vpu, HIV-2 and SIV Env, SIV Nef, the Ebola envelope glycoprotein, and the K5 protein of KSHV. The mechanisms of antagonism are diverse and currently include viral cooption of cellular endosomal trafficking and protein degradation pathways, including those mediated by ubiquitination. Orthologs of human BST-2 are present in mammals. Primate BST-2 proteins are differentially sensitive to antagonism by lentiviral Vpu and Nef proteins, suggesting that BST-2 has subjected lentiviruses to evolutionary pressure and presents barriers to cross-species transmission. BST-2 functions not only as an effector of the interferon-induced antiviral response but also as a negative feedback regulator of interferon production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Future work will focus on the role and regulation of BST-2 during the innate response to viral infection, on the mechanisms of restriction and of antagonism by viral gene products, and on the role of BST-2 in primate lentiviral evolution. The augmentation of BST-2 activity and the inhibition of virally encoded antagonists, in particular Vpu, represent new approaches to the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection.
Membrane rafts are small (10–200 nm) sterol- and sphingolipid-enriched domains that compartmentalize cellular processes. Membrane rafts play an important role in viral infection cycles and viral virulence. Viruses are divided into four main classes, enveloped DNA virus, enveloped RNA virus, nonenveloped DNA virus, and nonenveloped RNA virus. General virus infection cycle is also classified into two sections, the early stage (entry process) and the late stage (assembly, budding, and release processes of virus particles). In the viral cycle, membrane rafts act as a scaffold of many cellular signal transductions, which are associated with symptoms caused by viral infections. In this paper, we describe the functions of membrane rafts in viral lifecycles and host cellular response according to each virus classification, each stage of the virus lifecycle, and each virus-induced signal transduction.
Membrane budding is essential for the egress of many enveloped viruses, and this process shares similarities with the biogenesis of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). In eukaryotic cells, the budding of intraluminal vesicles (IVLs) is mediated by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery and some viruses require ESCRT machinery components or functions to bud from host cells. Baculoviruses, such as Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), enter host cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Viral DNA replication and nucleocapsid assembly occur within the nucleus. Some progeny nucleocapsids are subsequently trafficked to, and bud from, the plasma membrane, forming budded virions (BV). To determine whether the host ESCRT machinery is important or necessary for AcMNPV replication, we cloned a cDNA of Spodoptera frugiperda VPS4, a key regulator for disassembly and recycling of ESCRT III. We then examined viral infection and budding in the presence of wild-type (WT) or dominant negative (DN) forms of VPS4. First, we used a viral complementation system, in combination with fluorescent tags, to examine the effects of transiently expressed WT or DN VPS4 on viral entry. We found that dominant negative VPS4 substantially inhibited virus entry. Entering virus was observed within aberrant compartments containing the DN VPS4 protein. We next used recombinant bacmids expressing WT or DN VPS4 proteins to examine virus egress. We found that production of infectious AcMNPV BV was substantially reduced by expression of DN VPS4 but not by WT VPS4. Together, these results indicate that a functional VPS4 is necessary for efficient AcMNPV BV entry into, and egress from, insect cells.
Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are components of the cell membrane that comprise a membrane bound lipid, ceramide, coupled to an extracellular carbohydrate. GSLs impact numerous aspects of membrane biology, including membrane fluidity, curvature, and organization. The role of these molecules in both chronic inflammation and infectious disease and underlying pathogenic mechanisms are just starting to be recognized. As a component of the cell membrane, GSLs are also incorporated into lipid bilayers of diverse enveloped viruses as they bud out from the host cell and can go on to have a significant influence on viral pathogenesis. Dendritic cell (DC) subsets located in the peripheral mucosal tissues are proposed to be one of the earliest cell types that encounter transmitted viruses and help initiate adaptive immune responses against the invading pathogen by interacting with T cells. In turn, viruses, as obligatory intracellular parasites, rely on host cells for completing their replication cycle, and not surprisingly, HIV has evolved to exploit DC biology for the initial transmission event as well as for its dissemination and propagation within the infected host. In this review, we describe the mechanisms by which GSLs impact DC-mediated HIV trans-infection by either modulating virus infectivity, serving as a direct virus particle-associated host-derived ligand for specific interactions with DCs, or modulating the T cell membrane in such a way as to impact viral entry and thereby productive infection of CD4+ T cells.
