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1.  Disparities in liver cancer incidence by nativity, acculturation, and socioeconomic status in California Hispanics and Asians 
Background
Asians and Hispanics have the highest incidence rates of liver cancer in the US, but little is known about how incidence patterns in these largely immigrant populations vary by nativity, acculturation, and socioeconomic status (SES). Such variations can identify high-priority subgroups for prevention and monitoring.
Methods
Incidence rates and rate ratios (IRRs) by nativity among 5,400 Hispanics and 5,809 Asians diagnosed with liver cancer in 1988–2004 were calculated in the California Cancer Registry. Neighborhood ethnic enclave status and SES were classified using 2000 US Census data for cases diagnosed in 1998–2002.
Results
Foreign-born Hispanic males had significantly lower liver cancer incidence rates than US-born Hispanic males in 1988–2004 (e.g., IRR=0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.50–0.59), whereas foreign-born Hispanic females had significantly higher rates in 1988–1996 (IRR=1.42, 95% CI=1.18–1.71), but not 1997–2004. Foreign-born Asian males and females had up to 5-fold higher rates than the US-born. Among Hispanic females, incidence rates were elevated by 21% in higher-enclave versus lower-enclave neighborhoods, and by 24% in lower- versus higher-SES neighborhoods. Among Asian males, incidence rates were elevated by 23% in higher-enclave neighborhoods and by 21% in lower-SES neighborhoods. In both racial/ethnic populations, males and females in higher-enclave, lower-SES neighborhoods had higher incidence rates.
Conclusions
Nativity, residential enclave status, and neighborhood SES characterize Hispanics and Asians with significantly unequal incidence rates of liver cancer, implicating behavioral or environmental risk factors and revealing opportunities for prevention.
Impact
Liver cancer control efforts should especially target foreign-born Asians, US-born Hispanic men, and residents of lower-SES ethnic enclaves.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0863
PMCID: PMC3005535  PMID: 20940276
2.  Papillary thyroid cancer incidence rates vary significantly by birthplace in Asian American women 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2011;22(3):479-485.
Objective
To investigate how birthplace influences the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer among Asian American women.
Methods
Birthplace- and ethnic-specific age-adjusted and age-specific incidence rates were calculated using data from the California Cancer Registry for the period 1988–2004. Birthplace was statistically imputed for 30% of cases using a validated imputation method based on age at Social Security number issuance. Population estimates were obtained from the US Census. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for foreign-born vs. US-born women.
Results
Age-adjusted incidence rates of papillary thyroid cancer among Filipina (13.7 per 100,000) and Vietnamese (12.7) women were more than double those of Japanese women (6.2). US-born Chinese (IRR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.40–0.59) and Filipina women (IRR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.58–0.96) had significantly higher rates than those who were foreign-born; the opposite was observed for Japanese women (IRR=1.55, 95% CI: 1.17–2.08). The age-specific patterns among all foreign-born Asian women and US-born Japanese women showed a slow steady increase in incidence until age 70. However, among US-born Asian women (except Japanese), substantially elevated incidence rates during the reproductive and menopausal years were evident.
Conclusions
Ethnic- and birthplace-variation in papillary thyroid cancer incidence can provide insight into the etiology of this increasingly common and understudied cancer.
doi:10.1007/s10552-010-9720-5
PMCID: PMC3291661  PMID: 21207130
papillary thyroid cancer; incidence rates; birthplace; Asian American women; cancer surveillance
3.  Breast cancer incidence patterns among California Hispanic women: Differences by nativity and residence in an enclave 
Background
Breast cancer incidence is higher in US-born Hispanic women than foreign-born Hispanics, but no studies have examined how these rates have changed over time. To better inform cancer control efforts, we examined incidence trends by nativity and incidence patterns by neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and Hispanic enclave (neighborhoods with high proportions of Hispanics or Hispanic immigrants).
Methods
Information regarding all Hispanic women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1988 and 2004 were obtained from the California Cancer Registry. Nativity was imputed from Social Security number for the 27% of cases with missing birthplace information. Neighborhood variables were developed from Census data.
Results
From 1988 to 2004, incidence rates for US-born Hispanics were parallel, but lower than, those of non-Hispanic whites, showing an annual 6% decline from 2002 to 2004. Foreign-born Hispanics had an annual 4% increase in incidence rates from 1995 to 1998 and a 1.4% decline thereafter. Rates were 38% higher for US- than foreign-born Hispanics, with elevations more pronounced for localized than regional/distant disease, and for women > 50 years of age. Residence in higher SES and lower Hispanic enclave neighborhoods were independently associated with higher incidence, with Hispanic enclave having a stronger association than SES.
