Rab GTPases are important regulators of endomembrane trafficking, regulating exocytosis, endocytosis and membrane recycling. Many Rab-like proteins exist in plants, but only a subset have been functionally characterized.
Here we report that AtRabD2b and AtRabD2c play important roles in pollen development, germination and tube elongation. AtrabD2b and AtrabD2c single mutants have no obvious morphological changes compared with wild-type plants across a variety of growth conditions. An AtrabD2b/2c double mutant is also indistinguishable from wild-type plants during vegetative growth; however its siliques are shorter than those in wild-type plants. Compared with wild-type plants, AtrabD2b/2c mutants produce deformed pollen with swollen and branched pollen tube tips. The shorter siliques in the AtrabD2b/2c double mutant were found to be primarily due to the pollen defects. AtRabD2b and AtRabD2c have different but overlapping expression patterns, and they are both highly expressed in pollen. Both AtRabD2b and AtRabD2c protein localize to Golgi bodies.
These findings support a partially redundant role for AtRabD2b and AtRabD2c in vesicle trafficking during pollen tube growth that cannot be fulfilled by the remaining AtRabD family members.
Most GFP-like fluorescent proteins exhibit small Stokes shifts (10–45 nm) due to rigidity of the chromophore environment that excludes non-fluorescent relaxation to a ground state. An unusual near-infrared derivative of the red fluorescent protein mKate, named TagRFP675, exhibits the Stokes shift, which is 30 nm extended comparing to that of the parental protein. In physiological conditions, TagRFP675 absorbs at 598 nm and emits at 675 nm that makes it the most red-shifted protein of the GFP-like protein family. In addition, its emission maximum strongly depends on the excitation wavelength. Structures of TagRFP675 revealed the common DsRed-like chromophore, which, however, interacts with the protein matrix via an extensive network of hydrogen bonds capable of large flexibility. Based on the spectroscopic, biochemical, and structural analysis we suggest that the rearrangement of the hydrogen bond interactions between the chromophore and the protein matrix is responsible for the TagRFP675 spectral properties.
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects neutrophils to reside within a host cell-derived vacuole. The A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole (ApV) fails to mature along the endocytic pathway and is non-fusogenic with lysosomes. Rab GTPases regulate membrane traffic. To better understand how the bacterium modulates the ApV’s selective fusogencity, we examined the intracellular localization of 20 green fluorescent protein (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (RFP)-tagged Rab GTPases in A. phagocytophilum infected HL-60 cells. GFP-Rab4A, GFP-Rab10, GFP-Rab11A, GFP-Rab14, RFP-Rab22A, and GFP-Rab35, which regulate endocytic recycling, and GFP-Rab1, which mediates endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi apparatus trafficking, localize to the ApV. Fluorescently tagged Rabs are recruited to the ApV upon its formation and remain associated throughout infection. Endogenous Rab14 localizes to the ApV. Tetracycline treatment concomitantly promotes loss of recycling endosome-associated GFP-Rabs and acquisition of GFP-Rab5, GFP-Rab7, and the lysosomal marker, LAMP-1. Wild-type and GTPase-deficient versions, but not GDP-restricted versions of GFP-Rab1, GFP-Rab4A, and GFP-Rab11A localize to the ApV. Strikingly, GFP-Rab10 recruitment to the ApV is guanine nucleotide-independent. These data establish that A. phagocytophilum selectively recruits Rab GTPases that are primarily associated with recycling endosomes to facilitate its intracellular survival and implicate bacterial proteins in regulating Rab10 membrane cycling on the ApV.
We report a new technique to detect enzyme activity inside cells. The method based on Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM) technology allows one to follow sensor cleavage by proteolytic enzyme caspase-3. Specifically, we use the FLIM FRET of living cells via the confocal fluorescence microscopy. A specially designed lentivector pLVT with the DNA fragment of TagRFP-23-KFP was applied for transduction of A549 cell lines. Computer simulations are carried out to estimate FRET efficiency and to analyze possible steric restrictions of the reaction between the substrate TagRFP-23-KFP and caspase-3 dimer. Successful use of the fuse protein TagRFP-23-KFP to register the caspase-3 activation based on average life-time measurements is demonstrated. We show that the average life-time distribution is dramatically changed for cells with the modified morphology that is typical for apoptosis. Namely, the short-lived component at 1.8-2.1 ns completely disappears and the long-lived component appears at 2.4-2.6 ns. The latter is a fingerprint of the TagRFP molecule released after cleavage of the TagRFP-23-KFP complex by caspase-3. Analysis of life-time distributions for population of cells allows us to discriminate apoptotic and surviving cells within single frame and to peform statistical analysis of drug efficiency. This system can be adjusted for HTS by using special readers oriented on measurements of fluorescence life-time.
