The adipocyte-derived secretory factor adiponectin promotes insulin sensitivity,
decreases inflammation and promotes cell survival. To date, no unifying mechanism explains how
adiponectin can exert such a variety of beneficial systemic effects. Here, we show that
adiponectin potently stimulates a ceramidase activity associated with its two receptors,
adipoR1 and adipoR2, and enhances ceramide catabolism and formation of its anti-apoptotic
metabolite – sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), independently of AMPK. Using models of
inducible apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells and cardiomyocytes, we show that transgenic
overproduction of adiponectin decreases caspase-8 mediated death, while genetic adiponectin
ablation enhances apoptosis in vivo through a sphingolipid-mediated pathway.
Ceramidase activity is impaired in cells lacking both adiponectin receptor isoforms, leading to
elevated ceramide levels and enhanced susceptibility to palmitate-induced cell death. Combined,
our observations suggest a novel unifying mechanism of action for the beneficial systemic
effects exerted by adiponectin, with sphingolipid metabolism as its core upstream
Neutrophils are abundant, short-lived leukocytes that play a key role in the immune defense against microbial infections. These cells die by apoptosis following activation and uptake of microbes and will also enter apoptosis spontaneously at the end of their lifespan if they do not encounter a pathogen. Adiponectin exerts anti-inflammatory effects on neutrophil antimicrobial functions, but whether this abundant adipokine influences neutrophil apoptosis is unknown. Here we report that adiponectin in the physiological range (1–10 μg/ml) reduced apoptosis in resting neutrophils, decreasing caspase-3 cleavage and maintaining Mcl-1 expression by stabilizing this anti-apoptotic protein. We show that adiponectin induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), protein kinase B (PKB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Pharmacological inhibition of AMPK, PKB and ERK 1/2 ablated the pro-survival effects of adiponectin and treatment of neutrophils with an AMPK specific activator (AICAR) and AMPK inhibitor (compound C) respectively decreased and increased apoptosis. Finally, activation of AMPK by AICAR or adiponectin also decreased ceramide accumulation in the neutrophil cell membrane, a process involved in the early stages of spontaneous apoptosis, giving another possible mechanism downstream of AMPK activation for the inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis.
Adiponectin; Neutrophils; Apoptosis; Mcl-1; AMPK
Adiponectin is exclusively expressed in adipose tissues and exhibits protective effects against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. It enhances AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) signaling in the liver and skeletal muscles, however, its signaling pathways in macrophages remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that adiponectin upregulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, and induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in macrophages. Inhibition of Syk abrogated adiponectin-induced VEGF-C expression and ERK phosphorylation. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK blocked the induction of VEGF-C gene. Inhibition of Syk, but not that of ERK, abrogated adiponectin-induced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and interleukin (IL)-6. These results indicate that adiponectin regulates VEGF-C expression via Syk-ERK pathway in macrophages.
Adiponectin is a hormone produced in and released from adipose cells, which has been shown to have anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory actions in peripheral cells. Two cell surface adiponectin receptors (ADRs) mediate the majority of the known biological actions of adiponectin. Thus far, ADR expression in the brain has been demonstrated in the arcuate and the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, where its activation affects food intake. Recent findings suggest that levels of circulating adiponectin increase after an ischemic stroke, but the role of adiponectin receptor activation in stroke pathogenesis and its functional outcome is unclear.
Ischemic stroke was induced in C57BL/6 mice by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion. Primary cortical neuronal cultures were established from individual embryonic neocortex. For glucose deprivation (GD), cultured neurons were incubated in glucose-free Locke's medium for 6, 12 or 24 h. For combined oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), neurons were incubated in glucose-free Locke's medium in an oxygen-free chamber with 95% N2/5% CO2 atmosphere for either 3, 6, 9, 12 or 24 h. Primary neurons and brain tissues were analysed for Adiponectin and ADRs using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunoblot and immunochemistry methods.
Cortical neurons express ADR1 and ADR2, and that the levels of ADR1 are increased in neurons in response to in vitro or in vivo ischemic conditions. Neurons treated with either globular or trimeric adiponectin exhibited increased vulnerability to oxygen and glucose deprivation which was associated with increased activation of a pro-apoptotic signaling cascade involving p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK).
