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1.  Standard manufacturing procedure of Teekshna lauha bhasma 
Lauha bhasma is one of the herbo-metallic preparations used in Ayurveda, a traditional Indian system of medicine for treating various ailments such as anemia, diarrhea, hyperlipidemia and diabetes.
To establish standard manufacturing procedure of Teekshna lauha bhasma and analyze its physico-chemical properties.
Materials and methods
The preparation of T. lauha bhasma (calx of iron [Fe] turning) involves samanya shodhana, vishesha shodhana followed by bhanupaka, sthalipaka and putapaka with Triphala kwatha as a medium under temperature of 650 °C in electric muffle furnace (EMF) and maintained for 1 h. T. lauha bhasma were subjected to different physico-chemical characterization using X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscopy.
Results and discussion
The results suggest that these steps are necessary to obtain a good quality of bhasma and also make it acceptable for trituration during Bhasmikarana process. It is found that T. lauha bhasma was prepared properly in 20 puta at a temperature of 650 °C. The particle size of 20 puta T. lauha bhasma is 100–500 nm in range.
Pharmaceutical procedures given in Ayurvedic texts are necessary to prepare pakwa jambu phala varna T. lauha bhasma that complies with all the classical bhasma pariksha and modern analytical parameters in 20 puta at a temperature of 650 °C maintained for 1 h in EMF.
PMCID: PMC4969272  PMID: 27450759
Calx of iron turning; Lauha bhasma; Scanning electron microscope; Shodhana; Teekshna lauha; Trividh lauhapaka; X-ray fluorescence
2.  Clinical efficacy of Mehamudgara vati in type 2 diabetes mellitus 
Ayu  2011;32(1):30-39.
In type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance is the main problem that is associated with a cluster of conditions such as obesity and hyperlipidemia. The present study was designed with the objective to evaluate the role of Mehamudgara vati (MMV), which was expected to work at the level of Medodhatwagni due to its Medohara properties, to have an effective control on type 2 diabetes. To fulfill the objective, known patients of type 2 diabetes attending the OPD and IPD of Kayachikitsa Department, IPGT and RA, were selected and were divided in two groups. In Group A, MMV was given 3 tab. thrice a day with lukewarm water for 3 months and in Group B, the patients who were already taking modern antidiabetic treatment, although their blood sugar level was not well under control, were additionally given MMV in the same manner. The formulation has shown a highly significant decrease in the fasting and post-prandial blood sugar level. The formulation has also shown a synergistic action when combined with the modern antidiabetic drugs due to its known hypolipidemic, hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective, antihyperglycemic, antistress, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities.
PMCID: PMC3215414  PMID: 22131755
Agni; antihyperglycemic; antihyperlipidemic; dosha; dushya; stress; type 2 diabetes
3.  Standardization of a Traditional Polyherbo-Mineral Formulation-Brahmi Vati 
The present study deals with standardization of an in-house standard preparation and three marketed samples of Brahmi vati, which is a traditional medicine known to be effective in mental disorders, convulsions, weak memory, high fever and hysteria. Preparation and standardization have been done by following modern scientific quality control procedures for raw material and the finished products. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis showed the reduction of metals and minerals (particle size range 2–5 µm) which indicates the proper preparation of bhasmas, the important ingredient of Brahmi vati. Findings of EDX analysis of all samples of Brahmi vati suggested the absence of Gold, an important constituent of Brahmi vati in two marketed samples. All the samples of Brahmi vati were subjected to quantitative estimation of Bacoside A (marker compound) by HPTLC technique. Extraction of the samples was done in methanol and the chromatograms were developed in Butanol: Glacial acetic acid: water (4.5:0.5:5 v/v) and detected at 225nm. The regression analysis of calibration plots of Bacoside A exhibited linear relationship in the concentration range of 50–300 ng, while the % recovery was found to be 96.06% w/w, thus proving the accuracy and precision of the analysis. The Bacoside A content in the in-house preparation was found to be higher than that of the commercial samples. The proposed HPTLC method was found to be rapid, simple and accurate for quantitative estimation of Bacoside A in different formulations. The results of this study could be used as a model data in the standardization of Brahmi vati.
PMCID: PMC3777576  PMID: 24146464
Brahmi vati(BV); Standardization; EDX; HPTLC; Bacoside-A
Ancient Science of Life  1995;15(2):129-136.
