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1.  Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration in Submucosal Lesion 
Clinical Endoscopy  2012;45(2):117-123.
A submucosal lesion, more appropriately a subepithelial lesion, is hard to diagnose. Endoscopic ultrasonography is good to differentiate the nature of submucosal lesion. For definite diagnosis, tissue acquisition from submucosal lesion is necessary, and many methods have been introduced for this purpose mainly by endoscopic ultrasonography, such as endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), EUS-guided Trucut Biopsy (TCB), and EUS-guided fine needle biopsy (FNB). For EUS-FNA, adequate processing of specimen is important, and for proper diagnosis of EUS-FNA specimen, both cytologic and histologic examinations, including immunohistochemical stains, are important. All gastrointestinal stromal tumors have some degree of malignant potential, so there have been a lot of efforts and methods to increase diagnostic yields of submucosal lesion. We herein review the current hot topics on EUS-FNA for submucosal tumor, such as needles, on-site cytopathologists, immunohistochemical stains, EUS-TCB, EUS-FNB, Ki-67 labelling index, DOG1, and combining EUS-FNA and EUS-TCB.
doi:10.5946/ce.2012.45.2.117
PMCID: PMC3401613  PMID: 22866250
Endoscopic ultrasound; EUS-guided fine needle aspiration; Submucosal tumors; Gastrointestinal stromal tumors
2.  Atypical presentation of myoepithelial hamartoma in the antrum of the stomach, mimicking a gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a case report 
Introduction
A myoepithelial hamartoma is a very uncommon submucosal tumor of the stomach. In an atypical presentation in our case, it mimicked the clinical presentation of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of a hamartoma of the stomach reported from Bangladesh and one of few cases described in the literature.
Case presentation
We describe the case of a 35-year-old Bengali man with recurrent epigastric pain and occasional vomiting with radiographic findings of a gut mass. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a healed duodenal ulcer, deformed ‘D’ bulb and a submucosal swelling in his antrum. Ultrasonography and a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan confirmed the presence of a well-defined, oval gut mass in his upper abdomen, compressing his duodenum. The mass had a mixed density and was considered to probably be a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology was inconclusive. After resection at laparotomy, a histopathological examination revealed a myoepithelial hamartoma. These tumors are characterized by hypertrophic smooth muscle bands surrounding varied epithelial elements, which may be arranged in diverse patterns such as simple glandular structure, Brunner’s gland, pancreatic ducts and sometimes pancreatic acini. This case report is complemented by a literature review relating to the atypical presentation.
Conclusion
Gut masses need to be investigated thoroughly and the possibility of rare tumors should not be excluded. Although the recommended treatment for such lesions is limited resection, radical procedures such as a pancreaticoduodenectomy are often performed when the lesion occurs in the periampullary area because of preoperative misdiagnosis as a carcinoma. Therefore, it is essential for clinicians to maintain current knowledge of the lesion to avoid inaccurate diagnosis and prevent unnecessary surgery.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-382
PMCID: PMC3514267  PMID: 23146179
3.  Diagnosis of metastatic fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration 
CytoJournal  2011;8:2.
The fibrolamellar variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is distinguished from other hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) by its unique clinical and pathologic features. Cytological features for this tumor on fine needle aspiration (FNA) of primary tumors have been described earlier. We present here a unique case of metastatic FL-HCC diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of mediastinal adenopathy. A 32-year-old woman with a history of oral contraceptive use presented with nausea and severe abdominal pain but no ascites or stigmata of cirrhosis. She had a past history of resection of a liver lesion. Serial computed tomography scans revealed mediastinal lymphadenopathy and the patient was referred for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). A transesophageal EUS-FNA was performed and tissue was collected for cytological evaluation by an on-site pathologist with no knowledge of prior history. Based on morphology correlated with prior history received later, a final diagnosis of metastatic FL-HCC in the retrocardiac lymph node was rendered on the EUS-FNA samples. There are very few reports in the literature where a diagnosis of FL-HCC is rendered at unusual sites. This case highlights that EUS-FNA is a relatively non-invasive, rapid, accurate and effective modality in obtaining tissue from otherwise hard-to-reach areas. It also suggests that metastasis of FL-HCC can be observed in mediastinal nodes and that diagnosis based on cytological features can be rendered even when the tumor is identified at unusual locations.