This study reveals a novel pathogenic role for adiponectin and adiponectin receptor activation in ischemic stroke. We show that cortical neurons express ADRs and reveal a pro-apoptotic role for ADR1 activation in neurons, which may render them vulnerable to ischemic death.
A reduced number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are casually associated with the cardiovascular complication of diabetes. Adiponectin exerts multiple protective effects against cardiovascular disease, independent of its insulin-sensitizing activity. The objective of this study was to investigate whether adiponectin plays a role in modulating the bioavailability of circulating EPCs and endothelial repair.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Adiponectin knockout mice were crossed with db+/− mice to produce db/db diabetic mice without adiponectin. Circulating number of EPCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. Reendothelialization was evaluated by staining with Evans blue after wire-induced carotid injury.
In adiponectin knockout mice, the number of circulating EPCs decreased in an age-dependent manner compared with the wild-type controls, and this difference was reversed by the chronic infusion of recombinant adiponectin. In db/db diabetic mice, the lack of adiponectin aggravated the hyperglycemia-induced decrease in circulating EPCs and also diminished the stimulatory effects of the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone on EPC production and reendothelialization. In EPCs isolated from both human peripheral blood and mouse bone marrow, treatment with adiponectin prevented high glucose–induced premature senescence. At the molecular level, adiponectin decreased high glucose–induced accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and consequently suppressed activation of p38 MAP kinase (MAPK) and expression of the senescence marker p16INK4A.
Adiponectin prevents EPC senescence by inhibiting the ROS/p38 MAPK/p16INK4A signaling cascade. The protective effects of adiponectin against diabetes vascular complications are attributed in part to its ability to counteract hyperglycemia-mediated decrease in the number of circulating EPCs.
The molecular effects of obesity are mediated by alterations in the levels of adipocytokines. High leptin level associated with obese state is a major cause of breast cancer progression and metastasis, whereas adiponectin is considered a “guardian angel adipocytokine” for its protective role against various obesity-related pathogenesis including breast cancer. In the present study, investigating the role of adiponectin as a potential inhibitor of leptin, we show that adiponectin treatment inhibits leptin-induced clonogenicity and anchorage-independent growth. Leptin-stimulated migration and invasion of breast cancer cells is also effectively inhibited by adiponectin. Analyses of the underlying molecular mechanisms reveal that adiponectin suppresses activation of two canonical signaling molecules of leptin signaling axis: extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt. Pretreatment of breast cancer cells with adiponectin protects against leptin-induced activation of ERK and Akt. Adiponectin increases expression and activity of the physiological inhibitor of leptin signaling, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), which is found to be integral to leptin-antagonist function of adiponectin. Inhibition of PTP1B blocks adiponectin-mediated inhibition of leptin-induced breast cancer growth. Our in vivo studies show that adenovirus-mediated adiponectin treatment substantially reduces leptin-induced mammary tumorigenesis in nude mice. Exploring therapeutic strategies, we demonstrate that treatment of breast cancer cells with rosiglitazone results in increased adiponectin expression and inhibition of migration and invasion. Rosiglitazone treatment also inhibits leptin-induced growth of breast cancer cells. Taken together, these data show that adiponectin treatment can inhibit the oncogenic actions of leptin through blocking its downstream signaling molecules and raising adiponectin levels could be a rational therapeutic strategy for breast carcinoma in obese patients with high leptin levels.
Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is an important remodeling event contributing to heart failure and adiponectin may mediate cardioprotective effects at least in part via attenuating apoptosis. Here we used hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells to examine the effect of adiponectin and cellular mechanisms of action. We first used TUNEL labeling in combination with laser scanning cytometry to demonstrate that adiponectin prevented H/R-induced DNA fragmentation. The anti-apoptotic effect of adiponectin was also verified via attenuation of H/R-induced phosphatidylserine exposure using annexin V binding. H/R-induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis as assessed by cytochrome c release into cytosol and caspase-3 activation, both of which were attenuated by adiponectin. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that adiponectin enhanced anti-oxidative potential in these cells which led to attenuation of the increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by H/R. To further address the mechanism of adiponctins anti-apoptotic effects we used siRNA to efficiently knockdown adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1) expression and found that this attenuated the protective effects of adiponectin on ROS production and caspase 3 activity. Knockdown of APPL1, an important intracellular binding partner for AdipoR, also significantly reduced the ability of adiponectin to prevent H/R-induced ROS generation and caspase 3 activity. In summary, H/R-induced ROS generation and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was prevented by adiponectin via AdipoR1/APPL1 signaling and increased anti-oxidant potential.
