A bacteriophage lambda cloning vector was designed to facilitate the isolation of genes from procaryotic organisms by complementation of Escherichia coli mutants. This vector, lambda SE4, was constructed by attaching a very-low-copy-number replication system (from the plasmid NR1) and a spectinomycin resistance gene to the left arm of lambda 1059 (Karn et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:5172-5176, 1980). This phasmid cloning vector is capable of growing lytically as a phage in a nonimmune host or lysogenically as a phasmid in an immune host. This phasmid utilizes the Spi- selection for insertions of DNA into the vector and has the ability to accept 2- to 19-kilobase Sau3A1, BamHI, BglII, BclI, or XhoII fragments; recombinants lysogenize immune hosts as single-copy-number selectable plasmids at 100% frequency. An E. coli library was constructed by using the initial vector lambda SE4, and clones of a number of representative genes were identified. A typical clone, lambda ant+, was shown to be readily mutagenized by a mini-Tn10 transposon. A general method for transferring cloned DNA segments onto bacteriophage lambda was developed. The method involves the use of in vivo recombination with a selection and was used to construct two derivatives of lambda SE4. Possible uses of these vectors and of the method for transferring cloned DNA onto phage lambda are discussed.
The Red recombinase system of bacteriophage lambda has been used to inactivate chromosomal genes in E. coli K-12 through homologous recombination using linear PCR products. The aim of this study was to induce mutations in the genome of some temperate Shiga toxin encoding bacteriophages. When phage genes are in the prophage state, they behave like chromosomal genes. This enables marker genes, such as antibiotic resistance genes, to be incorporated into the stx gene. Once the phages' lytic cycle is activated, recombinant Shiga toxin converting phages are produced. These phages can transfer the marker genes to the bacteria that they infect and convert. As the Red system's effectiveness decreased when used for our purposes, we had to introduce significant variations to the original method. These modifications included: confirming the stability of the target stx gene increasing the number of cells to be transformed and using a three-step PCR method to produce the amplimer containing the antibiotic resistance gene.
Seven phages carrying two different antibiotic resistance genes were derived from phages that are directly involved in the pathogenesis of Shiga toxin-producing strains, using this modified protocol.
This approach facilitates exploration of the transduction processes and is a valuable tool for studying phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer.
Advances in DNA sequencing technology have facilitated the determination of hundreds of complete genome sequences both for bacteria and their bacteriophages. Some of these bacteria have well-developed and facile genetic systems for constructing mutants to determine gene function, and recombineering is a particularly effective tool. However, generally applicable methods for constructing defined mutants of bacteriophages are poorly developed, in part because of the inability to use selectable markers such as drug resistance genes during viral lytic growth. Here we describe a method for simple and effective directed mutagenesis of bacteriophage genomes using Bacteriophage Recombineering of Electroporated DNA (BRED), in which a highly efficient recombineering system is utilized directly on electroporated phage DNA; no selection is required and mutants can be readily detected by PCR. We describe the use of BRED to construct unmarked gene deletions, in-frame internal deletions, base substitutions, precise gene replacements, and the addition of gene tags.
Recombineering is an efficient method of in vivo genetic engineering applicable to chromosomal as well as episomal replicons in E. coli. This method circumvents the need for most standard in vitro cloning techniques. Recombineering allows construction of DNA molecules with precise junctions without constraints being imposed by restriction enzyme site location. Bacteriophage homologous recombination proteins catalyze these recombineering reactions using double- and single-strand linear DNA substrates, so-called targeting constructs, introduced by electroporation. Gene knockouts, deletions and point mutations are readily made, gene tags can be inserted, and regions of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) or the E. coli genome can be subcloned by gene retrieval using recombineering. Most of these constructs can be made within about a week's time.
Bacteriophages are central components in the development of molecular tools for microbial genetics. Mycobacteriophages have proven a rich resource for tuberculosis genetics, and the recent development of a mycobacterial recombineering system based on phage Che9c-encoded proteins offers new approaches to mycobacterial mutagenesis. Expression of the phage exonuclease and recombinase substantially enhances recombination frequencies in both fast-and slow-growing mycobacteria, facilitating construction of both gene knockout and point mutants; it also provides a simple and efficient method for constructing mycobacteriophage mutants. Exploitation of host-specific phages thus provides a general strategy for recombineering and mutagenesis in genetically naive systems.
