CD4+ T helper type 2 (Th2) cells characterized by their expression of IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 are required for immunity to helminth parasites1 and promote the pathological inflammation associated with asthma and allergic diseases2. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding the cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) are associated with the development of multiple allergic disorders in humans, suggesting that TSLP is a critical regulator of allergic diseases3-6. Supporting genetic analyses, exaggerated TSLP production is associated with asthma, atopic dermatitis and food allergies in patients, and studies in murine systems demonstrated that TSLP promotes Th2 cytokine-mediated immunity and inflammation5, 7-12. However, the mechanisms through which TSLP promotes Th2 cytokine responses remain poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that TSLP promotes systemic basophilia, that disruption of TSLP-TSLPR interactions results in defective basophil responses and that TSLPR-sufficient basophils can restore Th2 cell-dependent immunity in vivo. TSLP acted directly on bone marrow- resident progenitors to selectively promote basophil responses. Critically, TSLP could elicit basophil responses in both IL-3-sufficient and IL-3-deficient environments and genome-wide transcriptional profiling and functional analyses identified heterogeneity between TSLP-elicited versus IL-3-elicited basophils. Further, activated human basophils expressed the TSLPR and basophils isolated from eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) patients were heterogeneous. Collectively, these studies identify previously unrecognized heterogeneity within the basophil cell lineage and indicate that expression of TSLP may influence susceptibility to multiple allergic diseases by regulating basophil hematopoiesis and eliciting a population of functionally distinct basophils that promote Th2 cytokine-mediated inflammation.
TSLP; Th2 cytokine responses; innate immunity; basophils; hematopoiesis
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an IL7-like cytokine produced by bronchial epithelial cells is upregulated in asthma and induces dendritic cell maturation supporting a Th2 response. Environmental pollutants, including tobacco smoke and diesel exhaust particles upregulate TSLP suggesting that TSLP may be an interface between environmental pollution and immune responses in asthma. Since asthma is prevalent in urban communities, variants in the TSLP gene may be important in asthma susceptibility in these populations.
To determine whether genetic variants in TSLP are associated with asthma in an urban admixed population.
Methodology and Main Results
Ten tag-SNPs in the TSLP gene were analyzed for association with asthma using 387 clinically diagnosed asthmatic cases and 212 healthy controls from an urban admixed population. One SNP (rs1898671) showed nominally significant association with asthma (odds ratio (OR) = 1.50; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.09–2.05, p = 0.01) after adjusting for age, BMI, income, education and population stratification. Association results were consistent using two different approaches to adjust for population stratification. When stratified by smoking status, the same SNP showed a significantly increased risk associated with asthma in ex-smokers (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.04–3.83, p = 0.04) but not significant in never-smokers (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 0.93–1.94, p = 0.11). Haplotype-specific score test indicated that an elevated risk for asthma was associated with a specific haplotype of TSLP involving SNP rs1898671 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.10–2.27, p = 0.01). Association of this SNP with asthma was confirmed in an independent large population-based cohort consortium study (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07–1.23, p = 0.0003) and the results stratified by smoking status were also validated (ex-smokers: OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.08–1.34, p = 0.003; never-smokers: OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.94–1.17, p = 0.33).
Genetic variants in TSLP may contribute to asthma susceptibility in admixed urban populations with a gene and environment interaction.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) have been associated with IgE (in girls) and asthma (in general). We sought to determine whether TSLP SNPs are associated with asthma in a sex-specific fashion.
We conducted regular and sex-stratified analyses of association between SNPs in TSLP and asthma in families of asthmatic children in Costa Rica. Significant findings were replicated in white and African-American participants in the Childhood Asthma Management Program, in African Americans in the Genomic Research on Asthma in the African Diaspora study, in whites and Hispanics in the Children’s Health Study, and in whites in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS).
Two SNPs in TSLP (rs1837253 and rs2289276) were significantly associated with a reduced risk of asthma in combined analyses of all cohorts (p values of 2×10−5 and 1×10−5, respectively). In a sex-stratified analysis, the T allele of rs1837253 was significantly associated with a reduced risk of asthma in males only (p= 3×10−6). Alternately, the T allele of rs2289276 was significantly associated with a reduced risk of asthma in females only (p= 2×10−4). Findings for rs2289276 were consistent in all cohorts except the FHS.
