Aldose reductase (AR; EC 22.214.171.124), an nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent aldo–keto reductase, has been shown to be involved in oxidative stress signaling initiated by inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Recently, we have shown that inhibition of this enzyme prevents the growth of colon cancer cells in vitro as well as in nude mice xenografts. Herein, we investigated the mediation of AR in the formation of colonic preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) using azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer mice model. Male BALB/c mice were administrated with AOM without or with AR inhibitor, sorbinil and at the end of the protocol, all the mice were euthanized and colons were evaluated for ACF formation. Administration of sorbinil significantly lowered the number of AOM-induced ACF. Similarly, AR-null mice administered with AOM demonstrated significant resistance to ACF formation. Furthermore, inhibition of AR or knockout of AR gene in the mice significantly prevented AOM-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 proteins as well as their messenger RNA. AR inhibition or knockdown also significantly decreased the phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) β2 and nuclear factor kappa binding protein as well as expression of preneoplastic marker proteins such as cyclin D1 and β-catenin in mice colons. Our results suggest that AR mediates the formation of ACF in AOM-treated mice and thereby inhibition of AR could provide an effective chemopreventive approach for the treatment of colon cancer.
Oxidative stress-induced inflammation is a major contributor to several disease conditions including sepsis, carcinogenesis and metastasis, diabetic complications, allergic asthma, uveitis and after cataract surgery posterior capsular opacification. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors and subsequent expression of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors are characteristics of inflammatory disorders, we envisioned that by blocking the molecular signals of ROS that activate redox-sensitive transcription factors, various inflammatory diseases could be ameliorated. We have indeed demonstrated that ROS –induced lipid peroxidation-derived lipid aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) and their glutathione-conjugates (e.g. GS-HNE) are efficiently reduced by aldose reductase to corresponding alcohols which mediate the inflammatory signals. Our results showed that inhibition of aldose reductase (AKR1B1) significantly prevented the inflammatory signals induced by cytokines, growth factors, endotoxins, high glucose, allergens and auto-immune reactions in cellular as well as animal models. We have demonstrated that AKR1B1 inhibitor, fidarestat, significantly prevents tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-, growth factors-, lipopolysachharide (LPS)-, and environmental allergens-induced inflammatory signals that cause various inflammatory diseases. In animal models of inflammatory diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular, uveitis, asthma, and cancer (colon, breast, prostate and lung) and metastasis, inhibition of AKR1B1 significantly ameliorated the disease. Our results from various cellular and animal models representing a number of inflammatory conditions suggest that ROS-induced inflammatory response could be reduced by inhibition of AKR1B1, thereby decreasing the progression of the disease and if the therapy is initiated early, the disease could be eliminated. Since fidarestat has already undergone phase III clinical trial for diabetic neuropathy and found to be safe, though clinically not very effective, our results indicate that it can be developed for the therapy of a number of inflammation- related diseases. Our results thus offer a novel therapeutic approach to treat a wide array of inflammatory diseases.
inflammation; oxidative stress; aldose reductase; ROS; colon cancer; uveitis; asthma
The human aldo–keto reductase AKR1B10, originally identified as an aldose reductase-like protein and human small intestine aldose reductase, is a cytosolic NADPH-dependent reductase that metabolizes a variety of endogenous compounds, such as aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes and dicarbonyl compounds, and some drug ketones. The enzyme is highly expressed in solid tumors of several tissues including lung and liver, and as such has received considerable interest as a relevant biomarker for the development of those tumors. In addition, AKR1B10 has been recently reported to be significantly up-regulated in some cancer cell lines (medulloblastoma D341 and colon cancer HT29) acquiring resistance toward chemotherapeutic agents (cyclophosphamide and mitomycin c), suggesting the validity of the enzyme as a chemoresistance marker. Although the detailed information on the AKR1B10-mediated mechanisms leading to the drug resistance process is not well understood so far, the enzyme has been proposed to be involved in functional regulations of cell proliferation and metabolism of drugs and endogenous lipids during the development of chemoresistance. This article reviews the current literature focusing mainly on expression profile and roles of AKR1B10 in the drug resistance of cancer cells. Recent developments of AKR1B10 inhibitors and their usefulness in restoring sensitivity to anticancer drugs are also reviewed.