Manipulation of genomic inserts cloned into the bacteriophage P1 vector is hindered by the large size of the inserts. We have used co-transformation mediated recombination between the yeast-bacteria shuttle vector, pClasper, and various P1 clones to transfer the entire insert from the P1 into pClasper. This results in the insert being stably maintained in yeast, facilitating mutagenesis by homologous recombination. The recombinant plasmid can subsequently be transferred to and stably maintained in bacteria for efficient plasmid preparation. This method can also be applied to inserts from P1 artificial chromosome or bacterial artificial chromosome vectors.
Interest in phage therapy has grown over the past decade due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. However, the use of bacteriophages for therapeutic purposes has raised concerns over the potential for immune response, rapid toxin release by the lytic action of phages, and difficulty in dose determination in clinical situations. A phage that kills the target cell but is incapable of host cell lysis would alleviate these concerns without compromising efficacy.
We developed a recombinant lysis-deficient Staphylococcus aureus phage P954, in which the endolysin gene was rendered nonfunctional by insertional inactivation. P954, a temperate phage, was lysogenized in S. aureus strain RN4220. The native endolysin gene on the prophage was replaced with an endolysin gene disrupted by the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat) gene through homologous recombination using a plasmid construct. Lysogens carrying the recombinant phage were detected by growth in presence of chloramphenicol. Induction of the recombinant prophage did not result in host cell lysis, and the phage progeny were released by cell lysis with glass beads. The recombinant phage retained the endolysin-deficient genotype and formed plaques only when endolysin was supplemented. The host range of the recombinant phage was the same as that of the parent phage. To test the in vivo efficacy of the recombinant endolysin-deficient phage, immunocompromised mice were challenged with pathogenic S. aureus at a dose that results in 80% mortality (LD80). Treatment with the endolysin-deficient phage rescued mice from the fatal S. aureus infection.
A recombinant endolysin-deficient staphylococcal phage has been developed that is lethal to methicillin-resistant S. aureus without causing bacterial cell lysis. The phage was able to multiply in lytic mode utilizing a heterologous endolysin expressed from a plasmid in the propagation host. The recombinant phage effectively rescued mice from fatal S. aureus infection. To our knowledge this is the first report of a lysis-deficient staphylococcal phage.
Comparative genomics demonstrated that the chromosomes from bacteria and their viruses (bacteriophages) are coevolving. This process is most evident for bacterial pathogens where the majority contain prophages or phage remnants integrated into the bacterial DNA. Many prophages from bacterial pathogens encode virulence factors. Two situations can be distinguished: Vibrio cholerae, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and Clostridium botulinum depend on a specific prophage-encoded toxin for causing a specific disease, whereas Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium harbor a multitude of prophages and each phage-encoded virulence or fitness factor makes an incremental contribution to the fitness of the lysogen. These prophages behave like “swarms” of related prophages. Prophage diversification seems to be fueled by the frequent transfer of phage material by recombination with superinfecting phages, resident prophages, or occasional acquisition of other mobile DNA elements or bacterial chromosomal genes. Prophages also contribute to the diversification of the bacterial genome architecture. In many cases, they actually represent a large fraction of the strain-specific DNA sequences. In addition, they can serve as anchoring points for genome inversions. The current review presents the available genomics and biological data on prophages from bacterial pathogens in an evolutionary framework.
To establish a lysogenic lifestyle, the temperate bacteriophage φC31 integrates its genome into the chromosome of its Streptomyces host, by site-specific recombination between attP (the attachment site in the phage DNA) and attB (the chromosomal attachment site). This reaction is promoted by a phage-encoded serine recombinase Int. To return to the lytic lifestyle, the prophage excises its DNA by a similar Int-mediated reaction between the recombinant sites flanking the prophage, attL and attR. φC31 Int has been developed into a popular experimental tool for integration of transgenic DNA into the genomes of eukaryotic organisms. However, until now it has not been possible to use Int to promote the reverse reaction, excision. In many other phages, the presence of a recombination directionality factor (RDF) protein biases the phage-encoded integrase towards prophage excision, whereas absence of the RDF favours integration; but the φC31 RDF had proved elusive. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Khaleel et al. (2011) report the identification and purification of the φC31 RDF, and show that it both promotes excision and inhibits integration by direct protein-protein interactions with Int itself.