Conclusions
Compared to foreign-born, US-born Hispanic women in California had higher prevalence of breast cancer risk factors, suggesting that incidence patterns largely reflects these differences in risk factors.
Impact
Further research is needed to separate the effects of individual- and neighborhood-level factors that impact incidence in this large and growing population.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0021
PMCID: PMC2895619  PMID: 20447917
4.  Disparities in Breast Cancer Survival Among Asian Women by Ethnicity and Immigrant Status: A Population-Based Study 
American journal of public health  2010;100(5):861-869.
Objectives
We investigated heterogeneity in ethnic composition and immigrant status among US Asians as an explanation for disparities in breast cancer survival.
Methods
We enhanced data from the California Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program through linkage and imputation to examine the effect of immigrant status, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and ethnic enclave on mortality among Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, and Vietnamese women diagnosed with breast cancer from 1988 to 2005 and followed through 2007.
Results
US-born women had similar mortality rates in all Asian ethnic groups except the Vietnamese, who had lower mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR]=0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.1, 0.9). Except for Japanese women, all foreign-born women had higher mortality than did US-born Japanese, the reference group. HRs ranged from 1.4 (95% CI=1.2, 1.7) among Koreans to 1.8 (95% CI=1.5, 2.2) among South Asians and Vietnamese. Little of this variation was explained by differences in disease characteristics.
Conclusions
Survival after breast cancer is poorer among foreign- than US-born Asians. Research on underlying factors is needed, along with increased awareness and targeted cancer control.
doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.176651
PMCID: PMC2853623  PMID: 20299648
5.  The California Neighborhoods Data System: a new resource for examining the impact of neighborhood characteristics on cancer incidence and outcomes in populations 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2011;22(4):631-647.
Research on neighborhoods and health has been growing. However, studies have not investigated the association of specific neighborhood measures, including socioeconomic and built environments, with cancer incidence or outcomes. We developed the California Neighborhoods Data System (CNDS), an integrated system of small area-level measures of socioeconomic and built environments for California, which can be readily linked to individual-level geocoded records. The CNDS includes measures such as socioeconomic status, population density, racial residential segregation, ethnic enclaves, distance to hospitals, walkable destinations, and street connectivity. Linking the CNDS to geocoded cancer patient information from the California Cancer Registry, we demonstrate the variability of CNDS measures by neighborhood socioeconomic status and predominant race/ethnicity for the 7,049 California census tracts, as well as by patient race/ethnicity. The CNDS represents an efficient and cost-effective resource for cancer epidemiology and control. It expands our ability to understand the role of neighborhoods with regard to cancer incidence and outcomes. Used in conjunction with cancer registry data, these additional contextual measures enable the type of transdisciplinary, “cells-to-society” research that is now being recognized as necessary for addressing population disparities in cancer incidence and outcomes.
doi:10.1007/s10552-011-9736-5
PMCID: PMC3102646  PMID: 21318584
Neighborhood; Socioeconomic environment; Built environment; Immigration; Contextual factors; GIS
6.  Dietary phytocompounds and risk of lymphoid malignancies in the California Teachers Study cohort 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2010;22(2):237-249.
Objective
We examined whether dietary intake of isoflavones, lignans, isothiocyanates, antioxidants, or specific foods rich in these compounds is associated with reduced risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM), or Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in a large, prospective cohort of women.
Methods
Between 1995-1996 and December 31, 2007, among 110,215 eligible members of the California Teachers Study cohort, 536 women developed incident B-cell NHL, 104 developed MM, and 34 developed HL. Cox proportional hazards regression, with age as the time-scale, was used to estimate adjusted rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of lymphoid malignancies.
Results
Weak inverse associations with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were observed for isothiocyanates (RR for ≥12.1 vs. <2.7 mcM/day=0.67, 95% CI: 0.43-1.05) and an antioxidant index measuring hydroxyl radical absorbance capacity (RR for ≥2.2 vs. <0.9 μM Trolox equiv/g/day=0.68, 95% CI: 0.42-1.10; ptrend=0.08). Risk of other NHL subtypes, overall B-cell NHL, MM, or HL was not generally associated with dietary intake of isoflavones, lignans, isothiocyanates, antioxidants, or major food sources of these compounds.