aldo–keto reductase 1B10; chemotherapy; resistance; proliferation
Oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) generates high concentrations of unsaturated aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxy trans-2-nonenal (HNE). These aldehydes are mitogenic to vascular smooth muscle cells and sustain a vascular inflammation. Nevertheless, the processes that mediate and regulate the vascular metabolism of these aldehydes have not been examined. In this communication, we report the identification of the major metabolic pathways and products of [3H]-HNE in rat aortic smooth muscle cells in culture. High-performance liquid chromatography separation of the radioactivity recovered from these cells revealed that a large (60–65%) proportion of the metabolism was linked to glutathione (GSH). Electrospray mass spectrometry showed that glutathionyl-1,4 dihydroxynonene (GS-DHN) was the major metabolite of HNE in these cells. The formation of GS-DHN appears to be due aldose reductase (AR)-catalyzed reduction of glutathionyl 4-hydroxynonanal (GS-HNE), since inhibitors of AR (tolrestat or sorbinil) prevented GS-DHN formation, and increased the fraction of the glutathione conjugate remaining as GS-HNE. Gas chromatography–chemical ionization mass spectroscopy of the metabolites identified a subsidiary route of HNE metabolism leading to the formation of 4-hydroxynonanoic acid (HNA). Oxidation to HNA accounted for 25–30% of HNE metabolism. The formation of HNA was inhibited by cyanamide, indicating that the acid is derived from an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-catalyzed pathway. The overall rate of HNE metabolism was insensitive to inhibition of AR or ALDH, although inhibition of HNA formation by cyanamide led to a corresponding increase in the fraction of HNE metabolized by the GSH-linked pathway, indicating that ALDH-catalyzed oxidation competes with glutathione conjugation. These metabolic pathways may be the key regulators of the vascular effects of HNE and oxidized LDL.
Lipid peroxidation; 4-Hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal; Glutathione conjugates; Aldose reductase; Vascular smooth muscle cells; Atherosclerosis
Aldose reductase (AR; AKR1B1) a member of aldoketo reductase super family, that we had shown earlier mediates cytotoxic signals induced by high glucose, cytokines and growth factors, also mediates the inflammatory signals induced by Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Inhibition of AR by three distinct AR inhibitors sorbinil, tolrestat or zopolrestat suppressed the LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ, and chemokine MCP-1 in murine peritoneal macrophages. Inhibition of AR also prevented the production of nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 and expression of iNOS and Cox-2 proteins. The LPS-induced DNA binding activity of NF-κB and AP1 were significantly inhibited by AR inhibitors, and this effect was mediated through the inhibition of phosphorylation of IκB-α, IKK α/β and PKC. These results suggest the therapeutic use of AR inhibitors as anti-inflammatory drugs.
Aldose reductase; sepsis; inflammation; lipopolysaccharide and NF-κB
We have recently shown that aldose reductase (AR, EC 126.96.36.199) a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent aldo-keto reductase, known to be involved in oxidative stress-signaling, prevents human colon cancer cell growth in culture as well as in nude mice xenografts. Inhibition of AR also prevents azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation in mice. In order to understand the chemopreventive mechanism(s) of AR inhibition in colon cancer, we have investigated the role of AR in the mediation of angiogenic signals in vitro and in vivo models. Our results show that inhibition of AR significantly prevented the VEGF- and FGF -induced proliferation and expression of proliferative marker Ki67 in the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Further, AR inhibition or ablation with siRNA prevented the VEGF-and FGF –induced invasion and migration in HUVEC. AR inhibition also prevented the VEGF-and FGF- induced secretion/expression of IL-6, MMP2, MMP9, ICAM, and VCAM. The anti-angiogenic feature of AR inhibition in HUVEC was associated with inactivation of PI3K/AKT and NF-κB (p65) and suppression of VEGF receptor 2 protein levels. Most importantly, matrigel plug model of angiogenesis in rats showed that inhibition of AR prevented infiltration of blood cells, invasion, migration and formation of capillary like structures, and expression of blood vessels markers CD31 and vWF. Thus, our results demonstrate that AR inhibitors could be novel agents to prevent angiogenesis.