TSLP variants are associated with asthma in a sex-specific fashion.
asthma; genetic association; sex-specific; thymic stromal lymphopoietin; TSLP
Many immunologic and inflammatory mechanisms play a role in asthma etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of asthma patients in the Turkish population with demonstrating genes for polymorphisms in TIM1, TSLP and IL18R1. All of the genomic DNA samples were isolated from blood samples according to a standard salting-out protocol. DNA samples were stored at -20°C until the genotype analysis was performed. rs3806933 (TSLP -847 C > T) and TIM1 -416G > C were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The rs3806933 (TSLP -847 C > T) was genotyped by PCR using our new primers and HphI restriction enzyme digestion. rs2287033 (IL18R1 c. 1270+150 A > G), rs3213733 (IL18R1 c. 626-196 G > T), and rs3771166 (IL18R1- c. 302+1694 C > T) were genotyped using SYBR green dye based real time PCR assay. Results: The allele frequencies of 5 SNPs in TSLP, TIM-1, and IL18R1 genes were determined in 139 asthmatic patients and 126 healthy controls of in Turkish population. The investigated SNPs are as follows; rs3806933 (TSLP -847 C > T), TIM1 -416G > C, rs2287033 (IL18R1 c. 1270+150 A > G), rs3213733 (IL18R1 c. 626-196 G > T), and rs3771166 (IL18R1- c. 302+1694 C > T). Results suggest that IL18R1 c. 626-196 G > T (rs3213733) and TIM1 -416G > C are significantly associated with asthma in patients in Turkish population. Patients with AA genotypes of rs2287033 (IL18R1 c. 1270+150 A > G), have significantly less total serum IgE levels when compared with patients having GG or GA genotypes (p < 0.012; 381.77±239.46 vs 557.52±549.96, respectively). Conclusion: This study showed that IL18R1 c. 626 -196 G > T (rs3213733) and TIM1 -416G > C are significantly associated with asthma patients in Turkish population.
Asthma; genetics; SNP polymorphism
Allergic rhinitis (AR) affects up to 80% of children with asthma and increases asthma severity. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a key mediator of allergic inflammation. The role of the TSLP gene (TSLP) in the pathogenesis of AR has not been studied.
To test for associations between variants in TSLP, TSLP-related genes, and AR in children with asthma.
We genotyped 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TSLP, OX40L, IL7R, and RXRα in three independent cohorts: 592 asthmatic Costa Rican children and their parents, 422 nuclear families of North American children with asthma, and 239 Swedish children with asthma. We tested for associations between these SNPs and AR. As we previously reported sex-specific effects for TSLP, we performed overall and sex-stratified analyses. We additionally performed secondary analyses for gene-by-gene interactions.
Across the three cohorts, the T allele of TSLP SNP rs1837253 was undertransmitted in boys with AR and asthma as compared to boys with asthma alone. The SNP was associated with reduced odds for AR (odds ratios ranging from 0.56 to 0.63, with corresponding Fisher's combined P value of 1.2 × 10-4). Our findings were significant after accounting for multiple comparisons. SNPs in OX40L, IL7R, and RXRα were not consistently associated with AR in children with asthma. There were nominally significant interactions between gene pairs.
TSLP SNP rs1837253 is associated with reduced odds for AR in boys with asthma. Our findings support a role for TSLP in the pathogenesis of AR in children with asthma.
A skin-derived cytokine with high systemic availability provides a mechanistic explanation for atopic march and highlights a potential therapeutic target for preventing the development of asthma among people with atopic dermatitis.
Asthma is a common allergic lung disease frequently affecting individuals with a prior history of eczema/atopic dermatitis (AD); however, the mechanism underlying the progression from AD to asthma (the so-called “atopic march”) is unclear. Here we show that, like humans with AD, mice with skin-barrier defects develop AD-like skin inflammation and are susceptible to allergic asthma. Furthermore, we show that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), overexpressed by skin keratinocytes, is the systemic driver of this bronchial hyper-responsiveness. As an AD-like model, we used mice with keratinocyte-specific deletion of RBP-j that sustained high systemic levels of TSLP. Antigen-induced allergic challenge to the lung airways of RBP-j–deficient animals resulted in a severe asthmatic phenotype not seen in similarly treated wild-type littermates. Elimination of TSLP signaling in these animals blocked the atopic march, demonstrating that high serum TSLP levels were required to sensitize the lung to allergic inflammation. Furthermore, we analyzed outbred K14-TSLPtg mice that maintained high systemic levels of TSLP without developing any skin pathology. Importantly, epidermal-derived TSLP was sufficient to trigger the atopic march, sensitizing the lung airways to inhaled allergens in the absence of epicutaneous sensitization. Based on these findings, we propose that in addition to early treatment of the primary skin-barrier defects, selective inhibition of systemic TSLP may be the key to blocking the development of asthma in AD patients.