During intracellular membrane trafficking and remodeling, protein complexes known as the ESCRTs interact with membranes and are required for budding processes directed away from the cytosol, including the budding of intralumenal vesicles to form multivesicular bodies, for the budding of some enveloped viruses, and for daughter cell scission in cytokinesis. Here we found that the ESCRT-III proteins CHMP2A and CHMP3 could assemble in vitro into helical tubular structures that expose their membrane interaction sites on the outside of the tubule while the AAA-type ATPase VPS4 could bind on the inside of the tubule and disassemble the tubes upon ATP hydrolysis. CHMP2A and CHMP3 co-polymerized in solution and their membrane targeting was cooperatively enhanced on planar lipid bilayers. Such helical CHMP structures could thus assemble within the neck of an inwardly-budding vesicle, catalyzing late steps in budding under the control of VPS4.
The cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery participates in membrane scission and cytoplasmic budding of many RNA viruses. Here, we found that expression of dominant negative ESCRT proteins caused a blockade of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) release and retention of viral BFRF1 at the nuclear envelope. The ESCRT adaptor protein Alix was redistributed and partially colocalized with BFRF1 at the nuclear rim of virus replicating cells. Following transient transfection, BFRF1 associated with ESCRT proteins, reorganized the nuclear membrane and induced perinuclear vesicle formation. Multiple domains within BFRF1 mediated vesicle formation and Alix recruitment, whereas both Bro and PRR domains of Alix interacted with BFRF1. Inhibition of ESCRT machinery abolished BFRF1-induced vesicle formation, leading to the accumulation of viral DNA and capsid proteins in the nucleus of EBV-replicating cells. Overall, data here suggest that BFRF1 recruits the ESCRT components to modulate nuclear envelope for the nuclear egress of EBV.
Herpesviruses are large DNA viruses associated with human and animal diseases. After viral DNA replication, the herpesviral nucleocapsids egress through the nuclear membrane for subsequent cytoplasmic virion maturation. However, the mechanism by which the virus regulates the nuclear membrane and cellular machinery involved in this process remained elusive. The cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is known to participate in the biogenesis of multivesicular bodies, cytokinesis and the release of enveloped viruses from cytoplasmic membranes. Here, we show that functional ESCRT machinery is required for the maturation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). ESCRT proteins are redistributed close to the nucleus-associated membrane through interaction with the viral BFRF1 protein, leading to vesicle formation and structural changes of the nuclear membrane. Remarkably, inhibition of ESCRT machinery abolishes BFRF1-induced vesicle formation, and leads to the accumulation of viral DNA and capsid proteins in the nucleus. Specific interactions between BFRF1 and Alix are required for BFRF1-derived vesicle formation and crucial for the nuclear egress of EBV.
Late domains are short peptide sequences encoded by enveloped viruses to promote the final separation of the nascent virus from the infected cell. These amino acid motifs facilitate viral egress by interacting with components of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery, ultimately leading to membrane scission by recruiting ESCRT-III to the site of viral budding. PPXY late (L) domains present in viruses such as murine leukemia virus (MLV) or human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) access the ESCRT pathway via interaction with HECT ubiquitin ligases (WWP1, WWP2, and Itch). However, the mechanism of ESCRT-III recruitment in this context remains elusive. In this study, we tested the arrestin-related trafficking (ART) proteins, namely, ARRDC1 (arrestin domain-containing protein 1) to ARRDC4 and TXNIP (thioredoxin-interacting protein), for their ability to function as adaptors between HECT ubiquitin ligases and the core ESCRT machinery in PPXY-dependent budding. We present several lines of evidence in support of such a role: ARTs interact with HECT ubiquitin ligases, and they also exhibit multiple interactions with components of the ESCRT pathway, namely, ALIX and Tsg101, and perhaps with an as yet unidentified factor. Additionally, the ARTs can be recruited to the site of viral budding, and their overexpression results in a PPXY-specific inhibition of MLV budding. Lastly, we show that WWP1 changes the ubiquitination status of ARRDC1, suggesting that the ARTs may provide a platform for ubiquitination in PPXY-dependent budding. Taken together, our results support a model whereby ARTs are involved in PPXY-mediated budding by interacting with HECT ubiquitin ligases and providing several alternative routes for ESCRT-III recruitment.