Aldose reductase; angiogenesis; endothelial cells; cancer; inflammation
The aldo–keto reductases (AKRs) are a superfamily of NAD(P)H-linked oxidoreductases, which reduce aldehydes and ketones to their respective primary and secondary alcohols. AKR enzymes are increasingly being recognized to play an important role in the transformation and detoxification of aldehydes and ketones generated during drug detoxification and xenobiotic metabolism. Many transcription factors have been identified to regulate the expression of human AKR genes, which could have profound effects on the metabolism of endogenous mediators and detoxication of chemical carcinogens. This review summarizes the current knowledge on AKR regulation by transcription factors and other mediators in human diseases.
aldo–keto reductase; regulation; response element; transcription factor; human disease
Aldose reductase (AR) initially thought to be involved in the secondary diabetic complications because of its glucose reducing potential. However, evidence from recent studies indicates that AR is an excellent reducer of a number of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes as well as their glutathione conjugates, which regulate inflammatory signals initiated by oxidants such as cytokines, growth factors and bacterial endotoxins, and revealed the potential use of AR inhibition as an approach to prevent inflammatory complications.
An extensive Internet and Medline search was performed to retrieve information on understanding the role of AR inhibition in the pathophysiology of endotoxin-mediated inflammatory disorders. Overall, inhibition of AR appears to be a promising strategy for the treatment of endotoxemia, sepsis and other related inflammatory diseases.
Current knowledge provides enough evidence to indicate that AR inhibition is a logical therapeutic strategy for the treatment of endotoxin-related inflammatory diseases. Since, AR inhibitors have already gone to Phase-iii clinical studies for diabetic complications and found to be safe for human use, their use in endotoxin–related inflammatory diseases could be expedited. However, one of the major challenges will be the discovery of AR regulated clinically-relevant biomarkers to identify susceptible individuals at risk of developing inflammatory diseases, thereby warranting future research in this area.
Aldose Reductase; Endotoxin; Inflammation; Sepsis
Aldose reductase (AKR1B1) is an NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase best known as the rate-limiting enzyme of the polyol pathway. Accelerated glucose metabolism through this pathway has been implicated in diabetic cataract and retinopathy. Some human tissues contain AKR1B1 as well as AKR1B10, a closely related member of the aldo-keto reductase gene superfamily. This opens the possibility that AKR1B10 may also contribute to diabetic complications. The goal of the current study was to characterize the expression profiles of AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 in the human eye. Using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR and immunohistochemical staining, we observed expression of both AKR genes in cornea, iris, ciliary body, lens, and retina. Expression of AKR1B1 was the highest in lens and retina, whereas AKR1B10 was the highest in cornea. Lenses from transgenic mice designed for overexpression of AKR1B10 were not significantly different from nontransgenic controls, although a significant number developed a focal defect in the anterior lens epithelium following 6 months of experimentally induced diabetes. However, lenses from AKR1B10 mice remained largely transparent following longterm diabetes. These results indicate that AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 may have different functional properties in the lens and suggest that AKR1B10 does not contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic cataract in humans.
We utilized the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to systematically explore physiological roles for yeast and mammalian aldo-keto reductases. Six open reading frames encoding putative aldo-keto reductases were identified when the yeast genome was queried against the sequence for human aldose reductase, the prototypical mammalian aldo-keto reductase. Recombinant proteins produced from five of these yeast open reading frames demonstrated NADPH-dependent reductase activity with a variety of aldehyde and ketone substrates. A triple aldo-keto reductase null mutant strain demonstrated a glucose-dependent heat shock phenotype which could be rescued by ectopic expression of human aldose reductase. Catalytically-inactive mutants of human or yeast aldo-keto reductases failed to effect a rescue of the heat shock phenotype, suggesting that the phenotype results from either an accumulation of one or more unmetabolized aldo-keto reductase substrates or a synthetic deficiency of aldo-keto reductase products generated in response to heat shock stress. These results suggest that multiple aldo-keto reductases fulfill functionally redundant roles in the stress response in yeast.
aldo-keto reductase; aldose reductase; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; mutagenesis; heat shock
Increased production of cytokines and chemokines in serum and tissues upon oxidative stress caused by severe systemic infections are the major cause of sepsis. Aldose reductase (AR) known to mediate oxidative stress- induced NF-κB activation and transcription of cytokines and chemokines are the main mediator of bacterial endotoxin - and lipopolysaccharide -induced inflammatory cytokines. Our aim is to investigate the effect of AR inhibitors on the prevention of inflammatory cytokines in the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of polymicrobial sepsis which closely mimics the sepsis syndrome in humans.
Mice were rendered septic by CLP in the absence and presence of AR inhibitor, sorbinil. The levels of cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory markers in the plasma, peritoneal fluid and heart of mice were significantly inhibited by sorbinil. Inhibition of AR also prevented CLP-induced COX-2, iNOS and HMGB-1 in heart, kidney and spleen.