Adiponectin, an abundant adipose tissue-derived protein, exerts protective effect against cardiovascular disease. Adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) mediate the beneficial effects of adiponectin on the cardiovascular system. However, the alteration of AdipoRs in cardiac remodeling is not fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of angiotensin II (AngII) on cardiac AdipoRs expression and explored the possible molecular mechanism. AngII infusion into rats induced cardiac hypertrophy, reduced AdipoR1 but not AdipoR2 expression, and attenuated the phosphorylations of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, and those effects were all reversed by losartan, an AngII type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker. AngII reduced expression of AdipoR1 mRNA and protein in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, which was abolished by losartan, but not by PD123319, an AT2 receptor antagonist. The antioxidants including reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger NAC, NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, Nox2 inhibitor peptide gp91 ds-tat, and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I inhibitor rotenone attenuated AngII-induced production of ROS and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. AngII-reduced AdipoR1 expression was reversed by pretreatment with NAC, apocynin, gp91 ds-tat, rotenone, and an ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that AngII provoked the recruitment of c-Myc onto the promoter region of AdipoR1, which was attenuated by PD98059. Moreover, AngII-induced DNA binding activity of c-Myc was inhibited by losartan, NAC, apocynin, gp91 ds-tat, rotenone, and PD98059. c-Myc small interfering RNA abolished the inhibitory effect of AngII on AdipoR1 expression. Our results suggest that AngII inhibits cardiac AdipoR1 expression in vivo and in vitro and AT1 receptor/ROS/ERK1/2/c-Myc pathway is required for the downregulation of AdipoR1 induced by AngII.
Patients with diabetes and other obesity-linked conditions have increased susceptibility to cardiovascular disorders1. The adipocytokine adiponectin is decreased in patients with obesity-linked diseases2. Here, we found that pressure overload in adiponectin-deficient mice resulted in enhanced concentric cardiac hypertrophy and increased mortality that was associated with increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and diminished AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in the myocardium. Adenovirus-mediated supplemention of adiponectin attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload in adiponectin-deficient, wild-type and diabetic db/db mice. In cultures of cardiac myocytes, adiponectin activated AMPK and inhibited agonist-stimulated hypertrophy and ERK activation. Transduction with a dominant-negative form of AMPK reversed these effects, suggesting that adiponectin inhibits hypertrophic signaling in the myocardium through activation of AMPK signaling. Adiponectin may have utility for the treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes and other obesity-related diseases.
Adiponectin is an endogenous insulin-sensitizing hormone which has been found to regulate energy metabolism throughout the body, including the heart. However, low levels of adiponectin are found in patients with diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Thus it has been suggested to be an independent predictor for cardiovascular risk. Paradoxically, recent studies have also determined that adiponectin has cardioprotective effects against various cardiac related pathologies which lead to heart failure. These cardioprotective effects of adiponectin are attributed to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Further findings suggest that locally produced adiponectin in cardiomyocytes are functional and biologically significant. This ectopic derived adiponectin exerts its protective effects through an autocrine mechanism. These data suggest adiponectin may serve as a potential therapeutic target against the development of pathologies which develop into heart failure. The current manuscript has summarized the key findings to date which explore the cardioprotective mechanisms of adiponectin against various cardiac pathologies. Further we explore the roles of both circulating and endogenous heart specific adiponectin and their physiological importance in various heart diseases.
Adiponectin; diabetes; diabetic cardiomyopathy; ischemia reperfusion; myocardial infarction
Insulin resistance is associated with impaired skeletal muscle oxidation capacity and reduced mitochondrial number and function. Here, we report that adiponectin signaling regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics in skeletal muscle. Individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes display skeletal muscle insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction; adiponectin levels strongly correlate with mtDNA content. Knockout of the adiponectin gene in mice is associated with insulin resistance and low mitochondrial content and reduced mitochondrial enzyme activity in skeletal muscle. Adiponectin treatment of human myotubes in primary culture induces mitochondrial biogenesis, palmitate oxidation, and citrate synthase activity, and reduces the production of reactive oxygen species. The inhibition of adiponectin receptor expression by siRNA, or of AMPK by a pharmacological agent, blunts adiponectin induction of mitochondrial function. Our findings define a skeletal muscle pathway by which adiponectin increases mitochondrial number and function and exerts antidiabetic effects.
