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1.  Twelve-year trends in the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes and prediabetes in Turkish adults 
European Journal of Epidemiology  2013;28(2):169-180.
There is concern about an emerging diabetes epidemic in Turkey. We aimed to determine the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes and their 12-year trends and to identify risk factors for diabetes in the adult Turkish population. A cross-sectional, population-based survey, ‘TURDEP-II’ included 26,499 randomly sampled adults aged ≥ 20 years (response rate: 87 %). Fasting glucose and biochemical parameters were measured in all; then a OGTT was performed to identify diabetes and prediabetes in eligible participants. The prevalence of diabetes was 16.5 % (new 7.5 %), translating to 6.5 million adults with diabetes in Turkey. It was higher in women than men (p = 0.008). The age-standardized prevalence to the TURDEP-I population (performed in 1997–98) was 13.7 % (if same diagnostic definition was applied diabetes prevalence is calculated 11.4 %). The prevalence of isolated-IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and combined prediabetes was 14.7, 7.9, and 8.2 %, respectively; and that of obesity 36 % and hypertension 31.4 %. Compared to TURDEP-I; the rate of increase for diabetes: 90 %, IGT: 106 %, obesity: 40 % and central obesity: 35 %, but hypertension decreased by 11 % during the last 12 years. In women age, waist, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, low education, and living environment; in men age, BMI, and hypertension were independently associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes. In women current smoking, and in men being single were associated with a reduced risk. These results from one of the largest nationally representative surveys carried out so far show that diabetes has rapidly become a major public health challenge in Turkey. The figures are alarming and underscore the urgent need for national programs to prevent diabetes, to manage the illness and thus prevent complications.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10654-013-9771-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10654-013-9771-5
PMCID: PMC3604592  PMID: 23407904
Diabetes mellitus; Impaired fasting glucose; Impaired glucose tolerance; Obesity; Hypertension; Clinical epidemiology
2.  Diabetes and Its Chronic Complications in the She Ethnic Minority Group of China 
Abstract
Objective
According to recent reports, the development of type 2 diabetes in China has soared at an alarming rate. However, most of the investigations were based on Han people, who account for the majority of people in China. Little is known about the prevalence of diabetes its chronic complications in the She people, who have their own traditional lifestyle and hereditable background, different from other Asian population. The present study investigated the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and associated risk factors in the adult population of She nationals.
Subjects and Methods
A total of 5,385 participants entered into the analysis eventually, including 2,308 men and 3,077 women. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in subjects without diagnosed diabetes. Liver function, cardiovascular risk (brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and abnormal Minnesota codes findings), uric acid, and neuropathy were tested to assess the profiles of associated risks.
Results
In general, the self-reported diabetes rate was 9.5%. After age and sex standardization, the prevalence of diabetes was 6.1% (6.7% for men and 5.7% for women) in She Chinese people. In logistic regression models, age, family history of diabetes, alcohol use, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were all significantly associated with the risk of diabetes in this cross-sectional study (all P<0.05). In all, 47.4% had cardiovascular risks, 19.4% had liver dysfunction, and 6.2% had hyperuricemia. For women, compared with the first quartile, log-transformed homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance of the fourth quartile was significantly higher (P<0.05), and log-transformed homeostasis model assessment for β cells was also higher in the second, third, and fourth quartiles (all P<0.05). The prevalences of polyneuropathy in impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), IFG/IGT, and diabetes mellitus (DM) were 16.1%, 13.1%, 18.6%, and 28.4% separately, which was higher than that in normal glucose tolerance. The prevalences of polyneuropathy in IFG/IGT and DM were higher than that in IGT.
Conclusions
The present study revealed that a total of 6.1% She people suffered from type 2 diabetes, which was lower than the average level of China, but the standardized prevalence of prediabetes was higher, 20.6%. Early peripheral neuropathy screening should be performed in the prediabetes population. The Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Scoring System is convenient to assess diabetic polyneuropathy in clinical practice and should be tested regularly for people in prediabetes. Liver dysfunction, headache, and insomnia, appearing before type 2 diabetes, should be assessed regularly to avoid deterioration.
doi:10.1089/dia.2011.0244
PMCID: PMC3338954  PMID: 22304539
3.  Regional Differences of Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Prevalence Are Not Explained by Known Risk Factors 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e113154.
Background
We have previously found regional differences in the prevalence of known type 2 diabetes between northeastern and southern Germany. We aim to also provide prevalence estimates for prediabetes (isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), isolated glucose intolerance (i-IGT), combined IFG and IGT) and unknown type 2 diabetes for both regions.
Methods
Prevalence (95%CI) of prediabetes (i-IFG: fasting glucose 5.6–6.9 mmol/l; i-IGT: 2 h postchallenge gluose 7.8–11.0 mmol/l, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), ≥8 h overnight fasting) and unknown diabetes were analyzed in two regional population-based surveys (age group 35–79 years): SHIP-TREND (Study of Health in Pomerania (northeast), 2008–2012) and KORA F4 (Cooperative Health Research in the region of Augsburg (south), 2006–2008). Both studies used similar methods, questionnaires, and identical protocols for OGTT. Overall, 1,980 participants from SHIP-TREND and 2,617 participants from KORA F4 were included.