Lauha Bhasma, an ayurvedic drug, is widely used in iron deficiency anaemia, this ancient drug is claimed to be better absorbed gastrointestinally, and is also claimed to be devoid of the usual side effects associated with administration of the allopathic iron preparations, Physical and chemical methods of standardization required for any quality preparation, is not found in the ayurvedic and the modern literatures for Lauha Bhasma. Thus an approach has been made to standardize Lauha Bhasma. For the purpose of analysis, samples of all the three commonly available variants of Lauha Bhasma were considered. Qualitative analysis indicates the presence of iron both in the ferric and the ferrous forms, A simple spectrophotometric method has been used for simultaneous determination of ferric ferrous and the total iron content in a single aliquot.
PMCID: PMC3331203  PMID: 22556731
5.  Critical review on the pharmaceutical vistas of Lauha Kalpas (Iron formulations) 
Iron is one among the major metals present in the earth's crust and is essential for sound sustenance of human body. Its deficiency leads to various health ailments. Contemporary medicine advises iron supplements in iron deficiency anemia. Ayurvedic classics also quote significant information about administration of iron. Lauha Kalpas are the unique compound herbo-mineral formulations where iron (Lauha) is used as a major ingredient. Relevant literature (Bhaishajya Ratnavali, Charaka Samhita, Rasendra Sara Samgraha etc.) reviewed to gather information about Lauha Kalpas. Critical analysis of these Lauha Kalpas reveals that ancient seers administered iron in a better acceptable form. Unlike popular understanding these are not only Khalviya preparations; but Churna (powders), Avaleha (confectionaries), Rasakriya (solidified decoctions), and Putapaka (incinerated) form of preparations are also found. Apart from solid dosage forms, semisolid dosage forms mentioned in classics are very much useful. Unfortunately most of the formulations are not found in the market. Hence Pharmaceutical firms may bring these unique dosage forms in to the market to supply the healthcare needs of the community. It is interesting that iron preparations are used in Ayurveda in different medical conditions apart from anemia (Pandu). This leaves a scope for further researches on different dosage forms of iron and their indications.
PMCID: PMC3326790  PMID: 22529676
Ayurveda; Bhasma; Hematinics; Iron; Lauha Kalpa; pharmaceutics; Rasaushadhi
6.  Identifications studies of Lauha Bhasma by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence 
Ayu  2012;33(1):143-145.
Procedures for preparation of Lauha Bhasma are described in ancient texts of Ayurveda. These procedures also begin with different source material for iron such as Teekshna Lauha and Kanta Lauha etc. In the present study, we have selected different source materials viz. magnetite iron ore for Kanta Lauha and pure (Armco grade) iron turnings for Teekshna Lauha. The standard procedures of preparation of Lauha Bhasma are carried out in identical conditions for these two raw materials. The final product from the Puta are characterized by using X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to understanding the crystallographic form or forms of iron oxides and their composition at the end of each Puta. The iron content at the end of repeated Putas (18 for Kanta Lauha and 20 for Teekshna Lauha) have shown a decrease in case of Teekshna Lauha since the starting material is pure iron while it showed only marginal decreases in the case of Kanta Lauha because the Fe3O4 of magnetite is undergoing oxidation to Fe2O3. The trace elements remain within the Bhasma in the form of various oxides of Si, Al, Ca, etc.
PMCID: PMC3456853  PMID: 23049200
Lauha Bhasma; X-ray diffraction; X-ray fluorescence
7.  PA01.41. Pharmaceutico-analytical study of mayur puccha bhasma prepared by two methods 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S91.
Mayur Puccha bhasma (Calx of peacock feather), an Ayurvedic animal product prepared from peacock feather with different methods mentioned in Siddhayogasangraha, Bhaishajya Samhita. It is mainly indicated in Chardhi, Hikka, and Swasa. Till today no research work has been done on Mayur Puccha bhasma prepared by two different methods and exact pharmacopeial standards are also not available. The present study was aimed to assess the Physico chemical components of Mayur Puccha bhasma prepared by Ghee flame and Gajaputa method & to lay down the Pharmacopeial standards for the assessment of its standard qualities.
Mayur Puccha bhasma was prepared by two classical procedures, one by burning on ghee flame (Sample A) second by giving four Gajaputas (Sample B) and finished products were subjected to various Physico chemical studies to find out Ash value, PH value, Sp gravity, Moisture content, Preliminary organic analysis and Gravimetric analysis.
Both the bhasmas exhibited marked difference in colour, moisture content and % of inorganic compounds. The bhasma prepared by Gajaputa method contains essential and beneficial inorganic elements, electrolytes in more quantity with less moisture content, neutral pH.