The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin signals from the fat storage depot to regulate metabolism in peripheral tissues. Inversely correlated with body fat levels, adiponectin reduction in obese individuals may play a causal role in the symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin lowers serum glucose through suppression of hepatic glucose production, an effect attributed to activation of AMPK. Here, we investigated the signaling pathways that mediate the effects of adiponectin by studying mice with inducible hepatic deletion of LKB1, an upstream regulator of AMPK. We found that loss of LKB1 in the liver partially impaired the ability of adiponectin to lower serum glucose, though other actions of the hormone were preserved, including reduction of gluconeogenic gene expression and hepatic glucose production as assessed by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Furthermore, in primary mouse hepatocytes, the absence of LKB1, AMPK, or the transcriptional coactivator CRTC2 did not prevent adiponectin from inhibiting glucose output or reducing gluconeogenic gene expression. These results reveal that whereas some of the hormone’s actions in vivo may be LKB1 dependent, substantial LKB1-, AMPK-, and CRTC2-independent signaling pathways also mediate effects of adiponectin.
The protective effect of dietary saturated fatty acids against the development of alcoholic liver disease has long been known, but the underlying mechanism is incompletely understood. Here we examined the involvement of the adipocyte hormone adiponectin. Circulating adiponectin levels were significantly elevated by chronic ethanol administration to mice consuming a high saturated fat diet. The increase in circulating adiponectin was associated with the activation a set of hepatic signaling pathways mediated through AMPK, PPARα, and PGC-1α, which in turn led to markedly increased rates of fatty acid oxidation, prevention of hepatic steatosis, and alleviation of liver enzyme changes. Furthermore, treatment of rat 3T3-L1 adipocytes with saturated fatty acids (palmitic or stearic acids) in the presence of ethanol increased secretion of adiponectin and enhanced activity of a mouse adiponectin promoter. In conclusion, the protective action of saturated fat against the development of alcoholic fatty liver in mice is partially mediated through induction of adiponectin. The present findings suggest a novel paradigm for dietary fatty acids in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease, and provide a promising therapeutic strategy, which is nutritional modulation of adiponectin, in treating human alcoholic fatty liver disease.
adipose tissue; hormone; signal transduction; AMP-activated kinase; liver steatosis; AMPK, AMP-activated protein kinase; ACC, acetyl-CoA carboxylase; CPT I, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I; PPARα, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α; PPARγ, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ; PGC-1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-alpha; AOX, acetyl-CoA oxidase; PPRE, PPAR response element; β-OHB, β-hydroxybutyrate; FFA, free fatty acids; ALT ,alanine aminotransferase; RT-PCR, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction
Background and aims:
The effect of adiponectin on colorectal carcinogenesis has been proposed but not fully investigated. We investigated the effect of adiponectin deficiency on the development of colorectal cancer.
We generated three types of gene-deficient mice (adiponectin-deficient, adiponectin receptor 1-deficient, and adiponectin receptor 2-deficient) and investigated chemical-induced colon polyp formation and cell proliferation in colon epithelium. Western blot analysis was performed to elucidate the mechanism which affected colorectal carcinogenesis by adiponectin deficiency.
The numbers of colon polyps were significantly increased in adiponectin-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet. However, no difference was observed between wild-type and adiponectin-deficient mice fed a basal diet. A significant increase in cell proliferative activity was also observed in the colonic epithelium of the adiponectin-deficient mice when compared with wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet; however, no difference was observed between wild-type and adiponectin-deficient mice fed a basal diet. Similarly, an increase in epithelial cell proliferation was observed in adiponectin receptor 1-deficient mice, but not in adiponectin receptor 2-deficient mice. Western blot analysis revealed activation of mammalian target of rapamycin, p70 S6 kinase, S6 protein and inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the colon epithelium of adiponectin-deficient mice fed with high-fat diet.
Adiponectin suppresses colonic epithelial proliferation via inhibition of the mammalian target of the rapamycin pathway under a high-fat diet, but not under a basal diet. These studies indicate a novel mechanism of suppression of colorectal carcinogenesis induced by a Western-style high-fat diet.
Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with a wide range of beneficial effects on obesity-related medical complications. Numerous epidemiological investigations in diverse ethnic groups have identified lower adiponectin level as an independent risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases and liver dysfunctions. Animal studies have demonstrated that replenishment of adiponectin protects against various forms of hepatic injuries, suggesting it to be a potential drug candidate for the treatment of liver diseases. This study was designed to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the hepato-protective effects of adiponectin. Our results demonstrated that in adiponectin knockout (ADN-KO) mice, there was a pre-existing condition of hepatic steatosis and mitochondria dysfunction, which might contribute to the increased vulnerabilities of these mice to secondary liver injuries induced by obesity and other conditions. Adenovirus-mediated replenishment of adiponectin depleted lipid accumulation, restored the oxidative activities of mitochondria respiratory chain (MRC) complexes and prevented the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in ADN-KO mice, but had no obvious effects on mitochondria biogenesis. The gene and protein levels of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), a mitochondria membrane transporter, were decreased in ADN-KO mice and could be significantly up-regulated by adiponectin treatment. Moreover, the effects of adiponectin on mitochondria activities and on protection against endotoxin-induced liver injuries were significantly attenuated in UCP2 knockout mice. These results suggest that the hepatoprotective properties of adiponectin are mediated, at least in part, by enhancing the activities of MRC complexes through a mechanism involving UCP2.
Adiponectin; metabolic syndrome; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; mitochondria respiratory chain complex; uncoupling protein 2
Obesity is strongly associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Levels of the hormone adiponectin are downregulated in obese individuals, and several experimental studies show that adiponectin protects against the development of various obesity-related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Adiponectin exhibits favorable effects on atherogenesis, endothelial function, and vascular remodeling by modulation of signaling cascades in cells of the vasculature. More recent findings have shown that adiponectin directly affects signaling in cardiac cells and is beneficial in the setting of pathological cardiac remodeling and acute cardiac injury. Several of these effects of adiponectin have been attributed to the activation of the 5’ AMP-activated protein kinase signaling cascade and other signaling proteins. This review will discuss epidemiological and experimental studies that have elucidated the role of adiponectin in a variety of cardiovascular diseases.
diabetes; epidemiology; heart failure; remodeling; protein kinases
Neurotrophins protect neurons against excitotoxicity; however the signaling mechanisms for this protection remain to be fully elucidated. Here we report that activation of the phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is critical for protection of hippocampal cells from staurosporine (STS) induced apoptosis, characterized by nuclear condensation and activation of the caspase cascade. Both nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived growth factor (BDNF) prevent STS-induced apoptotic morphology and caspase-3 activity by upregulating phosphorylation of the tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) receptor. Inhibition of Trk receptor by K252a altered the neuroprotective effect of both NGF and BDNF whereas inhibition of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) had no effect. Impairment of the PI3K/Akt pathway or overexpression of dominant negative (DN)-Akt abolished the protective effect of both neurotrophins, while active Akt prevented cell death. Moreover, knockdown of Akt by si-RNA was able to block the survival effect of both NGF and BDNF. Thus, the survival action of NGF and BDNF against STS-induced neurotoxicity was mediated by the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling through the Trk receptor.
brain-derived neurotrophic factor; cell survival; nerve growth factors; phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase; protein kinase B; receptor, trkA
Contribution of individual adiponectin isoforms to lipolysis regulation remains unknown. We investigated the impact of full-length, trimeric and globular adiponectin isoforms on spontaneous lipolysis in subcutaneous abdominal (SCAAT) and visceral adipose tissues (VAT) of obese and non-obese subjects. Furthermore, we explored the role of AMPK (5'-AMP-activated protein kinase) in adiponectin-dependent lipolysis regulation and expression of adiponectin receptors type 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) in SCAAT and VAT. Primary adipocytes isolated from SCAAT and VAT of obese and non-obese women were incubated with 20 µg/ml of: A) full-length adiponectin (physiological mixture of all adiponectin isoforms), B) trimeric adiponectin isoform or C) globular adiponectin isoform. Glycerol released into media was used as a marker of lipolysis. While full-length adiponectin inhibited lipolysis by 22% in non-obese SCAAT, globular isoform inhibited lipolysis by 27% in obese SCAAT. No effect of either isoform was detected in non-obese VAT, however trimeric isoform inhibited lipolysis by 21% in obese VAT (all p<0.05). Trimeric isoform induced Thr172 p-AMPK in differentiated preadipocytes from a non-obese donor, while globular isoform induced Ser79 p-ACC by 32% (p<0.05) and Ser565 p-HSL by 52% (p = 0.08) in differentiated preadipocytes from an obese donor. AdipoR2 expression was 17% and 37% higher than AdipoR1 in SCAAT of obese and non-obese groups and by 23% higher in VAT of obese subjects (all p<0.05). In conclusion, the anti-lipolytic effect of adiponectin isoforms is modified with obesity: while full-length adiponectin exerts anti-lipolytic action in non-obese SCAAT, globular and trimeric isoforms show anti-lipolytic activity in obese SCAAT and VAT, respectively.