doi:10.4103/1742-6413.76495
PMCID: PMC3045764  PMID: 21369523
Metastatic fibrolamellar variant of hepatocellular carcinoma; endoscopic ultrasound guidance; fine needle aspiration
4.  Foregut duplication of the stomach diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology: case report and literature review 
Gastric duplication cyst (GDC) with a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium is an uncommon malformation supposed to originate from a respiratory diverticulum arising from the ventral foregut. Morphologic appearance of GDCs is variable, depending on the density of their contents. GDCs are often misdiagnosed as solid masses by imaging techniques, and as a consequence they may be wrongly overtreated. We report our case of a 56-year-old man with a 5 cm hypoechoic mass of the gastroesophageal junction, incidentally detected by transabdominal ultrasonography. Neither transabdominal ultrasonography nor magnetic resonance clearly outlined the features of the lesion. The patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), which showed a hypoechoic mass arising from the fourth layer of the anterior gastric wall, just below the gastroesophageal junction. According to EUS features, a diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor was suggested. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed a diagnosis of GDC with pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium. We therefore performed an endoscopically-assisted laparoscopic excision of the cyst.
In conclusion, whenever a subepithelial gastric mass is found in the upper part of the gastric wall, a duplication cyst, although rare, should be considered. In this case, EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology could provide a cytological diagnosis useful to arrange in advance the more adequate surgical treatment.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-11-33
PMCID: PMC3599514  PMID: 23374143
Gastric duplication cyst; Foregut duplication cysts; Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium; Laparoscopic surgery; Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology
5.  Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology and biopsy in the evaluation of lymphoma 
Endoscopic Ultrasound  2012;1(1):17-22.
Accurate diagnosis and subtyping of lymphoma have important prognostic implications and are generally required for treatment planning. Histological assessment, immunophenotyping, and genetic studies are usually necessary. Endoscopic ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNAC) is a minimally invasive technique widely used for the evaluation of deep-seated benign and malignant lesions. However, the value of cytological samples in lymphoma diagnosis is still a matter of debate. Endoscopic ultrasound guided-fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNAB) can provide tissue core samples that may help overcome the limitations of cytology. The aim of this review is to summarize the available literature regarding EUS-FNAC and EUS-FNAB for the diagnosis and subtyping of lymphoma. In addition, we discuss its usefulness in the management of primary extra-nodal lymphomas, as well as technical issues that may influence sample quality.
doi:10.7178/eus.01.004
PMCID: PMC4062204  PMID: 24949331
endoscopic ultrasound; fine needle aspiration; biopsy; cytology; lymphoma
6.  Gastric Schwannoma Diagnosed by Endoscopic Ultrasonography-Guided Trucut Biopsy 
Clinical Endoscopy  2013;46(3):284-287.
Schwannomas of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are rare subepithelial tumors comprising approximately 3.3% to 12.8% of all mesenchymal tumors of the GI tract. On endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) they are seen as hypoechoic tumors arising most commonly from the 4th proper muscle layer. Although EUS helps to distinguish tumor characteristics, tissue sampling is required for differentiation with other more common tumors such as GI stromal tumors. Both EUS-guided fine needle aspiration and EUS-guided trucut biopsy (EUS-TCB) can be used for tissue sampling. However, only EUS-TCB allows core biopsy and a high yield of immunohistochemical staining. We report a case of a gastric schwannoma diagnosed by EUS-TCB.