Sample B is having less moisture (1%) content which may contribute for increasing its stability and having high ash value as it consists of inorganic elements in more quantity and indicates that bhasma prepared properly. The neutral pH of Sample A and B indicates no significance difference in their pH value. Sample B contains Copper, Iron, Zinc, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Manganese, Aluminium, in more quantity than Sample A but in a permissible amount. As Mayur Puccha bhasma prepared by Gajaputa method contains essential and beneficial elements, having natural pH and free from steroids may contribute as one of the usefully and safe alternative medicine in Chardhi, Hikka, Swasa.
PMCID: PMC3800974
8.  Scientific evaluation of some Ayurvedic preparations for correction of iron deficiency and anemia 
A number of preparations are available in Ayurved for treatment of anemia and iron deficiency. This study was designed to evaluate efficacy of some of them. Six most commonly used Ayurvedic iron containing preparations (Navayasa Curna, Punarnavadi Mandura, Dhatri Lauha, Pradarantaka Lauha, Sarva-Juara-Hara Lauha and Vrihat Yakrdari Lauha) were given in a dose of 250 mg b.d. for 30 days to six groups of iron deficient anemic patients; each group consisting of 20 patients. A control group was given Allopathic preparation—Irex-12, (containing—ferrous fumarate, vitamin C, folic acid and vitamin B12); 1 capsule daily for 30 days for comparison. All hematological and iron parameters were determined before and after completion of treatment. The results showed that there was statistically significant rise (p<0.001) in all of them—Hb, PCV, TRBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC and plasma iron, percent saturation and plasma ferritin. Total iron binding capacity decreased significantly (p<0.001). The response of most of Ayurvedic preparations was better than Allopathic preparation and there was no side effect as observed with iron salts The Hb regeneration rate was 0.10 g/dl/day for Allopathic preparation; while it was above this value for all Ayurvedic preparations exceptPradarantaka Lauha which was least effective.Sarva-Juara-Hara Lauha was the drug of choice as Hb regeneration with it was highest 0.16 g/dl/day. Upon analysis of Ayurvedic drugs, these results were found to be consistent and correlated with iron content of the preparation.
PMCID: PMC3453821  PMID: 23105698
Ayurvedic preparations; Iron deficiency; Anemia; Hematological parameters; Iron parameters
9.  Pharmaceutical study of Lauha Bhasma 
Ayu  2010;31(3):387-390.
In the present research paper, the work done on pharmaceutical study of Lauha Bhasma conducted in the Department of Rasa Shastra under the postgraduate research programme is being presented. The pharmaceutical processing of Lauha Bhasma was performed by following samanya shodhana, vishesha shodhana and marana of Lauha. Under the process of marana, three specific pharmaceutical techniques were followed, viz. bhanupaka, sthalipaka and putapaka. During the putapaka process, an electric muffle furnace (EMF) was used. The temperature of puta was studied in two batches, viz. in Batch I, a temperature of 800°C was maintained whereas in Batch II, a temperature of 600°C was maintained. The purpose behind selecting two temperatures was to validate the process of marana of Lauha and to determine an ideal temperature for the preparation of Lauha Bhasma in EMF. It is found that after 20 puta at a temperature of 600°C, the Lauha Bhasma was prepared properly. The entire characteristic of Lauha Bhasma, like “pakwa jambu phala varna,” varitar, etc. was attained at 600°. At a temperature of 800°C, the process could not be carried out smoothly. The pellets turned very hard and brassy yellow in color. The desired color was attained only after decreasing the temperature in further puta.
PMCID: PMC3221077  PMID: 22131745
Ayurveda; electric muffle furnace; Lauha; marana; puta; shodhana
10.  PA01.19. Clinical evaluation of pandughni vati & dhatri lauha vati on garbhini pandu (iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S69.
The desire to have a healthy progeny is innate & very intense in every living being. The hectic life and tremendous stress in today's world has made the conception & continuation of pregnancy to term very difficult. Anaemia is one of the common disease conditions which affect a pregnant woman. In Ayurvedic classics anaemia in pregnancy is taken under the Rasa Pradoshaja Vikara. It is also a Santharpanotha Vikara.
Total 26 patients were registered from O.P.D. And I.P.D. of the department of Streeroga & Prasootitantra, out of them 4 patients were discontinued. They were randomly divided in to two groups; Group A (n 12) Pandughni Vati 2 tablets of 250mg tds and Group B (n 10) Dhatri Lauha Vati 1 tablet of 250mg tds. Dhatri Lauha Vati was selected for the present study due to its Pandughna, Prinana, Raktaprasadana properties. AYUSH department has developed a compound formulation Pandughni Vati. As a part of its clinical trials the same drug was selected for present study.