Recombineering techniques have been developed to modify bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) via bacterial homologous recombination systems, simplifying the molecular manipulations of large DNA constructs. However, precise modifications of a DNA fragment larger than 2-3 kb by recombineering remain a difficult task, due to technical limitations in PCR amplification and purification of large DNA fragments. Here, we describe a new recombineering strategy for the replacement of large DNA fragments using the commonly utilized phage/Red recombination host system. This approach involved the introduction of rare restriction enzyme sites and positive selection markers into the ends of a large DNA fragment, followed by its release from the donor BAC construct and integration into an acceptor BAC. We have successfully employed this method to precisely swap a number of large DNA fragments ranging from 6 to 40 kb between two BAC constructs. Our results demonstrated that this new strategy was highly effective in the manipulations of large genomic DNA fragments and therefore should advance the conventional BAC recombineering technology to the next level.
Bacterial artificial chromosome; recombineering; homologous recombination; chimeric BACs; large DNA fragments
Infections of bacterial cultures by bacteriophages are serious problems in biotechnological laboratories. Apart from such infections, prophage induction in the host cells may also be dangerous. Escherichia coli is a commonly used host in biotechnological production, and many laboratory strains of this bacterium harbour lambdoid prophages. These prophages may be induced under certain conditions leading to phage lytic development. This is fatal for further cultivations as relatively low, though still significant, numbers of phages may be overlooked. Thus, subsequent cultures of non-lysogenic strains may be infected and destroyed by such phage.
Here we report that slow growth of bacteria decreases deleterious effects of spontaneous lambdoid prophage induction. Moreover, replacement of glucose with glycerol in a medium stimulates lysogenic development of the phage after infection of E. coli cells. A plasmid was constructed overexpressing the phage 434 cI gene, coding for the repressor of phage promoters which are necessary for lytic development. Overproduction of the cI repressor abolished spontaneous induction of the λimm434 prophage.
Simple procedures that alleviate problems with spontaneous induction of lambdoid prophage and subsequent infection of E. coli strains by these phages are described. Low bacterial growth rate, replacement of glucose with glycerol in a medium and overproduction of the cI repressor minimise the risk of prophage induction during cultivation of lysogenic bacteria and subsequent infection of other bacterial strains.
Recombineering technology in E. coli enables targeting of linear donor DNA to circular recipient DNA using short shared homology sequences. In this work, we demonstrate that recombineering is also able to support recombination between a pair of linear DNA substrates (linear/linear recombineering) in vivo in E. coli. Linear DNA up to 100 kb is accurately modified and remains intact without undergoing rearrangements after recombination. This system will be valuable for direct in vivo manipulation of large linear DNA including the N15 and PY54 prophages and linear animal viruses, and for assembly of linear constructs as artificial chromosome vectors.
BAC; linear; recombineering; recombination; phage; E. coli; chromosome; telomere
In malaria parasites the systematic experimental validation of drug and vaccine targets by reverse genetics is constrained by the inefficiency of homologous recombination and by the difficulty of manipulating adenine and thymine (AT) rich Plasmodium DNA in E. coli. We overcome these roadblocks by demonstrating that a high integrity library of P. berghei genomic DNA (>77% AT) in a bacteriophage N15-based vector can be modified efficiently using the lambda Red method of recombineering. We built a pipeline for generating Plasmodium berghei genetic modification vectors at genome scale in serial liquid cultures on 96-well plates. Vectors have long homology arms, which increase recombination frequency up to 10-fold over conventional designs. The feasibility of efficient genetic modification at scale will stimulate collaborative, genome-wide knockout and tagging programs for P. berghei.