FRET; FLIM; red fluorescent proteins (RFP); caspase; molecular dynamics (MD); lentiviral vector.
Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has proven useful for the study of protein interactions and dynamics for the last twenty years. A variety of new fluorescent proteins have been developed that expand the use of available excitation spectra. We have undertaken an analysis of seven of the most useful fluorescent proteins (XFPs), Cerulean (and mCerulean3), Teal, GFP, Venus, mCherry and TagRFP657, as fusions to the archetypal G-protein coupled receptor, the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR). We have characterized these β2AR::XFP fusions in respect to membrane trafficking and G-protein activation. We noticed that in the mouse neural cell line, OP 6, that membrane bound β2AR::XFP fusions robustly localized in the filopodia identical to gap::XFP fusions. All β2AR::XFP fusions show responses indistinguishable from each other and the non-fused form after isoprenaline exposure. Our results provide a platform by which G-protein coupled receptors can be dissected for their functionality.
The homotypic fusion and protein sorting (HOPS) tethering complex of the yeast vacuole is involved in multiple fusion reactions. We demonstrate that HOPS has two binding sites for SNAREs and that binding to the minimal SNARE complex is necessary for HOPS-stimulated fusion. Our data highlight the dual role of HOPS in Rab-mediated tethering and SNARE-driven fusion.
Membrane fusion within the endomembrane system follows a defined order of events: membrane tethering, mediated by Rabs and tethers, assembly of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes, and lipid bilayer mixing. Here we present evidence that the vacuolar HOPS tethering complex controls fusion through specific interactions with the vacuolar SNARE complex (consisting of Vam3, Vam7, Vti1, and Nyv1) and the N-terminal domains of Vam7 and Vam3. We show that homotypic fusion and protein sorting (HOPS) binds Vam7 via its subunits Vps16 and Vps18. In addition, we observed that Vps16, Vps18, and the Sec1/Munc18 protein Vps33, which is also part of the HOPS complex, bind to the Q-SNARE complex. In agreement with this observation, HOPS-stimulated fusion was inhibited if HOPS was preincubated with the minimal Q-SNARE complex. Importantly, artificial targeting of Vam7 without its PX domain to membranes rescued vacuole morphology in vivo, but resulted in a cytokinesis defect if the N-terminal domain of Vam3 was also removed. Our data thus support a model of HOPS-controlled membrane fusion by recognizing different elements of the SNARE complex.
Development of remote imaging for diagnostic purposes has progressed dramatically since endoscopy began in the 1960’s. The recent advent of a clinically licensed intensity-based fluorescence micro-endoscopic instrument has offered the prospect of real-time cellular resolution imaging. However, interrogating protein-protein interactions deep inside living tissue requires precise fluorescence lifetime measurements to derive the Förster resonance energy transfer between two tagged fluorescent markers. We developed a new instrument combining remote fiber endoscopic cellular-resolution imaging with TCSPC-FLIM technology to interrogate and discriminate mixed fluorochrome labeled beads and expressible GFP/TagRFP tags within live cells. Endoscopic-FLIM (e-FLIM) data was validated by comparison with data acquired via conventional FLIM and e-FLIM was found to be accurate for both bright bead and dim live cell samples. The fiber based micro-endoscope allowed remote imaging of 4 µm and 10 µm beads within a thick Matrigel matrix with confident fluorophore discrimination using lifetime information. More importantly, this new technique enabled us to reliably measure protein-protein interactions in live cells embedded in a 3D matrix, as demonstrated by the dimerization of the fluorescent protein-tagged membrane receptor CXCR4. This cell-based application successfully demonstrated the suitability and great potential of this new technique for in vivo pre-clinical biomedical and possibly human clinical applications.