doi:10.5946/ce.2013.46.3.284
PMCID: PMC3678068  PMID: 23767041
Gastric schwannoma; Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided trucut biopsy
7.  Two Cases of Retroperitoneal Liposarcoma Diagnosed Using Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration (EUS-FNA) 
This report describes our experience with two cases that were ultimately diagnosed as retroperitoneal liposarcoma using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). Case 1 is that of a 54-year-old woman with chief complaints of nausea and abdominal distention. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large (15 cm diameter) tumor, which was significantly compressing the stomach and apparently occupied the entire left abdominal cavity. Although advanced primary gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) or retroperitoneal tumor was inferred as the differential diagnosis, a definitive diagnosis was difficult using imaging alone. After EUS-FNA was done, the tumor was diagnosed histopathologically as high-grade liposarcoma. Case 2 is that of a 73-year-old man. Abdominal ultrasonography and CT showed a 6 cm diameter tumor within the pelvic cavity. The tumor had high MRI signal-intensity on both T1 and T2 images. Endorectal EUS showed a hyperechoic mass. The images suggested lipoma or liposarcoma containing lipoma-like components. Myxoid liposarcoma was revealed by subsequent EUS-FNA. Performing EUS-FNA was clinically useful for determining the subsequent therapeutic strategy in these cases where a tumor of unknown origin existed in the retroperitoneum.
doi:10.1155/2009/673194
PMCID: PMC2765729  PMID: 19859574
8.  Preoperative diagnosis of a mediastinal granular cell tumor by EUS-FNA: a case report and review of the literature 
CytoJournal  2005;2:8.
We report the first case of a posterior mediastinal granular cell tumor initially diagnosed on cytologic material obtained via endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in a 51-year-old male with a prior history of colon cancer. Aspirates obtained were cellular and composed of polygonal cells with abundant granular cytoplasm and small, round dark nuclei. An immunoperoxidase stain performed on the cell block for antibodies to S-100 protein showed strong, diffuse staining of the cytoplasmic granules. Electron microscopy performed on the cell block revealed numerous cytoplasmic lysosomes. This is the first case report in the English literature of a definitive preoperative diagnosis of a mediastinal granular cell tumor utilizing material obtained via EUS-FNA.
doi:10.1186/1742-6413-2-8
PMCID: PMC1184093  PMID: 15943858
granular cell tumor; EUS-FNA; cytology; mediastinum
9.  Choroidal melanoma metastatizing to the biliary system: A diagnostic dilemma 
Metastatic melanoma to the gall bladder is extremely rare and is associated with a very poor prognosis. We report a case of choroidal melanoma metastatizing to the hepatobiliary system, with an unusual presentation. Our patient presenting with obstructive jaundice was misdiagnosed as having carcinoma of the gall-bladder, but the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma to the gallbladder was confirmed by ultrasonography guided fine needle aspiration cytology (USG-FNAC). On reviewing the past history, the patient had a history of enucleation for choroidal melanoma. Even though the liver ‘is’ a common site for metastasis of choroid melanoma, the patient presenting with a suspected gall bladder mass ‘is’ a rare presentation. Hence, gastrointestinal symptoms and a history of melanoma should be investigated for the presence of gastrointestinal or liver metastases, even if the original primary malignancy was diagnosed years before the patient‘s presentation.
doi:10.4103/0971-5851.65337
PMCID: PMC2930302  PMID: 20838556
Choroidal melanoma; gall bladder; metastases
10.  Yolk Sac Tumour of the Cryptorchid Testis, with an Unusual Presentation — Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology 
Yolk sac tumour is the most common germ cell tumour in infants and children, with a majority of them arising in the gonads. Rare cases of extra – gonadal germ cell tumours have been described in the literature. We are presenting here, a case of a yolk sac tumour of the cryptorchid testis in a 2 year old child, who initially presented with a mass in the left lobe of the liver, with huge ascites and which posed diagnostic difficulties. The mass was diagnosed as hepatoblastoma on Computed Tomography (CT). Subsequently, CT guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) of the liver mass showed the features of a yolk sac tumour. The raised serum Alfa Foetoprotein (AFP) levels corroborated with the cytological diagnosis.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/5331.3163
PMCID: PMC3749658  PMID: 23998088
Alfa foetoprotein; Fine needle aspiration cytology; Cryptorchidism; Yolk sac tumour
11.  CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma 
Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor, accounting for <0.1% of the hypertensive population. Extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas (EAPs) are rarer still, accounting for 10% of all pheochromocytomas. Pheochromocytomas are functional catecholamine-secreting tumors of the paraganglionic chromaffin cells found in the adrenal medulla and the extra-adrenal paraganglia cells. EAPs are readily detected by computed tomography (CT) as soft tissue masses closely associated with the entire length of the abdominal aorta. Here, we present a rare case of EAP in a 45-year-old male hypertensive patient diagnosed by CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology. The smears showed loosely cohesive tumor cells with prominent anisokaryosis and abundant eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm. The diagnosis was later confirmed by histopathology. The present case also highlights the fact that fine needle aspiration of pheochromocytoma is not necessarily contraindicated.