Eczema (atopic dermatitis) is a common allergic skin inflammation that has a particularly high prevalence among children. Importantly, a large proportion of people suffering from eczema go on to develop asthma later in life. Although the susceptibility of eczema patients to asthma is well documented, the mechanism that mediates “atopic march”—the progression from eczema to asthma—is unclear. We used genetic engineering to generate mice with chronic skin-barrier defects and a subsequent eczema-like disorder. With these mice, we were able to investigate how skin-specific defects predisposed the lungs to allergic asthma. We identified thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), a cytokine that is secreted by barrier-defective skin into the systemic circulation, as the agent sensitizing the lung to allergens. We demonstrated that high systemic levels of skin-derived TSLP were both required and sufficient to render lung airways hypersensitive to allergens. Thus, these data suggest that early treatment of skin-barrier defects to prevent TSLP overexpression, and systemic inhibition of TSLP, may be crucial in preventing the progression from eczema to asthma.
Graves disease (GD) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by hyperthyroidism, diffuse goiter, autoantibodies against thyroid-specific antigens, and dermopathy. Studies of GD have demonstrated the importance of the Th2 and Th17 immune responses in mediating disease progression. In the present study, we investigated the role of a Th2 cytokine, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), in GD and Th17 differentiation.
In this study, we genotyped 470 patients with GD at 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TSLP. In addition, the serum concentrations of TSLP were determined in 432 patients and 272 controls. Ten patients and controls each were further screened using in vitro Th17 differentiation assays. The SNPs were genotyped using ABI TaqMan® SNP genotyping assays. For the Th17 differentiation assays, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from the patients and controls were placed into Th17 differentiation media, and interleukin 17 expression levels were determined.
Haplotype analysis indicated that patients with the Ht3 (TCC) haplotype have a 3.28-fold higher risk of developing GD (p = 0.007), whereas those with the Ht5 (TCG) haplotype had a 0.03-fold, reduced risk of developing GD (p = 1 × 10−14). SNP rs3806933 (p = 0.007) was associated with female Graves ophthalmopathy (GO). TSLP expression levels were higher in GD patients than in control subjects, and TLSP was also shown to promote the differentiation of Th17 cells in GD patients.
These results suggest that polymorphisms in TSLP may be used as genetic markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of GD. Furthermore, TLSP may be a target for treating GD.
Graves’ disease; Graves’ ophthalmopathy; Thymic stromal lymphopoietin; Th17
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is elevated in asthma and triggers dendritic cell-mediated activation of Th2 inflammatory responses. Although TSLP has been shown to be produced mainly by airway epithelial cells, the regulation of epithelial TSLP expression has not been extensively studied. We investigated the expression of TSLP in cytokine- or TLR ligand-treated normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE). The mRNA for TSLP was significantly up-regulated by stimulation with IL-4 (5.5-fold) and IL-13 (5.3-fold), weakly up-regulated by TNF-α, TGF-β, and IFN-β, and not affected by IFN-γ in NHBE. TSLP mRNA was only significantly up-regulated by the TLR3 ligand (dsRNA) among the TLR ligands tested (66.8-fold). TSLP was also induced by in vitro infection with rhinovirus. TSLP protein was detected after stimulation with dsRNA (120 ± 23 pg/ml). The combination of TNF-α and IL-4 produced detectable levels of TSLP protein (40 ± 13 pg/ml). In addition, TSLP was synergistically enhanced by a combination of IL-4 and dsRNA (mRNA; 207-fold, protein; 325 ± 75 pg/ml). The induction of TSLP by dsRNA was dependent upon NF-κB and IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) signaling via TLR3 as indicated by a study with small interfering RNA. The potent topical glucocorticoid fluticasone propionate significantly suppressed dsRNA-dependent TSLP production in NHBE. These results suggest that the expression of TSLP is induced in airway epithelial cells by stimulation with the TLR3 ligand and Th2 cytokines and that this response is suppressed by glucocorticoid treatment. This implies that respiratory viral infection and the recruitment of Th2 cytokine producing cells may amplify Th2 inflammation via the induction of TSLP in the asthmatic airway.
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is produced by epithelial cells and triggers dendritic cell-mediated Th2-type inflammation. While TSLP is upregulated in epithelium of patients with asthma, the factors that control TSLP production have not been studied extensively. Because mouse models suggest roles for protease(s) in Th2-type immune responses, we hypothesized that proteases from airborne allergens may induce TSLP production in a human airway epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. TSLP mRNA and protein were induced when BEAS-2B cells were exposed to prototypic proteases, namely trypsin and papain. TSLP induction by trypsin required intact protease activity and also a protease-sensing G protein-coupled receptor, protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2; TSLP induction by papain was partially dependent on PAR-2. In humans, exposure to ubiquitous airborne fungi, such as Alternaria, is implicated in the development and exacerbation of asthma. When BEAS-2B cells or normal human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to Alternaria extract, TSLP was potently induced. The TSLP-inducing activity of Alternaria was partially blocked by treating the extract with a cysteine protease inhibitor, E64, or by infecting BEAS-2B cells with small interfering RNA for PAR-2. Protease-induced TSLP production by BEAS-2B cells was enhanced synergistically by IL-4 and abolished by IFN-γ. These findings demonstrate that TSLP expression is induced in airway epithelial cells by exposure to allergen-derived proteases and that PAR-2 is involved in the process. By promoting TSLP production in the airways, proteases associated with airborne allergens may facilitate the development and/or exacerbation of Th2-type airway inflammation, particularly in allergic individuals.
