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1.  Diagnosis of metastatic fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration 
CytoJournal  2011;8:2.
The fibrolamellar variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is distinguished from other hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) by its unique clinical and pathologic features. Cytological features for this tumor on fine needle aspiration (FNA) of primary tumors have been described earlier. We present here a unique case of metastatic FL-HCC diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of mediastinal adenopathy. A 32-year-old woman with a history of oral contraceptive use presented with nausea and severe abdominal pain but no ascites or stigmata of cirrhosis. She had a past history of resection of a liver lesion. Serial computed tomography scans revealed mediastinal lymphadenopathy and the patient was referred for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). A transesophageal EUS-FNA was performed and tissue was collected for cytological evaluation by an on-site pathologist with no knowledge of prior history. Based on morphology correlated with prior history received later, a final diagnosis of metastatic FL-HCC in the retrocardiac lymph node was rendered on the EUS-FNA samples. There are very few reports in the literature where a diagnosis of FL-HCC is rendered at unusual sites. This case highlights that EUS-FNA is a relatively non-invasive, rapid, accurate and effective modality in obtaining tissue from otherwise hard-to-reach areas. It also suggests that metastasis of FL-HCC can be observed in mediastinal nodes and that diagnosis based on cytological features can be rendered even when the tumor is identified at unusual locations.
PMCID: PMC3045764  PMID: 21369523
Metastatic fibrolamellar variant of hepatocellular carcinoma; endoscopic ultrasound guidance; fine needle aspiration
2.  Foregut duplication of the stomach diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology: case report and literature review 
Gastric duplication cyst (GDC) with a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium is an uncommon malformation supposed to originate from a respiratory diverticulum arising from the ventral foregut. Morphologic appearance of GDCs is variable, depending on the density of their contents. GDCs are often misdiagnosed as solid masses by imaging techniques, and as a consequence they may be wrongly overtreated. We report our case of a 56-year-old man with a 5 cm hypoechoic mass of the gastroesophageal junction, incidentally detected by transabdominal ultrasonography. Neither transabdominal ultrasonography nor magnetic resonance clearly outlined the features of the lesion. The patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), which showed a hypoechoic mass arising from the fourth layer of the anterior gastric wall, just below the gastroesophageal junction. According to EUS features, a diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor was suggested. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed a diagnosis of GDC with pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium. We therefore performed an endoscopically-assisted laparoscopic excision of the cyst.
In conclusion, whenever a subepithelial gastric mass is found in the upper part of the gastric wall, a duplication cyst, although rare, should be considered. In this case, EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology could provide a cytological diagnosis useful to arrange in advance the more adequate surgical treatment.
PMCID: PMC3599514  PMID: 23374143
Gastric duplication cyst; Foregut duplication cysts; Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium; Laparoscopic surgery; Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology
3.  Fine needle aspiration diagnosis of extracranial glioblastoma multiforme: Case report and review of the literature 
CytoJournal  2005;2:19.
Hitherto uncommon, the incidence of extracranial metastases of primary brain malignancies may increase, with improved treatment methods and longer patient survival. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is a simple, safe and reliable method to diagnose metastatic malignancy. It has definite advantages over tissue biopsy, which is more invasive and is of higher risk to the patient. Ours is a case of glioblastoma multiforme, which metastasized to the scalp and was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration biopsy. Only a few articles document the cytological features of extracranial glioblastoma multiforme, diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy.
Case presentation
We report the case of an elderly female who presented with focal neurological symptoms. She was diagnosed radiologically with an intracranial lesion in the left temporal region, which was subsequently resected. Histology revealed a glioblastoma multiforme confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The tumor recurred subsequently and the patient was treated with chemotherapy, intraoperatively. At a later stage, she presented with a scalp mass on which fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed. The cytomorphological features aided by immunohistochemistry supported a diagnosis of metastatic glioblastoma multiforme. The mass was later resected and histology confirmed the fine needle aspiration diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme.
Reports of extracranial metastases of primary brain tumors are few. When they do occur, the primary cause is implantation during surgery or biopsy. However, spontaneous metastases to other organs do occur rarely. We believe fine needle aspiration biopsy to be very useful in the diagnosis of metastatic glioblastoma multiforme. The ability to use a cellblock for immunohistochemical studies is greatly advantageous and helpful in differentiating this tumor, from other malignancies that can occur in the scalp. A detailed discussion of the material obtained from fine needle aspiration biopsy of metastatic glioblastoma multiforme is presented, as well as a review of previous accounts in the literature.
PMCID: PMC1325054  PMID: 16287502
4.  Atypical presentation of myoepithelial hamartoma in the antrum of the stomach, mimicking a gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a case report 
A myoepithelial hamartoma is a very uncommon submucosal tumor of the stomach. In an atypical presentation in our case, it mimicked the clinical presentation of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of a hamartoma of the stomach reported from Bangladesh and one of few cases described in the literature.