doi:10.4103/0970-9371.66689
PMCID: PMC2964848  PMID: 21042531
CT-guided FNAC; retroperitoneal; pheochromocytoma; paraganglia
12.  Liver metastases of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma with marked nuclear atypia and pleomorphism diagnosed by EUS FNA cytology: a case report with emphasis on FNA cytological findings 
CytoJournal  2006;3:29.
Background
Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare neoplasm. Although this tumor has been well characterized histologically, the morphological patterns in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology have not been well defined. Unlike ductal adenocarcinomas, endocrine tumors, and solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas with their characteristic FNA cytological features, acinar cell carcinomas pose a particular diagnostic challenge by sharing many cytomorphologic features with endocrine tumors of the pancreas.
Case presentation
A 37-year-old man presented with lower chest and left upper quadrant abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed a 7.8 × 7.3 cm irregular, partially cystic mass in the body and tail of the pancreas, and two lesions in the liver compatible with metastases. Subsequently, the patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration on one of the two metastatic liver masses.
FNA cytology revealed abundant, loosely cohesive clusters of malignant epithelial cells with vaguely acinar and trabecular formations. The pleomorphic nuclei had fine granular chromatin and occasionally small nucleoli. There were scant to moderate amounts of cytoplasm. Scattered, strikingly large tumor cells with giant nuclei, prominent mitoses and associated necrosis were evident. A pancreatic endocrine tumor was suspected initially, but acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies.
Conclusion
We describe a case of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma with unusual cytomorphologic features mimicking an endocrine tumor of pancreas, encountered in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of a metastatic liver mass and discuss the diagnostic approach for this unusual pancreatic tumor in fine needle aspiration cytology.
doi:10.1186/1742-6413-3-29
PMCID: PMC1779360  PMID: 17196112
13.  Diagnosis by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration of tuberculous lymphadenitis involving the peripancreatic lymph nodes: A case report 
Pancreatic tuberculosis is an extremely rare form of extrapulmonary disease. The diagnosis preoperatively is difficult because clinical, laboratory and radiologic findings are nonspecific. Published data indicate that these lesions mimic cystic neoplasms of the pancreas and the confirmation of clinical suspicion could only be obtained by an open surgical biopsy. Recently, fine needle aspiration cytology has been shown to be a safe, reliable and cost-effective alternative. We report a new case of a peripancreatic tuberculosis in a 52 year old woman and review the relevant literature, paying special attention to the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i3.474
PMCID: PMC4065909  PMID: 17230623
EUS guided-FNA; Pancreatic; Tuberculosis
14.  Aspiration Cytopathology of Peripancreatic Space: A Clinicoradiologic and Cytopathologic Analyses of 42 Cases 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2013;47(3):258-264.
Background
The pancreas is surrounded by soft tissue known as the peripancreatic space (PPS). Pathologic lesions of the PPS are infrequent and have only rarely been reported in the cytopathology literature.
Methods
A retrospective review of cytopathology files at two large institutions revealed 42 cases of PPS lesions obtained by transabdominal fine needle aspiration (FNA) or endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNA over a 16-year period. Clinicoradiologic findings and follow-up information were also reviewed.
