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1.  Effect of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibition, Dietary Sodium Restriction, and/or Diuretics on Urinary Kidney Injury Molecule 1 Excretion in Nondiabetic Proteinuric Kidney Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial 
Tubulointerstitial damage plays an important role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) with proteinuria. Urinary kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) reflects tubular KIM-1 and is considered a sensitive biomarker for early tubular damage. We hypothesized that a decrease in proteinuria by using therapeutic interventions is associated with decreased urinary KIM-1 levels.
Study Design
Post hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.
Setting & Participants
34 proteinuric patients without diabetes from our outpatient renal clinic.
Stepwise 6-week interventions of losartan, sodium restriction (low-sodium [LS] diet), their combination, losartan plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), and the latter plus an LS diet.
Outcomes & Measurements
Urinary excretion of KIM-1, total protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) as a positive control for tubular injury.
Mean baseline urine protein level was 3.8 ± 0.4 (SE) g/d, and KIM-1 level was 1,706 ± 498 ng/d (increased compared with healthy controls; 74 ng/d). KIM-1 level was decreased by using placebo/LS (1,201 ± 388 ng/d; P = 0.04), losartan/high sodium (1,184 ± 296 ng/d; P = 0.09), losartan/LS (921 ± 176 ng/d; P = 0.008), losartan/high sodium plus HCT (862 ± 151 ng/d; P = 0.008) and losartan/LS plus HCT (743 ± 170 ng/d; P = 0.001). The decrease in urinary KIM-1 levels paralleled the decrease in proteinuria (R = 0.523; P < 0.001), but not blood pressure or creatinine clearance. 16 patients reached target proteinuria with protein less than 1 g/d, whereas KIM-1 levels normalized in only 2 patients. Urinary NAG level was increased at baseline and significantly decreased during the treatment periods of combined losartan plus HCT only. The decrease in urinary NAG levels was not closely related to proteinuria.
Post hoc analysis.
Urinary KIM-1 level was increased in patients with nondiabetic CKD with proteinuria and decreased in parallel with proteinuria by using losartan, sodium restriction, their combination, losartan plus HCT, and the latter plus sodium restriction. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of amelioration of proteinuria-induced tubular damage. Long-term studies are warranted to evaluate whether targeting treatment on KIM-1 can improve outcomes in patients with CKD with proteinuria.
PMCID: PMC3298772  PMID: 18823687
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; losartan; angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade; proteinuria; interstitial renal damage; kidney injury molecule 1; N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase; tubular damage marker; biomarker
2.  Tubular damage in chronic systolic heart failure is associated with reduced survival independent of glomerular filtration rate 
Heart (British Cardiac Society)  2010;96(16):1297-1302.
The prognostic impact of reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in chronic heart failure (CHF) is increasingly recognised, but little is known about tubular damage in these patients.
To investigate the prevalence of tubular damage, and its association with GFR, and prognosis in patients with CHF.
Methods and results
In 90 patients with CHF, GFR and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were measured ([125I] iothalamate and [131I]hippuran clearances). The tubular markers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) as well as urinary albumin excretion were determined in 24 h urine collections. Mean GFR was 78±26 ml/min/1.73 m2. Urinary NGAL (175 (70—346) mg/g creatinine (gCr)), NAG (12 (6—17) U/gCr) and KIM-1 (277 (188—537) ng/gCr) levels were increased compared with 20 healthy controls (all p<0.001). Urinary NAG, but not NGAL or KIM-1 correlated with GFR (r=−0.34, p=0.001) and ERPF (r=−0.29, p=0.006). Both NAG (r=0.21, p=0.048) and KIM-1 (r=0.23, p=0.033) correlated with plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels. Both urinary KIM-1 (HR=1.15 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.30) per 100 ng/gCr increase, p=0.025) and NAG (HR=1.42 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.94) per 5 U/gCr increase, p=0.039), were associated with an increased risk of death or heart failure hospitalisations, independent of GFR.
Tubular damage, as indicated by increased urinary concentrations of NGAL, NAG and KIM-1 is common in patients with CHF and mildly reduced GFR. Both urinary KIM-1 and NAG showed prognostic information additional to GFR. These findings suggest an important role for tubular damage and tubular markers in cardiorenal interaction in heart failure.
PMCID: PMC3480323  PMID: 20659949
3.  Glomerular and Tubular Damage Markers Are Elevated in Patients With Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(4):975-981.
We investigated in a cross-sectional study the levels of serum and urinary damage markers in diabetic patients (n = 94) and nondiabetic control subjects (n = 45) to study the association of glomerular (IgG), proximal tubular (kidney injury molecule [KIM]-1, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase [NAG], neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin [NGAL], and cystatin C), and distal tubular (heart fatty acid–binding protein [H-FABP]) damage markers with kidney disease severity, as assessed by albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
Damage markers were measured in triplicate in fresh morning urine samples and in plasma.
Of the diabetic patients, 41 were normoalbuminuric, 41 were microalbuminuric, and 12 were macroalbuminuric. Urinary NAG (ninefold), NGAL (1.5-fold), and H-FABP (3.5-fold) were significantly elevated in normoalbuminuric diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic control subjects. Urinary concentrations of all markers increased per albuminuria stratum, except KIM-1. All urinary damage markers, except KIM-1, were significantly associated with albuminuria, independent of age, sex, and plasma concentrations of the corresponding biomarker (standard βs between 0.35 and 0.87; all P ≤ 0.001). All urinary damage markers, except KIM-1, were significantly associated with the eGFR in univariate models (standard βs between −0.38 and −0.21; all P < 0.04). After adjusting for age, sex, plasma concentration of the corresponding damage marker, and albuminuria, only the association of H-FABP with eGFR remained significant (standard β −0.26; P = 0.037).
Glomerular and tubular markers are associated with albuminuria, independently of eGFR, suggesting that albuminuria reflects both glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage. Only urinary H-FABP is associated with eGFR independently of albuminuria and, therefore, may be a promising urinary damage marker to assess diabetic kidney disease.
PMCID: PMC3064060  PMID: 21307379
4.  Effect of treatment on urinary kidney injury molecule-1 in IgA nephropathy 
BMC Nephrology  2013;14:139.
Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a biomarker useful for detecting early tubular damage and has been recently reported as a useful marker for evaluating kidney injury in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). We therefore investigated whether treatment decreases urinary KIM-1 excretion in IgAN.
We prospectively enrolled 37 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN. Urinary KIM-1 was assessed before and after treatment, which included low salt diet, blood pressure control, pharmacotherapy with angiotensin receptor blockers and/or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and immunosuppressive agents as necessary. The median treatment duration was 24 months.