Humans; cytokines; allergy; inflammation; lung
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has been recently implicated as a key molecule for initiating allergic inflammation at the epithelial cell-dendritic cell (DC) interface. In humans, aberrant TSLP expression is observed in allergic tissues, such as lesional skins of atopic dermatitis, lungs of asthmatics, nasal mucosa of atopic rhinitis and nasal polyps, and ocular surface of allergic keratoconjunctivitis. TSLP is produced predominantly by damaged epithelial cells and stimulates myeloid DCs (mDCs). TSLP-activated mDCs can promote the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into a Th2 phenotype and the expansion of CD4+ Th2 memory cells in a unique manner dependent on OX40L, one of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily members with Th2-promoting function, and lack of production of IL-12. From a genetic point of view, multiple genome-wide association studies have repeatedly identified the TSLP gene as one of the loci associated with susceptibility to allergic diseases. Thus, TSLP is a rational therapeutic target for the treatment of allergic disorders. Elucidating the mechanisms that regulate TSLP expression and the effects of TSLP on orchestrating the immune response toward a Th2 phenotype is essential for developing anti-TSLP therapy.
allergic inflammation; dendritic cells (DCs); OX40L; Th2 cells; thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)
Mouse models of atopic march suggest that systemic, skin-derived Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) mediates progression from eczema to asthma.
We investigated whether circulating TSLP is associated with eczema, allergic sensitization, or recurrent wheezing in young children.
A prospective analysis of the relationship between plasma levels of TSLP to allergic sensitization and recurrent wheezing was conducted in the birth cohort from the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) study. Plasma TSLP levels were measured at 1, 2, and 3 years of age and analyzed for correlation with clinical parameters in each of the three years. Only those children with consecutive samples for all three years were included in this analysis.
We detected TSLP in 33% of 236 children for whom plasma samples were available for all three years. Overall, a consistently significant association was not found between TSLP and eczema or allergic sensitization. With regard to recurrent wheezing, children with detectable TSLP at one year of age were significantly less likely to experience recurrent wheezing by 3 years compared with those children without detectable TSLP, but this was only seen in children without aeroallergen sensitization at 3 years. (p<0.01).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance
Contrary to our expectations circulating TSLP was not significantly associated with eczema, allergen sensitization, or recurrent wheezing during the first three years of life. Early presence of circulating TSLP was significantly associated with reduced incidence of recurrent wheeze in those children not sensitized to aeroallergen. These findings suggest a possible underlying distinction between pathogenesis of developing atopic vs. non-atopic recurrent wheeze.
TSLP; atopy; birth cohort; recurrent wheeze; preschool wheeze; URECA
The epithelial-derived cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has been associated with the promotion of type 2 inflammation and the induction of allergic disease. In humans TSLP is elevated in the lungs of asthma patients and in the lesional skin of individuals with atopic dermatitis, whereas mice lacking TSLP responses are refractory to models of Th2-driven allergic disease. Although several cell types, including dendritic cells, basophils, and CD4 T cells, have been shown to respond to TSLP, its role in macrophage differentiation has not been studied. Type 2 cytokines (i.e., IL-4 and IL-13) can drive the differentiation of macrophages into alternatively activated macrophages (aaMϕs, also referred to as M2 macrophages). This population of macrophages is associated with allergic inflammation. We therefore reasoned that TSLP/TSLPR signaling may be involved in the differentiation and activation of aaMϕs during allergic airway inflammation. In this study, we report that TSLP changes the quiescent phenotype of pulmonary macrophages toward an aaMϕ phenotype during TSLP-induced airway inflammation. This differentiation of airway macrophages was IL-13–, but not IL-4–, dependent. Taken together, we demonstrate in this study that TSLP/TSLPR plays a significant role in the amplification of aaMΦ polarization and chemokine production, thereby contributing to allergic inflammation.