Results
Patients ranged in age from 23-83 years (mean, 60 years) with an equal gender distribution. The major clinical presentations included pain, jaundice, nausea/vomiting, and abnormal liver enzymes. Radiographic characteristics included lymphadenopathy and cystic/solid soft tissue masses with a size range of 1.5 to 8 cm. Cytologically, 4 (9.5%) cases were nondiagnostic, 9 (21.5%) were diagnosed as benign, 4 (9.5%) were atypical or suspicious for cancer, and 25 (59.5%) were malignant. Six of 25 (24%) patients had metastasis of a prior known malignancy.
Conclusions
FNA of PPS masses is a rare occurrence. The majority of lesions are metastatic carcinomas from a variety of primary sites. Flow cytometry and immunoperoxidase studies are useful adjuncts to determine the tumor origin. The sensitivity of PPS aspiration for a malignant diagnosis is 90% with a positive predictive value of 100%.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2013.47.3.258
PMCID: PMC3701822  PMID: 23837019
Peripancreatic space; Cytopathology; Fine needle aspiration; Adenocarcinoma
15.  Performance of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in diagnosing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors 
CytoJournal  2013;10:10.
Background:
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are rare tumors of the pancreas, which are increasingly diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). In this retrospective study, we assessed the performance of EUS-FNA in diagnosing PNETs.
Materials and Methods:
We identified 48 cases of surgically resected PNETs in which pre-operative EUS-FNA was performed. The clinical features, cytological diagnoses, and surgical follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic performance of EUS-FNA was analyzed as compared to the diagnosis in the follow-up. The cases with discrepancies between cytological diagnosis and surgical follow-up were analyzed and diagnostic pitfalls in discrepant cases were discussed.
Results:
The patients were 20 male and 28 female with ages ranging from 15 years to 81 years (mean 57 years). The tumors were solid and cystic in 41 and 7 cases, respectively, with sizes ranging from 0.5 cm to 11 cm (mean 2.7 cm). Based on cytomorphologic features and adjunct immunocytochemistry results, when performed, 38 patients (79%) were diagnosed with PNET, while a diagnosis of suspicious for PNET or a diagnosis of neoplasm with differential diagnosis including PNET was rendered in the 3 patients (6%). One case was diagnosed as mucinous cystic neoplasm (2%). The remaining 6 patients (13%) had non-diagnostic, negative or atypical diagnosis.
Conclusions:
Our data demonstrated that EUS-FNA has a relatively high sensitivity for diagnosing PNETs. Lack of additional materials for immunocytochemical studies could lead to a less definite diagnosis. Non-diagnostic or false negative FNA diagnosis can be seen in a limited number of cases, especially in those small sized tumors.
doi:10.4103/1742-6413.112648
PMCID: PMC3709383  PMID: 23858320
Cytomorphology; fine needle aspiration; immunocytochemistry; neuroendocrine tumor; pancreas
16.  Critical clinical appraisal of the role of computed tomography-guided minimally invasive aspiration cytology in evaluation of retroperitoneal masses 
Context:
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is increasing in popularity as a means of diagnosing mass lesions in retroperitoneal area. With use of radiologic guidance for needle placement, this technique is an effective way to obtain diagnostic material.
Aims:
The aims of the study were (1) to establish the validity and reliability of fine needle aspiration cytology in preoperative diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor, and (2) to compare the significance of cytological diagnosis with histopathological report.
Settings and Design:
A prospective, cross-sectional hospital-based study.
Materials and Methods:
A prospective, cross-sectional study was designed on 45 cases of clinically and radiologically diagnosed retroperitoneal tumor in a tertiary care hospital. Computerized tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous FNA was performed and cytology smears were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain and conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) stain. Smears were broadly categorized into unsatisfactory, benign, suspicious of malignancy and malignant lesion. The cytological diagnosis was compared with subsequent histopathology report.
Statistical Analysis:
Positive and negative predictive values, diagnostic accuracy, chi-square test and others.