Case presentation
We describe the case of a 35-year-old Bengali man with recurrent epigastric pain and occasional vomiting with radiographic findings of a gut mass. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a healed duodenal ulcer, deformed ‘D’ bulb and a submucosal swelling in his antrum. Ultrasonography and a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan confirmed the presence of a well-defined, oval gut mass in his upper abdomen, compressing his duodenum. The mass had a mixed density and was considered to probably be a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology was inconclusive. After resection at laparotomy, a histopathological examination revealed a myoepithelial hamartoma. These tumors are characterized by hypertrophic smooth muscle bands surrounding varied epithelial elements, which may be arranged in diverse patterns such as simple glandular structure, Brunner’s gland, pancreatic ducts and sometimes pancreatic acini. This case report is complemented by a literature review relating to the atypical presentation.
Gut masses need to be investigated thoroughly and the possibility of rare tumors should not be excluded. Although the recommended treatment for such lesions is limited resection, radical procedures such as a pancreaticoduodenectomy are often performed when the lesion occurs in the periampullary area because of preoperative misdiagnosis as a carcinoma. Therefore, it is essential for clinicians to maintain current knowledge of the lesion to avoid inaccurate diagnosis and prevent unnecessary surgery.
PMCID: PMC3514267  PMID: 23146179
5.  Liver metastases of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma with marked nuclear atypia and pleomorphism diagnosed by EUS FNA cytology: a case report with emphasis on FNA cytological findings 
CytoJournal  2006;3:29.
Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare neoplasm. Although this tumor has been well characterized histologically, the morphological patterns in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology have not been well defined. Unlike ductal adenocarcinomas, endocrine tumors, and solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas with their characteristic FNA cytological features, acinar cell carcinomas pose a particular diagnostic challenge by sharing many cytomorphologic features with endocrine tumors of the pancreas.
Case presentation
A 37-year-old man presented with lower chest and left upper quadrant abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed a 7.8 × 7.3 cm irregular, partially cystic mass in the body and tail of the pancreas, and two lesions in the liver compatible with metastases. Subsequently, the patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration on one of the two metastatic liver masses.
FNA cytology revealed abundant, loosely cohesive clusters of malignant epithelial cells with vaguely acinar and trabecular formations. The pleomorphic nuclei had fine granular chromatin and occasionally small nucleoli. There were scant to moderate amounts of cytoplasm. Scattered, strikingly large tumor cells with giant nuclei, prominent mitoses and associated necrosis were evident. A pancreatic endocrine tumor was suspected initially, but acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies.
We describe a case of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma with unusual cytomorphologic features mimicking an endocrine tumor of pancreas, encountered in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of a metastatic liver mass and discuss the diagnostic approach for this unusual pancreatic tumor in fine needle aspiration cytology.
PMCID: PMC1779360  PMID: 17196112
6.  Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration in Submucosal Lesion 
Clinical Endoscopy  2012;45(2):117-123.
A submucosal lesion, more appropriately a subepithelial lesion, is hard to diagnose. Endoscopic ultrasonography is good to differentiate the nature of submucosal lesion. For definite diagnosis, tissue acquisition from submucosal lesion is necessary, and many methods have been introduced for this purpose mainly by endoscopic ultrasonography, such as endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), EUS-guided Trucut Biopsy (TCB), and EUS-guided fine needle biopsy (FNB). For EUS-FNA, adequate processing of specimen is important, and for proper diagnosis of EUS-FNA specimen, both cytologic and histologic examinations, including immunohistochemical stains, are important. All gastrointestinal stromal tumors have some degree of malignant potential, so there have been a lot of efforts and methods to increase diagnostic yields of submucosal lesion. We herein review the current hot topics on EUS-FNA for submucosal tumor, such as needles, on-site cytopathologists, immunohistochemical stains, EUS-TCB, EUS-FNB, Ki-67 labelling index, DOG1, and combining EUS-FNA and EUS-TCB.
PMCID: PMC3401613  PMID: 22866250
Endoscopic ultrasound; EUS-guided fine needle aspiration; Submucosal tumors; Gastrointestinal stromal tumors
7.  Aspiration Cytopathology of Peripancreatic Space: A Clinicoradiologic and Cytopathologic Analyses of 42 Cases 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2013;47(3):258-264.
The pancreas is surrounded by soft tissue known as the peripancreatic space (PPS). Pathologic lesions of the PPS are infrequent and have only rarely been reported in the cytopathology literature.
A retrospective review of cytopathology files at two large institutions revealed 42 cases of PPS lesions obtained by transabdominal fine needle aspiration (FNA) or endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNA over a 16-year period. Clinicoradiologic findings and follow-up information were also reviewed.