Urinary KIM-1/creatinine (Cr) was significantly decreased in patients with IgAN after treatment compared to baseline (P < 0.0001, 1.16 [0.51-1.83] vs 0.26 [0.12-0.65] ng/mg). There was a decrease in the amount of proteinuria after treatment, but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.052, 748.1 [405-1569.7] vs 569.2 [252.2-1114] g/d). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) did not change with treatment (P = 0.599, 79.28 ± 30.56 vs 80.98 ± 32.37 ml/min/1.73 m2). Urinary KIM-1 was not correlated with proteinuria baseline or follow up (pre-: R = - 0.100, P = 0.577, post-: R = 0.001, P = 0.993). In patients with higher baseline urinary KIM-1, both urinary KIM-1 level and proteinuria were significantly decreased following treatment.
Treatment decreases urinary KIM-1/Cr in patients with IgAN. It also reduces proteinuria in patients with higher baseline urinary KIM-1. These results suggest a potential role for urinary KIM-1 as a biomarker for predicting treatment response in IgAN, however, further study is needed to verify this.
PMCID: PMC3717021  PMID: 23837450
Biomarker; IgA nephropathy; KIM-1; Treatment in IgA nephropathy reduced the urinary KIM-1 excretion
5.  Urinary Vitamin D Binding Protein: A Potential Novel Marker of Renal Interstitial Inflammation and Fibrosis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e55887.
Non-invasive tubulointerstitial damage markers may allow better titration and monitoring of renoprotective therapy. We investigated the value of urinary vitamin D binding protein excretion (uVDBP) as a tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis marker in adriamycin rats, and tested whether uVDBP parallels renal damage and responds to therapy intensification in humans. In adriamycin (ADR) rats, uVDBP was strongly elevated vs controls (CON) already 6 wks after nephrosis induction (ADR: 727±674 [mean±SD] vs CON: 9±12 µg/d, p<0.01), i.e. before onset of pre-fibrotic and inflammatory tubulointerstitial damage, and at all following 6-wk time points until end of follow up at 30 wks (ADR: 1403±1026 vs CON: 206±132 µg/d, p<0.01). In multivariate regression analysis, uVDBP was associated with tubulointerstitial macrophage accumulation (standardized beta = 0.47, p = 0.01) and collagen III expression (standardized beta = 0.44, p = 0.02) independently of albuminuria. In humans, uVDBP was increased in 100 microalbuminuric subjects (44±93 µg/d) and in 47 CKD patients with overt proteinuria (9.2±13.0 mg/d) compared to 100 normoalbuminuric subjects (12±12 µg/d, p<0.001). In CKD patients, uVDBP responded to intensification of renoprotective therapy (ACEi+liberal sodium: 9.2±13.0 mg/d vs dual RAAS blockade+low sodium: 2747±4013, p<0.001), but remained still >100-fold increased during maximal therapy vs normoalbuminurics (p<0.001), consistent with persisting tubulointerstitial damage. UVDBP was associated with tubular and inflammatory damage markers KIM-1 (standardized beta = 0.52, p<0.001), beta-2-microglobuline (st.beta = 0.45, p<0.001), cystatin C (st.beta = 0.40, p<0.001), MCP-1 (st.beta = 0.31, p<0.001) and NGAL (st.beta = 0.20, p = 0.005), independently of albuminuria. UVDBP may be a novel urinary biomarker of tubulointerstitial damage. Prospectively designed studies are required to validate our findings and confirm its relevance in the clinical setting.
PMCID: PMC3569442  PMID: 23409077
6.  Cardiovascular Risk with Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Systematic Review of Population-Based Controlled Observational Studies 
PLoS Medicine  2011;8(9):e1001098.
David Henry and colleagues reevaluate the evidence from observational studies on the cardiovascular risk associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Randomised trials have highlighted the cardiovascular risks of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in high doses and sometimes atypical settings. Here, we provide estimates of the comparative risks with individual NSAIDs at typical doses in community settings.
Methods and Findings
We performed a systematic review of community-based controlled observational studies. We conducted comprehensive literature searches, extracted adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates, and pooled the estimates for major cardiovascular events associated with use of individual NSAIDs, in different doses, and in populations with low and high background risks of cardiovascular events. We also compared individual drugs in pair-wise (within study) analyses, generating ratios of RRs (RRRs). Thirty case-control studies included 184,946 cardiovascular events, and 21 cohort studies described outcomes in >2.7 million exposed individuals. Of the extensively studied drugs (ten or more studies), the highest overall risks were seen with rofecoxib, 1.45 (95% CI 1.33, 1.59), and diclofenac, 1.40 (1.27, 1.55), and the lowest with ibuprofen, 1.18 (1.11, 1.25), and naproxen, 1.09 (1.02, 1.16). In a sub-set of studies, risk was elevated with low doses of rofecoxib, 1.37 (1.20, 1.57), celecoxib, 1.26 (1.09, 1.47), and diclofenac, 1.22 (1.12, 1.33), and rose in each case with higher doses. Ibuprofen risk was seen only with higher doses. Naproxen was risk-neutral at all doses. Of the less studied drugs etoricoxib, 2.05 (1.45, 2.88), etodolac, 1.55 (1.28, 1.87), and indomethacin, 1.30 (1.19, 1.41), had the highest risks. In pair-wise comparisons, etoricoxib had a higher RR than ibuprofen, RRR = 1.68 (99% CI 1.14, 2.49), and naproxen, RRR = 1.75 (1.16, 2.64); etodolac was not significantly different from naproxen and ibuprofen. Naproxen had a significantly lower risk than ibuprofen, RRR = 0.92 (0.87, 0.99). RR estimates were constant with different background risks for cardiovascular disease and rose early in the course of treatment.
This review suggests that among widely used NSAIDs, naproxen and low-dose ibuprofen are least likely to increase cardiovascular risk. Diclofenac in doses available without prescription elevates risk. The data for etoricoxib were sparse, but in pair-wise comparisons this drug had a significantly higher RR than naproxen or ibuprofen. Indomethacin is an older, rather toxic drug, and the evidence on cardiovascular risk casts doubt on its continued clinical use.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
The analgesic (pain relieving), anti-pyretic (fever reducing), and anti-inflammatory (inflammation reducing) properties of the class of drug called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)—so called to distinguish this class of drug from steroids, which have similar but additional effects—make NSAIDs one of the most frequently used drugs for the symptomatic treatment of many common conditions. Some preparations of NSAIDs can be bought over the counter, and all are available on prescription, but this class of drug has well documented side effects and risks: people taking NSAIDs are on average four times more likely to develop gastrointestinal complications than people not taking these drugs (that is, the relative risk of gastrointestinal complications is 4), and the relative risk for associated cardiovascular complications—cardiovascular events during treatment with NSAIDs has been one of the most studied adverse drug reactions in history—ranges from 1.0 to 2.0.
Why Was This Study Done?