Group A The result observed in Shwasa (dyspnoea) (60%) and Hridrava (palpitation) (53.33%) were highly significant statistically (<0.001). Daurbalya (33.33%), Shrama (fatigue) (40%), Aruchi (anorexia) (28.57%) and Pindikodvestana (55.55%) were decreased significant statistically (<0.05) whereas in Panduta (pallor) (24%) it was not significant. In Group B, results observed were highly significant statistically (<0.001) in Panduta (pallor) (50%) and Shwasa (dyspnoea) (56.25%). The results in Shrama (fatigue) (61.54%), Hridrava (palpitation) (55.55%), Aruchi (anorexia) (42.85%), Pindikodvestan, (49.49%) were significant
On comparing the effect of therapy study was finding better percentage improvement in-group B consistently in most of subjective and objective parameters. So it can be said that Dhatri Lauha Vati has somewhatbetter results, proving it better to Pandughni Vati.
PMCID: PMC3800949
11.  Evaluation of Lauha bhasma on classical analytical parameters – A pilot study 
Ancient Science of Life  2008;27(3):24-30.
Lauha Bhasma is the most widely used bhasma preparation in therapeutics, but till date the temperature pattern to prepare Lauha Bhasma in electric muffle furnace is not fixed. So in this pilot study an attempt has been made to confirm the appropriate temperature pattern to prepare Lauha Bhasma. And emphasis has been given to evaluate this prepared Lauha Bhasma on classical analytical parameter, which reflects the physical and chemical properties of the Bhasma.
PMCID: PMC3330859  PMID: 22557274
12.  Standardization of Unani Antidiabetic Tablet - Qurse Tabasheer 
Pharmacognosy Research  2016;8(2):147-152.
Quality control of Unani polyherbal formulations is the need of the day for better acceptance of Unani medicine. Qurse Tabasheer (QT) is a Unani polyherbal formulation containing six ingredients, Tabasheer (Siliceous concretions) (Bambosa arundinaceae Retz.), Gule Surkh (Rosa damascena Mill. flower), Gulnar (Punica granatum Linn. flower), Tukhme kahu (Lactuca sativa Linn. seed), Tukhme khurfa (Portulaca oleraceae Linn. seed), and Gile Armani (bole) widely used in treatment of diabetes. The present study was taken up to scientifically evaluate the various physicochemical parameters to standardize the formulation.
To evaluate various physicochemical parameters including ash values, moisture content, extractive values, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance TLC (HPTLC), friability, disintegration, uniformity, and weight variation for standardization of QT.
Materials and Methods:
Ingredients were identified by the experts. The method mentioned in national formulary of Unani Medicine with modification was followed for preparation of the tablets. Physicochemical standards were established for ideal batch of tablets on the basis of set parameters regarding friability, hardness, and disintegration. Various parameters such as organoleptic characters, extractive values for the extract and HPTLC fingerprinting postcompression were carried out for evaluation of QT.
Parameters for loss of weight on drying, pH, ash values, extractive values documented. Qualitative chemical tests indicated the presence of alkaloid, glycoside, tannins, and steroids. TLC and HPTLC fingerprinting studies showing the presence of major peaks were documented. Friability, hardness, and disintegration time of ideal batch was 0.09 ± 0.0057, 4.03 ± 0.087, and 25.57 ± 0.4860 min, respectively, and it was found to be within the set limit. Weight variation was <5%. Total fungal and bacterial counts were found to be within the limit.
Standards were established for poly herbal formulation QT, which may be used as reference for preparation and standardization of QT.
In this work Standardization of anti-diabetic tablet Qurse Tabasheer with diverse ingredients including herbal and mineral origin drugs has been attempted with identification of its ingredients, formulation, physicochemical evaluation and HPTLC finger printing, which may help in preparing consistent and better efficacious formulations.
Abbreviations Used: QT: Qurse Tabasheer TLC: thin layer chromatography HPTLC: high-performance thin layer chromatography WHO: World health organization FRLHT: Foundation for Revitalization of Local Health Traditions Fe2O3: Iron oxide Sio2: Silica CaCo3: Calcium carbonate, Tio2: Titanium Oxide NIUM: National Institute of Unani Medicine #: Mesh size LOD: Loss of weight on drying USP: United state Pharmacopeia UV: Ultra Violet λ: Lambda θ: theta CFU: Colony-forming unit
PMCID: PMC4780142  PMID: 27034607
Physicochemical; Qurse Tabasheer; standardization; tablet; Unani
13.  PA02.04. A comparative study of loha rasayana prepared by ayaskriti and modified method w.s.r. disintegration of Iron. 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S49.