Obesity-related disorders are associated with the development of ischemic heart disease. Adiponectin is a circulating adipose-derived cytokine that is downregulated in obese individuals and after myocardial infarction. Here, we examine the role of adiponectin in myocardial remodeling in response to acute injury. Ischemia-reperfusion in adiponectin-deficient (APN-KO) mice resulted in increased myocardial infarct size, myocardial apoptosis and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression compared with wild-type mice. Administration of adiponectin diminished infarct size, apoptosis and TNF-α production in both APN-KO and wild-type mice. In cultured cardiac cells, adiponectin inhibited apoptosis and TNF-α production. Dominant negative AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) reversed the inhibitory effects of adiponectin on apoptosis but had no effect on the suppressive effect of adiponectin on TNF-α production. Adiponectin induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2–dependent synthesis of prostaglandin E2 in cardiac cells, and COX-2 inhibition reversed the inhibitory effects of adiponectin on TNF-α production and infarct size. These data suggest that adiponectin protects the heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury through both AMPK- and COX-2–dependent mechanisms.
Metabolic syndrome has deleterious effects on the central nervous system, and recent evidence suggests that obesity rates are higher at presentation in children who develop epilepsy. Adiponectin is secreted by adipose tissue and acts in the brain and peripheral organs to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Adiponectin deficiency predisposes toward metabolic syndrome, characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular morbidity. To investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and seizures, wild type C57BL/6J and adiponectin knockout mice were fed a high-fat diet, followed by treatment with low doses of kainic acid to induce seizures. Adiponectin deficiency in mice fed a high-fat diet resulted in greater fat accumulation, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperlipidemia, increased seizure severity and increased hippocampal pathology. In contrast, there were no adverse effects of adiponectin deficiency on metabolic phenotype or seizure activity in mice fed a normal (low fat) chow diet. These findings demonstrate that metabolic syndrome modulates the outcome of seizures and brain injury.
metabolic syndrome; hormone; metabolism; epilepsy; gliosis
Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that has attracted much attention because of its insulin-sensitizing effects in liver and skeletal muscle. Two adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, have been cloned, but relatively little is known about their intracellular signaling mechanisms. We found that full-length adiponectin rapidly and robustly activates the ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in primary vascular smooth muscle, vascular endothelial cells, and hepatocytes. In a HEK293 cell model, we found that downregulating AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 simultaneously, but not individually, by RNA interference attenuated adiponectin-induced ERK1/2 activation, suggesting that either receptor was sufficient to mediate the response. Downregulation of T-cadherin, another adiponectin binding protein, enhanced the response. Downregulation of APPL1, an adapter protein and putative mediator of AdipoR1/R2 signaling, impaired adiponectin-stimulated ERK1/2 activation. Inhibiting PKA modestly attenutated ERK1/2 activation, while inhibition of Src family tyrosine kinases with PP2 abolished the response. The small GTPase inhibitor Clostridium difficile toxin B also produced complete inhibition. Adiponectin caused rapid, PP2-sensitive activation of Ras, but not the cAMP-regulated small GTPase, Rap1, suggesting that Src-dependent Ras activation is the dominant mechanism of adiponectin-stimulated ERK1/2 activation. To test whether Ras-ERK1/2 signaling by adiponectin was physiologically-relevant, we determined the effects of overexpressing AdipoR1, adiponectin, or both, on the rate of HEK293 cell growth. Overexpression of adiponectin alone, but not AdipoR1 alone, supported growth under serum-free conditions, while simultaneous expression of both led to further enhancement. Additional results suggest that adiponectin can exert proliferative effects by activating Ras signaling pathways.