Results:
The total number of cases studied was 45, which include both epithelial tumors and mesenchymal tumors. Age group varied from 15 to 70 years. The overall sensitivity in our study to diagnose benign and malignant tumors by FNA cytology is 86% and the specificity is 96% with positive and negative predictive value of 86% and 96%, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy was 93.55% with high statistical significance (P < 0.001).
Conclusions:
FNA cytology is a simple, fast, reliable and less expensive method for diagnosis of various retroperitoneal neoplasms.
doi:10.4103/0971-5851.133723
PMCID: PMC4080665
Computed tomography; fine needle aspiration cytology; histopathology; May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain; retroperitoneal mass
17.  Gallbladder carcinoma: An attempt of WHO histological classification on fine needle aspiration material 
CytoJournal  2013;10:12.
Background:
Carcinoma of the gallbladder (CaGB) is common in India and its prognosis depends primarily on the extent of the disease and histological type. We aim to study the role of guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for diagnosis of CaGB and to evaluate the feasibility of applying world health organization (WHO) classification on fine needle aspiration (FNA) material to predict the outcome of the tumor.
Materials and Methods:
Retrospective cytomorphologic analysis was performed in all cases of CaGB diagnosed by ultrasound (US) guided FNAC over a period of 2 years. A specific subtype was assigned according to WHO classification based on characteristic cytologic features. These included papillary or acinar arrangement, intra and extracellular mucin, keratin, rosettes and columnar, signet ring, atypical squamous, small, clear, spindle and giant cells. Correlation with histopathology was performed when available.
Results:
A total of 541 aspirations with clinical or radiological suspicion of primary CaGB were studied. Of these, 54 aspirates were unsatisfactory. Fifty cases were negative for malignancy. Remaining 437 aspirates were positive for carcinoma. Histopathologic diagnosis was available in 32 cases. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent diagnosis in 86.7% of cases. Mucinous, signet ring, adenosquamous, squamous, small cell, mixed adenoneuroendocrine and undifferentiated carcinoma including spindle and giant cell subtypes were diagnosed identifying specific features on FNAC. Correlation with histopathology was present in all, but one case giving rise to sensitivity of 96.8%. No post-FNA complications were recorded.
Conclusions:
US guided FNAC is a safe and effective method to diagnose CaGB. Although, rare, clinically and prognostically significant variants described in WHO classification can be detected on cytology.
doi:10.4103/1742-6413.113627
PMCID: PMC3709381  PMID: 23858322
Cytomorphology; fine needle aspiration cytology; gallbladder carcinoma; ultrasound; world health organization classification
18.  Sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology 
Sebaceous carcinoma of the ocular adnexa is a malignant neoplasm which has aggressive local behavior and can metastasize to regional lymph nodes and distant organs. It is a malignant neoplasm known to masquerade as other benign and less malignant lesions, resulting in delay in diagnosis and relatively high morbidity and mortality. Aspiration cytological features of this neoplasm have not been well characterized in the literature. We report a case of this tumor diagnosed on fine needle aspiration. Clinically, a diagnosis of chalazion was made and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed. Cytological diagnosis of a malignant tumor with closest resemblance to sebaceous carcinoma was suggested which was confirmed on histopathology. Eyelid reconstruction was done after histopathological confirmation of tumor-free margins. The article highlights the role of FNAC in early diagnosis and subsequent appropriate surgical management of eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma to prevent recurrence and metastasis.
doi:10.4103/0970-9371.93231
PMCID: PMC3307462  PMID: 22438626
Eyelid; fine needle aspiration cytology; sebaceous carcinoma
19.  Fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of parotid lesions 
SUMMARY
Fine-needle aspiration cytology guided by ultrasound imaging is a widely used diagnostic tool to evaluate neoplastic or inflammatory lesions of salivary glands. From February 2002 to February 2008 all the parotid lesions removed surgically in our Unit of Otolaryngology were reviewed. Study focused on sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, predictive values, likelihood ratios, and Kappa statistics for fine-needle aspiration cytology vs histological diagnosis in 176 cases. Fine-needle aspiration cytology sensitivity and specificity were 81% and 99%, respectively. Accuracy for malignancy was 97%, accuracy for benignity was 83%; positive and negative predictive values were 93% and 98%, respectively; likelihood ratio of positive and negative test results were 100.3 and 0.19, respectively ("positive" was used to define "malignant"). The prevalence of malignancy was 0.114. Kappa statistics for the degree of agreement between fine-needle aspiration cytology and histological results were 0.85 (95% CI = 0.71-0.99). Pre-operative fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis improves surgical treatment of parotid masses.