Loha Rasayana one of the important Rasayana referred in Charaka Samhita is known for its Rasayana effect. This approach to the formulations was so rational and perfect that it fulfils the expectation of the scientific masses even also in terms of today's Nanoparticle theory. This technique got improvised with time and experience and is now used to make the Bhasmas. Purpose of present study was to scrutinize the validation of the process referred in Charaka Samhita to render the metal therapeutically suitable to the body and procedure by which the Bhasmas are prepared and to analyse them on ancient and modern parameters.
•Loha Rasayana was prepared as per Cha.Chi. 13/1523 by using Ayaskriti. •Samples were collected and subjected to analysis at different interval of time to trace the ongoing changes in the medicine. •Loha Rasayana was analytically compared with the Bhasma and also with a sample of Loha Rasayana prepared by using Bhasma on ancient and modern parameters. •The samples were subjected to XRD, ICPAES, SEM, Organoleptic tests, Physico chemical, Assay of Iron Content, Particle size, TLC and Alcohol Content.
Analytical Tests: LRA LRB Particle Size(200) 68.0% 88%, Particle Size (325) 4% 7%, TLC (Rf) 0.25 0.024, Alcohol content %2.12% 4.28%, ICP AES (Fe) % 66.45% 51.32%, Total Iron Content %36.40 43.50, Ferrous Content %7.23 7.09, Ferric Content % 29.49 37.91, XRD Hematite & Magnetite Hematite
Submersion of Iron in Acidic media for 12 months reduced Iron to 68% and 88% of the Ayaskriti and Bhasma to pass through 200 mess size. Alcohol content of the samples was well within the limit (2.12% and 4.28) and Ferrous content were found to increase in both samples to 7.23% & 7.09%.
PMCID: PMC4147520
Ancient Science of Life  1996;16(1):26-33.
Samples of marketed Lauha bhasma from different manufactures were evaluated chemically. Apart from the 81 -85% iron content, the 15-19% other constituents were determined therein. Ferrous ferric and total iron in a single aliquot were determined spectrophotometrically, Qualitative and chromatographic analysis indicate the presence of sodium, potassium, calcium copper and cobalt in the samples, silicious matter and traces of ascorbic acid were present while tannin was absent in Lauha bhasma . Quantitatively sodium and potassium were determined by flame spectrometry. Upon fractionation, water soluble and acid soluble contents were determined.
PMCID: PMC3331142  PMID: 22556767
15.  Toxicity study of Lauha Bhasma (calcined iron) in albino rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2016;35(3):159-166.
Lauha Bhasma (LB) is a complex herbomineral preparation widely used as an Ayurvedic hematinic agent. It is an effective remedy for chronic fever (jīrṇa jvara), phthisis (kṣaya), Breathlessness (śvāsa) etc., and possesses vitality enhancing (vājīkara), strength promoting and anti aging (rasāyana) properties.
The present work was conducted to establish the safety aspects of the use of Lauha bhasma.
Setting and Design:
LB was prepared by Ayurvedic procedures of purification (śodhana), sun drying (bhānupāka), sthālīpāka, followed by repeated calcination (māraṇa) and “nectarization” (amṛtīkaraṇa). The resultant product was subjected to acute and sub acute toxicity studies.
Materials and Methods:
Acute and subacute toxicity study of LB was conducted in albino rats. Criteria for assessment included ponderal changes, change in biochemical parameters viz., LFT and KFT and hematological parameters. Histopathological studies of different organs including liver, kidney, spleen, testis etc., were also conducted to observe pathological changes if any.
In the acute toxicity study, the animal group did not manifest any signs of toxicity and no mortality was observed up to 100 times the therapeutic dose (TD). Significant increase in blood urea (27.83%, P < 0.01), serum creatinine (30.92%, P < 0.05), Aspartate aminotransferase (15.09%, P < 0.05), and serum alkaline phosphatase (27.5%, P < 0.01) was evident in group IV (10 TD). A significant increase in serum total protein (6.04%, P < 0.05) level was observed in group III (5 TD). Histopathological examination of livers in group IV (10 TD) showed mild inflammation in terms of bile stasis, peri-portal hepatic inflammation and sinusoidal congestion; lymphocyte infiltration in kidney and intracellular deposits in the splenic tissue.
Lauha Bhasma was found to be safe at the therapeutic dose and also at five times the therapeutic dose levels. However, alteration in some of the biochemical and haematological parameters along with histopathological findings were evident at the highest dose level.
PMCID: PMC4850776  PMID: 27143800
Biochemical; histopathology; Lauha bhasma; liver; spleen Triphala; toxicity
16.  Development of a chewable tablet from Dugdhāmalakyādi Yoga: An Ayurvedic preparation 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(1):34-37.