(170.2520) Fluorescence microscopy; (170.2150) Endoscopic imaging; (170.3650 Lifetime-based sensing
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the class C vacuole protein sorting (Vps) proteins, together with Vam2p/Vps41p and Vam6p/Vps39p, form a complex that interacts with soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor and Rab proteins to “tether” vacuolar membranes before fusion. To determine a role for the corresponding mammalian orthologues, we examined the function, localization, and protein interactions of endogenous mVps11, mVps16, mVps18, mVam2p, and mVam6. We found a significant proportion of these proteins localized to early endosome antigen-1 and transferrin receptor-positive early endosomes in Vero, normal rat kidney, and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that mVps18 not only interacted with Syntaxin (Syn)7, vesicle-associated membrane protein 8, and Vti1-b but also with Syn13, Syn6, and the Sec1/Munc18 protein mVps45, which catalyze early endosomal fusion events. Moreover, anti-mVps18 antibodies inhibited early endosome fusion in vitro. Mammalian mVps18 also associated with mVam2 and mVam6 as well as with the microtubule-associated Hook1 protein, an orthologue of the Drosophila Hook protein involved in endosome biogenesis. Using in vitro binding and immunofluorescence experiments, we found that mVam2 and mVam6 also associated with microtubules, whereas mVps18, mVps16, and mVps11 associated with actin filaments. These data indicate that the late Vps proteins function during multiple soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor-mediated fusion events throughout the endocytic pathway and that their activity may be coordinated with cytoskeletal function.
We wanted to examine the cellular locations of four Neurospora crassa proteins that transport calcium. However, the structure and distribution of organelles in live hyphae of N. crassa have not been comprehensively described. Therefore, we made recombinant genes that generate translational fusions of putative organellar marker proteins with green or red fluorescent protein. We observed putative endoplasmic reticulum proteins, encoded by grp-78 and dpm, in the nuclear envelope and associated membranes. Proteins of the vacuolar membrane, encoded by vam-3 and vma-1, were in an interconnected network of small tubules and vesicles near the hyphal tip, while in more distal regions they were in large and small spherical vacuoles. Mitochondria, visualized with tagged ARG-4, were abundant in all regions of the hyphae. Similarly, we tagged the four N. crassa proteins that transport calcium with green or red fluorescent protein to examine their cellular locations. NCA-1 protein, a homolog of the SERCA-type Ca2+-ATPase of animal cells, colocalized with the endoplasmic reticulum markers. The NCA-2 and NCA-3 proteins are homologs of Ca2+-ATPases in the vacuolar membrane in yeast or in the plasma membrane in animal cells. They colocalized with markers in the vacuolar membrane, and they also occurred in the plasma membrane in regions of the hyphae more than 1 mm from the tip. The cax gene encodes a Ca2+/H+ exchange protein found in vacuoles. As expected, the CAX protein localized to the vacuolar compartment. We observed, approximately 50 to 100 μm from the tip, a few spherical organelles that had high amounts of tagged CAX protein and tagged subunits of the vacuolar ATPase (VMA-1 and VMA-5). We suggest that this organelle, not described previously in N. crassa, may have a role in sequestering calcium.
This study demonstrates the utility of Lifeact for the investigation of actin dynamics in Neurospora crassa and also represents the first report of simultaneous live-cell imaging of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in filamentous fungi. Lifeact is a 17-amino-acid peptide derived from the nonessential Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin-binding protein Abp140p. Fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (TagRFP), Lifeact allowed live-cell imaging of actin patches, cables, and rings in N. crassa without interfering with cellular functions. Actin cables and patches localized to sites of active growth during the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity in germ tubes and conidial anastomosis tubes (CATs). Recurrent phases of formation and retrograde movement of complex arrays of actin cables were observed at growing tips of germ tubes and CATs. Two populations of actin patches exhibiting slow and fast movement were distinguished, and rapid (1.2 μm/s) saltatory transport of patches along cables was observed. Actin cables accumulated and subsequently condensed into actin rings associated with septum formation. F-actin organization was markedly different in the tip regions of mature hyphae and in germ tubes. Only mature hyphae displayed a subapical collar of actin patches and a concentration of F-actin within the core of the Spitzenkörper. Coexpression of Lifeact-TagRFP and β-tubulin–GFP revealed distinct but interrelated localization patterns of F-actin and microtubules during the initiation and maintenance of tip growth.