Results
Age-sex-standardized prevalence estimates (95%CI) of prediabetes and unknown diabetes were considerably higher in the northeast (SHIP-TREND: 43.1%; 40.9–45.3% and 7.1%; 5.9–8.2%) than in the south of Germany (KORA F4: 30.1%; 28.4–31.7% and 3.9%; 3.2–4.6%), respectively. In particular, i-IFG (26.4%; 24.5–28.3% vs. 17.2%; 15.7–18.6%) and IFG+IGT (11.2%; 9.8–12.6% vs. 6.6%; 5.7–7.5%) were more frequent in SHIP-TREND than in KORA. In comparison to normal glucose tolerance, the odds of having unknown diabetes (OR, 95%CI: 2.59; 1.84–3.65) or prediabetes (1.98; 1.70–2.31) was higher in the northeast than in the south after adjustment for known risk factors (obesity, lifestyle).
Conclusions
The regional differences of prediabetes and unknown diabetes are in line with the geographical pattern of known diabetes in Germany. The higher prevalences in the northeast were not explained by traditional risk factors.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113154
PMCID: PMC4234669  PMID: 25402347
4.  Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Prediabetes in Dalseong-gun, Daegu City, Korea 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2011;35(3):255-263.
Background
The aim of the present study was to determine the population-based prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and prediabetes in a rural district of Daegu City, Korea.
Methods
Between August and November 2003, a community-based health survey of adults aged 20 years and older was performed in the rural district of Dalseong-gun in Daegu City. A total of 1,806 of all eligible individuals agreed to participate. Fasting plasma glucose was measured in all participants. Two hour oral glucose tolerance was measured in the 1,773 participants for whom there was neither an established diagnosis of DM nor evidence of DM according to fasting glucose levels. The prevalence of DM and prediabetes was determined according to the 2003 criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Subjects with prediabetes were classified into one of three categories of glucose intolerance: isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG); isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); or combined IFG and IGT.
Results
The prevalence of DM was 12.2%. The highest prevalence rates were observed in subjects in their seventies. A total of 34.7% of all subjects who were assigned a diagnosis of DM in the present study had not been diagnosed previously. The prevalence of prediabetes was 22.7%. The highest prevalence rates were observed in subjects in their fifties.
Conclusion
The present study identified prevalence rates of 12.2% for DM (age-standardized prevalence rate [ASR], 6.8%), and 22.7% for prediabetes (ASR 18.5%). These results emphasize the need for community health promotion strategies to prevent or delay the onset of DM in individuals with prediabetes.
doi:10.4093/dmj.2011.35.3.255
PMCID: PMC3138089  PMID: 21785746
Diabetes mellitus; Epidemiology; Prediabetic state
5.  Cross-sectional and prospective study of the association between lung function and prediabetes 
BMJ Open  2013;3(2):e002179.
Objectives
A growing body of evidence suggests that there is a relationship between impaired lung function and the risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM). However, it is not known if this reflects a causal effect of lung function on glucose metabolism. To clarify the relationship between lung function and the development of DM, we examined the incidence of newly diagnosed prediabetes (a precursor of DM) among subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at baseline.
Design
Primary analysis of an occupational cohort with both cross-sectional and longitudinal data (follow-up duration mean±SD: 28.4±6.1 months).
Setting and participants
Data were analysed from 1058 men in a cross-sectional study and from 560 men with NGT in a longitudinal study.
Outcomes and methods
Impaired lung function (per cent predicted value of forced vital capacity (%FVC) or per cent value of forced expiratory volume 1 s/FVC (FEV1/FVC ratio)) in relation to the ratio of prediabetes or DM in a cross-sectional study and development of new prediabetes in a longitudinal study. NGT, prediabetes including impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and increased fasting glucose (IFG) and DM were diagnosed according to 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests.
Measurements and main results
%FVC at baseline, but not FEV1/FVC ratio at baseline, was significantly associated with the incidences of DM and prediabetes. Among prediabetes, IGT but not IFG was associated with %FVC. During follow-up, 102 subjects developed prediabetes among those with NGT. A low %FVC, but not FEV1/FVC ratio, was predictive of an increased risk for development of IGT, but not of IFG.
Conclusions
Low lung volume is associated with an increased risk for the development of prediabetes, especially IGT, in Japanese men. Although there is published evidence for an association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and DM, prediabetes is not associated with the early stage of COPD.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002179
PMCID: PMC3586080  PMID: 23430597
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Impaired Glucose Tolerance; Increased Fasting Glucose; Prediabetes; Pulmonary Function
6.  Fasting tests of insulin secretion and sensitivity predict future prediabetes in Japanese with normal glucose tolerance 
Abstract
Aims/Introduction:  Reduced insulin sensitivity and secretion are important in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Their relationships to prediabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) have been previously studied with the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We investigated whether or not baseline measures of insulin secretion and sensitivity obtained from fasting blood specimens were related to the development of prediabetes and how these measures compared with those based on the OGTT.
Materials and Methods:  In 152 Japanese subjects with normal glucose tolerance, we measured baseline plasma glucose and insulin after an overnight fast and during a 75 g OGTT, insulin resistance index (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA‐IR]), and insulin secretion (insulinogenic index [30 min insulin − fasting insulin] ÷ [30 min glucose − fasting glucose] or HOMA‐β).
Results:  At a 5–6 year (mean 5.7 years) follow‐up examination, we confirmed 36 cases of prediabetes. After adjusting for age, sex, family history of diabetes, body mass index, and 2‐h plasma glucose, the odds ratio comparing the lowest tertile (≤0.82) of insulinogenic index with the highest tertile (≥1.43) was 6.98 (95% confidence interval, 1.96–24.85) and was 10.72 (2.08–55.3) comparing the lowest tertile (≤76.3) of HOMA‐β with the highest tertile (≥122.1), whereas the respective odds ratios of HOMA‐IR were 3.74 (1.03–13.57) and 10.89 (1.93–61.41) comparing the highest tertile (≥1.95) with the lowest tertile (≤1.25).