Patients ranged in age from 23-83 years (mean, 60 years) with an equal gender distribution. The major clinical presentations included pain, jaundice, nausea/vomiting, and abnormal liver enzymes. Radiographic characteristics included lymphadenopathy and cystic/solid soft tissue masses with a size range of 1.5 to 8 cm. Cytologically, 4 (9.5%) cases were nondiagnostic, 9 (21.5%) were diagnosed as benign, 4 (9.5%) were atypical or suspicious for cancer, and 25 (59.5%) were malignant. Six of 25 (24%) patients had metastasis of a prior known malignancy.
FNA of PPS masses is a rare occurrence. The majority of lesions are metastatic carcinomas from a variety of primary sites. Flow cytometry and immunoperoxidase studies are useful adjuncts to determine the tumor origin. The sensitivity of PPS aspiration for a malignant diagnosis is 90% with a positive predictive value of 100%.
PMCID: PMC3701822  PMID: 23837019
Peripancreatic space; Cytopathology; Fine needle aspiration; Adenocarcinoma
8.  Possibilities of interventional endoscopic ultrasound 
Since endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) was developed in the 1990s, EUS has become widely accepted as an imaging tool. EUS is categorized into radial and linear in design. Radial endoscopes provide cross-sectional imaging of the mediastinum, gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal gland, and pancreas, which has highly accuracy in the T and N staging of esophageal, lung, gastric, rectal, and pancreatic cancer. Tumor staging is common indication of radial-EUS, and EUS-staging is predictive of surgical resectability. In contrast, linear array endoscope uses a side-viewing probe and has advantages in the ability to perform EUS-guides fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), which has been established for cytologic diagnosis. For example, EUS-FNA arrows accurate nodal staging of esophageal cancer before surgery, which provides more accurate assessment of nodes than radial-EUS imaging alone. EUS-FNA has been also commonly used for diagnose of pancreatic diseases because of the highly accuracy than US or computed tomography. EUS and EUS-FNA has been used not only for TNM staging and cytologic diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, but also for evaluation of chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cystic lesions, and other pancreatic masses. More recently, EUS-FNA has developed into EUS-guided fine needle injection including EUS-guided celiac plexus neurolysis, celiac plexus block, and other “interventional EUS” procedures. In this review, we have summarized the new possibilities offered by “interventional EUS”.
PMCID: PMC3399008  PMID: 22816010
Endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration; Interventional endoscopic ultrasound
9.  Cytologic diagnosis of gallbladder lesions — A study of 150 cases 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2010;72(3):181-184.
Aims and objectives
Gallbladder (GB) carcinoma is among the five most common forms of gastrointestinal cancers and the diagnosis is usually made when the carcinoma is already in an advanced stage. The aim of this study was to assess the application of ultrasound (US) guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) in diagnosing GB carcinoma.
Material and methods
The present study was carried out on 150 patients suspected to have GB carcinoma on ultrasonography. US-guided FNA from GB was done in these patients and FNA of the other organs was simultaneously done in 20 patients. Histopathology of the GB was available in 14 cases.
Ultrasonography in these patients revealed mass/thickening of the wall of GB in 140 (93.3%) cases and nonspecific US findings in 10 (6.7%). Out of the 140 cases malignancy was cytologically diagnosed in 105 (75%) cases while 12 (8.5%) cases were inflammatory and 23 (16.5%) were inconclusive. Adenocarcinoma was the most common morphologic type. Metastatic tumor deposits were noted in FNA from space occupying lesions of the liver in 12 cases, abdominal lymph nodes in 5 cases, and 1 case each of supraclavicular lymph node, stomach and bilateral ovaries. Of the 10 cases with non-specific US findings, 3 had carcinoma and 7 were inconclusive on cytologic examination.
US guided FNA provides a rapid and reliable diagnosis in cases of GB carcinoma.
PMCID: PMC3452654  PMID: 23133243
Gallbladder; Aspiration cytology; Ultrasonography
10.  Utility of endoscopic ultrasound in patients with portal hypertension 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(39):14230-14236.
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has revolutionized the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to patients with gastrointestinal disorders. Its application in patients with liver disease and portal hypertension is increasing. Patients with chronic liver disease are at risk for development of portal hypertension sequale such as ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and gastroesophageal varices. Bleeding esophageal and gastric varices are among the most common causes of mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Thus, early detection and treatment improve the outcome in this population. EUS can improve the detection and diagnosis of gastroesophageal varices and collateral veins and can provide endoscopic therapy of gastroesophageal varices such as EUS-guided sclerotherapy of esophageal collateral vessels and EUS-guided cynoacrylate (Glue) injection of gastric varices. EUS can also provide knowledge on the efficacy of pharmacotherapy of portal hypertension. Furthermore, EUS can provide assessment and prediction of variceal recurrence after endoscopic therapy and assessment of portal hemodynamics such as E-Flow and Doppler study of the azygous and portal veins. Moreover, EUS-guided fine needle aspiration may provide cytologic diagnosis of focal hepatic tumors and analysis of free abdominal fluid. Using specialized EUS-guided needle biopsy, a sample of liver tissue can be obtained to diagnose and evaluate for chronic liver disease. EUS-guided fine needle injection can be used to study portal vein pressure and hemodynamics, and potentially could be used to assist in exact measurement of portal vein pressure and placement of intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.