Rapidly emerging techniques of super-resolution single-molecule microscopy of living cells rely on the continued development of genetically encoded photoactivatable fluorescent proteins. On the basis of monomeric TagRFP, we have developed a photoactivatable TagRFP protein that is initially dark but becomes red fluorescent after violet light irradiation. Compared to other monomeric dark-to-red photoactivatable proteins including PAmCherry, PATagRFP has substantially higher molecular brightness, better pH stability, substantially less sensitivity to blue light, and better photostability in both ensemble and single-molecule modes. Spectroscopic analysis suggests that PATagRFP photoactivation is a two-step photochemical process involving sequential one-photon absorbance by two distinct chromophore forms. True monomeric behavior, absence of green fluorescence, and single-molecule performance in live cells make PATagRFP an excellent protein tag for two-color imaging techniques, including conventional diffraction-limited photoactivation microscopy, super-resolution photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM), and single particle tracking PALM (sptPALM) of living cells. Two-color sptPALM imaging was demonstrated using several PATagRFP tagged transmembrane proteins together with PAGFP tagged clathrin light-chain. Analysis of the resulting sptPALM images revealed that single molecule transmembrane proteins, which are internalized into a cell via endocytosis, co-localize in space and time with plasma membrane domains enriched in clathrin light-chain molecules.
Vacuoles in filamentous fungi are highly pleomorphic and some of them, e.g., tubular vacuoles, are implicated in intra- and intercellular transport. In this report, we isolated Aovam3, the homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae VAM3 gene that encodes the vacuolar syntaxin, from Aspergillus oryzae. In yeast complementation analyses, the expression of Aovam3 restored the phenotypes of both Δvam3 and Δpep12 mutants, suggesting that AoVam3p is likely the vacuolar and/or endosomal syntaxin in A. oryzae. FM4-64 [N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(p-diethylaminophenyl-hexatrienyl)pyridinium dibromide] and CMAC (7-amino-4-chloromethylcoumarin) staining confirmed that the fusion protein of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) with AoVam3p (EGFP-AoVam3p) localized on the membrane of the pleomorphic vacuolar networks, including large spherical vacuoles, tubular vacuoles, and putative late endosomes/prevacuolar compartments. EGFP-AoVam3p-expressing strains allowed us to observe the dynamics of vacuoles with high resolutions, and moreover, led to the discovery of several new aspects of fungal vacuoles, which have not been discovered so far with conventional staining methods, during different developmental stages. In old hyphae, EGFP fluorescence was present in the entire lumen of large vacuoles, which occupied most of the cell, indicating that degradation of cytosolic materials had occurred in such hyphae via an autophagic process. In hyphae that were not in contact with nutrients, such as aerial hyphae and hyphae that grew on a glass surface, vacuoles were composed of small punctate structures and tubular elements that often formed reticulum-like networks. These observations imply the presence of so-far-unrecognized roles of vacuoles in the development of filamentous fungi.
Vam2p/Vps41p is known to be required for transport vesicles with vacuolar cargo to bud from the Golgi. Like other VAM-encoded proteins, which are needed for homotypic vacuole fusion, we now report that Vam2p and its associated protein Vam6p/Vps39p are needed on each vacuole partner for homotypic fusion. In vitro vacuole fusion occurs in successive steps of priming, docking, and membrane fusion. While priming does not require Vam2p or Vam6p, the functions of these two proteins cannot be fulfilled until priming has occurred, and each is required for the docking reaction which culminates in trans-SNARE pairing. Consistent with their dual function in Golgi vesicle budding and homotypic fusion of vacuoles, approximately half of the Vam2p and Vam6p of the cell are recovered from cell lysates with purified vacuoles.
Vps41/Vam2p; Vps39/Vam6p; priming; NSF/Sec18p; αSNAP-Sec17p
Fluorescent proteins with long emission wavelengths are particularly attractive for deep tissue two-photon microscopy. Surprisingly little is known about their two-photon absorption (2PA) properties. We present absolute 2PA spectra of a number of orange and red fluorescent proteins, including DsRed2, mRFP, TagRFP, and several mFruit proteins, in a wide range of excitation wavelengths (640–1400 nm). To evaluate 2PA cross section (σ2), we use a new method relying only on the optical properties of the intact mature chromophore. In the tuning range of a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser, 700–1000 nm, TagRFP possesses the highest two-photon cross section, σ2 = 315 GM, and brightness, σ2φ = 130 GM, where φ is the fluorescence quantum yield. At longer wavelengths, 1000–1100 nm, tdTomato has the largest values, σ2 = 216 GM and σ2φ = 120 GM, per protein chain. Compared to the benchmark EGFP, these proteins present 3–4 times improvement in two-photon brightness.