Conclusions:  Lower insulin secretion and sensitivity are independent risk factors for prediabetes. Clinically practical identification of those at risk for prediabetes is obtainable from HOMA‐β and HOMA‐IR, both of which are measured in fasting state. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111.j.2040‐1124.2010.00041.x, 2010)
doi:10.1111/j.2040-1124.2010.00041.x
PMCID: PMC4020720  PMID: 24843431
Glucose intolerance; Insulin resistance; Epidemiology
7.  High prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and abnormal glucose tolerance in the Iranian urban population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study 
BMC Public Health  2008;8:176.
Background
To estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and combined IFG/IGT in a large urban Iranian population aged ≥ 20 years.
Methods
The study population included 9,489 participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study with full relevant clinical data. Age-standardized prevalence of diabetes and glucose intolerance categories were reported according to the 2003 American Diabetes Association definitions. Age-adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate the numbers needed to screen (NNTS) to find one person with undiagnosed diabetes.
Results
The prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, isolated IFG, isolated IGT, and combined IFG/IGT were 8.1%, 5.1%, 8.7%, 5.4% and 4.0% in men and 10%, 4.7%, 6.3%, 7.6%, and 4.5% in women respectively. Participants with undiagnosed diabetes had higher age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, triglycerides (all p values <0.001) and lower HDL-cholesterol (only in women, p < 0.01) compared to normoglycemic subjects. Undiagnosed diabetes was associated with family history of diabetes, increased BMI (≥ 25 kg/m2), abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension and low HDL-cholesterol levels. Among men, a combination of increased BMI, hypertension, and family history of diabetes led to a NNTS of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.57–1.71) and among women a combination of family history of diabetes and abdominal obesity, yielded a NNTS of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1–2.4).
Conclusion
In conclusion, about one third of Tehranian adults had disturbed glucose tolerance or diabetes. One- third of total cases with diabetes were undiagnosed. Screening individuals with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (men), hypertension (men), abdominal obesity (women) and family history of diabetes may be more efficient.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-8-176
PMCID: PMC2413226  PMID: 18501007
8.  Correlation Between Prediabetes Conditions and Microalbuminuria 
Nephro-urology Monthly  2013;5(2):741-744.
Background
Impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are two prediabetes conditions which have some correlation with macrovascular disorders. The risk of microvascular complications in these groups is not clear.
Objectives
The prevalence of albuminuria in subjects with IFG and IGT was evaluated in the present study.
Patients and Methods
In this study three groups of subjects were entered (45 subjects in each group): IFG, IGT, and normal glucose tolerance as control. The urine albumin-creatinine ratio was studied in morning spot urine samples to detect microalbuminuria. The subjects were followed up for two years, and blood sugar and urine albumin and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were measured every 6 months.
Results
The prevalence rate of microalbuminuria was 15.5% in the prediabetic groups, while no one had microalbuminuria in the control group (P = 0.005). The prevalence of microalbuminuria in patients with IFG or IGT was not significantly different (17.8% vs. 13.3%) (P = 0.4). Fourteen subjects (4 in IFG group and 10 in IGT group) developed diabetes mellitus within a 2-year follow-up period (P = 0.1). Thirty six percent of subjects with albuminuria, and twelve percent of subjects without albuminuria progressed to diabetes mellitus during a 2-year follow-up (P = 0.02, odd ratio = 4.1; CI95%, 1.13-15.1).
Conclusions
The risk of microalbuminuria in prediabetic subjects is high, and probably prediabetic subjects are at higher risk of progression to diabetes mellitus. We suggest periodically evaluation of albuminuria in prediabetic patients after the diagnosis.
doi:10.5812/numonthly.7646
PMCID: PMC3703132  PMID: 23841037
Glucose Tolerance; Diabetic Nephropathies; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
9.  Implications of Alternative Definitions of Prediabetes for Prevalence in U.S. Adults 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(2):387-391.
OBJECTIVE
To compare the prevalence of prediabetes using A1C, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) criteria, and to examine the degree of agreement between the measures.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We used the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys to classify 3,627 adults aged ≥18 years without diabetes according to their prediabetes status using A1C, FPG, and OGTT. We compared the prevalence of prediabetes according to different measures and used conditional probabilities to examine agreement between measures.
RESULTS
In 2005–2008, the crude prevalence of prediabetes in adults aged ≥18 years was 14.2% for A1C 5.7–6.4% (A1C5.7), 26.2% for FPG 100–125 mg/dL (IFG100), 7.0% for FPG 110–125 mg/dL (IFG110), and 13.7% for OGTT 140–199 mg/dL (IGT). Prediabetes prevalence varied by age, sex, and race/ethnicity, and there was considerable discordance between measures of prediabetes. Among those with IGT, 58.2, 23.4, and 32.3% had IFG100, IFG110, and A1C5.7, respectively, and 67.1% had the combination of either A1C5.7 or IFG100.
CONCLUSIONS
The prevalence of prediabetes varied by the indicator used to measure risk; there was considerable discordance between indicators and the characteristics of individuals with prediabetes. Programs to prevent diabetes may need to consider issues of equity, resources, need, and efficiency in targeting their efforts.
doi:10.2337/dc10-1314
PMCID: PMC3024354  PMID: 21270196
10.  A cross-sectional study of glucose regulation in young adults with very low birth weight: impact of male gender on hyperglycaemia 
BMJ Open  2012;2(1):e000327.
Objectives
To investigate glucose regulation in young adults with very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) in an Asian population.
Design
Cross-sectional observational study.
Setting
A general hospital in Hamamatsu, Japan.