The type I interferon (IFN) response protects cells from invading viral pathogens. The cellular factors that mediate this defense are the products of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Although hundreds of ISGs have been identified since their discovery over 25 years ago1,2,3, only few have been characterized with respect to antiviral activity. For most, little is known about their antiviral potential, their target specificity, and their mechanisms of action. Using an overexpression screening approach, we show that different viruses are targeted by unique sets of ISGs, with each viral species susceptible to multiple antiviral genes with a range of inhibitory activities. To conduct the screen, over 380 ISGs were tested for their ability to inhibit the replication of several important viruses including hepatitis C virus (HCV), yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile virus (WNV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). Broadly acting effectors included IRF1, C6orf150, HPSE, RIG-I, MDA5, and IFITM3, while more targeted antiviral specificity was observed with DDX60, IFI44L, IFI6, IFITM2, MAP3K14, MOV10, NAMPT, OASL, RTP4, TREX1, and UNC84B. Combined expression of two-ISG pairs showed additive antiviral effects similar to moderate IFN doses. Mechanistic studies revealed a common theme of translational inhibition for numerous effectors. Several ISGs, including ADAR, FAM46C, LY6E, and MCOLN2, enhanced replication of certain viruses, highlighting another layer of complexity in the highly pleiotropic IFN system.
The growth and envelopment processes of three representative herpesviruses, equine abortion, pseudorabies, and herpes simplex, were examined in baby hamster kidney (BHK 21/13) cells by bioassay (plaque-forming units) and electron microscopy. The envelopment process was identical for all three viruses. After assembly in the nucleus, the nucleocapsid acquired an envelope by budding from the inner nuclear membrane. This membrane was reduplicated as the enveloped particle was released so that the budding process did not result in disruption of the continuity of the nuclear membrane. That portion of the nuclear membrane which comprised the viral envelope was appreciably thicker than the remainder of the membrane and exhibited numerous projections on its surface. Once enveloped, the viral particles were seen in vesicles and vacuoles in the cell cytoplasm. These appeared to open at the cytoplasmic membrane, releasing the virus from the cell. There was no detectable difference in the size or appearance of enveloped particles in intra- or extracellular locations.
Retroviruses acquire a lipid envelope during budding from the membrane of their hosts. Therefore, the composition of this envelope can provide important information about the budding process and its location. Here, we present mass spectrometry analysis of the lipid content of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and murine leukemia virus (MLV). The results of this comprehensive survey found that the overall lipid content of these viruses mostly matched that of the plasma membrane, which was considerably different from the total lipid content of the cells. However, several lipids are enriched in comparison to the composition of the plasma membrane: (i) cholesterol, ceramide, and GM3; and (ii) phosphoinositides, phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly, microvesicles, which are similar in size to viruses and are also released from the cell periphery, lack phosphoinositides, suggesting a different budding mechanism/location for these particles than for retroviruses. One phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], has been implicated in membrane binding by HIV Gag. Consistent with this observation, we found that PI(4,5)P2 was enriched in HIV-1 and that depleting this molecule in cells reduced HIV-1 budding. Analysis of mutant virions mapped the enrichment of PI(4,5)P2 to the matrix domain of HIV Gag. Overall, these results suggest that HIV-1 and other retroviruses bud from cholesterol-rich regions of the plasma membrane and exploit matrix/PI(4,5)P2 interactions for particle release from cells.