PMCID: PMC3146330  PMID: 21808456
Salivary glands; Parotid; FNAC; Cytology
20.  Histological Diagnosis of Thyroid Disease Using Ultrasound-Guided Core Biopsies 
European Thyroid Journal  2012;2(1):29-36.
Background
Thyroid core biopsies obtained with ultrasound (US)-guided needles are an alternative to conventional fine-needle aspiration and, according to various authors, have greater sensitivity and specificity. The technique is inexpensive, rapid and reliable with a low rate of complications, similar to conventional fine-needle aspiration procedures.
Objectives
This paper critically reviews the methodology for obtaining samples and processing them in the pathology laboratory.
Methods
Accumulated experience with 1,065 cases of US-guided core biopsy of the thyroid gland in a 15-year period.
Results
US-guided core biopsy is a useful, inexpensive and safe method in the histological diagnosis of thyroid gland pathology. Thyroid samples obtained this way are not a substitute for fine-needle aspiration cytology. Indeed, some authors assert that the best results are obtained by combining the two approaches, the methods being complementary.
Conclusions
To take best advantage of the findings from these techniques, pathologists must know which types of diagnoses can be made and the fundamentals of how and, lastly, what cannot be diagnosed and the reasons why. Best results are obtained with a multidisciplinary approach in a hospital committee composed of endocrinologists, surgeons, radiologists and pathologists, who analyse and provide a background on each case.
doi:10.1159/000343825
PMCID: PMC3821498  PMID: 24783036
Thyroid nodule; Ultrasonography; Core biopsy; Histological diagnosis; Hospital committee

21.  Gastrointestinal stromal tumours of the stomach: Cytological and immunocytochemical diagnostic features of two cases diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration 
Oncology Letters  2013;5(6):1862-1866.
The present study reports the diagnostic utility of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNAC) in two patients affected by gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) of the stomach. Clinically, the patients demonstrated skin pallor, melena, gastric discomfort and pain that had lasted three days or weeks. The cytological findings are discussed; these were strongly supported by immunocytochemical procedures that were performed on cell blocks and further confirmed following post-surgical histopathological examination. The crucial aim of GIST management is to determine a correct diagnosis in early-phase disease in order to realize an adequate curative surgical resection before the tumour becomes unresectable or metastatic. Moreover, a correct pre-surgical differential diagnosis of GISTs from other mesenchymal neoplasms may be easily made by EUS-FNAC, supported by cytological and immunocytochemical features.
doi:10.3892/ol.2013.1296
PMCID: PMC3701063  PMID: 23833657
gastrointestinal stromal tumours; cytopathology; immunocytochemistry; cell block; differential diagnosis
22.  Anterior mediastinal masses: A study of 50 cases by fine needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy as a diagnostic procedure 
Background:
Mediastinal tumors are an uncommon abnormalities found in clinical practice. Anterior mediastinum is the common site and tissue diagnoses of anterior mediastinal masses (AMMs) are very important for correct therapeutic decision.
Objective:
We evaluate the different malignant AMMs in various age groups and the sensitivity of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB). Cytology smears are reviewed with particular emphasis on pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis.
Materials and Methods:
This was a prospective study of 50 patients who were consulted for AMMs and underwent FNAC and CNB under guidance of ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scan from 2006 to 2011. Cytology smears and histological sections were evaluated in all patients.