Conclusions
Isoflavones, lignans, isothiocyanates, and antioxidant compounds are not associated with risk of most B-cell malignancies, but some phytocompounds may decrease risk of selected subtypes.
doi:10.1007/s10552-010-9692-5
PMCID: PMC3074494  PMID: 21107674
lymphoma; diet; isothiocyanates; antioxidants; cohort studies
7.  Improvements in Survival After Follicular Lymphoma by Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status: A Population-Based Study 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2009;27(18):3044-3051.
Purpose
A recent report suggested improvements in survival after follicular lymphoma (FL), but not for all racial/ethnic groups. To better understand the reasons for these FL survival differences, we examined the joint influences of diagnostic period, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) on survival in a large population-based case series.
Methods
All patients (n = 15,937) diagnosed with FL between 1988 and 2005 in California were observed for vital status through November 2007. Overall and FL-specific survival were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression. Neighborhood SES was assigned from United States Census data using residence at diagnosis.
Results
Overall and FL-specific survival improved 22% and 37%, respectively, from 1988 to 1997 to 1998 to 2005, and were observed in all racial/ethnic groups. Asian/Pacific Islanders had better survival than non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and black patients who had similar outcomes. Lower neighborhood SES was associated with worse survival in patients across all stages of disease (P for trend < .01). Patients with the lowest SES quintile had a 49% increased risk of death from all causes (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.49, 95% CI, 1.30 to 1.72) and 31% increased risk of death from FL (HR = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.60) than patients with the highest SES.
Conclusion
Evolving therapies have likely led to improvements in survival after FL. Although improvements have occurred within all racial/ethnic groups, lower neighborhood SES was significantly associated with substantially poorer survival.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.18.8052
PMCID: PMC2702236  PMID: 19451447
8.  Second primary neoplasms among 53 159 haematolymphoproliferative malignancy patients in Sweden, 1958–1996: a search for common mechanisms 
British Journal of Cancer  2001;85(7):997-1005.
The Swedish Family-Cancer Database was used to analyse site-specific risk of second primary malignancies following 53 159 haematolymphoproliferative disorders (HLPD) diagnosed between 1958 and 1996. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of a second malignancy was calculated as the ratio of observed to expected numbers of second malignancies by applying site-, sex-, age-, period-, residence- and occupation-specific rates in the corresponding population in the Database to the appropriate person-years at risk. Among 18 960 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), there was over a 3-fold significant increase in cancer of the tongue, small intestine, nose, kidney and nervous system, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin, NHL, Hodgkin's disease (HD) and lymphoid and myeloid leukaemia. Among 5353 patients with HD, there was over a 4-fold significant increase in cancer of the salivary glands, nasopharynx and thyroid, NHL and myeloid leukaemia, and over a 1.6-fold increase in cancer of the stomach, colon, lung, breast, skin (melanoma and SCC), nervous system and soft tissues and lymphoid leukaemia. Among 28 846 patients with myeloma and leukaemia, there was a significant increase in cancer of the skin, nervous system and non-thyroid endocrine glands and all HLPD except for myeloma. Our findings showed some clustering between first and second primaries among Epstein–Barr virus-, ultraviolet radiation- and immunosuppression-related cancers. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaignhttp://www.bjcancer.com
doi:10.1054/bjoc.2001.1998
PMCID: PMC2375099  PMID: 11592772
second malignancies; haematolymphoproliferative disorders; Epstein–Barr virus; immunosuppression; follow-up study
9.  Hidden Breast Cancer Disparities in Asian Women: Disaggregating Incidence Rates by Ethnicity and Migrant Status 
American journal of public health  2010;100(Suppl 1):S125-S131.
Objectives
We estimated trends in breast cancer incidence rates for specific Asian populations in California to determine if disparities exist by immigrant status and age.
Methods
To calculate rates by ethnicity and immigrant status, we obtained data for 1998 through 2004 cancer diagnoses from the California Cancer Registry and imputed immigrant status from Social Security Numbers for the 26% of cases with missing birthplace information. Population estimates were obtained from the 1990 and 2000 US Censuses.