Several large systematic reviews, including one conducted by these researchers, have previously highlighted apparent differences in cardiovascular risk between individual drugs, but these reviews have provided limited information on dose effects and relevant patient characteristics and have not directly compared the cardiovascular risks of each drug. Furthermore, most of these analyses extensively investigated only a few drugs, with little information on some widely available compounds, such as etoricoxib, etodolac, meloxicam, indomethacin, and piroxicam. Therefore, the researchers conducted this study to update cardiovascular risk estimates for all currently available NSAIDs and to compare the risks between individual drugs. In order to investigate the likely effects of over-the-counter use of NSAIDS, the researchers also wanted to include in their review an analysis of the cardiovascular risk at low doses of relevant drugs, over short time periods, and in low risk populations.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers included only controlled observational studies in their literature search and review (conducted by searching a wide range of databases for studies published from 1985 until November 2010) because randomized controlled trials have reported only small numbers of cardiovascular events that are insufficient for the purposes of this study. The researchers assessed the methodological quality of selected studies, analyzed adjustment variables (for example, age, sex, other medications), and summarized overall results for individual drugs across studies as pooled relative risk estimates. For the subsets of studies that provided relevant data, they pooled within-study relative risk estimates with high and low doses and in people at high and low risk of cardiovascular events, and performed a series of within-study (pair-wise) comparisons and for each pair of drugs, to estimate their comparative relative risks by using a validated online tool to give a ratio of relative risks.
Using this methodology, the researchers included 30 case-control studies and 21 cohort studies: the highest overall risks were with rofecoxib and diclofenac, and the lowest risks were with ibuprofen and naproxen, The researchers found that risk was elevated with low doses of rofecoxib, celecoxib, and diclofenac, and rose with higher doses. Ibuprofen risk was only evident with higher doses. Naproxen did not cause any additional risks at any dose. Of the less studied NSAIDs, etoricoxib, etodolac, and indomethacin had the highest risks. In the pair-wise comparisons, the researchers found that etoricoxib had a higher relative risk than ibuprofen and naproxen, etodolac was not significantly different from naproxen and ibuprofen, and naproxen had a significantly lower risk than ibuprofen. Finally, the researchers showed that relative risk estimates were constant with different background risks for cardiovascular disease and increased early the course of treatment.
What Do These Findings Mean?
This updated systematic review gives some new information on some familiar NSAIDs, and provides potentially important information on some little studied ones, which will help to inform clinical and regulatory decisions. The specific findings suggest that among widely used NSAIDs, naproxen and low-dose ibuprofen are least likely to increase cardiovascular risk, whereas diclofenac in doses available without prescription elevates risk. Based on sparse data, etoricoxib has a high risk of cardiovascular events and is similar to drugs that have been withdrawn because of safety concerns. Indomethacin is an older, rather toxic drug, and the new evidence on cardiovascular risk casts doubt on its continued clinical use.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at
Wikipedia defines and discusses NSAIDs
The UK National Health Service and MedicineNet have useful information on NSAIDs that is suitable for patients
The National Prescribing Service in Australia has a range of information on the use of NSAIDs
PMCID: PMC3181230  PMID: 21980265
7.  Protective effects of L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) in proximal tubular cells against glomerular injury in anti-GBM antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2011;26(11):3465-3473.
Background. In glomerulonephritis (GN), an overload of free fatty acids (FFA) bound to albumin in urinary protein may induce oxidative stress in the proximal tubules. Human liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (hL-FABP) expressed in human proximal tubules, but not rodents, participates in intracellular FFA metabolism and exerts anti-oxidative effects on the progression of tubulointerstitial damage. We examined whether tubular enhancement of this anti-oxidative action modulates the progression of glomerular damage in immune-mediated GN in hL-FABP chromosomal gene transgenic (Tg) mice.
Methods. Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-induced glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN) was induced in Tg and wild-type mice (WT). Proteinuria, histopathology, polymorphonuclear (PMN) influx, expression of tubulointerstitial markers for oxidative stress 4-hydroxy-2-Nonenal (HNE) and fibrosis (α-smooth muscle actin), proximal tubular damage (Kim-1), Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPAR γ) and inflammatory cytokines [Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)] were analyzed. The mice were also treated with an angiotensin type II receptor blocker (ARB).
Results. The urinary protein level in Tg mice decreased significantly during the acute phase (∼Day 5). Tg mice survived for a significantly longer time than WT mice, with an attenuation of tubulointerstitial damage score and expression of each tubulointerstitial damage marker observed at Day 7. Expression of inflammatory cytokines on Day 7 was higher in WT mice than Tg mice and correlated strongly with PPARγ expression in WT mice, but not in Tg mice. Interestingly, Tg mice showed insufficient PMN influx at 3 and 6 h, with simultaneous elevation of urinary L-FABP and reduction in HNE expression. The two strains of mice showed different types of glomerular damage, with mild mesangial proliferation in Tg mice and severe endothelial swelling with vascular thrombosis in WT mice. The glomerular damage in Tg mice was improved by administration of an ARB.
Conclusions. The present experimental model suggests that tubular enhancement of L-FABP may protect mice with anti-GBM GN from progression of both tubulointerstitial and glomerular injury.
PMCID: PMC3203629  PMID: 21525165
L-FABP; oxidative stress; tubulointerstitial damage
8.  Mechanisms by which heme oxygenase rescue renal dysfunction in obesity 
Redox Biology  2014;2:1029-1037.
Obesity and excessive inflammation/oxidative stress are pathophysiological forces associated with kidney dysfunction. Although we recently showed that heme-oxygenase (HO) improves renal functions, the mechanisms are largely unclear. Moreover, the effects of the HO-system on podocyte cytoskeletal proteins like podocin, podocalyxin, CD2-associated-protein (CD2AP) and proteins of regeneration/repair like beta-catenin, Oct3/4, WT1 and Pax2 in renal tissue from normoglycemic obese Zucker-fatty rats (ZFs) have not been reported.
Treatment with hemin reduced renal histo-pathological lesions including glomerular-hypertrophy, tubular-cast, tubular-atrophy and mononuclear cell-infiltration in ZFs. These were associated with enhanced expression of beta-catenin, Oct3/4, WT1, Pax2 and nephrin, an essential transmembrane protein required for the formation of the scaffoldings of the podocyte slit-diaphragm, permitting the filtration of small ions, but not massive excretion of proteins, hence proteinuria. Besides nephrin, hemin also enhanced other important podocyte-regulators including, podocalyxin, podocin and CD2AP. Correspondingly, important markers of renal dysfunction such as albuminuria and proteinuria were reduced, while creatinine clearance increased, suggesting improved renal function in hemin-treated ZFs. The renoprotection by hemin was accompanied by the reduction of inflammatory/oxidative mediators including, macrophage-inflammatory-protein-1α, macrophage-chemoattractant-protein-1 and 8-isoprostane, whereas HO-1, HO-activity and the total-anti-oxidant-capacity increased. Contrarily, the HO-inhibitor, stannous-mesoporphyrin nullified the reno-protection by hemin.
Collectively, these data suggest that hemin ameliorates nephropathy by potentiating the expression of proteins of repair/regeneration, abating oxidative/inflammatory mediators, reducing renal histo-pathological lesions, while enhancing nephrin, podocin, podocalyxin, CD2AP and creatinine clearance, with corresponding reduction of albuminuria/proteinuria suggesting improved renal function in hemin-treated ZFs. Importantly, the concomitant potentiation regeneration proteins and podocyte cytoskeletal proteins are novel mechanisms by which hemin rescue nephropathy in obesity.