Adiponectin; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase; Mitogenesis; Ras; Tyrosine Kinase
Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived, secreted protein that is implicated in the protection against a cluster of related metabolic disorders. Mice lacking adiponectin display impaired hepatic insulin sensitivity and respond only partially to PPARγ agonists. Adiponectin has been associated with anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties, however, the direct involvement of adiponectin on the atherogenic process has not been studied.
Methods and Results
We crossed adiponectin knockout mice (Adn−/−) or mice with chronically elevated adiponectin levels (AdnTg) into the low-density lipoprotein receptor null (Ldlr−/−) and the apoliprotein E null (Apoe−/−) mouse models. Adiponectin levels did not correlate with a suppression of the atherogenic process. Plaque volume in the aortic root, cholesterol accumulation in the aorta and plaque morphology under various dietary conditions were not affected by circulating adiponectin levels. In light of the strong associations reported for adiponectin with cardiovascular disease in humans, the lack of a phenotype in gain- and loss-of-function studies in mice may suggests lack of causation for adiponectin in inhibiting the build up of atherosclerotic lesions.
These data indicate that the actions of adiponectin on the cardiovascular system are complex and multifaceted, with a minimal direct impact on atherosclerotic plaque formation in preclinical rodent models.
Adiponectin; atherosclerosis; LDL receptor knockout mice
Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived collectin that acts on a wide range of tissues including liver, brain, heart, and vascular endothelium. To date, little is known about the actions of adiponectin in the lung. Herein, we demonstrate that adiponectin is present in lung lining fluid and that adiponectin deficiency leads to increases in proinflammatory mediators and an emphysema-like phenotype in the mouse lung. Alveolar macrophages from adiponectin-deficient mice spontaneously display increased production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-12) activity. Consistent with these observations, we found that pretreatment of alveolar macrophages with adiponectin leads to TNF-α and MMP-12 suppression. Together, our findings show that adiponectin leads to macrophage suppression in the lung and suggest that adiponectin-deficient states may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung conditions such as emphysema.
lung; matrix metalloproteinases; collectin
To summarize the effects of the adipokine adiponectin on the reproductive endocrine system, from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to the gonads and target tissues of the reproductive system.
A Medline computer search was performed to identify relevant articles.
Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue that acts to reduce insulin resistance and atherogenic damage, but it also exerts actions in other tissues. Adiponectin mediates its actions in the periphery mainly via two receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Adiponectin receptors are present in many reproductive tissues, including the central nervous system, ovaries, oviduct, endometrium, and testes. Adiponectin influences gonadotropin release, normal pregnancy, and assisted reproduction outcomes.
Adiponectin, a beneficial adipokine, represents a major link between obesity and reproduction. Higher levels of adiponectin are associated with improved menstrual function and better outcomes in assisted reproductive cycles.
Adiponectin; hypothalamus; pituitary; gonads; reproduction; polycystic ovary syndrome; PCOS; pregnancy; embryo development; assisted reproduction
Adiponectin can act in the brain to increase energy expenditure and reduce body weight by mechanisms not entirely understood. We found that adiponectin type 1 and type 2 receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) are expressed in warm sensitive neurons of the hypothalamic preoptic area (POA) which play a critical role in the regulation of core body temperature (CBT) and energy balance. Thus, we tested the ability of adiponectin to influence CBT in wild-type mice and in mice deficient for AdipoR1 or AdipoR2. Local injection of adiponectin into the POA induced prolonged elevation of core body temperature and decreased respiratory exchange ratio (RER) indicating that increased energy expenditure is associated with increased oxidation of fat over carbohydrates. In AdipoR1 deficient mice, the ability of adiponectin to raise CBT was significantly blunted and its ability to decrease RER was completely lost. In AdipoR2 deficient mice, adiponectin had only diminished hyperthermic effects but reduced RER similarly to wild type mice. These results indicate that adiponectin can contribute to energy homeostasis by regulating CBT by direct actions on AdipoR1 and R2 in the POA.
Adiponectin; Adiponectin receptor; Temperature; Homeostasis; Preoptic area; Warm sensitive neurons