Plasmid recombination, like other homologous recombination in Escherichia coli, requires RecA protein in most conditions. We have found that the plasmid recombination defect in a recA mutant can be efficiently suppressed by the beta protein of bacteriophage lambda. beta protein is required for homologous recombination of lambda chromosomes during lytic phage growth in a recA host and is known to have a strand-annealing activity resembling that of RecA protein. The bioluminescence recombination assay was used for genetic analysis of beta-protein-mediated plasmid recombination. Efficient suppression of the recA mutation by beta protein required the absence of the E. coli nucleases exonuclease I and RecBCD nuclease. These nucleases inhibit a RecA-mediated plasmid recombination pathway that is more efficient than the pathway functioning in wild-type cells. Like RecA-mediated plasmid recombination in RecBCD- ExoI- cells, beta-protein-mediated plasmid recombination depended on concurrent DNA replication and on the activity of the recQ gene. However, unlike RecA-mediated plasmid recombination, beta-protein-mediated recombination in RecBCD- ExoI- cells was independent of recF and recJ activities. We propose that inactivation of exonuclease I and RecBCD nuclease stabilizes a recombination intermediate that is involved in RecA- and beta-protein-catalyzed homologous pairing reactions. We suggest that the intermediate may be linear plasmid DNA with a protruding 3' end, since these nucleases are known to interfere with the synthesis of such linear forms. The different recF and recJ requirements for beta-protein-dependent and RecA-dependent recombinations imply that the mechanisms of formation or processing of the putative intermediate differ in the two cases.
Targeted mutagenesis of the herpesvirus genomes has been facilitated by the use of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology. Such modified genomes have potential uses in understanding viral pathogenesis, gene identification and characterization, and the development of new viral vectors and vaccines. We have previously described the construction of a herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) BAC and the use of an allele replacement strategy to construct HSV-2 recombinants. While the BAC mutagenesis procedure is a powerful method to generate HSV-2 recombinants, particularly in the absence of selective marker in eukaryotic culture, the mutagenesis procedure is still difficult and cumbersome.
Here we describe the incorporation of a phage lambda recombination system into an allele replacement vector. This strategy enables any DNA fragment containing the phage attL recombination sites to be efficiently inserted into the attR sites of the allele replacement vector using phage lambda clonase. We also describe how the incorporation of EGFP into the allele replacement vector can facilitate the selection of the desired cross-over recombinant BACs when the allele replacement reaction is a viral gene deletion. Finally, we incorporate the lambda phage recombination sites directly into an HSV-2 BAC vector for direct recombination of gene cassettes using the phage lambda clonase-driven recombination reaction.
Together, these improvements to the techniques of HSV BAC mutagenesis will facilitate the construction of recombinant herpes simplex viruses and viral vectors.
The integrase of the temperate bacteriophage mv4 catalyzes site-specific recombination between the phage attP site and the host attB site during Lactobacillus delbrueckii lysogenization. The mv4 prophage is excised during the induction of lytic growth. Excisive site-specific recombination between the attR and attL sites is also catalyzed by the phage-encoded recombinase, but the directionality of the recombination is determined by a second phage-encoded protein, the recombination directionality factor (RDF). We have identified and functionally characterized the RDF involved in site-specific excision of the prophage genome. The mv4 RDF, mv4Xis, is encoded by the second gene of the early lytic operon. It is a basic protein of 56 amino acids. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that mv4Xis binds specifically to the attP and attR sites via two DNA-binding sites, introducing a bend into the DNA. In vitro experiments and in vivo recombination assays with plasmids in Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus plantarum demonstrated that mv4Xis is absolutely required for inter- or intramolecular recombination between the attR and attL sites. In contrast to the well-known phage site-specific recombination systems, the integrative recombination between the attP and attB sites seems not to be inhibited by the presence of mv4Xis.
Salmonella typhimurium bacteriophage P22 transduced plasmids having P22 sequences inserted in the vector pBR322 with high frequency. Analysis of the structure of the transducing particle DNA and the transduced plasmids indicates that this plasmid transduction involves two homologous recombination events. In the donor cell, a single recombination between the phage and the homologous sequences on the plasmid inserted the plasmid into the phage chromosome, which was then packaged by headfuls into P22 particles. The transducing particle DNA contained duplications of the region of homology flanking the integrated plasmid vector sequences and lacked some phage genes. When these defective phage genomes containing the inserted plasmid infected a recipient cell, recombination between the duplicated regions regenerated the plasmid. A useful consequence of this sequence of events was that genetic markers in the region of homology were readily transferred from phage to plasmid. Plasmid transduction required homology between the phage and the plasmid, but did not depend on the presence of any specific P22 sequence in the plasmid. When the infecting P22 carried a DNA sequence homologous to the ampicillin resistance region of pBR322, the vector plasmid having no P22 insert could be transduced. P22-mediated transduction is a useful way to transfer chimeric plasmids, since most S. typhimurium strains are poorly transformed by plasmid DNA.
Gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells can be used to generate single gene mutations or defined multi-megabase chromosomal rearrangements when applied with the Cre- loxP recombination system. While single knockouts are essential for uncovering functions of cloned genes, chromosomal rearrangements are great genetic tools for mapping, mutagenesis screens and functional genomics. The conventional approach to generate mice with targeted alterations of the genome requires extensive molecular cloning to build targeting vectors and DNA-based genotyping for stock maintenance. Here we describe the design and construction of a two-library system to facilitate high throughput gene targeting and chromo-somal engineering. The unique feature of these libraries is that once a clone is isolated, it is essentially ready to be used for insertional targeting in ES cells. The two libraries each bear a complementary set of genetic markers tailored so that the vector can be used for Cre- loxP -based chromosome engineering as well as single knockouts. By incorporating mouse coat color markers into the vectors, we illustrate a widely applicable method for stock maintenance of ES cell-derived mice with single gene knockouts or more extensive chromosomal rearrangements.
We have recently developed a gene disruption system for the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis by utilizing a pyrF-deficient mutant, KU25, as a host strain and the pyrF gene as a selectable marker. To achieve multiple genetic manipulations for more advanced functional analyses of genes in vivo, it is necessary to establish multiple host-marker systems or to develop a system in which repeated utilization of one marker gene is possible. In this study, we first constructed a new host strain, KU216 (ΔpyrF), by specific and almost complete deletion of endogenous pyrF through homologous recombination. In this refined host, there is no need to consider unknown mutations caused by random mutagenesis, and unlike in the previous host, KU25, there is little, if any, possibility that unintended recombination between the marker gene and the chromosomal allele occurs. Furthermore, a new host-marker combination of a trpE deletant, KW128 (ΔpyrF ΔtrpE::pyrF), and the trpE gene was developed. This system made it possible to isolate transformants through a more simple selection procedure as well as to deduce the transformation efficiency, overcoming practical disadvantages of the first system. The effects of the transformation conditions were also investigated using this system. Finally, we have also established a system in which repeated utilization of the counterselectable pyrF marker is possible through its excision by pop-out recombination. Both endogenous and exogenous sequences could be applied as tandem repeats flanking the marker pyrF for pop-out recombination. A double deletion mutant, KUW1 (ΔpyrF ΔtrpE), constructed with the pop-out strategy, was demonstrated to be a useful host for the dual markers pyrF and trpE. Likewise, a triple deletion mutant, KUWH1 (ΔpyrF ΔtrpE ΔhisD), could also be constructed. The transformation systems developed here now provide the means for extensive genetic studies in this hyperthermophilic archaeon.
Infection of Escherichia coli by bacteriophage D108 was shown to result in the generation of apparently random chromosomal mutations. Approximately 1% of the cells lysogenized by D108, as with Mu, acquired new auxotrophic mutations. D108-induced mutations were nonreverting and were most probably the result of insertion of the D108 genome into regions of genetic function. D108 and Mu shared many similar properties but were heteroimmune and had different host ranges. Lytic infections of Mu lysogens with D108 and D108 lysogens with Mu resulted in 100-fold increases in release of phage with prophage markers over those due to spontaneous induction. Phenotypic mixing was common, with most phage carrying the prophage immunity being packaged in particles with the host range of the superinfecting phage. A fraction of the superinfecting phage genomes were, however, packaged in particles with the prophage-specified host range. Although 10% of the prophage progeny were D108-Mu genetic hybrids, superinfecting phage-induced release of the prophage with reciprocal phenotypic mixing occurred in recA hosts, in which the frequency of D108-Mu genetic hybrids was reduced 100-fold.