•Renal dysfunction is common in obesity.•Novel mechanisms by which heme-oxygenase (HO) rescue kidney failure are unveiled.•HO enhance podocyte cytoskeletal proteins like podocin, podocalyxin and CD2AP.•HO enhance proteins of regeneration/repair like beta-catenin, Oct3/4, WT1 and Pax2.
PMCID: PMC4215395  PMID: 25460740
Heme oxygenase; beta-catenin; Podocalyxin; Oct-3/4; Podocin; CD2-associated protein
9.  Effects of prostaglandin E2 on disease activity, gastric secretion and intestinal permeability, and morphology in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1988;47(8):620-627.
The effects of oral natural prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on symptoms, disease activity, and gastrointestinal functions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were studied in an open pilot trial. Twelve patients, six taking and six not taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), received 1 mg natural PGE2 three times a day for six weeks. The treatment was tolerated well and the only side effect noted was slightly looser stools in three patients. Half of the patients reported subjective improvement and none had aggravation of symptoms. The Ritchie articular index and several biochemical inflammation markers decreased and were significantly reduced at the end of the treatment period. The thickness of the small intestinal mucosa increased during the PGE2 treatment. The intestinal permeability pattern, measured by urinary excretion of polyethylene glycols (PEG 400), differed between the patients taking and not taking NSAIDs. The initially high urinary PEG 400 excretion values in the patients taking NSAIDs decreased and the initially low excretion values in patients not taking NSAIDs increased during the PGE2 treatment. The jejunal contents became sterile in 5/6 patients not taking NSAIDs and remained sterile in 1/6 patients taking NSAIDs at the end of the treatment. The treatment period was associated with a reduction of lactobacilli in patients not treated with NSAIDs. Thus the treatment appeared to decrease disease activity and to improve small intestinal functions in patients with RA, findings that need confirmation in a controlled trial.
PMCID: PMC1006711  PMID: 3166369
10.  Impaired endocytosis in proximal tubule from subchronic exposure to cadmium involves angiotensin II type 1 and cubilin receptors 
BMC Nephrology  2013;14:211.
Chronic exposure to low cadmium (Cd) levels produces urinary excretion of low molecular weight proteins, which is considered the critical effect of Cd exposure. However, the mechanisms involved in Cd-induced proteinuria are not entirely clear. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the possible role of megalin and cubilin (important endocytic receptors in proximal tubule cells) and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor on Cd-induced microalbuminuria.
Four groups of female Wistar rats were studied. Control (CT) group, vehicle-treated rats; LOS group, rats treated with losartan (an AT1 antagonist) from weeks 5 to 8 (10 mg/kg/day by gavage); Cd group, rats subchronically exposed to Cd (3 mg/kg/day by gavage) during 8 weeks, and Cd + LOS group, rats treated with Cd for 8 weeks and LOS from weeks 5–8. Kidney Cd content, glomerular function (evaluated by creatinine clearance and plasma creatinine), kidney injury and tubular function (evaluated by Kim-1 expression, urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and glucose, and microalbuminuria), oxidative stress (measured by lipid peroxidation and NAD(P)H oxidase activity), mRNA levels of megalin, expressions of megalin and cubilin (by confocal microscopy) and AT1 receptor (by Western blot), were measured in the different experimental groups. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test using GraphPad Prism 5 software (Version 5.00). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Administration of Cd (Cd and Cd + LOS groups) increased renal Cd content. LOS-treatment decreased Cd-induced microalbuminuria without changes in: plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance, urinary NAG and glucose, oxidative stress, mRNA levels of megalin and cubilin, neither protein expression of megalin nor AT1 receptor, in the different experimental groups studied. However, Cd exposure did induce the expression of the tubular injury marker Kim-1 and decreased cubilin protein levels in proximal tubule cells whereas LOS-treatment restored cubilin levels and suppressed Kim-1 expression.
LOS treatment decreased microalbuminuria induced by Cd apparently through a cubilin receptor-dependent mechanism but independent of megalin.
PMCID: PMC3851428  PMID: 24093454
Cadmium; Subchronic exposure; Endocytosis; Megalin; Cubilin; Angiotensin II type 1 receptor; Losartan
11.  Effect of NADPH oxidase inhibition on the expression of kidney injury molecule and calcium oxalate crystal deposition in hydroxy-L-proline-induced hyperoxaluria in the male Sprague–Dawley rats 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2011;26(6):1785-1796.
Background. Renal calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal deposition is associated with epithelial injury and movement of inflammatory cells into the interstitium. We have proposed that oxalate (Ox)- and CaOx crystal-induced injury is most likely caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by activation of membrane nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase.
Methods. Present study was undertaken to determine the effect of NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin on the expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and renal CaOx crystal deposition in rats with hyperoxaluria. We also investigated the urinary excretion of KIM-1, osteopontin (OPN) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and renal expression of OPN and ED-1. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 5% hydroxyl-L-proline (HLP) and 4 mmol apocynin to drink for 28 days. Urine was collected on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28. After that, rats were sacrificed and their kidneys processed for various microscopic and molecular investigations.
Results. HLP consumption produced heavy deposits of CaOx crystals. Renal expression of KIM-1 and OPN and urinary excretion of KIM-1, OPN, H2O2 and MCP-1 was significantly increased. ED-1-positive cells migrated into renal interstitium. Apocynin treatment caused significant reduction of crystal deposits, injured and dilated tubules; renal expression of KIM-1, OPN and ED-1 and urinary excretion of KIM-1, OPN, MCP-1 and H2O2. Apocynin had no effect on the urinary excretion of Ox.
Conclusions. This is the first study of urinary excretion and renal expression of KIM-1 in association with renal CaOx crystal deposition, experimental or clinical. The results indicate that NADPH oxidase inhibition leads to reduction in KIM-1 expression and urinary excretion as well as renal CaOx crystal deposition. KIM-1 is an important marker of renal epithelial injury. The results provide further support to our proposal that renal epithelial injury is critical for crystal retention and that injury is in part caused by the production of ROS with the involvement of NADPH oxidase.
PMCID: PMC3145402  PMID: 21378157
apocynin; calcium oxalate; kidney injury molecule-1; kidney stones; NADPH oxidase; oxalate; oxidative stress
12.  Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin is Instrumental in the Pathogenesis of Antibody-Mediated Nephritis 
Arthritis and Rheumatism  2012;64(5):1620-1631.
The mechanism by which anti-DNA antibodies mediate lupus nephritis has yet to be conclusively determined. Previously, we found that treatment of mesangial cells with anti-DNA antibodies induced high expression of Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), an iron-binding protein upregulated in response to kidney injury. However, whether NGAL is instrumental in pathogenesis, induced as part of repair, or irrelevant to damage/repair pathways, is not known.