Maturation of red fluorescent proteins has been shown to proceed through a blue intermediate. We determined the 2.10 Å crystal structure of the red fluorescent protein TagRFP and the 1.95 Å crystal structure of its derivative, the blue fluorescent protein mTagBFP. The crystallographic analysis is consistent with a model in which TagRFP has the trans coplanar anionic chromophore with the conjugated π-electron system, similar to that of DsRed-like chromophores. Refined conformation of mTagBFP suggests the presence of an N-acylimine functionality in its chromophore and single Cα-Cβ bond in the Tyr64 side chain. Mass spectrum of mTagBFP chromophore-bearing peptide indicates a loss of 20 Da upon maturation, while tandem mass spectrometry reveals that the Cα-N bond in Leu63 is oxidized. These data, together with mutagenesis of mTagBFP, indicate that mTagBFP has a new type of the chromophore, N-[(5-hydroxy-1H-imidazole-2-yl)methylidene]acetamide.
We utilized a red chromophore formation pathway, in which the anionic red chromophore is formed from the neutral blue intermediate, to suggest a novel rational design strategy to develop blue fluorescent proteins with a tyrosine-based chromophore. The strategy was applied to red fluorescent proteins of the different genetic background such as TagRFP, mCherry, HcRed1, M355NA, and mKeima, which were converted into blue probes. Further improvement of a blue variant of TagRFP using random mutagenesis resulted in an enhanced monomeric protein, mTagBFP, characterized by substantially higher brightness, faster chromophore maturation and higher pH stability than blue fluorescence proteins with a histidine in the chromophore. Detailed biochemical and photochemical analysis indicates mTagBFP is the true monomeric protein tag for multicolor and lifetime imaging as well as the outstanding donor for green fluorescent proteins in FRET applications.
Protein transport in eukaryotic cells requires the selective docking and fusion of transport intermediates with the appropriate target membrane. t-SNARE molecules that are associated with distinct intracellular compartments may serve as receptors for transport vesicle docking and membrane fusion through interactions with specific v-SNARE molecules on vesicle membranes, providing the inherent specificity of these reactions. VAM3 encodes a 283–amino acid protein that shares homology with the syntaxin family of t-SNARE molecules. Polyclonal antiserum raised against Vam3p recognized a 35-kD protein that was associated with vacuolar membranes by subcellular fractionation. Null mutants of vam3 exhibited defects in the maturation of multiple vacuolar proteins and contained numerous aberrant membrane-enclosed compartments. To study the primary function of Vam3p, a temperature-sensitive allele of vam3 was generated (vam3tsf). Upon shifting the vam3tsf mutant cells to nonpermissive temperature, an immediate block in protein transport through two distinct biosynthetic routes to the vacuole was observed: transport via both the carboxypeptidase Y pathway and the alkaline phosphatase pathway was inhibited. In addition, vam3tsf cells also exhibited defects in autophagy. Both the delivery of aminopeptidase I and the docking/ fusion of autophagosomes with the vacuole were defective at high temperature. Upon temperature shift, vam3tsf cells accumulated novel membrane compartments, including multivesicular bodies, which may represent blocked transport intermediates. Genetic interactions between VAM3 and a SEC1 family member, VPS33, suggest the two proteins may act together to direct the docking and/or fusion of multiple transport intermediates with the vacuole. Thus, Vam3p appears to function as a multispecificity receptor in heterotypic membrane docking and fusion reactions with the vacuole. Surprisingly, we also found that overexpression of the endosomal t-SNARE, Pep12p, suppressed vam3Δ mutant phenotypes and, likewise, overexpression of Vam3p suppressed the pep12Δ mutant phenotypes. This result indicated that SNAREs alone do not define the specificity of vesicle docking reactions.