The functional analysis of genes frequently requires manipulation of large genomic regions embedded in yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). We have designed a yeast-bacteria shuttle vector, pClasper, that can be used to clone specific regions of interest from YACs by homologous recombination. The important feature of pClasper is the presence of the mini-F factor replicon. This leads to a significant increase in the size of the plasmid inserts that can be maintained in bacteria after cloning by homologous recombination in yeast. The utility of this vector lies in its ability to maintain large fragments in bacteria and yeast, allowing for mutagenesis in yeast and simplified preparation of plasmid DNA in bacteria. Using PCR-generated recombinogenic fragments in pClasper we cloned a 27 kb region from a YAC containing the Hoxc cluster and a 130 kb region containing the entire Hoxb cluster. No rearrangements were seen when the recombinants in the shuttle vector were transferred to bacteria. We outline the potential uses of pClasper for functional studies of large genomic regions by transgenic and other analyses.
The frequency of excisive homologous recombination has been measured at various positions along the Escherichia coli chromosome. The reporter system makes use of a lambda cI857 prophage integrated by homologous recombination within Tn5 or Tn10 transposons already installed at known positions in the E. coli chromosome. The excision frequency per cell and per generation was determined by monitoring the evolution of the relative number of temperature-resistant (cured) bacteria is a function of the age of the cultures. Excisions, due to RecA-dependent homologous exchanges, appeared to occur more frequently in the preferential termination zone for chromosome replication. The highest frequency of excision observed is compatible with a recombination event at each replication cycle in this region. On the basis of these data, we propose a model involving homologous recombination in the final steps of bacterial chromosome replication and separation.
From a library of Bacillus subtilis DNA cloned with the Escherichia coli cosmid vector pHC79, 85 recombinant cosmids containing DNA from near the replication terminus, terC, were identified. The DNA inserts of these cosmids were confined to three regions of a 350-kilobase segment of the chromosome extending from the left end of the SP beta prophage to approximately 75 kilobases on the right of terC. All B. subtilis genes known to reside in this segment, as well as the portion of the SP beta prophage that is expressed early in the lytic cycle of the phage, appeared to be absent from the library. A region of SP beta homology distinct from the prophage and just to the left of terC was identified.
Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology has contributed immensely to manipulation of larger genomes in many organisms including large DNA viruses like human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The HCMV BAC clone propagated and maintained inside E. coli allows for accurate recombinant virus generation. Using this system, we have generated a panel of HCMV deletion mutants and their rescue clones. In this paper, we describe the construction of HCMV BAC mutants using a homologous recombination system. A gene capture method, or gap repair cloning, to seize large fragments of DNA from the virus BAC in order to generate rescue viruses, is described in detail. Construction of rescue clones using gap repair cloning is highly efficient and provides a novel use of the homologous recombination-based method in E. coli for molecular cloning, known colloquially as recombineering, when rescuing large BAC deletions. This method of excising large fragments of DNA provides important prospects for in vitro homologous recombination for genetic cloning.
Molecular and genetic studies have revealed that several illegitimate recombinational events are associated with integration of the specialized transducing bacteriophage lambda cI57 St68 h80 dgnd his into either the Escherichia coli chromosome or into a plasmid. Most Gnd+ His+ transductants did not carry the prophage at att phi-80, and 10% were not immune to lambda, i.e., "nonlysogenic." Integration of the phage was independent of the phage Int and Red gene products and of the host's general recombination (Rec) system. In further studies, bacterial strains were selected which carried the phage integrated into an R-factor, pSC50. Restriction endonuclease analysis of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) purified from these strains showed that formation of the hybrid plasmids resulted from recombination between a single region of pSC50 and one of several sites within the lambda-phi 80 portion of the phage. Furthermore the his-gnd region of the phage, present in the chromosome of one nonlysogenic transductant, was shown to be able to translocate to pSC50. Concomitant deletion of phage DNA sequences or pSC50 DNA was frequently observed in conjunction with these integration or translocation events. In supplemental studies, a 22- to 24-megadalton segment of the his-gnd region of the chromosome of a prototrophic recA E. coli strain was shown to translocate to pSC50. One terminus of this translocatable segment was near gnd and was the same as a terminus of the his-gnd segment of the phage which translocated from the chromosome of the nonlysogenic transductant. These data suggest that integration of lambda cI857 St 68 h80 dgnd his may be directed by a recombinationally active sequence on another replicon and that the resulting cointegrate structure is subject to the formation of deletions which extend from the recombinationally active sequence. Translocation of the his-gnd portion of the phage probably requires prior replicon fusion, whereas the his-gnd region of the normal E. coli chromosome may comprise a discrete, transposable element.