The epithelial-derived cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has been associated with the promotion of type 2 inflammation and the induction of allergic disease. In humans TSLP is elevated in the lungs of asthma patients and in the lesional skin of individuals with atopic dermatitis, while mice lacking TSLP responses are refractory to models of Th2-driven allergic disease. While several cell types, including dendritic cells, basophils, and CD4 T cells, have been shown to respond to TSLP, its role in macrophage differentiation has not been studied. Type 2 cytokines (i.e. IL-4 and IL-13) can drive the differentiation of macrophages into alternatively activated macrophages (aaMΦ, also referred to as M2 macrophages). This population of macrophages is associated with allergic inflammation. We therefore reasoned that TSLP/TSLPR signaling may be involved in the differentiation and activation of aaMΦs during allergic airway inflammation. We report here that TSLP changes the quiescent phenotype of pulmonary macrophages toward an aaMΦ phenotype during TSLP-induced airway inflammation. This differentiation of airway macrophages was IL-13-, but not IL-4-, dependent. Taken together, we demonstrate here that TSLP/TSLPR plays a significant role in the amplification of aaMΦ polarization and chemokine production, thereby contributing to allergic inflammation.
TSLP; asthma; alternatively activated macrophages
The epithelial-derived cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays a key role in the development and progression of atopic disease and has notably been shown to directly promote the allergic inflammatory responses that characterize asthma. Current models suggest that TSLP is produced by epithelial cells in response to inflammatory stimuli and acts primarily upon dendritic cells to effect a T helper type 2-type inflammatory response. Recent reports, however, have shown that epithelial cells themselves are capable of expressing the TSLP receptor (TSLPR), and may thus directly contribute to a TSLP-dependent response. We report here that beyond simply expressing the receptor, epithelial cells are capable of dynamically regulating TSLPR in response to the same inflammatory cues that drive the production of TSLP, and that epithelial cells produce chemokine C–C motif ligand 17, a T helper type 2-associated chemokine, in response to stimulation with TSLP. These data suggest that a direct autocrine or paracrine response to TSLP by epithelial cells may initiate the initial waves of chemotaxis during an allergic inflammatory response. Intriguingly, we find that the regulation of TSLPR, unlike TSLP, is independent of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, suggesting that the cell may be able to independently regulate TSLP and TSLPR levels in order to properly modulate its response to TSLP. Finally, we show evidence for this dynamic regulation occurring following the viral infection of primary epithelial cells from asthmatic patients. Taken together, the data suggest that induction of TSLPR and a direct response to TSLP by epithelial cells may play a novel role in the development of allergic inflammation.
TSLP; TSLPR; RSV; asthma; epithelium
Rationale: The basis for gender influences on allergen-specific IgEs is unclear.
Objectives: To perform regular and sex-stratified genomewide linkage analyses of IgE to each of three allergens (Ascaris lumbricoides, Blatella germanica [German cockroach]), and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [dust mite]) and to conduct an association study of a candidate gene in a linked genomic region.
Methods: Genomewide linkage analyses of allergen-specific IgEs were conducted in 653 members of eight large families of Costa Rican children with asthma. An analysis of the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms in thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and IgE measurements was conducted in 417 parent–child trios in Costa Rica. Significant results were replicated in 470 families of white children in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP).
Measurements and Main Results: Among all subjects, there was suggestive evidence of linkage (LOD ⩾ 2.72) to IgE to Ascaris (on chromosome 7q) and IgE to dust mite (on chromosomes 7p and 12q). In a sex-stratified analysis, there was significant evidence of linkage to IgE to cockroach on chromosome 5q23 (peak LOD, 4.14 at 127 cM) in female subjects. TSLP is located within the 1.5 LOD-unit support interval for this linkage peak and has female-specific effects on lung disease in mice. In a sex-stratified analysis, the T allele of single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2289276 in TSLP was associated with reductions in IgE to cockroach (in Costa Rican girls) and total IgE (in girls in Costa Rica and in CAMP; P value for sex-by-genotype interaction, <0.01 in both studies).
Conclusions: Consistent with findings in murine models, a variant in TSLP may have female-specific effects on allergic phenotypes.
immunoglobulin E; linkage; thymic stromal lymphopoietin; single-nucleotide polymorphisms
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a newly identified IL-7–like cytokine known to be expressed in airway biopsies of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. As both diseases may be induced or exacerbated by cigarette smoking, it is possible that TSLP represents an important link between cigarette smoke exposure and inflammatory signaling in the airways. In this regard, TSLP appears to also be expressed in airway smooth muscle (ASM); however, its role is unknown. In the current study, we examined TSLP and the TSLP receptor (TSLP-R) expression and function in human ASM cells under normal conditions and following exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Western blot analysis of human ASM cells showed significant expression of TSLP and TSLP-R, with increased expression of both by overnight exposure to 1 or 2% CSE. Furthermore, CSE increased TSLP release by ASM. In parallel experiments using enzymatically dissociated human ASM cells loaded with the Ca2+ indicator fura 2-AM and imaged using fluorescence microscopy, we evaluated the effects of CSE exposure on intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) responses to agonist stimulation. [Ca2+]i responses to histamine were increased with overnight CSE exposure. Exposure to TSLP also resulted in elevated responses, which were blunted by TSLP and TSLP-R Abs. Importantly, the enhancing effects of CSE on [Ca2+]i responses were also blunted by these Abs. These effects were associated with CSE- and TSLP-induced changes in STAT5 phosphorylation. Overall, these novel data suggest that cigarette smoke, TSLP, and ASM are functionally linked and that cigarette smoke-induced increase in airway contractility may be mediated via ASM-derived increases in TSLP signaling.