Our results showed that the inhibition of AR significantly prevented the polymicrobial sepsis-induced increase in inflammatory markers and thus indicate the use of AR inhibitors as anti-inflammatory agents.
Sepsis; Cecum Ligation and Puncture; Cytokines; Inflammation; Aldose Reductase
Colon cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women worldwide. The deregulated cell cycle control or decreased apoptosis of normal epithelial cells leading to uncontrolled proliferation is one of the major features of tumor progression. We have previously shown that aldose reductase (AR), a NADPH dependent- aldo-keto reductase, has been shown to be involved in growth factors–induced proliferation of colon cancer cells. Herein, we report that inhibition of AR prevents epidermal growth factor (EGF) - and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)–induced HT29 cell proliferation by accumulating cells at G1 phase of cell cycle. Similar results were observed in SW480 and HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Treatment of HT29 cells with AR inhibitor, sorbinil or zopolrestat prevented EGF– and bFGF-induced DNA binding activity of E2F-1 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. Inhibition of AR also prevented EGF– and bFGF-induced phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)-2 and expression of G1/S transition regulatory proteins such as cyclin D1, cdk-4, PCNA, cyclin E and c-myc. More importantly, inhibition of AR prevented the EGF– and bFGF-induced activation of PI3K/AKT and reactive oxygen species generation in colon cancer cells. Further, inhibition of AR also prevented the tumor growth of human colon cancer cells in nude mice xenografts. Collectively, these results show that AR mediates EGF– and bFGF–induced colon cancer cell proliferation by activating/expressing G1/S phase proteins such as E2F-1, cdks and cyclins through ROS/PI3K/AKT indicating the use of AR inhibitors in the prevention of colon carcinogenesis.
Aldose reductase; cell cycle; E2F-1; colon cancer; cyclins
NADP(H)-dependent cytosolic aldo-keto reductases (AKR) are mostly monomeric enzymes which fold into a typical (α/β)8-barrel structure. Substrate specificity and inhibitor selectivity are determined by interaction with residues located in three highly variable loops (A, B, and C). Based on sequence identity, AKR have been grouped into families, namely AKR1–AKR15, containing multiple subfamilies. Two human enzymes from the AKR1B subfamily (AKR1B1 and AKR1B10) are of special interest. AKR1B1 (aldose reductase) is related to secondary diabetic complications, while AKR1B10 is induced in cancer cells and is highly active with all-trans-retinaldehyde. Residues interacting with all-trans-retinaldehyde and differing between AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 are Leu125Lys and Val131Ala (loop A), Leu301Val, Ser303Gln, and Cys304Ser (loop C). Recently, we demonstrated the importance of Lys125 as a determinant of AKR1B10 specificity for retinoids. Residues 301 and 304 are also involved in interactions with substrates or inhibitors, and thus we checked their contribution to retinoid specificity. We also extended our study with retinoids to rodent members of the AKR1B subfamily: AKR1B3 (aldose reductase), AKR1B7 (mouse vas deferens protein), AKR1B8 (fibroblast-growth factor 1-regulated protein), and AKR1B9 (Chinese hamster ovary reductase), which were tested against all-trans isomers of retinaldehyde and retinol. All enzymes were active with retinaldehyde, but with kcat values (0.02–0.52 min−1) much lower than that of AKR1B10 (27 min−1). None of the enzymes showed oxidizing activity with retinol. Since these enzymes (except AKR1B3) have Lys125, other residues should account for retinaldehyde specificity. Here, by using site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling, we further delineate the contribution of residues 301 and 304. We demonstrate that besides Lys125, Ser304 is a major structural determinant for all-trans-retinaldehyde specificity of AKR1B10.
aldo-keto reductases; aldose reductase; retinoic acid; side-directed mutagenesis
To examine the role of aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) in the cardiovascular metabolism of the precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Steady-state kinetic parameters of AKRs with AGE precursors were determined using recombinant proteins expressed in bacteria. Metabolism of methylglyoxal and AGE accumulation were studied in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and C57 wild-type, akr1b3 (aldose reductase)-null, cardiospecific-akr1b4 (rat aldose reductase), and akr1b8 (FR-1)-transgenic mice. AGE accumulation and atherosclerotic lesions were studied 12 weeks after streptozotocin treatment of C57, akr1b3-null, and apoE- and akr1b3-apoE–null mice.