Results
Breast cancer rates were higher among US- than among foreign-born Chinese (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.72, 1.96) and Filipina women (IRR = 1.32; 95% CI=1.20, 1.44), but similar between US- and foreign-born Japanese women. US-born Chinese and Filipina women who were younger than 55 years had higher rates than did White women of the same age. Rates increased over time in most groups, as high as 4% per year among foreign-born Korean and US-born Filipina women. From 2000–2004, the rate among US-born Filipina women exceeded that of White women.
Conclusions
These findings challenge the notion that breast cancer rates are uniformly low across Asians and therefore suggest a need for increased awareness, targeted cancer control, and research to better understand underlying factors.
doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.163931
PMCID: PMC2837454  PMID: 20147696
10.  Disparities in survival after Hodgkin lymphoma: a population-based study 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2009;20(10):1881-1892.
Survival after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is generally favorable, but may vary by patient demographic characteristics. The authors examined HL survival according to race/ethnicity and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), determined from residential census block group at diagnosis. For 12,492 classical HL patients ≥15 years diagnosed in California during 1988-2006 and followed through 2007, we determined risk of overall and HL-specific death using Cox proportional hazards regression; analyses were stratified by age and Ann Arbor stage. Irrespective of disease stage, patients with lower neighborhood SES had worse overall and HL-specific survival than patients with higher SES. Patients with the lowest quintile of neighborhood SES had a 64% (patients aged 15-44 years) and 36% (≥45 years) increased risk of HL-death compared to patients with the highest quintile of SES; SES results were similar for overall survival. Even after adjustment for neighborhood SES, blacks and Hispanics had increased risks of HL-death 74% and 43% (15-44 years) and 40% and 17% (≥45 years), respectively, higher than white patients. The racial/ethnic differences in survival were evident for all stages of disease. These data provide evidence for substantial, and probably remediable, racial/ethnic and neighborhood SES disparities in HL outcomes.
doi:10.1007/s10552-009-9382-3
PMCID: PMC2888633  PMID: 19557531
Hodgkin disease; survival; mortality; social class; census
11.  Incidence of lymphoid neoplasms by subtype among six Asian ethnic groups in the United States, 1996–2004 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2008;19(10):1171-1181.
Objectives
To establish baseline data for lymphoid neoplasm incidence by subtype for six Asian-American ethnic groups.
Methods
Incident rates were estimated by age and sex for six Asian ethnic groups—Asian Indian/Pakistani, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese— in five United States cancer registry areas during 1996–2004. For comparison, rates for non-Hispanic Whites were also estimated.
Results
During 1996–2004, Filipinos had the highest (24.0) and Koreans had the lowest incidence (12.7) of total lymphoid neoplasms. By subtype, Vietnamese and Filipinos had the highest incidence for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (8.0 and 7.2); Japanese had the highest incidence of follicular lymphoma (2.3). Although a general male predominance of lymphoid neoplasms was observed, this pattern varied by lymphoid neoplasm subtype. Whites generally had higher rates than all Asian ethnic groups for all lymphoid neoplasms and most lymphoma subtypes, although the magnitude of the difference varied by both ethnicity and lymphoma subtype.
Conclusions
The observed variations in incidence patterns among Asian ethnic groups in the United States suggest that it may be fruitful to pursue studies that compare Asian populations for postulated environmental and genetic risk factors.
doi:10.1007/s10552-008-9184-z
PMCID: PMC2581633  PMID: 18543071
Lymphoid neoplasms; Asians
12.  Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Women: Reproductive Factors and Exogenous Hormone Use 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2008;168(3):278-288.
Few studies of reproductive hormone exposures and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have examined NHL subtypes. Associations between reproductive hormonal factors and risk of all NHL and of two predominant subtypes, diffuse large-cell lymphoma (DLCL) (n = 233) and follicular lymphoma (n = 173), were investigated among women (n = 581) in a large, population-based, case-control study (1,591 cases, 2,515 controls). Controls (n = 836) identified by random digit dialing were frequency matched by age and county to incident NHL cases ascertained in the San Francisco Bay Area of California in 1988–1993. Adjusted unconditional logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios. More than four pregnancies indicated a possible lower risk of all NHL (odds ratio (OR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55, 1.2; p-trend = 0.06) and of DLCL (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.90; p-trend = 0.01). Exclusive use of menopausal hormone therapy for ≥5 years was associated with a reduced risk of all NHL (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.98) and of DLCL (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.85). Oral contraceptive use indicated a lower risk of all NHL (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.94), and perhaps DLCL (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.51, 1.2), and of follicular lymphoma (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.2). Results suggest that endogenous and exogenous reproductive hormones confer different risks by NHL subtype and are associated with a reduced risk of DLCL in women.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwn119
PMCID: PMC2727261  PMID: 18550561
case-control studies; contraception; estrogens; hormone replacement therapy; lymphoma, non-Hodgkin; menopause; pregnancy; reproduction
13.  Outcomes for lymphoid malignancies in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) as compared to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program 
Hematological oncology  2010;28(3):133-136.