To explore the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) and compare its effects in vivo and in vitro with those of interleukin-13 (IL-13) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ).
Skin biopsy specimens from patients with dcSSc (n = 14) and healthy controls (n = 13) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence for TSLP, TSLP receptor, CD4, CD8, CD31, and CD163 markers. Wild-type, IL-4Rα1–, and TSLP-deficient mice were treated with TGFβ, IL-13, poly(I-C), or TSLP by osmotic pump. Human fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with TGFβ, IL-13, poly(I-C), or TSLP. Microarray analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed to determine gene expression, and protein levels of phospho-Smad2 and macrophage marker CD163 were tested.
TSLP was highly expressed in the skin of dcSSc patients, more strongly in perivascular areas and in immune cells, and was produced mainly by CD163+ cells. The skin of TSLP-treated mice showed up-regulated clusters of gene expression that overlapped strongly with those in IL-13– and TGFβ-treated mice. TSLP up-regulated specific genes, including CXCL9, proteasome, and interferon (IFN)–regulated genes. TSLP treatment in IL-4Rα1–deficient mice promoted similar cutaneous inflammation as in wild-type mice, though TSLP-induced arginase 1, CCL2, and matrix metalloproteinase 12 messenger RNA levels were blocked. In PBMCs, TSLP up-regulated tumor necrosis factor α, Mx-1, IFNγ, CXCL9, and mannose receptor 1 gene expression. TSLP-deficient mice treated with TGFβ showed less fibrosis and blocked expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and osteopontin 1. Poly(I-C)–treated mice showed high levels of cutaneous TSLP.
TSLP is highly expressed in the skin of dcSSc patients and interacts in a complex manner with 2 other profibrotic cytokines, TGFβ and IL-13, strongly suggesting that it might promote SSc fibrosis directly or indirectly by synergistically stimulating pro-fibrotic genes, or production of these cytokines.
The genetic etiology of eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) has been largely unexplored until a recent genome-wide association study identified a disease susceptibility locus on 5q22, a region that harbors the thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) gene. However, it is unclear whether the observed genetic associations with EE are disease-specific or confounded by the high rate of allergy in EE patients. In addition, the genetic contributions of other allergy associated genes to EE risk have not been explored.
We aimed to delineate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)s that associated with EE apart from allergy.
We utilized a custom array containing 738 SNPs in 53 genes implicated in allergic and/or immune responses to genotype 220 allergic or 246 non-allergic controls and a discovery cohort of 170 EE patients. We replicated a statistically significant SNP association in an independent case-control cohort and examined the induction of the candidate gene in primary esophageal epithelial cells.
A single SNP residing in the TSLP gene reached Bonferroni LD adjusted significance and only when EE cases were compared with allergic controls (rs10062929, P = 4.11 × 10−5, odds ratio = 0.35). A non-synonymous polymorphism in the TSLP receptor on Xp22.3 and Yp11.3 was significantly associated with disease only in male EE patients. Primary esophageal epithelial cells expressed TSLP mRNA following Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) stimulation.
These data collectively identify TSLP as a candidate gene critically involved in EE susceptibility beyond its role in promoting Th2 responses.
Eosinophilic esophagitis; thymic stromal lymphopoietin; single nucleotide polymorphism; allergy; cytokine receptor-like factor 2; Toll-like receptor 3
Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) is crucial for the development of atopic diseases in humans and mice. Mice that express a lung-specific TSLP transgene (SPC-TSLP) develop a spontaneous and progressive asthma-like disease, suggesting that TSLP expression alone was sufficient for disease development. Here we show that, in fact, TSLP alone only causes a weak innate response that is insufficient for development of full airway inflammatory disease. Complete disease development requires both TSLP and antigenic stimulation. These data suggest that the spontaneous lung inflammation observed in SPC-TSLP mice reflects a TSLP-driven predisposition towards the development of aberrant responses against innocuous environmental antigens. This provides evidence that TSLP may act directly to induce susceptibility to the inappropriate allergic responses that characterize atopy and asthma. We additionally show that disease development requires CD4 T cells but not B cells. Further, we reveal a TSLP-driven innate response involving mucus overproduction and goblet cell metaplasia. Taken together, these data suggest a multi-faceted model of TSLP-mediated airway inflammation, with an initial activation of resident innate immune cells, followed by activation of the adaptive immune system and full disease development. This study provides new insight into the unique features of the asthma pathology contributed by the innate and adaptive immune responses in response to TSLP stimulation.