Results:
Among 50 cases, 36 were male and 14 were female. Most AMMs (52%) were identified in the fifth and sixth decades of life. Metastatic carcinoma and nonHodgkin's lymphoma are the common AMMs. Adequate tissue material was obtained in 49 of 50 cases by CNB. Of these 49 patients, 35 (71.42%) cases were diagnosed correctly by FNAC, whereas 14 (28.57%) cases were not diagnosed definitely by FNAC. The sensitivity of CNB for AMMs was 97.95%, significantly higher than FNAC (71.42%) (P < 0.05). CNB had statistically significant higher diagnostic rate than FNAC in the noncarcinoma group (100% versus 62.96%) (P < 0.05). There is no significant difference of CNB and FNAC in carcinoma group (P > 0.05). Diagnostic rate of FNAC was higher for carcinomatous lesions (81.81%) than for noncarcinomatous lesions (62.96%).
Conclusion:
Ultrasound or CT scan-guided CNB in combination with FNAC are safe, minimally invasive, and cost-effective procedure, which can provide a precise diagnosis in the AMMs, and may obviate the need for invasive surgical approach. FNAC usually suffice for carcinomatous lesions but CNB should be performed whenever the diagnosis of carcinoma is equivocal or noncarcinoma lesions are suspected.
doi:10.4103/2278-330X.105872
PMCID: PMC3876626  PMID: 24455533
Anterior mediastinal masses; core needle biopsy; fine needle aspiration cytology
23.  Preoperative diagnosis of a breast hydatid cyst using fine-needle aspiration cytology: a case report and review of the literature 
Introduction
A hydatid cyst of the breast is rare and often goes unnoticed by mammography and ultrasound. Preoperative diagnosis may be performed using fine-needle aspiration cytology, which also minimizes the risk of intraoperative rupture.
Case presentation
We report the case of a 70-year-old Spanish woman who was diagnosed with a hydatid cyst using fine-needle aspiration cytology before surgery.
Conclusion
Fine-needle aspiration cytology is an accurate and safe technique that can allow surgery to be avoided, especially in older patients or patients with high surgical risk.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-293
PMCID: PMC3485117  PMID: 22973941
24.  Primary extra-cranial meningioma in the right submandibular region of an 18-year-old woman: a case report 
Introduction
Extra-cranial meningioma or ectopic meningioma is a rare tumor. This tumor has been reported in various anatomic sites in the head and neck, mediastinum, skin and soft tissues. We report a rare case of ectopic meningioma in the submandibular region detected by using fine-needle aspiration cytology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry. This case represents another unusual site for extra-cranial meningioma, which prompted us to report it.
Case presentation
An 18-year-old Dravidian woman presented with swelling in the right submandibular region. The computed tomographic scan findings were suggestive of a neoplastic mass lesion in the right submandibular region. Fine-needle aspiration cytology led to the differential diagnosis of a monomorphic adenoma of a salivary gland or an ectopic meningioma. The patient underwent excision of the submandibular gland and tumor. The histological examination and immunohistochemistry studies confirmed that the lesion was an extra-cranial meningioma. At her two-year follow-up examination, there was no recurrence of the tumor.
Conclusion
Our experience with this case indicates that, although rare, meningioma should be entertained in the differential diagnosis of a mass lesion in the head and neck region.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-271
PMCID: PMC3224503  PMID: 21722387
25.  Giant chondroid syringoma with divergent differentiation: Cyto-histo-immuno correlation 
Chondroid syringoma is a rare benign skin adnexal tumor of eccrine/apocrine origin affecting commonly the head and neck region. It is also called as mixed tumor of skin because of the presence of both the epithelial and mesenchymal components. There are very few case reports of chondroid syringoma diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We hereby report a case of giant chondroid syringoma occurring over the lower back in a 50-year-old male, diagnosed initially on cytology and confirmed by histopathology. This case is reported for its unusual size and site of occurrence. We describe the clinical features, cytology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and differential diagnosis of giant chondroid syringoma along with review of literature.
doi:10.4103/2229-516X.117097
PMCID: PMC3783667  PMID: 24083150
Adnexal tumor; chondroid syringoma; fine needle aspiration cytology; immunohistochemistry

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