INTRODUCTION
Vital statistics for the lymphoid malignancies obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program have seldom been directly compared to data from alternative national databases; while SEER is recognized as the standard, some lymphoid malignancies—especially the chronic ones—may be underreported.
METHODS
We compared the incidence, all-cause, and cause-specific mortality for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in SEER to that in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), a national cohort study of 121,700 female registered nurses, matching for age and race.
RESULTS
In over 2.5 million person-years, the incidence of HL was the same as in SEER (SIR= 1.01 [0.75, 1.26]), while the incidence of NHL, CLL and MM were slightly higher. All-cause mortality was lower for the lymphoid malignancies except for MM, which was the same; there were no differences in cause-specific mortality, except for MM (HR= 1.26 [1.07, 1.48]).
CONCLUSION
Our analysis suggests that, at least among white women, SEER is a reliable data source with respect to lymphoid malignancies.
doi:10.1002/hon.930
PMCID: PMC2946462  PMID: 19866451
hematologic malignancy; health services research; lymphoma; leukemia; myeloma
14.  Influence of American acculturation on cigarette smoking behaviors among Asian American subpopulations in California 
Using combined data from the population-based 2001 and 2003 California Health Interview Surveys, we examined ethnic and gender-specific smoking behaviors and the effect of three acculturation indicators on cigarette smoking behavior and quitting status among 8,192 Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese American men and women. After adjustment for potential confounders, current smoking prevalence was higher and the quit rate was lower for Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese American men compared with Chinese American men. Women’s current smoking prevalence was lower than men’s in all six Asian American subgroups. South Asian and Korean American women reported lower quit rates than women from other ethnic subgroups. Asian American men who reported using only English at home had lower current smoking prevalence and higher quit rates, except for Filipino and South Asian American men. Asian American women who reported using only English at home had higher current smoking prevalence except for Japanese women. Being a second or later generation immigrant was associated with lower smoking prevalence among all Asian American subgroups of men. Less educated men and women had higher smoking prevalence and lower quit rates. In conclusion, both current smoking prevalence and quit rates vary distinctively across gender and ethnic subgroups among Asian Americans in California. Acculturation appears to increase the risk of cigarette smoking for Asian American women. Future tobacco-control programs should target at high-risk Asian American subgroups, defined by ethnicity, acculturation status, and gender.
doi:10.1080/14622200801979126
PMCID: PMC3652889  PMID: 18418780
15.  Head and Neck Cancer Specific Survival Based on Socioeconomic Status in Asians and Pacific Islanders 
Cancer  2010;117(9):1935-1945.
Lower socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to higher incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC) and lower survival. However, there is little known about the effect of SES on HNC survival in Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs). This study’s purpose is to examine the effect of SES on disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) in APIs with HNC using population-based data.
Materials and Methods
53,544 HNC patients (4,711 = APIs) were identified from the California Cancer Registry from 1988 – 2007. Neighborhood (block-group-level) SES, based on composite Census 1990 and 2000 data, was calculated for each patient based on address at diagnosis and categorized into statewide quintiles and collapsed into 2 groups for comparison (low SES = quintiles 1-3; high SES = quintiles 4-5). DSS and OS were computed by Kaplan-Meier method. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models.
Results
Among APIs, lower neighborhood SES was significantly associated with poorer DSS (HR range for oral cavity, oropharynx, or larynx/hypopharynx cancer: 1.07–1.34) and OS (HR range: 1.13–1.37) after adjusting for patient and tumor characteristics. Lower SES was significantly associated with poorer survival in API with all HNC sites combined: DSS HR: 1.26 (95% CI: 1.08 – 1.48); OS HR: 1.30 (95% CI: 1.16 – 1.45).
Conclusions
Neighborhood SES is associated with longer DSS and OS in API with HNC. The effect of SES on HNC survival should be considered in future studies, and particular attention should be paid to clinical care of lower-SES HNC patients.
doi:10.1002/cncr.25723
PMCID: PMC3117112  PMID: 21509771
socioeconomic status; head and neck cancer; Asians; Pacific Islanders
16.  Ocular adnexal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: a review of epidemiology and risk factors 
Expert review of ophthalmology  2011;6(2):181-193.