PMCID: PMC4202351  PMID: 25339809
Endoscopic ultrasound; Cirrhosis; Portal hypertension; Gastroesophageal varices; Cyanoacrylate; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Fine needle aspiration
11.  Cytomorphologic spectrum in aspirates of extra-adrenal paraganglioma 
Paraganglioma is a rare tumor arising from clusters of neuroendocrine cells in association with sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. It poses a diagnostic challenge because of its widespread anatomic distribution, subtle clinical manifestations, and a variety of morphologic patterns.
The aim of this study is to have an insight into the diverse morphologic spectrum of extra-adrenal paraganglioma (EAP).
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective analysis of seven cytologically diagnosed cases of EAP over a period of 10 years was performed. There were five superficial swellings and two deep seated retroperitoneal masses. The superficial swellings were aspirated directly, and the retroperitoneal masses were aspirated under ultrasound guidance using 22-gauge lumbar puncture needle fitted to a 10 mL syringe. Smears were reviewed for cellularity, pattern, cell shape, cytoplasm, nuclear features, and background.
The age of patients ranged from 25 to 75 years; four patients were males and three were females. Sites involved were carotid body region (four cases), para-pharyngeal space (one case) and para-aortic region (two cases). All the cases yielded hemorrhagic material on fine-needle aspiration. Smears showed scattered and clusters of cells and loosely cohesive acini of tumor cells. Cells were round to polygonal with pleomorphic nuclei, granular chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, and moderate to abundant cytoplasm containing fine pink granules and vacuolations. The cases were confirmed on radiology and histopathology.
The cytologic features in EAP along with pertinent clinicoradiologic findings help in making an accurate preoperative diagnosis of an otherwise rare tumor.
PMCID: PMC4159901  PMID: 25210234
Carotid body tumor; extra-adrenal; fine-needle aspiration; paraganglioma
12.  AB 103. Respiratory pathology in genetic era 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2012;4(Suppl 1):AB103.
Department of Pathology was founded in 1960. With the establishment of the Institute for Pulmonary Diseases. Laboratories for histology, cytology, immunohistochemistry and autopsy unit are integral part of this department.
Patients and methods
In histopathologic laboratory over 10,000 endoscopical and surgical biopsies, with ex tempore analyzes annually, are technically prepared and processed by using standard as well as special stainings. Over 6000 samples per year obtained by exfoliative cytology: sputum, pleural, pericardial and abdominal effusions, aspiration cytology: transthoracic fine needle aspiration (FNA), and samples obtained during bronchoscopy: lavage, brushes and transbronchial fine needle aspiration biopsy (obtained during endobronchial ultrasound guided (EBUS) FNA) and bronchoalveolar lavages are processed in the laboratory for cytology. May Grunwald Giemsa and Papanicolaou stainings are used for all cytological specimens and in many cases cell blocks are prepared too for ancillary technics. Laboratory for immunohistochemistry disposes of 43 tumor markers for the diagnosis and differentiation of primary and secondary lung tumors, malignant mesothelioma, lymphoma and thymoma and annually performs over 300 analyzes. Over 200 autopsies per year are performed in the autopsy unit. Predominant field of work is thoracic pathology, but we are also dealing with cardiovascular, endocrine, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary and gynecological pathology.
Today The Department of Pathology employs 1 biologist, 6 laboratory technicians and 3 autopsy assistants as well as 2 pathologists, 3 cytopathologists and 1 resident. As the Institute for Pulmonary Diseases is university hospital all doctors, 4 PhD and 2 postgraduate students are engaged in the educational work. Teachers participate in undergraduate and postgraduate teaching at Medical Faculty in Novi Sad, Banja Luka and Foca (Serbian Republic). The Department of Pathology from the very beginning enforced specialization in Pathology and sub-specialization in Medical Cytology. In the cooperation with the Center for Continuing Education, several educational seminars in the field of pathology and cytology have been organized.
The future of this department is the automatization and standardization of working processes, control improvement, continuing education of all employees and greater engagement in the field of research. Introducing of genetic and molecular techniques for better diagnosis and individualized therapy is our task in the next few years.
PMCID: PMC3537378
13.  Gallbladder carcinoma: An attempt of WHO histological classification on fine needle aspiration material 
CytoJournal  2013;10:12.
Carcinoma of the gallbladder (CaGB) is common in India and its prognosis depends primarily on the extent of the disease and histological type. We aim to study the role of guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for diagnosis of CaGB and to evaluate the feasibility of applying world health organization (WHO) classification on fine needle aspiration (FNA) material to predict the outcome of the tumor.
Materials and Methods:
Retrospective cytomorphologic analysis was performed in all cases of CaGB diagnosed by ultrasound (US) guided FNAC over a period of 2 years. A specific subtype was assigned according to WHO classification based on characteristic cytologic features. These included papillary or acinar arrangement, intra and extracellular mucin, keratin, rosettes and columnar, signet ring, atypical squamous, small, clear, spindle and giant cells. Correlation with histopathology was performed when available.
