Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other.
Tugaksheeree; Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn. Starch; Amlapitta
Amlapitta is a very common disease caused by Vidagdha Pitta with features such as Amlodgara, Hrid Kantha Daha, and Avipaka. This is a burning problem of the society. Irregular and improper food habits, and busy stressful lifestyle is one of the main culprit. Amlapitta is the GI disorder described in Ayurvedic texts that closely resembles with Gastritis in modern science. In chronic stage, it may lead to ulcerative conditions. In this study, total 41 patients were registered and were randomly divided into two groups. In group A, Shatapatrayadi
churna tablet and in group B Patoladi Yoga tablet were given for 1 month. The Nidana, signs, and symptoms were observed carefully to get idea about the Samprapti of the disease. The effect of Patoladi Yoga on Roga Bala is 65.79%, 62.11% on Agni Bala, and 63.35% on Deha and Chetasa bala. The overall relief was 63.75%. The effect of Shatapatrayadi tablet on Roga Bala was 71.94%, 73.15% on Agni Bala, and 77.68% on Deha and Chetas Bala. The overall relief was 74.25%.
Amlapitta; gastritis; Patoladi yoga; Shatapatrayadi churna
A study has been designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Dashanga Kwatha Ghana Vati in Urdhwaga Amlapitta (non-ulcer Dyspepsia). Randomized single blind, placebo controlled study was conducted in 138 patients attending O.P.D. of department of Basic Principles, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, and grouped into two. Both the groups consumed two tablets of either Dashanga Kwatha Ghana Vati or placebo, twice daily after food for a period of eight weeks. The patients were followed upto four weeks, 110 patients had completed the treatment and no adverse effects were reported during the treatment. Both groups had improved in the clinical symptoms and overall statistical significance was observed in the differences of scores between the two groups.
Dashanga Kwatha Ghana Vati; non-ulcer dyspepsia; Urdhwaga Amlapitta
AmlaPitta and ParinamaSula are two major diseases encountered by present day physicians. This article describes the clinical and demographic aspects of AmlaPitta and ParinamaSula.
The efficacy of Vasa (Adhatoda vasica) in the form of syrup against Non-ulcer Dyspepsia (Amiapitta) through a clinical trial is attempted here. This trial showed hopeful results. The drug has reduced the total and free HCL in the patients of hyperacidity and hyperchlorhydria.
A clinical trial was carried out on 30 patients of Amlapitta aged between 20 to 35 years with complaints of Avipaka, hrit-kanthadaha, tikta-amlodgara, utklesa, udarasula, adhmana and aruchi, who were registered from OPD and IPD of Gopabandhu Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Puri. They were equally divided into three groups Chincha kshara, Kadali kshara and placebo (who were administered with fresh wheat powder) for 30 days in a dose of 500 mg thrice daily with water. Investigations was done in order to exclude upper gastrointestinal tract ulcer, carcinoma in stomach, cholecystitis, carcinoma gall bladder, and heart diseases. The clinical assessments were carried out on the 30th day by subjective and objective parameters and it was inferred that both Chincha kshara and Kadali kshara were effective and reduced the symptoms of amlapitta. Chincha kshara was found to be more effective than Kadali kshara. The study shows the effect of Chincha and Kadali kshara which led to cure in 4(40%) and 3(30%) patients respectively, and maximum improvement in 4(40%) and 5(50%) patients affected with amlapitta disease, respectively. No untoward effect was noticed due to administration of ksharas during the clinical trial period.
Adhmana; Amlapitta; Chincha kshara; Kadali kshara; Udarasula
A total of 36 patients of Amlapitta were selected for the clinical study. Vasa was given to 20 of them having hyperacidity and hyperchlorhydria. The patients were mainly of Urdhvaga Amlapitta. A symptomatic improvement was observed in the patients. Udgara and Vamana were considered as the presenting features of Amlapitta. A 60 ml syrup of dry leaves of Vasa (30 gm crude drug) was given to each patient in 4 divided doses for a duration of 6 weeks. Effect was assessed in terms of clinical symptomatology, free acid and total acid, in gastric juice.