Vacuole fusion requires a coordinated cascade of priming, docking, and fusion. SNARE proteins have been implicated in the fusion itself, although their precise role in the cascade remains unclear. We now report that the vacuolar SNAP-23 homologue Vam7p is a mobile element of the SNARE complex, which moves from an initial association with the cis-SNARE complex via a soluble intermediate to the docking site. Soluble Vam7p is specifically recruited to vacuoles and can rescue a fusion reaction poisoned with antibodies to Vam7p. Both the recombinant Vam7p PX domain and a FYVE domain construct of human Hrs block the recruitment of Vam7p and vacuole fusion, demonstrating that phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate is a primary receptor of Vam7p on vacuoles. We propose that the Vam7p cycle is linked to the availability of a lipid domain on yeast vacuoles, which is essential for coordinating the fusion reaction prior to and beyond docking.
vacuole fusion; Vam7p; SNAP-23; SNARE complex; PX domain
Myosin XI, a class of myosins expressed in plants is believed to be responsible for cytoplasmic streaming and the translocation of organelles and vesicles. To gain further insight into the translocation of organelles and vesicles by myosin XI, an isoform of Arabidopsis myosin XI, MYA2, was chosen and its role in peroxisome targeting was examined. Using the yeast two-hybrid screening method, two small GTPases, AtRabD1 and AtRabC2a, were identified as factors that interact with the C-terminal tail region of MYA2. Both recombinant AtRabs tagged with His bound to the recombinant C-terminal tail region of MYA2 tagged with GST in a GTP-dependent manner. Furthermore, AtRabC2a was localized on peroxisomes, when its CFP-tagged form was expressed transiently in protoplasts prepared from Arabidopsis leaf tissue. It is suggested that MYA2 targets the peroxisome through an interaction with AtRabC2a.
AtRabC2a; AtRabD1; myosin XI; MYA2; peroxisome
Regulated fusion of mammalian lysosomes is critical to their ability to acquire both internalized and biosynthetic materials. Here, we report the identification of a novel human protein, hVam6p, that promotes lysosome clustering and fusion in vivo. Although hVam6p exhibits homology to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar protein sorting gene product Vam6p/Vps39p, the presence of a citron homology (CNH) domain at the NH2 terminus is unique to the human protein. Overexpression of hVam6p results in massive clustering and fusion of lysosomes and late endosomes into large (2–3 μm) juxtanuclear structures. This effect is reminiscent of that caused by expression of a constitutively activated Rab7. However, hVam6p exerts its effect even in the presence of a dominant-negative Rab7, suggesting that it functions either downstream of, or in parallel to, Rab7. Data from gradient fractionation, two-hybrid, and coimmunoprecipitation analyses suggest that hVam6p is a homooligomer, and that its self-assembly is mediated by a clathrin heavy chain repeat domain in the middle of the protein. Both the CNH and clathrin heavy chain repeat domains are required for induction of lysosome clustering and fusion. This study implicates hVam6p as a mammalian tethering/docking factor characterized with intrinsic ability to promote lysosome fusion in vivo.
lysosome biogenesis; vacuolar protein sorting; vesicle tethering; vesicle docking; lysosome fusion
Protein traffic from the cell surface or the
trans-Golgi network reaches the lysosome via a series of
endosomal compartments. One of the last steps in the endocytic pathway
is the fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes. This process has been
reconstituted in vitro and has been shown to require NSF, α and γ
SNAP, and a Rab GTPase based on inhibition by Rab GDI. In
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fusion events to the
lysosome-like vacuole are mediated by the syntaxin protein Vam3p, which
is localized to the vacuolar membrane. In an effort to identify the
molecular machinery that controls fusion events to the lysosome, we
searched for mammalian homologues of Vam3p. One such candidate is
syntaxin 7. Here we show that syntaxin 7 is concentrated in late
endosomes and lysosomes. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments show that
syntaxin 7 is associated with the endosomal v-SNARE Vamp 8, which
partially colocalizes with syntaxin 7. Importantly, we show that
syntaxin 7 is specifically required for the fusion of late endosomes
with lysosomes in vitro, resulting in a hybrid organelle. Together,
these data identify a SNARE complex that functions in the late
endocytic system of animal cells.
In spite of a great number of monomeric fluorescent proteins developed in the recent years, the reported fluorescent protein-based FRET pairs are still characterized by a number of disadvantageous features, complicating their use as reporters in cell biology and for high-throughput cell-based screenings.
Here we screened some of the recently developed monomeric protein pairs to find the optimal combination, which would provide high dynamic range FRET changes, along with high pH- and photo-stability, fast maturation and bright fluorescence, and reliable detection in any fluorescent imaging system. Among generated FRET pairs, we have selected TagGFP-TagRFP, combining all the mentioned desirable characteristics. On the basis of this highly efficient FRET pair, we have generated a bright, high contrast, pH- and photo-stable apoptosis reporter, named CaspeR3 (Caspase 3 Reporter).