Higher levels of AGEs were generated in the cytosol than at the external surface of HUVECs cultured in high glucose, indicating that intracellular metabolism may be an important regulator of AGE accumulation and toxicity. In vitro, AKR 1A and 1B catalyzed the reduction of AGE precursors, whereas AKR1C, AKR6, and AKR7 were relatively ineffective. Highest catalytic efficiency was observed with AKR1B1. Acetol formation in methylglyoxal-treated HUVECs was prevented by the aldose reductase inhibitor sorbinil. Acetol was generated in hearts perfused with methylglyoxal, and its formation was increased in akr1b4- or akr1b8-transgenic mice. Reduction of AGE precursors was diminished in hearts from akr1b3-null mice. Diabetic akr1b3-null mice accumulated more AGEs in the plasma and the heart than wild-type mice, and deletion of akr1b3 increased AGE accumulation and atherosclerotic lesion formation in apoE-null mice.
Aldose reductase–catalyzed reduction is an important pathway in the endothelial and cardiac metabolism of AGE precursors, and it prevents AGE accumulation and atherosclerotic lesion formation.
The bronchial asthma, a clinical complication of persistent inflammation of the airway and subsequent airway hyper-responsiveness, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Several studies have shown that oxidative stress plays a key role in initiation as well as amplification of inflammation in airways. However, still there are no good anti-oxidant strategies available for therapeutic intervention in asthma pathogenesis. Most recent studies suggest that polyol pathway enzyme, aldose reductase (AR), contributes to the pathogenesis of oxidative stress–induced inflammation by affecting the NF-κB-dependent expression of cytokines and chemokines and therefore inhibitors of AR could be anti-inflammatory. Since inhibitors of AR have already gone through phase-III clinical studies for diabetic complications and found to be safe, our hypothesis is that AR inhibitors could be novel therapeutic drugs for the prevention and treatment of asthma. Hence, we investigated the efficacy of AR inhibition in the prevention of allergic responses to a common natural airborne allergen, ragweed pollen that leads to airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness in a murine model of asthma.
Methods and Findings
Primary Human Small Airway Epithelial Cells (SAEC) were used to investigate the in vitro effects of AR inhibition on ragweed pollen extract (RWE)-induced cytotoxic and inflammatory signals. Our results indicate that inhibition of AR prevents RWE -induced apoptotic cell death as measured by annexin-v staining, increase in the activation of NF-κB and expression of inflammatory markers such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cycloxygenase (COX)-2, Prostaglandin (PG) E2, IL-6 and IL-8. Further, BALB/c mice were sensitized with endotoxin-free RWE in the absence and presence of AR inhibitor and followed by evaluation of perivascular and peribronchial inflammation, mucin production, eosinophils infiltration and airway hyperresponsiveness. Our results indicate that inhibition of AR prevents airway inflammation and production of inflammatory cytokines, accumulation of eosinophils in airways and sub-epithelial regions, mucin production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and airway hyperresponsiveness in mice.
These results suggest that airway inflammation due to allergic response to RWE, which subsequently activates oxidative stress-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines via NF-κB-dependent mechanism, could be prevented by AR inhibitors. Therefore, inhibition of AR could have clinical implications, especially for the treatment of airway inflammation, a major cause of asthma pathogenesis.
Farnesol (FOH) and geranylgeraniol (GGOH) with multiple biological actions are produced from the mevalonate pathway, and catabolized into farnesoic acid and geranylgeranoic acid, respectively, via the aldehyde intermediates (farnesal and geranylgeranial). We investigated the intracellular distribution, sequences and properties of the oxidoreductases responsible for the metabolic steps in rat tissues. The oxidation of FOH and GGOH into their aldehyde intermediates were mainly mediated by alcohol dehydrogenases 1 (in the liver and colon) and 7 (in the stomach and lung), and the subsequent step into the carboxylic acids was catalyzed by a microsomal aldehyde dehydrogenase. In addition, high reductase activity catalyzing the aldehyde intermediates into FOH (or GGOH) was detected in the cytosols of the extra-hepatic tissues, where the major reductase was identified as aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C15. Human reductases with similar specificity were identified as AKR1B10 and AKR1C3, which most efficiently reduced farnesal and geranylgeranial among seven enzymes in the AKR1A-1C subfamilies. The overall metabolism from FOH to farnesoic acid in cultured cells was significantly decreased by overexpression of AKR1C15, and increased by addition of AKR1C3 inhibitors, tolfenamic acid and R-flurbiprofen. Thus, AKRs (1C15 in rats, and 1B10 and 1C3 in humans) may play an important role in controlling the bioavailability of FOH and GGOH.