A narcotic or a non-narcotic analgesic that would not cause respiratory depression and addiction in may be used as an alternative to morphine. In Ayurveda a large number of indigenous drugs have been mentioned possessing the analgesic properties e.g Guggul, Erand, Rasna, Bhringaraja, Methika, palandu and prasikayavani. Total alcoholic extracts of Bhringaraja (Eclipta alba) was undertaken to study the analgesic activity in albino rats and albino mice by using different standard experimental models.
In clinical practice, Guna which are to be with Bhisak are mainly the Paradi Gunas which can also be called as Miscellaneous Gunas. As rightly quoted by Acarya Caraka, for getting success in the treatment Paradi Gunas are the best. The Sutra quotes “Sidhyupaya Cikitsayam” which means that Cikitsa i. e. Dhatusamya will be done mainly with the help of Paradi Gunas. Thus in this study an attempt was made to know the comparative effect of Haritaki and Saindhava lavana alone and Samyukta effect in Kaphaja Kasa. Three groups were made for proper evaluation of the therapy. In Group-A Haritaki Tablet 2 gm/ twice a day (500 mg tablet × 4), In Group-B Saindava Lavana Curna 2 gm/ twice a day and in Group-C Haritaki + Saindhava lavana Tablet 4 gm/twice a day (500 mg tablet × 8) was given. Results were assessed after 7 days with the help of a specially prepared proforma. The hematological, Urine and Stool investigations were carried out. In subjective and objective criterias, significant results were found in Group-C as compared to Group-A and Group-B. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the combined (Samyoga) effect of Haritaki and Saindhava lavana is much efficient than the single drug therapy.
Guna; Haritaki; Paradi Guna; Saindhava lavana; Samyoga
The various aspects of theory and treatment of Amlapitta and Parinamasula are presented in this paper.
The authors have developed a personality scale to assess Tridoshas i.e. Vata, Pitta, and Kapha from psychological perspective in human beings. The Tridoshas are composed of the Pancha Mahabhutas, but one or the other Dosha is dominant singularly or in combination. There can never be a state when one or the other Pancha Mahabhutas and consequently the Tridoshas are absent totally. All five are essential to sustain life. Vata Dosha is composed of Akasa and Vayu Mahabhuta. Pitta Dosha is composed of Tejas or Agni and Ap Mahabhuta. Kapha Dosha is composed of Ap and Prithvi Mahabhuta. Although Tridosha is studied, understood, and applied in Ayurveda, the present authors have tried to validate the same from the domain of psychology. Since the authors are not from the domain of Ayurveda but of Psychology, there are some constructs that are not amenable for psychological testing which have been ignored. Only those constructs that can be used by psychologists to assess the psychological aspects of the Dosha Prakriti have been used to build items for the assessment of personality. In this process, the psychometric properties of the scale are established. The scale assesses the psychological manifestation of the Tridoshas, which was the basic objective. The standardization procedure involved in the development of the Mysore Psychological Tridosha Scale is herewith delineated.
Ayurveda; Kapha; Pitta; personality assessment; psychometric scale; Tridosha; Vata
In the formation of a principle, the experimental study plays a pivotal role. After repeated experiments under the same conditions, if one finds the same results, then a principle is formed. Ayurvedic principles which were formulated on the basis of keen observations and through special senses need to be reassessed through contemporary scientific tools. The principles of Ushna (hot) and Sheeta (cold) Gunas (properties) need to be assessed and evaluated through various animal experiments so as to suggest parameters which can be suitable for the evolution of these Gunas. The present study is an attempt to find out the possibility of employing simple experimental parameters to assess these Gunas in selected drug substances and the data generated through this study were analyzed. The obtained results are encouraging to develop the same. All details are presented in this paper.
Parameters; Sheeta Guna; Ushna Guna
Eclipta prostrate (L.) L. (Asterceae) is a valuable plant used in the treatment of various human ailments in Ayurveda and Siddha systems. Nomenclatural confusion prevails as different plants are mentioned in Indian medical literature as Bhringaraja and Karisalahganni. It is evident from the present study that the nomenclature Bhringaraja and Karisalanganni must be restricted only to Eclipta prostrate (L.) L.