The combined advantages suggest that the TagGFP-TagRFP is one of the most efficient green/red couples available to date for FRET/FLIM analyses to monitor interaction of proteins of interest in living cells and to generate FRET-based sensors for various applications. CaspeR3 provides reliable detection of apoptosis, and should become a popular tool both for cell biology studies and high throughput screening assays.
Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that replicate within an inclusion that is trafficked to the peri-Golgi region where it fuses with exocytic vesicles. The host and chlamydial proteins that regulate the trafficking of the inclusion have not been identified. Since Rab GTPases are key regulators of membrane trafficking, we examined the intracellular localization of several green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Rab GTPases in chlamydia-infected HeLa cells. GFP-Rab4 and GFP-Rab11, which function in receptor recycling, and GFP-Rab1, which functions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi trafficking, are recruited to Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia muridarum, and Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusions, whereas GFP-Rab5, GFP-Rab7, and GFP-Rab9, markers of early and late endosomes, are not. In contrast, GFP-Rab6, which functions in Golgi-to-ER and endosome-to-Golgi trafficking, is associated with C. trachomatis inclusions but not with C. pneumoniae or C. muridarum inclusions, while the opposite was observed for the Golgi-localized GFP-Rab10. Colocalization studies between transferrin and GFP-Rab11 demonstrate that a portion of GFP-Rab11 that localizes to inclusions does not colocalize with transferrin, which suggests that GFP-Rab11's association with the inclusion is not mediated solely through Rab11's association with transferrin-containing recycling endosomes. Finally, GFP-Rab GTPases remain associated with the inclusion even after disassembly of microtubules, which disperses recycling endosomes and the Golgi apparatus within the cytoplasm, suggesting a specific interaction with the inclusion membrane. Consistent with this, GFP-Rab11 colocalizes with C. trachomatis IncG at the inclusion membrane. Therefore, chlamydiae recruit key regulators of membrane trafficking to the inclusion, which may function to regulate the trafficking or fusogenic properties of the inclusion.
Homotypic fusion of yeast vacuoles requires a regulated sequence of events. During priming, Sec18p disassembles cis-SNARE complexes. The HOPS complex, which is initially associated with the cis-SNARE complex, then mediates tethering. Finally, SNAREs assemble into trans-complexes before the membranes fuse. The t-SNARE of the vacuole, Vam3p, plays a central role in the coordination of these processes. We deleted the N-terminal region of Vam3p to analyze the role of this domain in membrane fusion. The truncated protein (Vam3ΔN) is sorted normally to the vacuole and is functional, because the vacuolar morphology is unaltered in this strain. However, in vitro vacuole fusion is strongly reduced due to the following reasons: Assembly, as well as disassembly of the cis-SNARE complex is more efficient on Vam3ΔN vacuoles; however, the HOPS complex is not associated well with the Vam3ΔN cis-complex. Thus, primed SNAREs from Vam3ΔN vacuoles cannot participate efficiently in the reaction because trans-SNARE pairing is substantially reduced. We conclude that the N-terminus of Vam3p is required for coordination of priming and docking during homotypic vacuole fusion.
Semliki forest virus (SFV) is internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and transported via early endosomes to late endosomes and lysosomes. The intracellular pathway taken by individual fluorescently labeled SFV particles was followed using immunofluorescence in untransfected cells, and by video-enhanced, triple-color fluorescence microscopy in live cells transfected with GFP- and RFP-tagged Rab5, Rab7, Rab4, and Arf1. The viruses progressed from Rab5-positive early endosomes to a population of early endosomes (about 10% of total) that contained both Rab5 and Rab7. SFV were sequestered in the Rab7 domains, and they were sorted away from the early endosomes when these domains detached as separate transport carriers devoid of Rab5, Rab4, EEA1, Arf1, and transferrin. The process was independent of Arf1 and the acidic pH in early endosomes. Nocodazole treatment showed that the release of transport carriers was assisted by microtubules. Expression of constitutively inactive Rab7T22N resulted in accumulation of SFV in early endosomes. We concluded that Rab7 is recruited to early endosomes, where it forms distinct domains that mediate cargo sorting as well as the formation of late-endosome-targeted transport vesicles.
Using fluorescently tagged Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) as cargo, the authors observed trafficking of the virus through the endocytic pathway and uncovered new details about early-to- late-endocytic vesicle transitions.