Alcohol dehydrogenase; Aldehyde dehydrogenase; AKR1C15; AKR1C3; Farnesol; Geranylgeranio
Aldose reductase (AR) is a ubiquitously expressed protein with pleiotrophic roles as an efficient catalyst for the reduction of toxic lipid aldehydes and mediator of hyperglycemia, cytokine and growth factor –induced redox sensitive signals that cause secondary diabetic complications. Although AR inhibition has been shown to be protective against oxidative stress signals, the role of AR in regulating nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and NO-mediated apoptosis has not been elucidated to date. We therefore investigated the role of AR in regulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO synthesis and apoptosis in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Inhibition or RNA interference ablation of AR suppressed LPS-stimulated production of NO and over-expression of iNOS mRNA. Inhibition or ablation of AR also prevented the LPS-induced apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, activation of caspase-3, p38-MAPK, JNK, NF-κB and AP1. In addition, AR inhibition prevented the LPS-induced down-regulation of Bcl-xl and up-regulation of Bax and Bak in macrophages. L-arginine increased and L-NAME decreased the severity of cell death caused by LPS and AR inhibitors prevented it. Furthermore, inhibition of AR prevents cell death caused by HNE and GS-HNE, but not GS-DHN. Our findings for the first time suggest that AR catalyzed lipid aldehyde-glutathione conjugates regulates the LPS-induced production of inflammatory marker NO and cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells. Inhibition or ablation of AR activity may be potential therapeutic target in endotoximia and other inflammatory diseases.
aldose reductase; sepsis; apoptosis; LPS; nitric oxide
A cytosolic aldo-keto reductase was purified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 26602 to homogeneity by affinity chromatography, chromatofocusing, and hydroxylapatite chromatography. The relative molecular weights of the aldo-keto reductase as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography were 36,800 and 35,000, respectively, indicating that the enzyme is monomeric. Amino acid composition and N-terminal sequence analysis revealed that the enzyme is closely related to the aldose reductases of xylose-fermenting yeasts and mammalian tissues. The enzyme was apparently immunologically unrelated to the aldose reductases of other xylose-fermenting yeasts. The aldo-keto reductase is NADPH specific and catalyzes the reduction of a variety of aldehydes. The best substrate for the enzyme is the aromatic aldehyde p-nitrobenzaldehyde (Km = 46 microM; kcat/Km = 52,100 s-1 M-1), whereas among the aldoses, DL-glyceraldehyde was the preferred substrate (Km = 1.44 mM; kcat/Km = 1,790 s-1 M-1). The enzyme failed to catalyze the reduction of menadione and p-benzoquinone, substrates for carbonyl reductase. The enzyme was inhibited only slightly by 2 mM sodium valproate and was activated by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The optimum pH of the enzyme is 5. These data indicate that the S. cerevisiae aldo-keto reductase is a monomeric NADPH-specific reductase with strong similarities to the aldose reductases.
Aldose reductase, although identified initially as a glucose-reducing enzyme via polyol pathway, is believed to be an important component of antioxidant defense system as well as a key mediator of oxidative stress-induced molecular signaling. The dual role played by AR has made it a very important enzyme for the regulation of not only the cellular redox state by detoxifying the reactive lipid-aldehydes generated by lipid peroxidation which is crucial in the cellular homeostasis, but also in the regulation of molecular signaling cascade that may regulate oxidative stress-induced cytotoxic events. Search for the new molecular targets to restrain the oxidative stress-induced inflammation has resulted in the identification of AR as an unanticipated mediator of oxidative stress-induced signaling. Although, in last one decade or so AR has been implicated in various inflammation-related disease conditions ranging from diabetes, sepsis, cancer, cardiovascular and airway inflammation, however, a critical evaluation of the clinical efficacy of AR inhibitors awaits a better understanding of the role of AR in regulating inflammation, especially in ocular inflammation.