Ocular adnexal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), the most common form of ophthalmic NHL, has a unique incidence pattern showing a steady and rapid increase in the past few decades, nearly equal rates among both genders, and predominance among Asians/Pacific Islanders. No major cause for ocular adnexal NHL has been identified, although infectious agents, immune disorders and genetic/epigenetic factors have all been implicated in its etiology. Identifying putative risk factors and biologic mechanisms leading to carcinogenesis in ocular adnexal NHL may enable implementation of effective preventive and/or therapeutic approaches for this malignancy. This article summarizes current knowledge on epidemiology of ocular adnexal NHL and the role of various potential risk factors in its etiology.
doi:10.1586/eop.11.15
PMCID: PMC3749740  PMID: 23976898
epigenetic changes and NHL; extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue; genetic factors and NHL; immune factors and NHL; infectious agents and NHL; ocular adnexal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
17.  Descriptive epidemiology of ophthalmic and ocular adnexal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma 
Expert review of ophthalmology  2011;6(2):175-180.
In this article, we provide an update on incidence rates of ophthalmic non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), in the context of other NHL, in the USA. We also provide population-based estimates of incidence and survival for ocular adnexal NHL, the most common form of ophthalmic NHL, for which descriptive patterns have not been previously reported. Ophthalmic and ocular adnexal NHL have unique incidence patterns, including equal rates among both genders, predominance among Asians/Pacific Islanders, and steady and rapid increases in the past few decades. Studies of international variations in the incidence of ocular adnexal NHL may provide clues as to the underlying mechanisms influencing its unique epidemiology.
PMCID: PMC3864672  PMID: 24353742
incidence and survival patterns of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL); ocular adnexal NHL; ophthalmic NHL
18.  Asian Subgroups and Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates in California 
Cancer  2005;104(12 Suppl):2975-2981.
The objective of this study was to characterize better the cancer burden among Asian subgroups in California. Nearly 3.7 million Asians reside in California, and no other state has as many Asians. Cancer statistics for Asians often are combined with statistics for Pacific Islanders, and rates for subgroups are not often examined, because most states do not have a large enough population. Asians are affected disproportionately by certain cancers, such as stomach and liver cancers. The California Cancer Registry, a population-based cancer registry, has collected data, including race/ethnicity data, since 1988. The 5-year, average, annual, age-adjusted cancer incidence and mortality rates from 1997 through 2001 were calculated for 5 Asian subgroups: Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese. Cancer incidence and mortality varied greatly. Incidence rates for all sites combined among males varied from a low of 318.6 per 100,000 for Chinese to a high of 366.0 per 100,000 among Japanese. For females, rates ranged from 236.6 per 100,000 among Koreans to 302.4 per 100,000 among Japanese. Mortality rates also varied by Asian subgroup. Presenting one statistic for Asian/Pacific Islanders did not provide an accurate depiction of the cancer burden among the different Asian subgroups. Acculturation will continue to affect the patterns of cancer incidence among Asian subgroups in California.
doi:10.1002/cncr.21511
PMCID: PMC1810966  PMID: 16247792
Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training; cancer surveillance; Chinese; incidence; mortality; Filipino; Japanese; Korean; Vietnamese; California
19.  The influence of nativity and neighborhoods on breast cancer stage at diagnosis and survival among California Hispanic women 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:603.
Background
In the US, foreign-born Hispanics tend to live in socioeconomic conditions typically associated with later stage of breast cancer diagnosis, yet they have lower breast cancer mortality rates than their US-born counterparts. We evaluated the impact of nativity (US- versus foreign-born), neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and Hispanic enclave (neighborhoods with high proportions of Hispanics or Hispanic immigrants) on breast cancer stage at diagnosis and survival among Hispanics.
Methods
We studied 37,695 Hispanic women diagnosed from 1988 to 2005 with invasive breast cancer from the California Cancer Registry. Nativity was based on registry data or, if missing, imputed from case Social Security number. Neighborhood variables were developed from Census data. Stage at diagnosis was analyzed with logistic regression, and survival, based on vital status determined through 2007, was analyzed with Cox proportional hazards regression.