Āmalaki (Embelica officinalis Gaertn.) is one of the most celebrated herbs in the Indian system of traditional medicine. It is one of the best Rasāyana-s (health promoting) drug. In Dugdhāmalakyādi yoga, Āmalaki (Embelica officinalis Gaertn.) powder is administered along with milk in case of svarabhaṅga (hoarseness of voice). Here an attempt is made to convert this formulation into chewable tablet without altering its property to improve its palatability, shelf life and fixation of proper therapeutic dose.
Chewable tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. Here, Āmalaki powder was prepared initially and it was mixed with additives and preservatives. Granules were prepared from this mixture by adding binding agent, finally compressed in to tablets.
Results and Conclusion:
The physico-chemical analysis of Āmalaki standard are: Foreign Matter-Nil, Acid insoluble Ash-0.51%w/w, Water soluble Ash-2.01% w/w, Alcoholic Extractives-44.48%, Aqueous Extractives 67.52%, pH-3.1, Moisture content-8.19%. Quality control test for chewable tablet was carried out and found satisfactory with general characteristics of tablet viz. hardness 1.8, disintegration time 15-20 min, friability 0.5%, weight variation +/- 3%. The TLC of Āmalaki powder showed 3 spots with Rf value 0.14, 0.4, and 0.73 and the chewable tablets showed 2 spots with Rf value 0.31 and 0.89 under 254 nm. The adaptation of modern techniques or methods to convert the Ayurvedic formulations without altering its therapeutic property is necessary to made them suitable for the present trends of newer drug delivery dosage forms.
PMCID: PMC3733205  PMID: 23929992
Embelica officinalis Gaertn; chewable tablets; Dugdhāmalakyādi yoga
17.  Comparative study on Kasisa Bhasma prepared by two different methods 
Ancient Science of Life  2011;31(2):62-72.
Preparation of bhasma (calcined powder of metal/minerals) includes various processing steps like purification (Shodhana), levigation (Bhavana),calcinations cycle(Marana), improving quality and removing blemishes (Amritikarana) etc, processing of bhasma aims at formation of herbo-mineral complex molecule which can act in minimal dosage, palatable, easy for assimilation, highly efficacious with minimal or no complication. Although the most important equipment mentioned for Marana i.e. cow dung cakes and some type of woods are not only difficult to collect but also expensive and create pollution during puta and it's difficult task to give controlled heat in traditional method. Hence, a Modified Portable Bhasma Nirman Yantra (MPBNY) was prepared for puta (equipment for calcination) procedure which is easy to handle, portable and facilitate to supply controlled heat. A comparative study was conducted on Kasisa Bhasma prepared by traditional method and by using MPBNY with special reference to physico-chemical properties. The prepared Kasisa Bhasma was subjected to modern analytical parameters such as A.A.S. (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy), X.R.D. (X-ray Diffraction) and Ayurvedic parameters eg. Rekhapurnatva (bhasma should enters in between lines of finger), Varitaratva (bhasma should float on the surface of water), Niramlatva (bitter less), Apunarbhava (bhasma should not regain its metallic nature after strong heating with jiggery, Abrus precatorius linn., honey and ghee) and Niruttha (bhasma should not regain its metallic nature after strong heating with silver). It was observed that Kasisa Bhasma of both methods possesses similar organoleptic as well as physico-chemical properties.
PMCID: PMC3530270  PMID: 23284208
Modified Portable Bhasma Nirman Yantra; Traditional Puta; Kasisa Bhasma
18.  Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of Dashanga Kwatha Ghana Vati in the management of Urdhwaga Amlapitta (Non-ulcer dyspepsia) 
Ayu  2012;33(2):219-223.
A study has been designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Dashanga Kwatha Ghana Vati in Urdhwaga Amlapitta (non-ulcer Dyspepsia). Randomized single blind, placebo controlled study was conducted in 138 patients attending O.P.D. of department of Basic Principles, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, and grouped into two. Both the groups consumed two tablets of either Dashanga Kwatha Ghana Vati or placebo, twice daily after food for a period of eight weeks. The patients were followed upto four weeks, 110 patients had completed the treatment and no adverse effects were reported during the treatment. Both groups had improved in the clinical symptoms and overall statistical significance was observed in the differences of scores between the two groups.