Aldose reductase; inflammation; uveitis; NF-κB; GS-DHN; infection; autoimmunity
The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat strain (Atp7b m/m), which accumulates copper in the liver due to mutations in the Atp7b gene, is a useful model for investigating the relationship between oxidative stress and hepatocarcinogenesis. To determine the effect of this mutation on oxidative stress marker genes, we performed oligonucleotide array analysis (Affymetrix), and compared the results in Atp7b m/m rats with those of a sibling line with the Atp7b w/w genotype. We focused our studies on the expression of the aldo-keto reductase 1 family B7 (AKR1B7)-like protein gene, since this gene codes for reductase enzymes involved in the detoxification of oxidizing compounds (e.g., aldehydes) and was differentially expressed in Atp7b m/m and Atp7b w/w rat liver. Akr1B7 mRNA expression was significantly increased in comparison with the expression of 4 other known oxidative stress responsive genes, haem-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), thioredoxin (Trx), aldehyde reductase (AKR1A1), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). By searching binding motifs, five nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) binding sites were located in the 5′-upstream region of the Akr1b7 gene. Transient co-transfection with both I-κBα and the Akr1b7 6 kb promoter (p6.0-AKR-Luc) inhibited luciferase activity of p6.0-AKR-Luc in HepG2 cells. Cuprous ion however did not affect the transcription activity induced by p6.0-AKR-Luc. Gel-shift assay showed that the DNA binding activity of NF-κB increased in the livers of LEC rats, suggesting that the oxidative stress is mediated through NF-κB. The results indicate conclusively that in LEC rat liver, Akr1b7 might be up-regulated by oxidative stress mediated through NF-κB, but not that mediated directly by copper.
AKR1B7; oxidative stress; oligonucleotide array; real-time PCR; Long Evans Cinnamon rat
In the past years aldose reductase (AKR1B1; AR) is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of secondary diabetic complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and cataractogenesis. Subsequently, a number of AR inhibitors have been developed and tested for diabetic complications. Although, these inhibitors have found to be safe for human use, they have not been successful at the clinical studies because of limited efficacy. Recently, the potential physiological role of AR has been reassessed from a different point of view. Diverse groups suggested that AR besides reducing glucose, also efficiently reduces oxidative stress-generated lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes and their glutathione conjugates. Since lipid aldehydes alter cellular signals by regulating the activation of transcription factors such as NF-kB and AP1, inhibition of AR could inhibit such events. Indeed, a wide array of recent experimental evidence indicates that the inhibition of AR prevents oxidative stress-induced activation of NF-kB and AP1 signals that lead to cell death or growth. Further, AR inhibitors have been shown to prevent inflammatory complications such as sepsis, asthma, colon cancer and uveitis in rodent animal models. The new experimental in-vitro and in-vivo data has provided a basis for investigating the clinical efficacy of AR inhibitors in preventing other inflammatory complications than diabetes. This review describes how the recent studies have identified novel plethoric physiological and pathophysiological significance of AR in mediating inflammatory complications, and how the discovery of such new insights for this old enzyme could have considerable importance in envisioning potential new therapeutic strategies for the prevention or treatment of inflammatory diseases.
Aldose reductase; inflammation; oxidative stress; sepsis; cancer; uveitis; diabetes
Long-term and unresolved airway inflammation and airway remodeling, characteristic features of chronic asthma, if not treated could lead to permanent structural changes in the airways. Aldose reductase (AR), an aldo-sugar and lipid aldehyde metabolizing enzyme, mediates allergen-induced airway inflammation in mice, but its role in the airway remodeling is not known. In the present study, we have examined the role of AR on airway remodeling using ovalbumin (OVA)-induced chronic asthma mouse model and cultured human primary airway epithelial cells (SAECs) and mouse lung fibroblasts (mLFs).
Airway remodeling in chronic asthma model was established in mice sensitized and challenged twice a week with OVA for 6 weeks. AR inhibitor, fidarestat, was administered orally in drinking water after first challenge. Inflammatory cells infiltration in the lungs and goblet cell metaplasia, airway thickening, collagen deposition and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) in response to increasing doses of methacholine were assessed. The TGFβ1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in SAECs and changes in mLFs were examined to investigate AR-mediated molecular mechanism(s) of airway remodeling.
In the OVA-exposed mice for 6 wks inflammatory cells infiltration, levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, goblet cell metaplasia, collagen deposition and AHR were significantly decreased by treatment with AR inhibitor, fidarestat. Further, inhibition of AR prevented TGFβ1-induced altered expression of E-cadherin, Vimentin, Occludin, and MMP-2 in SAECs, and alpha-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin in mLFs. Further, in SAECs, AR inhibition prevented TGFβ1- induced activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway but not the phosphorylation of Smad2/3.
Our results demonstrate that allergen-induced airway remodeling is mediated by AR and its inhibition blocks the progression of remodeling via inhibiting TGFβ1-induced Smad-independent and PI3K/AKT/GSK3β-dependent pathway.