To investigate the role of NGAL in antibody-mediated nephritis, we induced nephrotoxic nephritis by passive antibody transfer to B6 or 129 mice. To determine if NGAL upregulation is instrumental, we compared the severity of renal damage in NGAL wild-type and knock-out mice following induction of nephrotoxic nephritis.
We found that kidney NGAL expression, as well as urinary NGAL levels, were significantly increased in nephrotoxic nephritis as compared to control injected mice. Tight correlations were observed between NGAL expression, renal histopathology, and urinary NGAL excretion. NGAL knock-out mice had attenuated proteinuria and improved renal histopathology as compared to wild-type mice. Similarly, following nephritis induction, NGAL injection significantly exacerbated nephritis and decreased survival. NGAL induces apoptosis via caspase-3 activation, and upregulates inflammatory gene expression in kidney cells in vitro and when injected in vivo.
We conclude that kidney binding of pathogenic antibodies stimulates local expression of NGAL, which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of nephritis via promotion of inflammation and apoptosis. NGAL blockade may be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of nephritis mediated by pathogenic antibodies, including anti-GBM disease and lupus nephritis.
PMCID: PMC3325360  PMID: 22083497
13.  Urinary Concentration of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 in Idiopathic Glomerulonephritis: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e87857.
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), which is up regulated in kidney diseases, is considered a marker of kidney inflammation. We examined the value of urine MCP-1 in predicting the outcome in idiopathic glomerulonephritis.
Between 1993 and 2004, 165 patients (68 females) diagnosed with idiopathic proteinuric glomerulopathy and with serum creatinine <150 µmol/L at diagnosis were selected for the study. Urine concentrations of MCP-1 were analyzed by ELISA in early morning spot urine samples collected on the day of the diagnostic kidney biopsy. The patients were followed until 2009. The progression rate to end-stage kidney disease was calculated using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis. End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) was defined as the start of kidney replacement therapy during the study follow-up time.
Patients with proliferative glomerulonephritis had significantly higher urinary MCP-1 excretion levels than those with non-proliferative glomerulonephritis (p<0.001). The percentage of patients whose kidney function deteriorated significantly was 39.0% in the high MCP-1 excretion group and 29.9% in the low MCP-1 excretion group. However, after adjustment for confounding variables such as glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proteinuria, there was no significant association between urine MCP-1 concentration and progression to ESKD, (HR = 1.75, 95% CI = 0.64–4.75, p = 0.27).
Our findings indicate that progression to end-stage kidney disease in patients with idiopathic glomerulopathies is not associated with urine MCP-1 concentrations at the time of diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3906252  PMID: 24489972
14.  Glomerular Expression of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and Podocytopenia in Diabetic Glomerulopathy 
American Journal of Nephrology  2011;34(3):268-280.
Studies have shown that kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is upregulated in damaged renal proximal tubules. In this study, we examined KIM-1 expression in glomerular epithelial cells in diabetic glomerulopathy.
Renal histology, immunostaining and Western blot for protein level, and real-time PCR for mRNA expression of KIM-1 and podocyte markers were evaluated in untreated or losartan-treated Zucker lean (Fa/+) and Zucker diabetic fatty (Fa/Fa) rats.
The diabetic rats showed an increased glomerular expression of KIM-1. KIM-1 staining was localized primarily in the hyperplastic parietal epithelium of Bowman's capsule in the early stages of diabetes with subsequent increase in KIM-1-positive cells in the glomerular tuft in the more advanced stages. The increase in glomerular KIM-1 was associated with a decrease in podocytes in Fa/Fa rats. Antiproteinuric treatment with losartan attenuated podocytopenia and decreased renal expression of KIM-1 in treated diabetic rats. In an in vitro study, albumin overload increased KIM-1 protein in the primary cultures of rat glomerular epithelial cells.
These results show that glomerular KIM-1 expression was increased, in proportion to the extent of proteinuria and podocytopenia in the diabetic animals, supporting that KIM-1 could be used as a potential biomarker for glomerular injury in proteinuric kidney disease.
PMCID: PMC3169370  PMID: 21822010
Albuminuria; Kidney injury molecule-1; Parietal epithelial cells; Podocytes; Glomerulopathy
15.  Antifibrotic effects of pioglitazone on the kidney in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2009;24(8):2384-2391.
Background. Recent evidence suggests that treatment of type 2 diabetes with thiazolidinediones [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonists], ameliorates glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the rat kidney. In the current work, we have investigated whether these drugs, and specifically pioglitazone (PGT), act by preventing fibrosis and kidney dysfunction mainly through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, independently of glycaemic control.
Methods. Male 2- to 3-month-old obese Zucker fa/fa (OZR) and ZDF fa/fa rats (ZDFR), and their control the lean Zucker rat (LZR), were used. Diabetic rats were given either a low dose (0.6 mg/kg/day) or a high dose (12 mg/ kg/day) of PGT in the chow for 2 or 4–5 months. Glycaemia, blood pressure, creatinine clearance and proteinuria were determined, and the underlying histopathology was defined with markers of fibrosis, glomerular damage, oxidative stress and inflammation by immunohistochemistry/ quantitative image analysis in tissue sections, and western blots and ad hoc assays in fresh tissue.
Results. PGT at low doses given for 4–5 months considerably reduced blood pressure, proteinuria and creatinine clearance. This was associated with amelioration of renal tissue damage and fibrosis, evidenced by the glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy and podocyte injury indexes, and of oxidative stress and inflammation, as shown by the decrease in the respective markers, although glycaemia remained high and obesity was not affected.
Conclusions. These results indicate that low doses of PGT ameliorate renal fibrosis and preserve renal function in this animal model of metabolic syndrome, independently of glycaemic control or effects on body weight.
PMCID: PMC2727296  PMID: 19297362
diabetic nephropathy; fibrosis; inflammation; oxidative stress; thiazolidinediones
16.  High Urinary Excretion of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Is an Independent Predictor of Graft Loss in Renal Transplant Recipients 
Transplantation  2007;84(12):1625-1630.
Chronic transplant dysfunction is characterized by renal function decline and proteinuria. Kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1, a transmembrane tubular protein with unknown function, is undetectable in normal kidneys, but markedly induced after injury. Urinary KIM-1 excretion has been quantified as biomarker of renal damage. We prospectively studied whether urinary KIM-1 predicts graft loss, independent of renal function and proteinuria.
Renal transplant recipients (n=145) visiting our outpatient clinic between August 2001 and July 2003 collected 24-hour urine samples for assessment of baseline urinary KIM-1 excretion (microsphere-based Luminex technology), and were followed for graft loss.
Recipients participated at a median (interquartile range) of 6.0 (2.5–12.0) years posttransplant in baseline measurements. Follow-up beyond baseline was 4.0 (3.2–4.5) years. Urinary KIM-1 excretion was 0.72 (0.42–1.37) ng per 24 hours. Occurrence of graft loss increased over tertiles of KIM-1 excretion: 3 (6.3%), 11 (22.4%), and 17 cases (35.4%; P=0.001), respectively. High KIM-1 excretion was associated with proteinuria, low creatinine clearance, and high donor age (all P<0.01). In multivariate Cox regression analyses, prediction of graft loss by KIM-1 appeared independent of creatinine clearance, proteinuria, and donorage. Hazard ratios (95% CI) for the second and third tertile of KIM-1 excretion were 3.6 (0.9–13.5) and 5.1 (1.5–17.8) in the final model.