Results
Compared to US-born Hispanics, foreign-born Hispanics were more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage of breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.20), but they had a somewhat lower risk of breast cancer specific death (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90-0.99). Living in low SES and high enclave neighborhoods was associated with advanced stage of diagnosis, while living in a lower SES neighborhood, but not Hispanic enclave, was associated with worse survival.
Conclusion
Identifying the modifiable factors that facilitate this survival advantage in Hispanic immigrants could help to inform specific interventions to improve survival in this growing population.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-603
PMCID: PMC2988754  PMID: 21050464
20.  Breast cancer survival in South Asian women in England and Wales 
Study objectives: To estimate ethnic and socioeconomic differences in breast cancer incidence and survival between South Asians and non-South Asians in England and Wales, and to provide a baseline for surveillance of cancer survival in South Asians, the largest ethnic minority.
Setting: 115 712 women diagnosed with first primary invasive breast cancer in England and Wales during 1986–90 and followed up to 1995.
Methods/design: Ethnic group was ascribed by a computer algorithm on the basis of the name. Incidence rates were derived from 1991 census population denominators for each ethnic group. One and five year relative survival rates were estimated by age, quintile of material deprivation, and ethnic group, using national mortality rates to estimate expected survival.
Main results: Age standardised incidence was 29% lower among South Asian women (40.5 per 100 000 per year) than among all other women (57.4 per 100 000). Five year age standardised relative survival was 70.3% (95%CI 65.2 to 75.4) for South Asian women and 66.7% (66.4 to 67.0) for other women. For both ethnic groups, survival was 8%–9% higher for women in the most affluent group than those in the most deprived group. In each deprivation category, however, survival was 3%–8% higher for South Asian women than other women.
Conclusions: This national study confirms that breast cancer incidence is substantially lower in South Asians than other women in England and Wales. It also provides some evidence that South Asian women diagnosed up to 1990 had higher breast cancer survival than other women in England and Wales, both overall and in each category of deprivation.
doi:10.1136/jech.2004.030965
PMCID: PMC1733081  PMID: 15831690
21.  2'-Chlorodeoxyadenosine: evaluation of a novel predominantly lymphocyte selective agent in lymphoid malignancies. 
British Journal of Cancer  1993;67(1):139-143.
2'-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (2CDA) is a purine analogue selectively active against both resting and dividing lymphoid cells. Twenty-one patients with a variety of previously treated lymphoid malignancies received a total of 41 courses of 2CDA (0.1-0.15 mg/kg/day over 7 days continuous intravenous infusion) on compassionate grounds. The profile of the patient population was as follows: low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) = 8, intermediate grade NHL = 2, transformed (intermediate grade NHL) = 6, Hodgkin's disease = 1, lymphoplasmacytoid NHL = 3 and lymphoblastic NHL = 1. The overall response rate was 53%, with three patients attaining complete remission (CR) and eight partial remission (PR). Three of 16 patients with primary resistant or resistant recurrent disease entered either CR (1) or PR (2). Ten patients had no response or progressive disease. The latter group was comprised of patients who had extensively pre-treated lymphoplasmacytoid tumours and/or poor performance status (WHO grades 2-4). The median duration of response is 6 months (range 1 to 12 months). Treatment was well tolerated and the chief toxicities were leucopenia and thrombocytopenia which were most pronounced when there was bone marrow involvement. As a result of dose limiting myelotoxicity, a dose escalation to 0.15 mg/kg/day was possible on just three occasions. These data confirm other reports of the activity of 2CDA in low grade NHL and indicate it may have activity in Hodgkin's disease. There was no demonstrable activity in poor performance status patients or those with extensively pre-treated lymphoplasmacytoid tumours.
PMCID: PMC1968218  PMID: 8094003
22.  Clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Korea. Lymphoreticular Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists. 
This study sponsored by the Lymphoreticular Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists was carried out to provide nationwide data about the histopathologic-immunophenotypic features of malignant lymphomas in Korea. Two hundred and ninety Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) among 312 malignant lymphomas collected from three representative areas in Korea were histologically reclassified. Two hundred and fifty three cases were immunohistochemically studied. T-cell lymphoma comprised 35.2% of NHL in this study and showed a quite comparable incidence to that of Japan and China, but it was much higher than in Western countries. A very low prevalence rate of the follicular variety (4.0%) and a higher propensity of primary extranodal involvement (60%) are additional characteristics of NHL in Korea. The most common histologic subtype of B cell lymphoma was diffuse large cell type, whereas the most common subtype of T cell lymphoma was diffuse mixed small and large cell type.