Participants
111 young adults (42 men and 69 women; aged 19–30 years) born with VLBW between 1980 and 1990. Participants underwent standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
Primary and secondary outcome measures
The primary outcomes were glucose and insulin levels during OGTT and risk factors for a category of hyperglycaemia defined as follows: diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) and non-diabetes/IGT/IFG with elevated 1 h glucose levels (>8.6 mmol/l). The secondary outcomes were the pancreatic β cell function (insulinogenic index and homeostasis model of assessment for beta cell (HOMA-β)) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)).
Results
Of 111 young adults with VLBW, 21 subjects (19%) had hyperglycaemia: one had type 2 diabetes, six had IGT, one had IFG and 13 had non-diabetes/IGT/IFG with elevated 1 h glucose levels. In logistic regression analysis, male gender was an independent risk factor associated with hyperglycaemia (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.08 to 10.3, p=0.036). Male subjects had significantly higher levels of glucose and lower levels of insulin during OGTT than female subjects (p<0.001 for glucose and p=0.005 for insulin by repeated measures analysis of variance). Pancreatic β cell function was lower in men (insulinogenic index: p=0.002; HOMA-β: p=0.001), although no gender difference was found in insulin resistance (HOMA-IR: p=0.477). In male subjects, logistic regression analysis showed that small for gestational age was an independent risk factor associated with hyperglycaemia (OR 33.3, 95% CI 1.67 to 662.6, p=0.022).
Conclusions
19% of individuals with VLBW already had hyperglycaemia in young adulthood, and male gender was a significant independent risk factor of hyperglycaemia. In male young adults with VLBW, small for gestational age was associated with hyperglycaemia.
Article summary
Article focus
Neonatal intensive care has improved the survival rate for very low birth weight infants (VLBW; birth weight <1500 g) in recent decades, and the first generation of VLBW infants have only recently reached young adulthood.
Only a few studies have shown that VLBW (or preterm) is associated with glucose intolerance in Caucasian young adults, while glucose regulation in Asian young adults with VLBW is still uncertain.
The present study investigated glucose regulation in young adults with VLBW in an Asian population and determined the factors associated with hyperglycaemia.
Key messages
Of 111 young adults with VLBW, 19% of individuals already had hyperglycaemia (type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) and non-diabetes/IGT/IFG with elevated 1 h glucose levels).
Male gender was a significant independent risk factor of hyperglycaemia in young adults with VLBW.
Small for gestational age was associated with hyperglycaemia particularly in male young adults with VLBW.
Strengths and limitations of this study
This is the first study assessing the glucose regulation in young adults with VLBW in an Asian population.
This study does not provide information on postnatal growth patterns, which have been shown to be associated with later hyperglycaemia in previous studies.
The study design with no control subjects makes it impossible to address the delayed impact of VLBW itself on glucose regulation.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000327
PMCID: PMC3274711  PMID: 22307095
11.  Prevalence of diabetes and predictions of its risks using anthropometric measures in southwest rural areas of China 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:821.
Background
To examine the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in Songming county, Yunnan province, South-west China and examine influences of anthropometric indicators on diabetic risk.
Methods
This study was a population based cross-sectional study of 1031 subjects in Songming County aged 30 years and older. Age-standardization was performed by using the 2010 Songming population as the standard population. After an overnight fasting, participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and venous blood glucose levels were measured to identify diabetes and prediabetes. Physicians completed questionnaires and blood pressure measurements; trained nurses measured anthropometric variables. Age-adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the association between anthropometric variables and diabetes.
Results
Total prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes were 10.0% and 11.6%, respectively. In women, prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes significantly increased with body mass index (BMI),waist hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). But in men, prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes only significantly increased with WHR and WHtR. Compared to 1st WHR tertile in women, there was a nearly tenfold increase in the risk of diabetes with 3rd WHR tertile (OR 10.50, 95% CI 3.95-27.86). Men with 3rd BMI tertile had 4.8-fold risk of getting diabetes compared to men with 1st WHtR tertile (OR 4.79, 95% CI 1.88-12.26). Only WHtR had significantly higher receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area than BMI in total men (0.668 vs. 0.561, p < 0.05). And in total women, only WHR had significantly higher ROC area than BMI (0.723 vs. 0.628, p < 0.05). In the partial correlation analysis controlling for waist circumference, only WHR had significant correlation with fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.132, p = 0.002) and 2-h plasma glucose (r = 0.162, p = 0.000) in women, and WHtR had a much stronger association with both fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.305, P = 0.000) and 2 h plasma glucose (r = 0.303, P = 0.000) than WHR in men.
Conclusion
High prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes were found in this underdeveloped region. About half of total subjects with diabetes were undiagnosed. The association of obesity indices and diabetic risk factors varied with gender. The strongest predictors of diabetes were WHR for the female subgroup and WHtR for the male subgroup.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-821
PMCID: PMC3549931  PMID: 22998969
Obesity; Waist-to-height ratio; Body mass index; Waist hip ratio; Diabetes type 2
12.  Diabetes and Other Disorders of Glycemia in a Rural South African Community 
Diabetes Care  2008;31(9):1783-1788.
OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glycemia (IFG), and associated risk factors in a rural South African black community.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by random cluster sampling of adults aged >15 years. Participants had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test using the 1998 World Health Organization criteria for disorders of glycemia.
RESULTS—Of 1,300 subjects selected, 1,025 subjects (815 women) participated (response rate 78.9%). The overall age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 3.9%, IGT 4.8%, and IFG 1.5%. The prevalence was similar in men and women for diabetes (men 3.5%; women 3.9%) and IGT (men 4.6%; women 4.7%) but higher in men for IFG (men 4.0%; women 0.8%). The prevalence of diabetes and IGT increased with age both in men and women, with peak prevalence in the 55- to 64-year age-group for diabetes and in the ≥65-year age-group for IGT. Of the cases of diabetes, 84.8% were discovered during the survey. In multivariate analysis, the significant independent risk factors associated with diabetes included family history (odds ratio 3.5), alcohol ingestion (2.8), waist circumference (1.1), systolic blood pressure (1.0), serum triglycerides (2.3), and total cholesterol (1.8); hip circumference was protective (0.9).