A total of 541 aspirations with clinical or radiological suspicion of primary CaGB were studied. Of these, 54 aspirates were unsatisfactory. Fifty cases were negative for malignancy. Remaining 437 aspirates were positive for carcinoma. Histopathologic diagnosis was available in 32 cases. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent diagnosis in 86.7% of cases. Mucinous, signet ring, adenosquamous, squamous, small cell, mixed adenoneuroendocrine and undifferentiated carcinoma including spindle and giant cell subtypes were diagnosed identifying specific features on FNAC. Correlation with histopathology was present in all, but one case giving rise to sensitivity of 96.8%. No post-FNA complications were recorded.
US guided FNAC is a safe and effective method to diagnose CaGB. Although, rare, clinically and prognostically significant variants described in WHO classification can be detected on cytology.
PMCID: PMC3709381  PMID: 23858322
Cytomorphology; fine needle aspiration cytology; gallbladder carcinoma; ultrasound; world health organization classification
14.  Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration with 22- and 25-gauge needles in the same patients 
Various factors, such as the optimal number of passes, aspiration pressure, and the use of 19-gauge and Trucut biopsy needles, have been studied to improve the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). We retrospectively compared the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA between 25- and 22-gauge needles, which have been widely used recently.
Subjects and Methods
The study group comprised 47 consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA with both 22- and 25-gauge needles from October 2007 through March 2010. Their underlying diseases were pancreatic cancer in 24 patients, submucosal tumors in 11, other pancreatic tumors in 4, chronic pancreatitis in 4, enlarged lymph nodes in 3, and gall bladder cancer in 1. Tissue specimens, which were pushed out of the puncture needle, were placed into physiological saline solution. Gray-whitish, worm-like specimens were used for histologic diagnosis. The remaining specimen was centrifuged, and the sediment was plated on slides and examined by a cytopathologist to obtain the cytologic diagnosis.
A total of 75 punctures (mean, 1.6) were performed with 25-gauge needles, and 69 punctures (mean, 1.4) were performed with 22-gauge needles. The overall tissue-sampling rate for cytology was 100% (47/47), which was significantly (p=0.01) superior to 83% (39/47) for histology. The overall diagnostic accuracy on the cytologic and histologic examinations was 79% (37/47) and 85% (33/39) (p=0.48). According to needle type, the tissue-sampling rate for cytology and histology on each puncture was 97% (73/75) and 56% (42/75) with 25-guage needles, and was 97% (67/69) and 58% (40/69) with 22-guage needles, the accuracy of cytologic diagnosis on each puncture was 73% (53/73) with 25-gauge needles and 66% (44/67) with 22-gauge needles (p=0.37); the accuracy of histologic diagnosis on each puncture was 60% (25/42) and 75% (30/40) (p=0.14), respectively. No patient had complications.
The tissue-sampling rate and diagnostic accuracy did not differ significantly between 22- and 25-gauge needles in patients with pancreatic or gastrointestinal diseases who underwent EUS-FNA.
PMCID: PMC3234693  PMID: 22163079
EUS-FNA; 25-guage needle; 22-guage needle; diagnostic accuracy; pancreatic disease; upper gastroitestinal diseases
15.  Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis diagnosed by conventional cytology and liquid based cytology 
Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (HNL; Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease) is a rare benign disorder. The diagnosis of HNL is established on recognizing the characteristic histologic findings from biopsy of the enlarged lymph nodes. Though diagnosis of HNL by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was reported, the characteristic fine-needle aspiration cytologic features with conventional cytology and a liquid based cytology test (LCT) have not been well documented. In this study, 42 cases of suspicious necrotic lymph nodes were subjected to cytology and biopsy diagnosis. The lymph nodes were aspirated using a 10 mL disposable syringe with the percutaneous ultrasound guided. Samples were used for conventional cytology and LCT. Among 42 cases of suspicious necrotic lymph nodes, 37 of cases were histologically confirmed as HNL; 3 of cases were hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue; 1 case was tuberculosis of lymph node, and 1 case was classical Hodgkin lymphoma (nodular sclerosis type). 31 out of 37 (83.8%) cases of HNL were diagnosed by conventional cytology, 33 out of 37 (89.2%) were diagnosed by LCT. Our results indicate that no significant difference on accuracy rate between conventional cytology and LCT, but LCT has its advantages in the diagnosis of HNL.