Mandip and Chandola reported that administration of Rasayana (Guduchi and Bhringaraja) after Koshtha Shuddhi with Aragvadha Hima and simultaneous giving of Shirishadi decoction orally and applying of Snuhyadi Lepa externally provided complete remission to 22.6% patients of Vicharchika (Eczema) and checked the recurrences of the disease in the 89.5% patients. As in this group, cure rate was not up to the expectation; therefore, it was thought desirable to see whether performing of Virechana Karma instead of Koshtha Shuddhi prior to the administration of the above drugs enhances the cure rate for the Vicharchika (Eczema) patients. For the present study, 39 patients of Vicharchika (Eczema) were registered, of which 32 patients completed the full course of the treatment. These patients were given Virechana after preparing with the proper internal Snehana, Abhyanga, and Svedana as per classical method. After the Samsarjana Krama, they were administered the Shirishadi decoction and Guduchi-Bhringraja Rasayana powder orally with simultaneous local application of Snuhyadi Lepa on the eczematous lesions. The results of this study showed that when Virechana Karma was performed prior to the administration of Guduchi-Bhringaraja Rasayana and Shirishadi decoction orally and SnuhyadiLepa externally, it not only increased the cure rate to 81.3% in the patients of Vicharchika (Eczema) but also checked the recurrences to great extent as only negligible number of the patients reported the recurrence.
Eczema; Koshtha Shuddhi; Rasayana; Vicharchika; Virechana Karma
New anti-malarial regimens are urgently needed in sub-Saharan Africa because of the increase in drug resistance. We investigated the safety and efficacy of azithromycin or artesunate combined with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine used for treatment of malaria in pregnant women in Blantyre, Malawi.
This was a randomized open-label clinical trial, conducted at two rural health centers in Blantyre district, Malawi. A total of 141 pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were recruited and randomly allocated to 3 treatment groups: sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP; 3 tablets, 500 mg sulfadoxine and 25 mg pyrimethamine per tablet); SP plus azithromycin (1 g/day×2 days); or SP plus artesunate (200 mg/day×3 days). Women received two doses administered at least 4 weeks apart. Heteroduplex tracking assays were performed to distinguish recrudescence from new infections. Main outcome measures were incidence of adverse outcomes, parasite and fever clearance times and recrudescence rates. All treatment regimens were well tolerated. Two women vomited soon after ingesting azithromycin. The parasite clearance time was significantly faster in the SP-artesunate group. Recrudescent episodes of malaria were less frequent with SP-azithromycin [Hazard Ratio 0.19 (95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.63)] and SP-artesunate [Hazard Ratio 0.25 (95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.65)] compared with SP monotherapy. With one exception (an abortion in the SP-azithromycin group), all adverse pregnancy outcomes could be attributed to known infectious or obstetrical causes. Because of the small sample size, the effect on birth outcomes, maternal malaria or maternal anemia could not be evaluated.
Both SP-artesunate and SP-azithromycin appeared to be safe, well tolerated and efficacious for the treatment of malaria during pregnancy. A larger study is needed to determine their safety and efficacy in preventing poor birth outcomes.
The purpose of this study was compare of daily iron supplementation in three time frames- daily, weekly and three time weekly supplementation in preventing anemia in healthy pregnant women.
The present study was a prospective simply randomized clinical trial. During January 2006- January 2008, 150 healthy pregnant women without anemia, in their 16th week of pregnancy were randomly allocated into three equal groups. The first group (n = 50) received a 50 mg-ferrous sulfate tablet daily, second group (n = 50) received a 50 mg-ferrous sulfate tablet three times a week, and the third group (n = 50) received two 50 mg-ferrous sulfate tablets (100 mg) weekly, respectively for 12 consecutive weeks. Serum hemoglobin, ferritin, and iron were measured before and after the supplementation. Paired t and ANOVA tests were used as appropriated.
There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-treatment hemoglobin levels with iron supplementation in the three group (P = 0.518, P = 0.276, respectively). The mean serum iron level before and after treatment with iron supplementation in the three groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.962, P = 0.970, respectively). Although the mean serum ferritin level before and after treatment with iron supplementation was statistically significant in the three groups, no significant differences were found comparing the three groups (P = 0.827, P = 0.635 respectively).