PMCID: PMC3053778  PMID: 1285918
23.  UV radiation exposure, skin type and lymphoid malignancies: results of a French case-control study 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2007;19(3):305-315.
Objectives
Investigating the relationship between skin type, UV exposure and lymphoid malignancies (LM).
Methods
We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in France, including 813 incident cases of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), lymphoproliferative syndrome (LPS) or multiple myeloma and 748 controls.
Results
Positive associations between HL and blond/red hair (OR=1.8 [0.8–3.8]), very fair/fair skin (OR=1.6 [1.0–2.5]) were observed. High propensity to burn was associated with HL (OR=1.5 [1.0–2.2]) and LPS (OR=1.4 [1.0–2.1]). Poor ability to tan was significantly associated with HL (OR=1.7 [1.0–2.8]). Having light hair with high propensity to burn was associated with NHL (OR=1.5 [0.9–2.5]) and significantly with HL (OR=3.4 [1.4–8.4]). Having dark hair with high propensity to burn was significantly associated with LPS (OR=1.5 [1.0–2.0]). The associations with HL and NHL were significant for men only, with significant interactions. Outdoors activities since leaving school or in the last decade were not related to LM. Only an almost negative trend was observed. Prior exposure to artificial UV was not associated with LM.
Conclusion
These results suggest a positive association between the most reactive and palest skin types and NHL or HL in men and do not rule out a slight negative relationship between UV exposure and LM.
doi:10.1007/s10552-007-9093-6
PMCID: PMC2323431  PMID: 18040875
UV radiation exposure; skin type and lymphoma; epidemiology; case-control study
24.  Childhood cancer in the south Asian population of England (1990–1992) 
British Journal of Cancer  2001;84(9):1215-1218.
Cancer incidence in 1990–92 among English south Asian (residents with ethnic origins in India, Pakistan or Bangladesh) and non-south Asian children is compared. Standardized incidence ratios show significant overall excesses in south Asians (131), largely due to higher rates in south Asian boys, and specific excesses for leukaemia (141), lymphoid leukaemia (141), lymphoma (172) and hepatic tumours (375). Aetiological investigation is required. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
doi:10.1054/bjoc.2001.1775
PMCID: PMC2363888  PMID: 11336473
child; cancer incidence; south Asian; migrants; England
25.  Cancer incidence in the south Asian population of California, 1988–2000 
Background
Although South Asians (SA) form a large majority of the Asian population of U.S., very little is known about cancer in this immigrant population. SAs comprise people having origins mainly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. We calculated age-adjusted incidence and time trends of cancer in the SA population of California (state with the largest concentration of SAs) between 1988–2000 and compared these rates to rates in native Asian Indians as well as to those experienced by the Asian/Pacific Islander (API) and White, non-Hispanic population (NHW) population of California.
Methods
Age adjusted incidence rates observed among the SA population of California during the time period 1988–2000 were calculated. To correctly identify the ethnicity of cancer cases, 'Nam Pehchan' (British developed software) was used to identify numerator cases of SA origin from the population-based cancer registry in California (CCR). Denominators were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau. Incidence rates in SAs were calculated and a time trend analysis was also performed. Comparison data on the API and the NHW population of California were also obtained from CCR and rates from Globocan 2002 were used to determine rates in India.
Results
Between 1988–2000, 5192 cancers were diagnosed in SAs of California.
Compared to rates in native Asian Indians, rates of cancer in SAs in California were higher for all sites except oropharyngeal, oesophageal and cervical cancers. Compared to APIs of California, SA population experienced more cancers of oesophagus, gall bladder, prostate, breast, ovary and uterus, as well as lymphomas, leukemias and multiple myelomas. Compared to NHW population of California, SAs experienced more cancers of the stomach, liver and bile duct, gall bladder, cervix and multiple myelomas. Significantly increasing time trends were observed in colon and breast cancer incidence.
Conclusion
SA population of California experiences unique patterns of cancer incidence most likely associated with acculturation, screening and tobacco habits. There is need for early diagnosis of leading cancers in SA. If necessary steps are not taken to curb the growth of breast, colon and lung cancer, rates in SA will soon approximate those of the NHW population of California.
doi:10.1186/1477-3163-4-21
PMCID: PMC1315316  PMID: 16283945

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