CONCLUSIONS—There is a moderate prevalence of diabetes and a high prevalence of total disorders of glycemia, which suggests that this community, unlike other rural communities in Africa, is well into an epidemic of glucose intolerance. There is a low proportion of known diabetes and a significant association with potentially modifiable risk factors.
doi:10.2337/dc08-0212
PMCID: PMC2518345  PMID: 18523142
13.  Trend analysis of diabetic prevalence and incidence in a rural area of South Korea between 2003–2008 
Abstract
Aims/Introduction:  This study determined the change in prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes over a period of 5 years in South Korea. The incidence of diabetes and prediabetes and risk factors associated with the development of diabetes were also investigated.
Materials and Methods:  The Dalseong population‐based cohort survey recruited 1806 subjects who were over 20‐years‐old in 2003. Five years later, 1287 of the original subjects were re‐evaluated and 187 new subjects were added to the study. All participants completed a questionnaire, were given a physical examination, and provided blood samples for analysis including 2 h oral glucose tolerances.
Results:  Age‐adjusted prevalence of diabetes rose from 6.7% in 2003 to 9.1% in 2008. The prevalence of prediabetes also increased from 18.5% in 2003 to 28.4% in 2008. The incidence rates of diabetes and prediabetes were 18.3 per 1000 person‐years and 55.4 per 1000 person‐years, respectively. The development of diabetes was associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (odds ratio [OR] 5.661), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (OR: 6.013), age (OR 1.013), and waist‐to‐hip ratio (OR 1.513). After excluding the IFG and IGT, systolic blood pressure (OR 1.023), high‐sensitivity C‐reactive protein (hsCRP; OR 1.097), triglyceride (OR 1.002) and waist‐to‐hip ratio (OR 1.696) were statistically significant risk factors in a multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Conclusions:  A significant rise in the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes was observed between 2003 and 2008. In addition, this study newly demonstrated that waist‐to‐hip ratio and hsCRP were associated with the development of diabetes after adjusting for several confounding factors. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040‐1124.2010.00045.x, 2010)
doi:10.1111/j.2040-1124.2010.00045.x
PMCID: PMC4020719  PMID: 24843430
Diabetes mellitus; Prevalence; South Korea
14.  Potential association between prediabetic conditions and gingival and/or periodontal inflammation 
Aims/Introduction
Prediabetic conditions, which include impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), might be associated with chronic gingival and/or periodontal inflammation. However, the occurrence of this oral inflammation in prediabetic conditions is poorly understood. The present study aimed to assess the association between prediabetes and gingival and/or periodontal inflammation.
Materials and Methods
A total of 94 Puerto Rican men and women aged 40–65 years, who were residents of San Juan, Puerto Rico, and free of diabetes, were included in the study. All participants had at least one tooth site with clinical attachment loss ≥3 mm. Fasting and 2-h plasma glucose were collected. Gingival/periodontal inflammation was assessed by bleeding on gentle probing of the sulcus at six sites per tooth.
Results
Participants with the percentage of teeth with bleeding on probing (BOP) equal to or greater than the median were compared with those with the percentage of teeth with BOP less than median. Participants with high BOP tended to present higher IFG (odds ratio [OR] 5.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–25.3) and/or prediabetic condition (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.0–13.2) than those with a low percentage of BOP, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, waist circumference and number of missing teeth. Using the continuous form of the outcome, the corresponding adjusted least squares means of percentage of BOP were 26.8 (standard error of the mean [SEM] 2.3) and 43.8 (SEM 6.0) in normal and IFG, respectively (P = 0.01), and 27.0 (SEM 2.4) and 39.0 (SEM 5.3) among healthy and prediabetic individuals, respectively (P = 0.05).
Conclusion
IFG and/or prediabetes are strongly associated with BOP, a marker of chronic gingival/periodontal inflammation.
doi:10.1111/jdi.12122
PMCID: PMC3980950  PMID: 24729853
Gingival/periodontal inflammation; Impaired glucose; Prediabetes
15.  Potential association between prediabetic conditions and gingival and/or periodontal inflammation 
Abstract
Aims/Introduction
Prediabetic conditions, which include impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), might be associated with chronic gingival and/or periodontal inflammation. However, the occurrence of this oral inflammation in prediabetic conditions is poorly understood. The present study aimed to assess the association between prediabetes and gingival and/or periodontal inflammation.
Materials and Methods
A total of 94 Puerto Rican men and women aged 40–65 years, who were residents of San Juan, Puerto Rico, and free of diabetes, were included in the study. All participants had at least one tooth site with clinical attachment loss ≥3 mm. Fasting and 2‐h plasma glucose were collected. Gingival/periodontal inflammation was assessed by bleeding on gentle probing of the sulcus at six sites per tooth.
Results
Participants with the percentage of teeth with bleeding on probing (BOP) equal to or greater than the median were compared with those with the percentage of teeth with BOP less than median. Participants with high BOP tended to present higher IFG (odds ratio [OR] 5.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–25.3) and/or prediabetic condition (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.0–13.2) than those with a low percentage of BOP, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, waist circumference and number of missing teeth. Using the continuous form of the outcome, the corresponding adjusted least squares means of percentage of BOP were 26.8 (standard error of the mean [SEM] 2.3) and 43.8 (SEM 6.0) in normal and IFG, respectively (P = 0.01), and 27.0 (SEM 2.4) and 39.0 (SEM 5.3) among healthy and prediabetic individuals, respectively (P = 0.05).