This results suggested, three times a week or weekly iron supplementation is as effective as daily supplementation for healthy pregnant women without anemia.
Ayurveda refers to bronchial asthma as Tamaka Swasa and it is well explained in Charaka Samhita. It contributes several modalities of the treatment for Swasa roga(asthma). Among all modalities of treatment, polyherbal combinations are said to be well-accepted, safe and effective in asthma. A study was carried out in 40 patients of either sex in between the age of 15-65 years to assure the clinical response of Padmapatradi yoga in bronchial asthma (Tamaka Swasa) at P.G. department of Kayachikitsa, D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag, Karnataka. The sum total properties of Padmapatradi yoga is tikta katu rasa, laghu and tikna guna (light and penetrating properties), ushna virya (hot potency) and vatakaphagna (decrease vata and kapha dosa) Padmapatradi yoga is effective in increased peak expiratory flow rate, breath holding time, and reduces the absolute eosinophil count of studied cases and also found statistically highly significant at p<0.001 level. The drug is quite safe and acts as a bronchodilator, antihistaminic and anti-inflammatory.
Breath holding time; bronchial asthma; dysponea; forced expiratory volume; Padmapatradi yoga; peak expiratory flow rate; Tamaka Swasa; vital capacity
Combination treatments, preferably containing an artemisinin derivative, are recommended to improve efficacy and prevent Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate-amodiaquine (AA) are efficacious regimens that have been widely adopted in sub-Saharan Africa. However, most study designs ignore the effects of these regimens on peripheral parasitaemia in the first 24 hours of therapy. The study protocol was designed to evaluate more closely the early effects and the standard measures of efficacies of these two regimens.
In an open label, randomized controlled clinical trial, children aged 12 months to 132 months were randomized to receive AL (5-14 kg, one tablet; 15-24 kg, two tablets and 25-34 kg, three tablets twice daily) or artesunate (4 mg/kg daily) plus amodiaquine (10 mg/kg daily) for three days. Peripheral blood smears were made hourly in the first 4 hours, 8 h, 16 h, 24 h, and daily on days 2-7, and on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 for microscopic identification and quantification of Plasmodium falciparum.
A total of 193 children were randomized to receive either AL (97) or AA (96). In children that received both medications, early response of peripheral parasitaemia showed that 42% of children who received AL and 36.7% of those who received AA had an immediate rise in peripheral parasitaemia (0-4 h after treatment) followed by a rapid fall. The rise in parasitaemia was significant and seems to suggest a mobilization of asexual parasites from the deep tissues to the periphery. Days 3, 7, 14, 28, and 42 cure rates in the per protocol (PP) population were > 90% in both groups of children. Both drug combinations were well tolerated with minimal side effects.
The study showed the high efficacy of AL and AA in Nigerian children. In addition the study demonstrated the mobilisation of asexual parasites from the deep to the periphery in the early hours of commencing ACT treatment in a subset of patients in both study groups. It is unclear whether the early parasite dynamics discovered in this study play any role in the development of drug resistance and thus it is important to further evaluate this discovery. It may be useful for studies investigating delay in parasite clearance of artemisinin derivatives as a way of monitoring the development of resistance to artemisinin to assess the early effects of the drugs on the parasites.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the incidence, time of onset, and extent of hemoglobin, testosterone, and erythropoietin changes in patients with localized prostate cancer receiving either radiation alone or radiation combined with total androgen blockade (tab).
The study enrolled 35 patients (median age: 69 years) with clinically localized prostate cancer who received 3-dimensional conformal radiation with or without tab. Patients were generally treated with radiation alone (group 1), radiation plus short-term (≤6 months) tab (group 2), or radiation plus long-term (≥2 years) tab (group 3). Serum hemoglobin, testosterone, and erythropoietin in these patients were prospectively evaluated.