Cytokines; Allergy; Inflammation; Lung
Nasal polyposis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper airways often associated with asthma and characterized by markedly increased numbers of eosinophils, Th2 type lymphocytes, fibroblasts, goblet cells and mast cells. Previous studies have shown elevated levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in atopic diseases like asthma, atopic dermatitis and mainly in animal models of allergic rhinitis (AR). Here, we investigated the expression of TSLP in nasal polyps from atopics and non-atopics in comparison with the nasal mucosa and its potential role in nasal polyposis.
Messenger RNA expression for TSLP, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and macrophage derived chemokine (MDC) in nasal polyps and nasal mucosa of atopics and non-atopics was analyzed by real time PCR. Immunoreactivity for TSLP in nasal polyps and in the nasal mucosa of patients with AR and non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Eosinophil counts was analyzed by Wright-Giemsa staining and nasal polyp tissue IgE, by ELISA.
Messenger RNA expression for TSLP,TARC and MDC was markedly higher in nasal polyps as compared to the allergic nasal mucosa. Immunoreactivity for TSLP was detected in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and inflammatory cells of the nasal mucosa and nasal polyps. The number of TSLP+ cells was significantly greater in the nasal mucosa of AR than NAR patients. The number of TSLP+ cells in nasal polyps from atopics was significantly greater than that of non-atopics and that in the allergic nasal mucosa. The number of TSLP+ cells correlated well with the number of eosinophils and the levels of IgE in nasal polyps.
The high expression of TSLP in nasal polyps and its strong correlation to eosinophils and IgE suggest a potential role for TSLP in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps by regulating the Th2 type and eosinophilic inflammation.
Nasal polyps; Th2 cytokines; TSLP; eosinophils; IgE
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an epithelial cell derived cytokine expressed in skin, gut, lungs and thymus. TSLP signals via TSLPR, a heterodimer of the IL-7 receptor alpha chain (IL-7Rα) and the TSLP receptor chain (TSLPR), which is closely related to the common receptor-γ chain (γc), expressed on a wide range of cell types in the adptaive and innate immune system. TSLP exerts profound influence on the polarization of dendritic cells (DCs) to drive T helper (Th) 2 cytokine production. It also directly promotes T cell proliferation in response to T cell receptor (TCR) activation, and Th2 cytokine production. TSLP also supports B cell expansion and differentiation. TSLP further amplifies Th2 cytokine production by mast cells and NKT cells. These properties confer on TSLP a critical role in driving Th2 mediated inflammation. This role is supported by the finding that TSLP expression is up-regulated in keratinocytes of atopic dermatitis (AD) skin lesions and in bronchial epithelial cells in asthma.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified various genes associated with asthma, yet, causal genes or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) remain elusive. We sought to dissect functional genes/SNPs for asthma by combining expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) and GWASs.
Cis-eQTL analyses of 34 asthma genes were performed in cells from human bronchial epithelial biopsy (BEC, n =107) and from bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL, n = 94).
For TSLP-WDR36 region, rs3806932 (G allele protective against eosinophilic esophagitis) and rs2416257 (A allele associated with lower eosinophil counts and protective against asthma) were correlated with decreased expression of TSLP in BAL (P = 7.9x10−11 and 5.4x10−4, respectively) and BEC, but not WDR36. Surprisingly, rs1837253 (consistently associated with asthma) showed no correlation with TSLP expression levels. For ORMDL3-GSDMB region, rs8067378 (G allele protective against asthma) was correlated with decreased expression of GSDMB in BEC and BAL (P = 1.3x10−4 and 0.04) but not ORMDL3. rs992969 in the promoter region of IL33 (A allele associated with higher eosinophil counts and risk for asthma) was correlated with increased expression of IL33 in BEC (P = 1.3x10−6) but not in BAL.