PMCID: PMC3611627  PMID: 23559793
Dashanga Kwatha Ghana Vati; non-ulcer dyspepsia; Urdhwaga Amlapitta
19.  PA02.12. Toxicity studies on shankha vati 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S57.
Shankha Vati, a classical Ayurvedic formulation that is widely used by the practitioners of Ayurveda, contains a heavy metal i.e. Parada (mercury) and a poisonous herbal drug i.e. Vatsanabha (Aconitum chasmantum Staff.ex.Holmes) along with other ingredients. There are certain apprehensions on this formulation, mainly due to the presence of its ingredient Vatsanabha. Shankha Vati (Bhaishajya Ratnavali 10/186 – 187, also in Ayurvedic Formulary of India Part1), is one of the formulations in which Vatsanabha is used without its usual coingredient and antidote Tankana (borax). With an hypothesis that classical combination of Shankha Vati is not completely safe and there could be some adverse effects due to the presence of poisonous ingredient Vatsanabha in it, and any possible adverse effects of Shankha Vati due to the presence of Vatsanabha will be nullified by the addition of Tankana to the formulation, another modified formulation with the addition of purified Tankana equal to the quantity of Vatsanabha in the classical Shankha Vati, was also taken up for the study.
Acute toxicity study as per OECD Guideline 425, and Chronic toxicity study (90 days with the recovery period of 30 days) as per AYUSH170 guideline (Guidelines for preclinical safety evaluation for Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani drugs and other traditional medicines in India) were carried out. Biochemical and haematological investigations were carried out on 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th days. Histopathological study of acute chronic toxicity study were carried out.
Histopathological study of both acute and chronic toxicity study were also carried out. There were no toxicity related changes found in the animals treated classical Shankha Vati as well as modified Shankha Vati in both acute and chronic toxicity study. Similarly biochemical and haematological investigations also did not toxicity related changes.
Classical formulation of Shankha Vati is completely safe and there is no need to modify the composition to make it safer.
PMCID: PMC4147529
20.  Bioaccessibility of lead and arsenic in traditional Indian medicines 
The Science of the total environment  2011;409(21):4545-4552.
Arsenic and lead have been found in a number of traditional Ayurvedic medicines, and the practice of Rasa Shastra (combining herbs with metals, minerals and gems), or plant ingredients that contain these elements, may be possible sources. To obtain an estimate of arsenic and lead solubility in the human gastrointestinal tract, bioaccessibility of the two elements was measured in 42 medicines, using a physiologically-based extraction test. The test consisted of a gastric phase at pH 1.8 containing organic acids, pepsin and salt, followed by an intestinal phase, at pH 7 and containing bile and pancreatin. Arsenic speciation was measured in a subset of samples that had sufficiently high arsenic concentrations for the X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis used. Bioaccessible lead was found in 76% of samples, with a large range of bioaccessibility results, but only 29% of samples had bioaccessible arsenic. Lead bioaccessibility was high (close to 100%) in a medicine (Mahayograj Guggulu) that had been compounded with bhasmas (calcined minerals), including naga (lead) bhasma. For the samples in which arsenic speciation was measured, bioaccessible arsenic was correlated with the sum of As(V)–O and As(III)–O and negatively correlated with As–S. These results suggest that the bioaccessible species in the samples had been oxidized from assumed As–S raw medicinal ingredients (realgar, As4S4, added to naga (lead) bhasma and As(III)–S species in plants). Consumption at recommended doses of all medicines with bioaccessibile lead or arsenic would lead to the exceedance of at least one standard for acceptable daily intake of toxic elements.
PMCID: PMC3224858  PMID: 21864885
Arsenic; Lead; Bioaccessibility; Ayurvedic; Speciation; Risk
Ancient Science of Life  2006;25(3-4):57-63.
Metals and minerals are used profusely in practice of Ayurveda after proper incineration by the name of Bhasma. Some metals and minerals have the potency to produce toxic effects in human being. In this paper safety and toxicity profiles of Tamra Bhasma (incinerated copper, Cu), Lauha Bhasma (incinerated iron, Fe), and Yashada Bhasma (incinerated Zinc, Zn) has been presented, which reveal no serious deleterious effects on body function as a whole.
PMCID: PMC3335224  PMID: 22557208
Toxicity; Metal; Ayurveda; Tamra (Copper); Lauha (Iron); Yashada (Zinc)
Ancient Science of Life  1995;15(2):140-144.
After analyzing the Lauha Bhasma samples qualitatively and quantitatively, in-vivo studies on healthy adult male rabbits were carried out. Randomly selected anaemic rabbits were divided into different groups and three variants of Lauha Bhasma and ferrous sulphate sample were administered to each group. The effect of each formulation was monitored by measuring the haemoglobin (Hb) content spectrophotometrically (cyanomethaemoglobin method). Increase in the haemoglobin content was found to be significant in case of the ayurvedic formulations as compared to the ferrous sulphate sample.