The mean baseline serum hemoglobin for group 1 (n = 20), group 2 (n = 6), and group 3 (n = 9) was 149 g/L, 153 g/L, and 143 g/L respectively. We observed no significant decline in serum hemoglobin, testosterone, or erythropoietin among patients treated with radiotherapy alone. A significant drop in serum testosterone was noted in the group 2 and 3 patients within 1 month (p < 0.001), reaching a plateau at approximately 6 months. That change was followed by a significant decline (p < 0.001) in serum hemoglobin at 3–6 months (137 g/L in group 2 and 129 g/L in group 3). We observed a small but statistically significant increase in serum erythropoietin (p < 0.001) of 8 U/L in group 2 and 4 U/L in group 3 after 6 months of tab. No immediate recovery in serum hemoglobin, testosterone, or erythropoietin was observed upon completion of tab.
Although conformal radiotherapy alone for localized prostate cancer had no effect on serum hemoglobin, testosterone, or erythropoietin, tab led to a significant decline in testosterone, which was followed by decline in hemoglobin that was not a result of a deficiency of erythropoietin.
Prostate cancer; anemia; radiotherapy; total androgen blockade
A group of five roots of small plants i.e., Shalaparni, Prshniparni, Brhati, Kantakari and Gokshura or Eranda is known as Laghupanchamula under Mishraka Varga (group of drugs). It is used as such or with Mahat Panchamula i.e., Bilva, Gambhari, Shyonaka, Agnimantha and Patala, constituting Dashamula, a well recognized and popular Ayurvedic preparation or as an ingredient of different dosage forms. Classical texts of Ayurveda differs regarding components of this Mishraka Varga. Four out of five drugs of Laghupanchamula are similar in all the Ayurvedic texts, but either Gokshura or Eranda is considered as the fifth drug. So a comphrenesive review of Veda, Samhita Grantha, Cikitsa Grantha and Nighantus, with regards to synonyms, contents, Guna- Karma, origin of variation in contents and possible thought behind two kinds of Laghupanchamula, to throw light for rational use of either Eranda or Gokshura under Laghupanchamula was conducted. It was observed that both the traditions were in practice however Acharya Kashyapa and Ravigupta were in view of Eranda as a fifth drug of Laghupanchamula where as Acharya Charaka, Sushruta, Vagabhatta, Yogaratnakara and Chakradatta are in favour of Gokshura. Infact, the variation in content depends on the need i.e Dosha, Dushya and Vyadhi.
Brihatpanchamula; Eranda; Gokshura; Laghupanchamula
To study the efficacy of yoga on Gunas (personality) and self esteem in normal adults through a randomized comparative study.
Materials and Methods:
Of the 1228 persons who attended motivational lectures, 226 subjects aged 18–71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga (Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction, and devotional sessions. The comparison group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE). Both groups had supervised practices for one hour daily, six days a week, for eight weeks.
Guna (personality) was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered “The ’Gita” Inventory of Personality” (GIN) to assess Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. Self esteem in terms of competency (COM), global self esteem (GSE), moral and self esteem (MSE), social esteem (SET), family self esteem (FSE), body and physical appearance (BPA), and the lie scale (LIS) were assessed using the self esteem questionnaire (SEQ).
The baseline scores for all domains for both the groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05 independent samples t-test). There were significant pre-post improvements in all domains in both groups (P < 0.001 paired t-test). The number of persons who showed improvement in Sattva and decrease in Tamas was significant in the Y but not in the PE group (McNemar test). The effect size for self esteem in the Y group is greater than for the PE group in three out of seven domains.
This randomized controlled study has shown the influence of Yoga on Gunas and self esteem in comparison to physical exercise.
Guna; self esteem; Yoga
To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure) and general health in normal adults.
Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18–71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE). Both groups had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts) for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Guna (yogic personality) was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI) which assesses Sattva (gentle and controlled), Rajas (violent and uncontrolled) and Tamas (dull and uncontrolled).
The general health status (total health), which includes four domains namely somatic symptoms (SS), anxiety and insomnia (AI), social dysfunction (SF) and severe depression (SP), was assessed using a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ).
Baseline scores for all the domains for both the groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05, independent samples t test). Sattva showed a significant difference within the groups and the effect size was more in the Y than in the PE group. Rajas showed a significant decrease within and between the groups with a higher effect size in the PE group. Tamas showed significant reduction within the PE group only. The GHQ revealed that there was significant decrease in SS, AI, SF and SP in both Y and PE groups (Wilcoxcon Singed Rank t test). SS showed a significant difference between the groups (Mann Whitney U Test).