Conclusion
IFG and/or prediabetes are strongly associated with BOP, a marker of chronic gingival/periodontal inflammation.
doi:10.1111/jdi.12122
PMCID: PMC3980950  PMID: 24729853
Gingival/periodontal inflammation; Impaired glucose; Prediabetes
16.  Serum γ-glutamyltransferase and uric acid levels are associated with impaired fasting glucose in adults from Inner Mongolia, China 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:294.
Background
Serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and uric acid (UA) levels are elevated in patients with diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Prediabetes, characterized by impaired glucose tolerance, is an important risk factor for overt diabetes as well as cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between GGT, UA and prediabetes in a Chinese population, and provide a scientific basis for the early prevention and treatment of diabetes.
Methods
We performed a cross-sectional population-based study in a cohort of 2694 subjects (1211 men and 1483 women, aged 35–86 years). Questionnaires and physical examinations were performed using standardized procedures. Fasting blood was collected to measure glucose and other biochemical parameters. The subjects were divided into two groups with either normal fasting glucose (NFG) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG), according to international diagnostic criteria. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals.
Results
Compared with the NFG group, the IFG group had significantly higher blood pressure but lower high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol in women. Body mass index, waist circumference, triglyceride, glucose, GGT, and UA levels were significantly higher in males and females in the IFG group than those in the NFG group. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the OR for prediabetes increased with increasing serum GGT quartiles and UA quartiles. GGT and UA were positively associated with prediabetes in men and women, independent of age, ethnicity, smoking, alcohol consumption, blood pressure, physical labor, and other confounders.
Conclusions
We found that serum GGT and UA levels were positively associated with prediabetes in men and women living in areas inhabited by Chinese ethnic minorities. As elevated GGT and UA levels were associated with significantly increased risk of prediabetes, they may be used as sensitive biological markers of prediabetes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-294
PMCID: PMC3622625  PMID: 23552170
γ-Glutamyltransferase; Uric acid; Prediabetes; Impaired fasting glucose
17.  Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Is Associated With Prediabetes in Adults From the General Population 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(7):1648-1650.
OBJECTIVE
We examined the association between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), a novel adipokine, and prediabetes (isolated impaired fasting glucose [i-IFG], isolated impaired glucose tolerance [i-IGT], and combined IFG and IGT) in men and women aged 32–81 years.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The analysis was based on 2,614 participants without previously diagnosed diabetes and those with newly diagnosed diabetes of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 Study, conducted from 2006 to 2008 in southern Germany. Plasma RBP4 was analyzed by immunonephelometry.
RESULTS
In logistic regression analysis, RBP4 levels in the fourth quartile versus the first quartile were significantly associated with prediabetes (i-IGT, i-IFG, and IFG/IGT; reference normal glucose tolerance) independent of known metabolic risk factors and lifestyle variables (odds ratio 1.63 [95% CI 1.17–2.27] after multivariable adjustment). Stratification by sex showed generally similar results.
CONCLUSIONS
RBP4 levels were associated with prediabetes in individuals from the general population. Prospective studies investigating the impact of RBP4 on the development of glucose intolerance are needed.
doi:10.2337/dc11-0118
PMCID: PMC3120167  PMID: 21617096
18.  Postchallenge Hyperglycemia Is Positively Associated With Diabetic Polyneuropathy 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(9):1891-1893.
OBJECTIVE
To assess the prevalence of distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) in an older population and to examine its relationship with prediabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Glucose tolerance status was determined in 61- to 82-year-old participants (n = 1,100) of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 Survey (2006–2008). Clinical DSPN was defined as bilaterally impaired foot-vibration perception and/or foot-pressure sensation.
RESULTS
Prevalence of clinical DSPN was similar in subjects with known diabetes (22.0%) and subjects with combined impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (23.9%). Among prediabetic subgroups, IFG-IGT, but not isolated-IFG and -IGT, was associated with a higher risk of clinical DSPN, compared with normal glucose tolerance. A J-shaped association was observed between clinical DSPN and quartiles of 2-h postchallenge glucose, but not with fasting glucose and HbA1c levels.
CONCLUSIONS
Subjects with IFG-IGT and known diabetes had a similar prevalence of clinical DSPN. Elevated 2-h postload glucose levels appeared important for disease risk.
doi:10.2337/dc11-2028
PMCID: PMC3424984  PMID: 22751964
19.  Uric Acid Is More Strongly Associated with Impaired Glucose Regulation in Women than in Men from the General Population: The KORA F4-Study 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e37180.
Objective
High serum uric acid (UA) levels are associated with the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It is largely unknown whether there are gender-specific differences regarding the association between UA and prediabetic states. We examined the possible association between UA levels and known as well as newly diagnosed diabetes (NDD), isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), and combined IFG/IGT in a population-based sample of 32-to-81-year-old men and women.
Research Design and Methods
An oral glucose tolerance test was carried out in all 2,740 participants without known diabetes of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 Study conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Southern Germany. Serum UA was analysed by the uricase method.
Results
In women after multivariable adjustment the associations between UA and i-IFG (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.15–2.14), IFG/IGT (OR 1.52, 1.07–2.16), NDD (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.28–2.17), and known diabetes (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.18–1.82) remained significant, but the association with i-IGT (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.95–1.36) lost significance. In contrast in men, after multivariable adjustment there was only a significant association between UA levels and i-IFG (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.21–1.84), all other associations were non-significant (i-IGT: OR 1.09, IFG/IGT: OR 1.06, NDD: OR 0.91, known diabetes: OR 1.04; all p-values>0.05).