PMCID: PMC4203239  PMID: 25337268
Histocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis; conventional cytology; liquid based cytology test
16.  Endosonographic Features of Histologically Proven Gastric Ectopic Pancreas 
Gastric ectopic pancreas is an uncommon developmental anomaly and its histological diagnosis is usually difficult by using a conventional biopsy forceps. In the literature, most cases of gastric ectopic pancreas were usually diagnosed by gross pattern during endoscopic examination or features of endoscopic ultrasound. In contrast, this disease was seldom diagnosed by histology in clinical practice. Although the typical endoscopic ultrasonographic features of ectopic pancreas include heterogeneous echogenicity, indistinct borders, and a location within 2 or more layers, it can also exhibit hypoechoic homogeneous echogenicity and a distinct border within the fourth sonographic layer (muscularis propria) similar to the endoscopic ultrasonographic features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. In our study, we found that 53% of gastric ectopic pancreas originated within the fourth sonographic layer, demonstrating hypoechoic, homogeneous echogenicity, and distinct borders. Therefore, recognizing endoscopic ultrasonographic features, combining with deep biopsy, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration/core needle biopsy can prevent conducting unnecessary resection. Surgical resection is the mainstay treatment for symptomatic gastric ectopic pancreas, but endoscopic resection using endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection technique provides an alternative method of removing superficial-type and deep-type gastric ectopic pancreas.
PMCID: PMC4209789  PMID: 25371670
17.  Anterior mediastinal masses: A study of 50 cases by fine needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy as a diagnostic procedure 
Mediastinal tumors are an uncommon abnormalities found in clinical practice. Anterior mediastinum is the common site and tissue diagnoses of anterior mediastinal masses (AMMs) are very important for correct therapeutic decision.
We evaluate the different malignant AMMs in various age groups and the sensitivity of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB). Cytology smears are reviewed with particular emphasis on pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis.
Materials and Methods:
This was a prospective study of 50 patients who were consulted for AMMs and underwent FNAC and CNB under guidance of ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scan from 2006 to 2011. Cytology smears and histological sections were evaluated in all patients.
Among 50 cases, 36 were male and 14 were female. Most AMMs (52%) were identified in the fifth and sixth decades of life. Metastatic carcinoma and nonHodgkin's lymphoma are the common AMMs. Adequate tissue material was obtained in 49 of 50 cases by CNB. Of these 49 patients, 35 (71.42%) cases were diagnosed correctly by FNAC, whereas 14 (28.57%) cases were not diagnosed definitely by FNAC. The sensitivity of CNB for AMMs was 97.95%, significantly higher than FNAC (71.42%) (P < 0.05). CNB had statistically significant higher diagnostic rate than FNAC in the noncarcinoma group (100% versus 62.96%) (P < 0.05). There is no significant difference of CNB and FNAC in carcinoma group (P > 0.05). Diagnostic rate of FNAC was higher for carcinomatous lesions (81.81%) than for noncarcinomatous lesions (62.96%).
Ultrasound or CT scan-guided CNB in combination with FNAC are safe, minimally invasive, and cost-effective procedure, which can provide a precise diagnosis in the AMMs, and may obviate the need for invasive surgical approach. FNAC usually suffice for carcinomatous lesions but CNB should be performed whenever the diagnosis of carcinoma is equivocal or noncarcinoma lesions are suspected.
PMCID: PMC3876626  PMID: 24455533
Anterior mediastinal masses; core needle biopsy; fine needle aspiration cytology
18.  Fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of parotid lesions 
Fine-needle aspiration cytology guided by ultrasound imaging is a widely used diagnostic tool to evaluate neoplastic or inflammatory lesions of salivary glands. From February 2002 to February 2008 all the parotid lesions removed surgically in our Unit of Otolaryngology were reviewed. Study focused on sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, predictive values, likelihood ratios, and Kappa statistics for fine-needle aspiration cytology vs histological diagnosis in 176 cases. Fine-needle aspiration cytology sensitivity and specificity were 81% and 99%, respectively. Accuracy for malignancy was 97%, accuracy for benignity was 83%; positive and negative predictive values were 93% and 98%, respectively; likelihood ratio of positive and negative test results were 100.3 and 0.19, respectively ("positive" was used to define "malignant"). The prevalence of malignancy was 0.114. Kappa statistics for the degree of agreement between fine-needle aspiration cytology and histological results were 0.85 (95% CI = 0.71-0.99). Pre-operative fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis improves surgical treatment of parotid masses.
PMCID: PMC3146330  PMID: 21808456
Salivary glands; Parotid; FNAC; Cytology
19.  Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses: A study of 85 cases 
The diagnosis of retroperitoneal lesions is one of the most difficult areas in surgical pathology. The retroperitoneal space allows both primary and metastatic tumors to grow silently before the appearance of clinical signs and symptoms. Fine needle aspiration cytology has shown promising role in establishing the diagnosis in this region.
This study was undertaken to evaluate the reliability of ultrasonography (USG)-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions in the retroperitoneum, and to correlate the diagnosis by cytology of retroperitoneal masses with the results obtained by histology.
Materials and Methods:
The study was carried out on 85 patients presenting over the last five years with retroperitoneal masses on ultrasound.