Airway inflammation induced by reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors is the hallmark of asthma, a prevalent chronic respiratory disease. In various cellular and animal models, we have recently demonstrated that, in response to multiple stimuli, aldose reductase (AKR1B1) regulates the inflammatory signals via NF-kappa B activation. Since NF-κB activation is implicated in asthma pathogenesis, we investigated whether AKR1B1 inhibition could prevent ovalbumin (Ova)- and ragweed pollen extract (RWE)-induced airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness in mice models and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-, lipopolysachharide (LPS)- and RWE-induced cytotoxic and inflammatory signals in primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). Sensitization and challenge with Ova or RWE caused airway inflammation and production of inflammatory cytokines, accumulation of eosinophils in airways and sub-epithelial regions, mucin production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, airway hyperresponsiveness, elevated IgE levels and release of Th2 cytokines in the airway and treatment with AKR1B1 inhibitors markedly reduced these pathological changes in mice. In SAEC, treatment with TNF-α, LPS or RWE induced apoptosis, reactive oxygen species generation, synthesis of inflammatory markers IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 and activation of NF-κB and AP-1. Pharmacological inhibition prevented these changes suggesting that AKR1B1 mediates ROS induced inflammation in small airway epithelial cells. Our results indicate that AKR1B1 inhibitors may offer a novel therapeutic approach to treat inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma.
airway inflammation; aldose reductase; ROS; asthma; ragweed pollen extract
A large family of aldo-keto reductases with similar kinetic and structural properties but unknown physiological roles is expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains with one or two AKR genes disrupted have apparently normal phenotypes, but disruption of at least three AKR genes results in a heat shock phenotype and slow growth in inositol-deficient culture medium (Ino-). The present study was carried out to identify metabolic or signaling defects that may underlie phenotypes that emerge in AKR deficient strains. Here we demonstrate that pre-treatment of a pentuple AKR null mutant with the anti-oxidative agent N-acetyl-cysteine rescues the heat shock phenotype. This indicates that AKR gene disruption may be associated with defects in oxidative stress response. We observed additional markers of oxidative stress in AKR-deficient strains, including reduced glutathione levels, constitutive nuclear localization of the oxidation-sensitive transcription factor Yap1 and up regulation of a set of Yap1 target genes whose function as a group is primarily involved in response to oxidative stress and redox balance. Genetic analysis of the Ino- phenotype of the null mutants showed that defects in transcriptional regulation of the INO1, which encodes for inositol-1-phosphate synthase, can be rescued through ectopic expression of a functional INO1. Taken together, these results suggest potential roles for AKRs in oxidative defense and transcriptional regulation.
The Aldo Keto Reductases (AKRs) are a superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of biogenic and xenobiotic aldehydes and ketones. AKR1B family has 2 known members in humans and 3 in rodents. Two novel gene loci, hereafter referred to as AKR1B15 in human and Akr1b16 in mouse have been predicted to exist within the AKR1B clusters. AKR1B15 displays 91% and 67% sequence identity with human genes AKR1B10 and AKR1B1, respectively while Akr1b16 shares 82–84% identity with murine Akr1b8 and Akr1b7. We tested the hypothesis that AKR1B15 and Akr1b16 genes are expressed as functional proteins in human and murine tissues, respectively. Using whole tissue mRNA, we were able to clone the full-length open reading frames for AKR1B15 from human eye and testes, and Akr1b16 from murine spleen, demonstrating that these genes are transcriptionally active. The corresponding cDNAs were cloned into pET28a and pIRES-hrGFP-1α vectors for bacterial and mammalian expression respectively. Both genes were expressed as 36 kDA proteins found in the insoluble fraction of bacterial cell lysate. These proteins, expressed in bacteria showed no enzymatic activity. However, lysates from COS-7 cells transfected with AKR1B15 showed a 4.8-fold (with p-nitrobenzaldehyde) and 3.3-fold (with DL-glyceraldehyde) increase in enzyme activity compared with untransfected COS-7 cells. The Akr1b16 transcript was shown to be ubiquitously expressed in murine tissues. Highest levels of transcript were found in heart, spleen, and lung. From these observations we conclude that the predicted AKR1B15 and 1b16 genes are expressed in several murine and human tissues. Further studies are required to elucidate their physiological roles.
AKR1B15; Akr1b16; Aldo-Keto Reductase; gene expression; RT-PCR; aldehyde