PMCID: PMC3331201  PMID: 22556733
23.  Review of research works done on Tamra Bhasma [Incinerated Copper] at Institute for Post-Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar 
Ayu  2013;34(1):21-25.
The metal, Tamra though mentioned in Ayurveda with a wide range of therapeutic utilities; is attributed with Ashta Maha Dosha. Hence, one should be cautious while using Tamra Bhasma. Considering the significance of Tamra in therapeutics, many studies have been carried out at different centers of India. Aim of the present study was to compile such available research works done on Tamra in the Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana (RS and BK), IPGT and RA, Jamnagar and provide brief information about pharmaceutical, analytical, and pharmacological studies. Total eleven studies on Tamra Bhasma, which revalidated the impact of classical guidelines, safety issues, and therapeutic utilities, were screened from PG Department of RS and BK, Institute for Post-Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. All studies revealed that Tamra Bhasma is safe clinically, experimentally at Therapeutic Equivalent Dose (TED) levels as no toxic hazards were reported during the treatment period. In all aspects (pharmaceutical, pharmacological, and clinical) Somnathi Tamra Bhasma has proven to be better than Tamra Bhasma. The clinical efficacy of Tamra Bhasma has been evaluated in Shvasa, Kasa, Yakrit Pliha Vriddhi, Grahani, etc. conditions. Satisfactory responses with a decrease in the intensity of signs and symptoms were reported in all the studies. Though certain limitations were observed in these researches, the results can be considered as a lead for further well stratified studies covering larger population. No adverse effects were reported in any of these studies.
PMCID: PMC3764875  PMID: 24049401
Bhasma; Grahani; Rasa Shastra; safety; Somanathi Tamra; Tamra toxicity
24.  PA01.27. Standardization of ayurvedic formulation ‘eladi vati’ 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S77.
Contamination, deterioration and variation in composition problem of herbal medicines can be resolved by developing physico chemical fingerprints for the standardization of the drugs and comparing them with the reference authentic drugs, variation between preparations from different companies and by evaluating batch-to-batch changes during long term storage.
In present context we had standardized the ayurvedic preparation Eladi vati by using chemical markers. This vati and individual herbs had been evaluated for various physicochemical parameters, in process evaluation parameters, TLC (as identification of active principles), quantitative determination of marker compounds by HPLC method, determination of microbial contamination and toxic heavy metals by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The piperine, gallic acid and glycyrrhizic acid were quantitatively determined. Gynaecology were consulted for relevant information.
The results obtained with individual herbs had been compared with standards and results obtained with formulation had been compared with the other similar vati formulations available in the market. The results are almost alike in the Piperine, Glycyrrhizic acid and Gallic acid content. The concentration of heavy metals and microbial contamination were found under limit in ppm and colony forming units per gm respectively.
The method can be suggested for effective quality control of herbal products and will establish standardization parameters for identification, quantification and purity determinations.
PMCID: PMC3800958
25.  Efficacy of Trikatrayadi Lauha in Panduroga with reference to Iron Deficiency Anemia 
Ayu  2012;33(1):62-67.
The common nutritional deficiency, iron deficiency, causes Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) throughout the world especially in the developing countries. In Ayurveda, different herbal, mineral or herbomineral drugs have been emphasized to combat anemia (Panduroga). Trikatrayadi Lauha and Fersolate-CM (a modern medicine taken as standard control) were administered to the patients to evaluate their role in Panduroga. A simple random sampling method was followed for the clinical study. The 56 iron deficiency anemic patients of both sexes and age group between 16 to 70 years divided into two groups – Group-A (n=34) and Group-C (n=22) were treated with Trikatrayadi lauha and Fersolate-CM, respectively. Both drugs provided significant effect on the signs and symptoms of Shrama (fatigue), Shwasa (dyspnea on exertion), Daurbalya (weakness), Pandu Varna (pallor/yellowish-whitish), Hridspandana (palpitation), Hatanala (diminished digestive capacity), Bhrama (giddiness), Aruchi (anorexia), Arohana Ayasa (exhaustion during climbing), Shiroruja (headache) and Shotha (edema). Trikatrayadi Lauha provided significant results on Hb gm%, RBC, PCV, MCV, serum iron, percent transferrin saturation and TIBC where as insignificant changes were found in MCH and MCHC. Fersolate-CM provided significant results on Hb gm%, RBC, PCV, MCV, MCH, serum iron, percent transferrin saturation and TIBC whereas insignificant change was found in MCHC. Trikatrayadi Lauha showed significant results on Panduroga and Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA).
PMCID: PMC3456866  PMID: 23049186
Anemia; Fersolate-CM; iron deficiency anemia; Panduroga; Trikatrayadi Lauha

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