Conclusions
Serum UA concentrations were associated with different categories of impaired glucose regulation in individuals from the general population, particularly in women. Further studies investigating the role of UA in the development of derangements in glucose metabolism are needed.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037180
PMCID: PMC3353894  PMID: 22615932
20.  High prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Iraqi and Swedish residents in a deprived Swedish neighbourhood - a population based study 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:303.
Background
Immigrants from the Middle-East are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the present survey was to measure, in a single deprived neighbourhood, the prevalence rates of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and T2D in residents originating from Iraq and to compare them to those in residents born in Sweden. An additional aim was to identify metabolic, lifestyle and socioeconomic risk factors associated with IFG/IGT and T2D in these residents.
Methods
The study was conducted February 1'st to March 31'st 2010. Men and women aged 45 to 65 years of Swedish or Iraqi origin, living in the neighbourhood of Rosengård, Malmö, Sweden, were randomly selected from the census register. Each participant signed a written informed consent form, underwent a physical examination and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), provided blood samples and filled in a questionnaire. A total of 175 subjects participated (Swedish origin n = 79, Iraqi origin n = 96), reflecting an overall response rate of almost 60%.
Results
In total, 21.9% and 19.0% of the Iraqi and Swedish participants, respectively, suffered from T2D, while 24.0% of the Iraqi participants and 25.3% of the Swedish participants had IFG/IGT. There were no significant differences in prevalence rates relating to country of origin.
Obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) and sedentary leisure time physical activity were highly prevalent in both groups, while a family history of diabetes was more prevalent in participants from Iraq (49.2%) than in those from Sweden (22.8%) (p = 0.001).
Being obese or having a sedentary leisure time were, independently associated with T2D (OR 5.43 (95% CI 2.10-14.02) and 2.89 (95% CI 1.03-8.10) respectively), while economic difficulties were independently associated with IFG/IGT (OR 2.55 (95% CI 1.06-6.15)) after adjustment for the confounding effects of other common risk factors for T2D.
Conclusions
This study reveals a high prevalence of T2D, independently of country of origin (Iraq or Sweden), in a socially vulnerable area and additionally presents a risk factor profile that is markedly different from that of Sweden in general.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-303
PMCID: PMC3120683  PMID: 21569404
21.  Impact of Serum Triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels on Early-Phase Insulin Secretion in Normoglycemic and Prediabetic Subjects 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2014;38(4):294-301.
Background
Increased triglycerides (TGs) and decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are established as diabetic risks for nondiabetic subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among TG, HDL-C, TG/HDL-C ratio, and early-phase insulin secretion in normoglycemic and prediabetic subjects.
Methods
We evaluated 663 Japanese subjects who underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. On the basis of these results, the subjects were divided into four groups: those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n=341), isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG; n=211), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT; n=71), and combined IFG and IGT (IFG+IGT; n=40). Insulin secretion was estimated by the insulinogenic index (IGI) (Δinsulin/Δglucose [30 to 0 minutes]) and disposition index (DI) (IGI/homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance).
Results
In prediabetic subjects (i-IFG, i-IGT, and IFG+IGT), linear regression analyses revealed that IGI and DI were positively correlated with HDL-C levels. Moreover, in subjects with i-IGT and (IFG+IGT), but not with i-IFG, the indices of insulin secretion were negatively correlated with the log-transformed TG and TG/HDL-C ratio. In both the subjects with i-IGT, multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that DI was positively correlated with HDL-C and negatively with log-transformed TG and TG/HDL-C ratio. On the other hand, in subjects with NGT, there was no association between insulin secretion and lipid profiles.
Conclusion
These results revealed that serum TG and HDL-C levels have different impacts on early-phase insulin secretion on the basis of their glucose tolerance status.
doi:10.4093/dmj.2014.38.4.294
PMCID: PMC4160583  PMID: 25215276
Cholesterol, HDL; Diabetes; Insulin secretion; Triglycerides
22.  Impaired Fasting Glucose in Cystic Fibrosis 
Diabetes Care  2010;33(12):2660-2664.
OBJECTIVE
While glucose tolerance abnormalities are common in cystic fibrosis (CF), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) has scarcely been explored. No studies have examined the relation between IFG and clinical status.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Data were retrieved from the University of Minnesota CF database on oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) performed in 1996–2005. Subjects were identified as normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or CF–related diabetes without fasting hyperglycemia (CFRD FH−). Patients with fasting hyperglycemia were excluded. The presence of IFG was assessed within each category. In a separate case-control cohort study, subjects with IFG were matched to CF control subjects by age, sex, and OGTT class to explore outcomes.
RESULTS
For the total population (n = 310), the prevalence of IFG was 22%, and by OGTT class was NGT 14%, IGT 31%, CFRD FH− 53%. Within the cohort study, mortality was significantly reduced in IFG (two vs. nine deaths, odds ratio [OR] = 0.2 [95% CI 0.04–0.9]). IFG did not confer increased risk of progression to diabetes (OR 0.66 [0.29–1.48]). Lung function was better in pediatric IFG subjects with IGT and not significantly worse in adults with IGT or adults and children with NGT and CFRD FH−. BMI was not significantly different in IFG subjects versus control subjects.
CONCLUSIONS
Contrary to expectations in patients with CF, IFG appeared to be associated with improved survival and was not associated with worse nutritional or pulmonary status or increased progression to fasting hyperglycemia.
doi:10.2337/dc10-0613
PMCID: PMC2992208  PMID: 21115768
23.  Association of Serum Uric Acid with 2-Hour Postload Glucose in Chinese with Impaired Fasting Plasma Glucose and/or HbA1c 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e67759.