There was an improvement in Sattva in both the Yoga and control groups with a trend of higher effect size in Yoga; Rajas reduced in both but significantly better in PE than in Yoga and Tamas reduced in PE. The general health status improved in both the Yoga and control groups.
General health; guna; Yoga
To compare three treatment modalities in scabies for safety, efficacy, and economy in a local population of Nagpur.
Materials and Methods:
This was a prospective, randomized, comparative clinical trial conducted in 103 participants, randomly allocated to three groups. First group received benzyl benzoate (BB) 25% lotion, second group received permethrin 5% cream, whereas third group received tablet ivermectin 200 μg/kg as a single dose. The participants were recalled after one week for follow-up evaluation. If there were no signs of cure, the same intervention was repeated. The participants were followed up for two weeks for cure rate, adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring, and postintervention observation. The follow-up was stopped after two weeks.
Fischer's exact test using Graph pad Instat v 3.05.
Ivermectin showed 100% cure rate after two weeks of treatment. Permethrin decreased pruritus by 76% at the end of one week and had significantly better cure rate than ivermectin. At the end of two weeks treatment, this finding was reversed, that is, cure rate in ivermectin group was 100%. For cost-effectiveness analysis, treatment regimens were formulated hypothetically for comparison from Markov population tree for decision analysis. It was found that BB and ivermectin each consecutively for two weeks were most cost effective regimens giving complete cure in four weeks, while ivermectin was the fastest regimen giving the same results in two weeks.
Benzyl benzoate as first line intervention and ivermectin in the remaining gave best cost-effective results in the study patients of scabies.
Efficacy; economic analysis; scabies; treatment
Catamenial epilepsy is a kind of epilepsy, known in this name, when the periodicity of the exacerbation of the seizure is in association with menstural cycle. The present study examined the progesterone effectiveness as a complementary treatment in women with intractable catamenial epilepsy.
Materials and Methods:
The present study was conducted as a double-blind randomized controlled trial on 38 women with intractable catamenial epilepsy. Patients were assessed in two groups: The case group received in addition to AEDs, two (Mejestrol) 40 mg progesterone tablets in the second half of the cycle from 15th to 25th day. And the control group received in addition to AEDs, two placebo tablets daily. Age, BMI, epilepsy duration, types of the drugs used, progesterone level, and the number of the seizures in 3 months before and after the study were compared.
Based on the results of which there was no statistically significant difference in regard to age, BMI, epilepsy duration, types of the drugs used, progesterone level between the case and the control groups (P-value > 0.05). The number of the seizures after treatment has significantly decreased compared to before-treatment state. The degree of decreasing in the case group receiving the progesterone was higher than in the control group receiving the placebo. The difference, thus, is significant, based on statistical tests (P-value = 0.024).
Based on the findings of this study using progesterone in women with intractable catamenial epilepsy has a significant effect on the degree of decreasing in the number of the seizures.
Catamenial epilepsy; epilepsy; progesterone; seizures
We investigated the clinical efficacy and safety of HESA-A (a drug of herbal-marine origin) in the treatment of age related macular degeneration (AMD). In a randomized double blind clinical trial 280 eyes of 280 (157 F, 123 M) patients with wet and dry AMD were randomly assigned in treatment or placebo groups. Patients in treatment group received HESA-A tablet 25 mg/Kg twice a day orally and controls received placebo with the same method for 4 weeks. Visual acuity at baseline and after one month of treatment was measured and compared between two groups. All patients were followed up for 5 months after treatment. Mean patients' age was 69.06±8.49 years. At the end of study visual acuity improved significantly from 1.69±0.65 LogMar to 1.03± 0.40 LogMar in treatment group but not in controls (P: 0.000 and P: 0.67 in treatment and control groups respectively). No drug reaction or recurrence was reported during the study and 5-month post treatment follow up period in HESA-A treated group. This study showed significant efficacy and safety of HESA-A in improvement of visual acuity in AMD patients in short term.
age related macular degeneration; HESA-A