Out of 85 cases, 32 were of kidney, 27 of lymph nodes, 24 of retroperitoneal soft tissues, and two were of the adrenals. Malignant lesions (47) were more common than nonmalignant lesions (38). In the kidney, the maximum number of cases were of renal cell carcinoma (12-38%), followed by Wilm's tumor (6-19%), pyonephrosis (5-16%), renal cyst (4), angiomyolipoma (2), cortical pseudotumor (2), and tuberculosis (1). Out of 27 cases of retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, 12 cases (44%) were of metastatic carcinoma followed by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (8-30%), tuberculosis (6-22%), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (1). The two cases of the adrenals were of angiomyolipoma and metastatic carcinoma. Among the 24 soft tissue tumors in the study, seven (29%) were malignant and 17 (71%) were benign (lipoma being the most common benign neoplasm). Results from histopathological investigations were available in 47 cases, out of which 45 were consistent with the FNAC-based diagnoses. Two cases for which the histopathological results were inconsistent with the FNAC diagnoses, were of renal cell carcinoma, which had been diagnosed as renal cysts on cytology.
USG-guided FNAC is an inexpensive, rapid, safe, and accurate procedure for the diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses.
PMCID: PMC3168018  PMID: 21938165
Ultrasound; fine needle aspiration cytology; retroperitoneum
20.  Liu-stain quick cytodiagnosis of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in diagnosis of liver tumors 
AIM: To combine ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) and Liu (Riu) stain to make a quick study on liver tumor lesions.
METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-eight aspirations from 232 patients were completely studied. The operator himself made the quick cytodiagnosis of US-FNA smear stained by Liu method within thirty minutes. The US-FNA specimen was also sent to the pathological department for cytological study and cellblock histology. The result of our Liu-stain quick cytodiagnosis in each patient was confirmed by the final cytopathological diagnosis from pathological report.
RESULTS: Among 228 samples, the quick cytodiagnosis revealed 146 malignancies, 81 benign lesions and one inadequate specimen. Cytopathological diagnosis from the pathological department revealed 150 malignancies, and 78 benign lesions. Four well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) were under-diagnosed by quick cytodiagnosis as benign and 3 benign lesions were over-diagnosed as well-differentiated HCCs. Compared with cytopathological diagnosis, quick cytodiagnosis correctly diagnosed 143 malignancies and 77 benign lesions. Except for the one inadequate specimen in quick cytodiagnosis, the accuracy of quick cytodiagnosis was 96.9% (220/227), and its sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 97.9%, 95.1%, 97.3% and 96.3%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Liu-stain quick cytodiagnosis is a fast, convenient, safe and effective method for hepatologists in clinic practice to diagnose liver tumor. In few cases of well-differentiated HCC, Liu-stain quick cytodiagnosis has its limitation.
PMCID: PMC4065903  PMID: 17230617
Liver tumor; Cytology; Ultrasound guided FNA; Liu stain
21.  Performance and Clinical Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound Fine Needle Aspiration for Diagnosing Gastrointestinal Intramural Lesions 
Clinical Endoscopy  2013;46(6):627-632.
We evaluated the performance, clinical role, and diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in gastrointestinal intramural lesions.
Procedural and pathologic data were reviewed from consecutive patients undergoing EUS-FNA for intramural lesions. Final diagnoses were determined by surgical histopathologic conformation and the diagnosis of malignancy, including clinical follow-up with repeat imaging.
Forty-six patients (mean age, 47 years; 24 males) underwent EUS-FNA. Lesions were located in the stomach (n=31), esophagus (n=5), and duodenum (n=10). The median lesion size was 2 cm (range, 1 to 20.6). Final diagnoses were obtained in 22 patients (48%). EUS-FNA was diagnostic in 40 patients (87%). The diagnostic accuracy of cytology for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions was 82%; diagnostic error occurred in three patients (6%). The cytologic results influenced clinical judgment in 78% cases. The primary reasons for negative or no clinical impact were false-negative results, misdirected patient management, and inconclusive cytology.
EUS-FNA exhibited an 87% diagnostic yield for gastrointestinal intramural lesions; the accuracy of cytology for differentiating malignancy was 82%. The limitations of EUS-FNA were primarily because of nondiagnostic sampling (9%) and probable diagnostic error (6%); these factors may influence the clinical role of EUS-FNA.
PMCID: PMC3856263  PMID: 24340255
Accuracy; Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration; Extraintestinal mass; Intramural mass; Yield
22.  Critical clinical appraisal of the role of computed tomography-guided minimally invasive aspiration cytology in evaluation of retroperitoneal masses 
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is increasing in popularity as a means of diagnosing mass lesions in retroperitoneal area. With use of radiologic guidance for needle placement, this technique is an effective way to obtain diagnostic material.
The aims of the study were (1) to establish the validity and reliability of fine needle aspiration cytology in preoperative diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor, and (2) to compare the significance of cytological diagnosis with histopathological report.
Settings and Design:
A prospective, cross-sectional hospital-based study.