Urinary excretion of KIM-1 is an independent predictor of long-term graft loss and therefore a promising new biomarker in early prediction of graft loss.
PMCID: PMC2745062  PMID: 18165774
Chronic transplant dysfunction; Renal transplantation; Kidney injury molecule-1; Biomarker
17.  Use of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs That Elevate Cardiovascular Risk: An Examination of Sales and Essential Medicines Lists in Low-, Middle-, and High-Income Countries 
PLoS Medicine  2013;10(2):e1001388.
Patricia McGettigan and David Henry find that, although some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as diclofenac are known to increase cardiovascular risk, diclofenac is included on 74 countries' essential medicine lists and was the most commonly used NSAID in the 15 countries they evaluated.
Certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (e.g., rofecoxib [Vioxx]) increase the risk of heart attack and stroke and should be avoided in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events. Rates of cardiovascular disease are high and rising in many low- and middle-income countries. We studied the extent to which evidence on cardiovascular risk with NSAIDs has translated into guidance and sales in 15 countries.
Methods and Findings
Data on the relative risk (RR) of cardiovascular events with individual NSAIDs were derived from meta-analyses of randomised trials and controlled observational studies. Listing of individual NSAIDs on Essential Medicines Lists (EMLs) was obtained from the World Health Organization. NSAID sales or prescription data for 15 low-, middle-, and high-income countries were obtained from Intercontinental Medical Statistics Health (IMS Health) or national prescription pricing audit (in the case of England and Canada). Three drugs (rofecoxib, diclofenac, etoricoxib) ranked consistently highest in terms of cardiovascular risk compared with nonuse. Naproxen was associated with a low risk. Diclofenac was listed on 74 national EMLs, naproxen on just 27. Rofecoxib use was not documented in any country. Diclofenac and etoricoxib accounted for one-third of total NSAID usage across the 15 countries (median 33.2%, range 14.7–58.7%). This proportion did not vary between low- and high-income countries. Diclofenac was by far the most commonly used NSAID, with a market share close to that of the next three most popular drugs combined. Naproxen had an average market share of less than 10%.
Listing of NSAIDs on national EMLs should take account of cardiovascular risk, with preference given to low risk drugs. Diclofenac has a risk very similar to rofecoxib, which was withdrawn from worldwide markets owing to cardiovascular toxicity. Diclofenac should be removed from EMLs.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most widely used drugs. Aspirin, the first NSAID, was developed in 1897 but there are now many different NSAIDs. Some can be bought over-the-counter but others are available only with prescription. NSAIDs can help relieve short- and long-term pain, reduce inflammation (redness and swelling), and reduce high fevers. Common conditions that are treated with NSAIDs include headaches, toothache, back ache, and arthritis. NSAIDs work by stopping a class of enzymes called cyclo-oxygenases (COXs) from making prostaglandins, some of which cause pain and inflammation. Like all drugs, NSAIDs have some unwanted side effects. Because certain prostaglandins protect the stomach lining from the stomach acid that helps to digest food, NSAID use can cause indigestion and stomach ulcers (gastrointestinal complications). In addition, NSAIDs increase the risk of heart attacks and stroke to varying degrees and therefore should be avoided by people at high risk of cardiovascular diseases—conditions that affect the heart and/or blood vessels.
Why Was This Study Done?
Different NSAIDs are associated with different levels of cardiovascular risk. Selective COX-2 inhibitors (e.g., rofecoxib, celecoxib, etoricoxib) generally have fewer stomach-related side effects than non-selective COX inhibitors (e.g., naproxen, ibuprofen, diclofenac). However, some NSAIDs (rofecoxib, diclofenac, etoricoxib) are more likely to cause cardiovascular events than others (e.g., naproxen). When doctors prescribe NSAIDs, they need to consider the patient's risk profile. Particularly for patients with higher risk of cardiovascular events, a doctor should either advise against NSAID use or recommend one that has a relatively low cardiovascular risk. Information on the cardiovascular risk associated with different NSAIDs has been available for several years, but have doctors changed their prescribing of NSAIDs based on the information? This question is of particular concern in low- and middle-income countries where cardiovascular disease is increasingly common. In this study, the researchers investigate the extent to which evidence on the cardiovascular risk associated with different NSAIDs has translated into guidance and sales in 15 low-, middle-, and high-income countries.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers derived data on the relative risk of cardiovascular events associated with individual NSAIDs compared to non-use of NSAIDs from published meta-analyses of randomized trials and observational studies. They obtained information on the NSAIDs recommended in 100 countries from national Essential Medicines Lists (EMLs; essential medicines are drugs that satisfy the priority health care needs of a population). Finally, they obtained information on NSAID sales for 13 countries in the South Asian, Southeast Asian, and Asian Pacific regions and NSAID prescription data for Canada and England. Rofecoxib, diclofenac, and etoricoxib consistently increased cardiovascular risk compared with no NSAIDs. All three had a higher relative risk of cardiovascular events than naproxen in pairwise analyses. Naproxen was associated with the lowest cardiovascular risk. No national EMLs recommended rofecoxib, which was withdrawn from world markets 8 years ago because of its cardiovascular risk. Seventy-four national EMLs listed diclofenac, but only 27 EMLs listed naproxen. Diclofenac was the most commonly used NSAID, with an average market share across the 15 countries of nearly 30%. By contrast, naproxen had an average market share of less than 10%. Finally, across both high- and low-/middle-income countries, diclofenac and etoricoxib accounted for one-third of total NSAID usage.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings show that NSAIDs with higher risk of cardiovascular events are widely used in low-/middle- as well as high-income countries. Diclofenac is the most popular NSAID, despite its higher relative risk of cardiovascular events, which is similar to that of rofecoxib. Diclofenac is also widely listed on EMLs even though information on its higher cardiovascular risk has been available since 2006. In contrast, naproxen, one of the safest in relative terms of the NSAIDs examined, was among the least popular and was listed on a minority of EMLs. Some aspects of the study's design may affect the accuracy of these findings. For example, the researchers did not look at the risk profiles of the patients actually taking NSAIDs. However, given the volume of use of high-risk NSAIDS, it is likely that these drugs are taken by many individuals at high risk of cardiovascular events. Overall, these findings have important implications for public health and, given the wide availability of safer alternatives, the researchers suggest that diclofenac should be removed from national EMLs and that its marketing authorizations should be revoked globally.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001388.