Objective
To examine whether serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with 2-hour postload glucose (2-h PG) in Chinese with impaired fasting plasma glucose (IFG) and/or HbA1c (IA1C).
Research Design and Methods
Anthropometric and biochemical examinations, such as SUA concentration, were performed in 3763 individuals from all the villages in Baqiao County, China. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted in 1197 Chinese with prediabetes as having IFG (110≤ fasting plasma glucose [FPG] <126 mg/dl and HbA1c <6.5%), IA1C (5.7% ≤ HbA1c <6.5% and FPG <126 mg/dl), or both.
Results
The present study included 1197 participants with IFG and/or IA1C (mean age 56.5±10.3 years; 50.6% men). In multivariate linear regression, after adjustment for gender, age, smoking and drinking, body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), lipid profiles, logarithmic transformed C-reactive protein (log-CRP), estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR), FPG and HbA1c, with a 1-mg/dl increment of SUA, 2-h PG increased by 5.04±0.72 (P<0.001), 3.06±1.08 (P = 0.001), 5.40±1.26 (P<0.001), and 2.34±2.16 mg/dl (P = 0.056) in all participants, in participants with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and with 2-h newly diagnosed diabetes (2-h NDM, with 2-h PG ≥200 mg/dl), respectively. In both men and women, 2-h PG increased progressively and significantly from the lower to the upper SUA tertiles (P<0.001). Moreover, in multivariate logistic regression, 1-standard deviation (SD; 1.53 mg/dl) increment of SUA was significantly associated with a 36% higher risk for 2-h NDM (Odds ratio [CI 95%]: 1.36 [1.09–1.99]; P = 0.03).
Conclusions
SUA is significantly associated with 2-h PG in Chinese with IFG and/or IA1C.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067759
PMCID: PMC3700996  PMID: 23844086
24.  Prevalence, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Impaired Fasting Glucose and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Nondiabetic U.S. Adults 
Diabetes Care  2010;33(11):2355-2359.
OBJECTIVE
To estimate the rates of prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A representative sample of the U.S. population (the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES]) from 2005–2006 including 1,547 nondiabetic adults (>18 years of age) without a history of myocardial infarction was assessed to determine the proportion of adults who met the criteria for IFG/IGT, and the proportion of IFG/IGT subjects who: 1) reported receiving a diagnosis from their physicians; 2) were prescribed lifestyle modification or an antihyperglycemic agent; and 3) were currently on therapy. We used multivariable regression analysis to identify predictors of diagnosis and treatment.
RESULTS
Of the 1,547 subjects, 34.6% (CI 30.3–38.9%) had pre-diabetes; 19.4% had IFG only; 5.4% had IGT only, and 9.8% had both IFG and IGT. Only 4.8% of those with pre-diabetes reported having received a formal diagnosis from their physicians. No subjects with pre-diabetes received oral antihyperglycemics, and the rates of recommendation for exercise or diet were 31.7% and 33.5%, respectively. Among the 47.7% pre-diabetic subjects who exercised, 49.4% reported exercising for at least 30 min daily.
CONCLUSIONS
Three years after a major clinical trial demonstrated that interventions could greatly reduce progression from IFG/IGT to type 2 diabetes, the majority of the U.S. population with IFG/IGT was undiagnosed and untreated with interventions. Whether this is due to physicians being unaware of the evidence, unconvinced by the evidence, or clinical inertia is unclear.
doi:10.2337/dc09-1957
PMCID: PMC2963494  PMID: 20724649
25.  Glucose tolerance status is a better predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes than metabolic syndrome: a prospective cohort study 
Backround
To evaluate the importance of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in predicting diabetes and cardiovascular disease in patients with and without Metabolic Syndrome from a population treated in a primary care unit.
Research design and methods
A prospective cohort study was conducted with subjects regularly attending the primary care unit of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Participants underwent a 75 g OGTT. Metabolic syndrome definition was based on the criteria of IDF/AHA/NHLBI-2010.
Results
Participants mean age was 61 ± 12 years (males: 38%; whites: 67%). Of the 148 subjects included, 127 (86%) were followed for 36 ± 14 months, 21 (14%) were lost. Subjects were classified into four groups based on baseline OGTT: 29% normal (n = 43), 28% impaired fasting glucose (IFG; n = 42), 26% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 38), and 17% diabetes (n = 25). Metabolic syndrome prevalence was lower in normal group (28%), intermediate in IFG (62%) and IGT (65%) groups, and higher among subjects with diabetes (92%; P <0.001). Incidence of diabetes increased along with the stages of glucose metabolism disturbance (normal: 0%, IFG: 16%, IGT: 28%; P = 0.004). No patient with normal OGTT developed diabetes, regardless metabolic syndrome presence. Diabetes at baseline was the major determinant of cardiovascular disease occurrence (normal: 0%, IFG: 4%, IGT: 0%, diabetes: 24%; P = 0.001). In Cox-regression analysis, only the 2 h OGTT results were associated with diabetes (OR = 1.03; 95%CI 1.01–1.06; P <0.001) and cardiovascular disease development (OR = 1.013; 95%CI 1.002–1.025; P = 0.024).
Conclusions
In this sample of subjects undergoing diabetes screening, the OGTT predicted diabetes and cardiovascular disease more effectively than the metabolic syndrome status.
doi:10.1186/1758-5996-4-25
PMCID: PMC3441286  PMID: 22682107
impaired fasting glucose; impaired glucose tolerance; type 2 diabetes; metabolic syndrome; cardiovascular disease

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