Our study illustrates cell-type-specific regulation of the expression of asthma-related genes documenting SNPs in TSLP, GSDMB, IL33, HLA-DQB1, C11orf30, DEXI, CDHR3, and ZBTB10 affect asthma risk through cis-regulation of its gene expression. Whenever possible, disease-relevant tissues should be used for transcription analysis. SNPs in TSLP may affect asthma risk through up-regulating TSLP mRNA expression or protein secretion. Further functional studies are warranted.
asthma susceptibility genes; bronchial alveolar lavage; bronchial epithelial cells; eQTL; GWAS
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an epithelial cell-derived cytokine, implicated in the development and progression of allergic diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated significantly increased expression and synthesis of TSLPin nasal mucosa of patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), compared with nonallergic control subjects. Also, there is significant correlation between the level of TSLP mRNA and symptom severity in AR patients. In this study, we investigated whether polymorphisms in the TSLP gene were associated with increased risk of AR in the Chinese population.
In a candidate gene association study, we tested 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TSLP gene in 368 AR and 325 control adult Han Chinese subjects from Beijing. The 11 SNPs were selected from the Chinese HapMap genotyping dataset to ensure complete genetic coverage. AR was established by questionnaire and clinical examination, and blood was drawn from all subjects for DNA extraction. The PLINK software package was used to perform statistical testing.
In the single-locus analysis of AR risk, no significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies were found between AR and control subjects. Further logistic regression analyses adjusted for age and gender also failed to reveal significant associations between AR and the selected SNPs. Similarly, analysis stratified by gender, and haplotype or diplotype did not reveal any association with AR risk.
Although TSLP presents itself as a good candidate for contributing to allergy, this study failed to find an association between specific SNPs in the TSLP gene and AR susceptibility in the Han Chinese population.
Allergic rhinitis; Chinese subjects; Genotyping; Thymic stromal lymphopoietin; Single nucleotide polymorphism
Thymic stromal lymphoproetin (TSLP) is a cytokine secreted by the airway epithelium in response to respiratory viruses and it is known to promote allergic Th2 responses in asthma. This study investigated whether virally-induced secretion of TSLP is directional in nature (apical vs. basolateral) and/or if there are TSLP-mediated effects occurring at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier in the asthmatic state.
Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) from control (n = 3) and asthmatic (n = 3) donors were differentiated into polarized respiratory tract epithelium under air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions and treated apically with dsRNA (viral surrogate) or TSLP. Sub-epithelial effects of TSLP were examined in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMC) from normal (n = 3) and asthmatic (n = 3) donors. Clinical experiments examined nasal airway secretions obtained from asthmatic children during naturally occurring rhinovirus-induced exacerbations (n = 20) vs. non-asthmatic uninfected controls (n = 20). Protein levels of TSLP, CCL11/eotaxin-1, CCL17/TARC, CCL22/MDC, TNF-α and CXCL8 were determined with a multiplex magnetic bead assay.
Our data demonstrate that: 1) Asthmatic HBEC exhibit an exaggerated apical, but not basal, secretion of TSLP after dsRNA exposure; 2) TSLP exposure induces unidirectional (apical) secretion of CCL11/eotaxin-1 in asthmatic HBEC and enhanced CCL11/eotaxin-1 secretion in asthmatic HASMC; 3) Rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations in children are associated with in vivo airway secretion of TSLP and CCL11/eotaxin-1.
There are virally-induced TSLP-driven secretory immune responses at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier characterized by enhanced CCL11/eotaxin-1 secretion in asthmatic airways. These results suggest a new model of TSLP-mediated eosinophilic responses in the asthmatic airway during viral-induced exacerbations.
Previous studies suggested a close association between the thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) genetic variants and allergic diseases. Here, we explored the correlation between the TSLP polymorphisms and allergic rhinitis susceptibility using meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane libraries, CNKI, Wanfang, and CQVIP databases until Apr 19, 2015. Quality assessment was conducted for each article according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Genetic Association studies (STREGA). The pooled measure was calculated as the inverse variance-weighted mean of the logarithm of the OR with 95% CI to assess the strength of association between TSLP polymorphisms and the risk of allergic rhinitis. Five case-control studies with 6351 cases and 11472 controls were included in this study. TSLP rs1898671 polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of allergic rhinitis (OR=1.13; 95% CI, 1.07-1.20; P<0.0001). In the subgroup analysis by race, TSLP rs1898671 polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of allergic rhinitis in Caucasian (OR=1.14; 95% CI, 1.08-1.21; P<0.00001). In the subgroup analysis by age group, adult individuals with TSLP rs1898671 polymorphism showed increased risk of allergic rhinitis (OR=1.13; 95% CI, 1.07-1.21; P<0.0001). Because only one study investigated the association between other SNPs in TSLP and allergic rhinitis risk, the meta-analyses were not performed. In summary, we demonstrated that TSLP rs1898671 polymorphism was associated with a higher risk for allergic rhinitis.
Allergic rhinitis; thymic stromal lymphopoietin; meta-analysis; genetic