Materials and Methods:
A prospective, cross-sectional study was designed on 45 cases of clinically and radiologically diagnosed retroperitoneal tumor in a tertiary care hospital. Computerized tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous FNA was performed and cytology smears were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain and conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) stain. Smears were broadly categorized into unsatisfactory, benign, suspicious of malignancy and malignant lesion. The cytological diagnosis was compared with subsequent histopathology report.
Statistical Analysis:
Positive and negative predictive values, diagnostic accuracy, chi-square test and others.
The total number of cases studied was 45, which include both epithelial tumors and mesenchymal tumors. Age group varied from 15 to 70 years. The overall sensitivity in our study to diagnose benign and malignant tumors by FNA cytology is 86% and the specificity is 96% with positive and negative predictive value of 86% and 96%, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy was 93.55% with high statistical significance (P < 0.001).
FNA cytology is a simple, fast, reliable and less expensive method for diagnosis of various retroperitoneal neoplasms.
PMCID: PMC4080665  PMID: 25006286
Computed tomography; fine needle aspiration cytology; histopathology; May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain; retroperitoneal mass
23.  Endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy: a large single centre experience 
Gut  1999;44(5):720-726.
BACKGROUND—Endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) is a recent innovation in the evaluation of gastrointestinal and pulmonary malignancies. 
AIMS—To review the experience with EUS-FNA of a large single centre. 
METHODS—333 consecutive patients underwent EUS-FNA. Follow up data were available on 327 lesions in 317 patients, including 160 lymph nodes, 144 pancreatic lesions, 15 extraintestinal masses, and eight intramural tumours. 
RESULTS—A primary diagnosis of malignancy was obtained by EUS-FNA in 62% of patients with clinically suspicious lesions. The overall accuracy of EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of malignancy was 86%, with sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 96%. With respect to lesion types, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 85%, 100%, and 89% for lymph nodes; 82%, 100%, and 85% for pancreatic lesions; 88%, 100%, and 90% for perirectal masses; and 50%, 25%, and 38% for intramural lesions, respectively. Compared with size and sonographic criteria, EUS-FNA in the evaluation of lymph nodes provided superior accuracy and specificity, without compromising sensitivity. Inadequate specimens were obtained from only six patients, including 3/5 with stromal tumors. Only one complication occurred. 
CONCLUSIONS—EUS-FNA is safe and can readily obtain tissue specimens adequate for cytopathological diagnoses. Compared with size and sonographic criteria, it is a superior modality for the detection of nodal metastases. While providing accurate diagnosis of pancreatic and perirectal malignancies, results suggest the technique is less useful for intramural lesions. 

Keywords: endoscopic ultrasound; endosonography; fine needle aspiration biopsy
PMCID: PMC1727480  PMID: 10205212
24.  Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology and biopsy in the evaluation of lymphoma 
Endoscopic Ultrasound  2012;1(1):17-22.
Accurate diagnosis and subtyping of lymphoma have important prognostic implications and are generally required for treatment planning. Histological assessment, immunophenotyping, and genetic studies are usually necessary. Endoscopic ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNAC) is a minimally invasive technique widely used for the evaluation of deep-seated benign and malignant lesions. However, the value of cytological samples in lymphoma diagnosis is still a matter of debate. Endoscopic ultrasound guided-fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNAB) can provide tissue core samples that may help overcome the limitations of cytology. The aim of this review is to summarize the available literature regarding EUS-FNAC and EUS-FNAB for the diagnosis and subtyping of lymphoma. In addition, we discuss its usefulness in the management of primary extra-nodal lymphomas, as well as technical issues that may influence sample quality.
PMCID: PMC4062204  PMID: 24949331
endoscopic ultrasound; fine needle aspiration; biopsy; cytology; lymphoma
25.  Investigating the value of fine needle aspiration cytology in thyroid cancer 
Current guidance recommends the use of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as an essential investigation in patients presenting with a thyroid lump. Current literature suggests that the sensitivity of FNAC in thyroid nodules ranges between 80-90%. However, only very few studies have looked specifically at the sensitivity of FNAC in solely thyroid cancer patients.
The aim of our study was to investigate the value of FNAC as a first-line investigation in patients with thyroid cancer. We aimed specifically to assess the sensitivity of FNAC within this group.
Materials and Methods:
Patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer between 2000-08 were identified from a local histopathology database. Sixty-seven case notes were retrieved, retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Analysis included results of FNAC, ultrasound scanning and final histopathological diagnosis.
Analysis of the 56 patients who underwent FNAC revealed that a cytological grading of thy3 or greater was only given to 31 cases (55.3%).
In this study, FNAC findings of thy3 or greater were reported only in 55.3% of proven thyroid cancer cases. This study highlights the greater diagnostic difficulties of thyroid cancer compared to other thyroid nodules. Our findings suggest that clinicians must interpret the results of this initial investigation with caution and consider the routine use of ultrasound scanning to help guide FNAC.
PMCID: PMC3214464  PMID: 22090693

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