This study is further discussed in a PLOS Medicine Perspective by K. Srinath Reddy and Ambuj Roy
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides detailed information on NSAIDS
MedlinePlus provides information about aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and diclofenac; it also provides links to other information about pain relievers (in English and Spanish)
The American Heart Association has information on cardiovascular disease; Can Patients With Cardiovascular Disease Take Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs? is a Cardiology Patient Page in the AHA journal Circulation
The British Heart Foundation also provides information about cardiovascular disease and has a factsheet on NSAIDs and cardiovascular disease
The World Health Organization has a fact sheet on essential medicines; the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (in English and French), and national EMLs are available
PMCID: PMC3570554  PMID: 23424288
18.  Serum and urinary proteins, lysozyme (muramidase), and renal dysfunction in mono- and myelomonocytic leukemia 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1970;49(9):1694-1708.
Serum levels, urinary excretion, and clearances of several proteins of different molecular weights were studied in 18 patients with mono- and myelomonocytic leukemia. Nine patients had normal renal function (group A) and nine had impaired renal function with azotemia (group B). The majority of patients in both groups had increased concentration of immunoglobulins, particularly IgG, IgA, and IgM; IgD level was normal. Serum transferrin and α2-macroglobulin were frequently reduced while the level of ceruloplasmin was often increased, especially in patients with azotemia. The activity of lysozyme in the serum was high in all patients, but was considerably higher in group B.
Proteinuria was found in most patients but was more prominent in group B. Almost invariably albumin constituted less than 25% of the total protein excreted. Qualitative analysis of various urinary proteins by immunochemical techniques and clearance studies suggested the presence of glomerular as well as tubular dysfunction. Determination of urinary lysozyme frequently showed no direct correlation between the serum level of the enzyme and its concentration in the urine or its clearance by the kidney. In addition to glomerular filtration, impaired tubular reabsorption may account for the high level of lysozyme in the urine. It is postulated that the very high level of lysozyme in the glomerular filtrate and possibly hypergammaglobulinemia may play a role in the induction of tubular damage. Renal impairment has been correlated with histological changes in the kidneys. From a comparative study of various leukemias, it seems that the combined glomerular-tubular dysfunction is a manifestation unique to mono- and myelomonocytic leukemia.
PMCID: PMC322653  PMID: 5270914
19.  Exacerbation of Celecoxib-Induced Renal Injury by Concomitant Administration of Misoprostol in Rats 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e89087.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can produce adverse effects by inhibiting prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. A PGE1 analogue, misoprostol, is often utilized to alleviate NSAID-related gastrointestinal side effects. This study examined the effect of misoprostol on celecoxib renal toxicity. Additionally, the effects of these drugs on cardiovascular parameters were evaluated. Four randomized rat groups were orally gavaged for 9 days, two groups receiving vehicle and two groups receiving misoprostol (100 µg/kg) twice daily. Celecoxib (40 mg/kg) was co-administered once daily to one vehicle and one misoprostol group from days 3 to 9. Urine and blood samples were collected and blood pressure parameters were measured during the study period. Hearts and kidneys were harvested on final day. Day 2 urinary electrolyte samples revealed significant reductions in sodium excretion in misoprostol (0.12±0.05 µmol/min/100 g) and misoprostol+celecoxib groups (0.07±0.02 µmol/min/100 g). At day 3, all treatment groups showed significantly reduced sodium excretion. Potassium excretion diminished significantly in vehicle+celecoxib and misoprostol+celecoxib groups from day 3 onward. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 levels were significantly increased in vehicle+celecoxib (0.65±0.02 vs. 0.35±0.07 ng/mL, p = 0.0002) and misoprostol+celecoxib (0.61±0.06 vs. 0.37±0.06 ng/mL, p = 0.0015) groups when compared to baseline; while plasma levels of cardiac troponin I increased significantly in vehicle+celecoxib (p = 0.0040) and misoprostol+misoprostol (p = 0.0078) groups when compared to vehicle+vehicle. Blood pressure parameters increased significantly in all misoprostol treated groups. Significant elevation in diastolic (p = 0.0071) and mean blood pressure (p = 0.0153) was noted in misoprostol+celecoxib compared to vehicle+celecoxib. All treatments produced significant tubular dilatation/necrosis compared to control. No significant myocardial changes were noticed; however, three animals presented with pericarditis. Kidney, heart, and plasma celecoxib levels revealed no significant change between vehicle+celecoxib and misoprostol+celecoxib. Concomitant misoprostol administration did not prevent celecoxib renal toxicity, and instead exacerbated renal side effects. Misoprostol did not alter plasma or tissue celecoxib concentrations suggesting no pharmacokinetic interaction between celecoxib and misoprostol.
PMCID: PMC3931696  PMID: 24586517
20.  Newer, safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Rational NSAID selection for arthritis. 
Canadian Family Physician  1998;44:101-107.
OBJECTIVE: To summarize current evidence that three new additions to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) offer comparable efficacy with fewer adverse effects than established NSAIDs. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: No large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have compared all important NSAIDs. Several RCTs have shown that H2 antagonists do not protect against NSAID side effects, but some RCTs compared the protective effect of misoprostol (Cytotec) used with other NSAIDs; others have compared etodolac (Ultradol) or nabumetone (Relafen) with placebo and naproxen (eg, Naprosyn). Postmarketing surveys have been used to support claims that the new NSAIDs have few gastric or renal side effects. MAIN FINDINGS: Using misoprostol in conjunction with traditional NSAIDs reduces gastric and renal adverse effects. Misoprostol can be taken at the same time as NSAIDs or in a combination tablet. Two new NSAIDS, etodolac and nabumetone, do not inhibit cyclooxygenase 1 prostaglandins, which occur in the stomach and kidneys, but more selectively block cyclooxygenase 2 prostaglandins, which cause arthritic inflammation. These two NSAIDs have efficacy profiles comparable to older NSAIDs but have markedly fewer side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Safer treatment for arthritis can be achieved by combining misoprostol with traditional NSAIDs or by using one of two new agents, nabumetone or etodolac.
PMCID: PMC2277567  PMID: 9481468
21.  Differentiation of glomerular, tubular, and normal proteinuria: determinations of urinary excretion of β2-microglobulin, albumin, and total protein 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1969;48(7):1189-1198.
A low molecular weight β2-globulin (β2-microglobulin), albumin, and total protein were measured in concentrated 24-hr urine specimens from 20 healthy subjects and 30 patients with clinical proteinuria of glomerular or tubular type. Classification of proteinuria was made on the basis of clinical diagnosis and size distribution of urinary proteins after gel chromatography. The molecular radii (Stokes' radii) of β2-microglobulin and albumin, estimated by gel chromatography, were 15 A and 35 A.
The average 24-hr urinary excretion in healthy subjects was 0.12 mg for β2-microglobulin, 10 mg for albumin, and 80 mg for total protein. The patients with renal glomerular disorders had normal or only somewhat increased excretion of β2-microglobulin, despite considerably increased excretion of albumin and total protein. Most of the patients with tubular dysfunction excreted large amounts of β2-microglobulin, although they excreted normal or only slightly increased amounts of albumin and only moderately increased quantities of total protein. Consequently, the ratio or urinary albumin/urinary β2-microglobulin was high in glomerular proteinuria (1100: 14,200), intermediate in normal proteinuria (33: 163), and low in tubular proteinuria (1.0: 13.3). Determinations of urinary clearances of β2-microglobulin and albumin in four healthy subjects and 11 patients indicated that increased excretions of the two proteins were associated with increased clearances. The results suggest that quantitative determinations of urinary β2-microglobulin and urinary albumin may be useful for detecting disorders of the renal handling of plasma proteins. The findings also seem to suggest a selective tubular reabsorption of the two proteins.
Estimates on sera revealed a close correlation between serum levels of β2-microglobulin and creatinine and also a greatly raised serum concentration of β2-microglobulin after bilateral nephrectomy.
PMCID: PMC322340  PMID: 4978446
22.  Effect of glomerular filtration rate impairment on diagnostic performance of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and B-type natriuretic peptide as markers of acute cardiac and renal failure in chronic kidney disease patients 
Critical Care  2014;18(1):R39.
Cardio-renal syndromes are characterized by the impairment of cardiac and renal functions. Plasma and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) are markers of acute kidney injury (AKI) and heart failure (HF), respectively.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the reduction of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) on plasma BNP and on plasma and urinary NGAL concentrations in stable chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients at different functional stages.
GFR (99mTc-DTPA), plasma BNP, and plasma and urinary concentrations of NGAL were measured in 310 clinically stable CKD patients, at functional stages from 1 to 5. Serum and urinary low-molecular-weight proteins cystatin C and β2-microglobulin, and urinary tubular enzymes were measured for comparison. Plasma BNP, NGAL, cystatin C and β2-microglobulin were measured also in 31 maintenance hemodialysis patients.
Plasma NGAL increased with the reduction of GFR in CKD patients from stage 2. In the different CKD stages modest differences were found for BNP values. Urinary NGAL increased slightly but significantly in patients at CKD stages 4 and 5, similarly to urinary cystatin C and β2-microglobulin. In maintenance hemodialysis patients, plasma NGAL and BNP were markedly increased, and high-flux hemodialysis significantly decreased their plasma concentrations.
Plasma NGAL increases markedly with the reduction in GFR, generating a very high number of false positive diagnoses of AKI in stable CKD patients. The grade of GFR impairment and the cause of kidney disease have a lower effect on urinary NGAL and on plasma BNP. In any case, specific reference values of NGAL and BNP should be used in chronic kidney disease patients, according to their functional stage, when assessing acute kidney injury, heart failure, and cardio-renal syndromes in patients with impaired GFR.
PMCID: PMC4057335  PMID: 24581340
23.  Influence of indomethacin on extracellular calcium homeostasis. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1990;49(2):125-127.
Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with a generalised loss of bone mass. One of the factors that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this bone loss is the chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These drugs are known to increase gastrointestinal permeability and may thus influence the absorption of calcium; they may also influence glomerular filtration rate and the renal excretion of calcium; in addition, NSAIDs may inhibit osteoblast function as well as osteoclastic bone resorption. Calcium homeostasis was studied in eight healthy volunteers during eight days' treatment with 150 mg indomethacin daily. No changes in serum concentration of calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were found. The creatinine clearance and the urinary excretion of phosphorus and sodium did not change, but a decrease in calcium excretion was noted (mean (SEM) calcium/creatinine excretion 0.52 (0.05) v 0.28 (0.06)). This decrease is probably due to renal retention of calcium. Whether this decrease of urinary calcium excretion has a positive or a negative effect on bone is presently unknown.
PMCID: PMC1003993  PMID: 2317115
24.  The Effects of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Biomarkers of Kidney Injury in Adults With Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(6):1462-1469.
Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplements may have renoprotective effects in patients with diabetes, but previous trials have been inconsistent. We performed a randomized controlled trial of n-3 PUFA supplementation on urine albumin excretion and markers of kidney injury in adults with type 2 diabetes.
We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover trial to test the effects of 4 g/day of n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of glomerular filtration and kidney injury in adults with adult-onset diabetes and greater than or equal to trace amounts of proteinuria. Each period lasted 6 weeks and was separated by a 2-week washout. The main outcome was urine albumin excretion and, secondarily, markers of kidney injury (kidney injury molecule-1, N-acetyl β-d-glucosaminidase [NAG], neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], and liver fatty acid–binding protein [LFABP]), serum markers of kidney function (cystatin C, β2-microglobulin, and creatinine), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
Of the 31 participants, 29 finished both periods. A total of 55% were male, and 61% were African American; mean age was 67 years. At baseline, mean BMI was 31.6 kg/m2, median eGFR was 76.9 mL/min/1.73 m2, and median 24-h urine albumin excretion was 161 mg/day. Compared with placebo, n-3 PUFA had nonsignificant effects on urine albumin excretion (−7.2%; 95% CI −20.6 to 8.5; P = 0.35) and significant effects on urine NGAL excretion (−16% [−29.1 to −0.5%]; P = 0.04). There was no effect on serum markers of kidney function or eGFR. In subgroup analyses, there were significant decreases in 24-h urinary excretion of albumin, NGAL, LFABP, and NAG among participants taking medications that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS).
These results suggest a potential effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of kidney injury in patients with diabetes and early evidence of kidney disease. In the context of prior studies, these results provide a strong rationale for long-term trials of n-3 PUFA on chronic kidney disease progression.
PMCID: PMC3661851  PMID: 23275364
25.  Hypertension and Hyperglycemia Synergize to Cause Incipient Renal Tubular Alterations Resulting in Increased NGAL Urinary Excretion in Rats 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e105988.
Hypertension and diabetes are the two leading causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) eventually leading to end stage renal disease (ESRD) and the need of renal replacement therapy. Mortality among CKD and ESRD patients is high, mostly due to cardiovascular events. New early markers of risk are necessary to better anticipate the course of the disease, to detect the renal affection of additive risk factors, and to appropriately handle patients in a pre-emptive and personalized manner.
Renal function and NGAL urinary excretion was monitored in rats with spontaneous (SHR) or L-NAME induced hypertension rendered hyperglycemic (or not as controls).
Combination of hypertension and hyperglycemia (but not each of these factors independently) causes an increased urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in the rat, in the absence of signs of renal damage. Increased NGAL excretion is observed in diabetic animals with two independent models of hypertension. Elevated urinary NGAL results from a specific alteration in its tubular handling, rather than from an increase in its renal expression. In fact, when kidneys of hyperglycaemic-hypertensive rats are perfused in situ with Krebs-dextran solution containing exogenous NGAL, they excrete more NGAL in the urine than hypertensive rats. We also show that albuminuria is not capable of detecting the additive effect posed by the coexistence of these two risk factors.
Our results suggest that accumulation of hypertension and hyperglycemia induces an incipient and quite specific alteration in the tubular handling of NGAL resulting in its increased urinary excretion.
PMCID: PMC4141836  PMID: 25148248

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