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1.  Association between Genetic Variants on Chromosome 15q25 Locus and Several Nicotine Dependence Traits in Polish Population: A Case-Control Study 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:350348.
Tobacco smoking continues to be a leading cause of disease and mortality. Recent research has confirmed the important role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene cluster on chromosome 15q 24-25 in nicotine dependence and smoking. In this study we tested the association of smoking initiation, age at onset of daily smoking, and heaviness of smoking with five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cluster. The group of 389 adult subjects of European ancestry from the north of Poland, including 212 ever (140 current and 72 former) and 177 never smokers with mean age 49.26, was genotyped for rs16969868, rs1051730, rs588765, rs6495308, and rs578776 polymorphisms. Distributions of genotypes for rs16969868 and rs1051730 were identical so they were analyzed together. Further analysis revealed the association between rs16969868-1051730 (OR = 2.66; 95% CI: 1.30–5.42) and number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) with heaviness of nicotine addiction measured by the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) (OR = 2.60; 95% CI: 1.24–5.43). No association between these polymorphisms and other phenotypes was found. Similarly, the association between rs588765, rs6495308, rs578776, and analyzed phenotypes was not confirmed. This study provides strong evidence for the role of the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cluster in heaviness of nicotine addiction.
doi:10.1155/2015/350348
PMCID: PMC4303006  PMID: 25632390
2.  Nicotine dependence in an isolated population of Kashubians from North Poland: a population survey 
BMC Public Health  2015;15:80.
Background
Tobacco use is a complex, multistage behaviour. The particular stages of this behaviour, including nicotine dependence (ND), are influenced by both genetics and the environment. Surveys on factors influencing tobacco use and ND, conducted in ethnically homogenous populations, can provide results less influenced by genetic and cultural heterogeneity. We aimed to assess ND in a sample of current smokers, derived from the geographically and culturally isolated population of Kashubians from North Poland, and evaluate its potential association with age, sex, and self-reported comorbidities. In addition, we attempted to replicate - for the first time in this population - previous findings on the association between ND and several variants within the CHRNA5A3-A5-B4 nicotine receptor subunit gene cluster.
Methods
The study sample consisted of 969 unrelated subjects who were all current smokers. ND was evaluated using four measures: the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), the Heavy Smoking Index (HSI), the number of cigarettes per day (CPD) and the time to first cigarette after waking (TTF). All subjects underwent genotyping for CHRNA5 rs16969968, CHRNA3 rs578776, and CHRNB4 rs12914008 variants. Multivariate regression analysis was used for the assessment of the studied correlations. A significance level of 0.05 with the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was set for a type 1 error in the analyses.
Results
The mean CPD, FTND and HSI scores in the study sample were 17.3 ± 7.7, 3.9 ± 2.3 and 2.6 ± 1.5, respectively. No association between ND defined by FTND, HSI or TTF and age was found. In turn, heavy smoking was significantly associated with older age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-2.59, p = 0.009), and men were more likely than women to be heavy smokers (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.09-2.65, p = 0.018). Chronic comorbidity did not significantly influence ND. An analysis of association of studied polymorphisms with ND showed a borderline association of rs16969968 with CPD (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.09–2.45, p = 0.017).
Conclusion
Our study showed a low to moderate level of ND in the Kashubians, influenced by age, sex, as well as the CHRNA5 rs16969968 variant.
doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1455-5
PMCID: PMC4319221  PMID: 25652844
Nicotine dependence; Population survey; Demographic; Nicotinic receptor subunit; Polymorphism
3.  Alpha-5 and -3 nicotinic receptor gene variants predict nicotine dependence but not cessation: Findings from the COMMIT cohort 
American Journal of Medical Genetics  2012;159B(2):227-235.
Smoking many cigarettes per day (CPD) and short interval to first cigarette (TTF) after waking are two of the most heritable smoking phenotypes and comprise the Heavy Smoking Index (HSI). These phenotypes are often used as proxies for nicotine dependence (ND) and are associated with smoking cessation outcomes. Case-control and genome-wide association studies have reported links between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the alpha-5 and -3 nicotinic receptor subunit (CHRNA5 and CHRNA3) genes and CPD but few have examined TTF or cessation outcomes. In this study we longitudinally assessed 1301 European-American smokers at four time-points from 1988 to 2005. One CHRNA5 (rs16969968) and two CHRNA3 (rs1051703, rs6495308) SNPs were examined for their ability to predict smokers who ‘ever’ reported ND based on three phenotypic classifications: 1) 25+ CPD, 2) TTF < 10 minutes, and 3) HSI ≥ 4. In a subsample of 1157 quit attempters, we also examined each SNP’s ability to predict ‘ever’ quitting for a period of >6 months. Demographically adjusted logistic regressions showed significant allelic and genotypic associations between all three SNPs and CPD but not TTF, HSI, or smoking cessation. Carriers of both the rs16969968-AA and rs6495308-TT genotypes had approximately two-fold greater odds for ND defined using CPD or TTF. Results suggest nicotinic receptor variants are associated with greater odds of ND according to CPD and to a lesser extent TTF. Research examining the effect of nicotinic receptor genetic variation on ND phenotypes beyond CPD is warranted.
doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.32019
PMCID: PMC3262775  PMID: 22223462
Cholinergic; Nicotinic; Allele; Dependence; Cessation
4.  Association of serum cotinine level with a cluster of three nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRNA3/CHRNA5/CHRNB4) on chromosome 15 
Human Molecular Genetics  2009;18(20):4007-4012.
A cluster of three nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes on chromosome 15 (CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4) has been shown to be associated with nicotine dependence and smoking quantity. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the variation at this locus regulates nicotine intake among smokers by using the level of a metabolite of nicotine, cotinine, as an outcome. The number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and immune-reactive serum cotinine level were determined in 516 daily smokers (age 30–75 years, 303 males) from the population-based Health2000 study. Association of 21 SNPs from a 100 kb region of chromosome 15 with cotinine and CPD was examined. SNP rs1051730 showed the strongest association to both measures. However, this SNP accounted for nearly a five-fold larger proportion of variance in cotinine levels than in CPD (R2 4.3% versus 0.9%). The effect size of the SNP was 0.30 for cotinine level, whereas it was 0.13 for CPD. Variation at CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4 cluster influences nicotine level, measured as cotinine, more strongly than smoking quantity, measured by CPD, and appears thus to be involved in regulation of nicotine levels among smokers.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddp322
PMCID: PMC2748889  PMID: 19628476
5.  Multiple Independent Loci at Chromosome 15q25.1 Affect Smoking Quantity: a Meta-Analysis and Comparison with Lung Cancer and COPD 
PLoS Genetics  2010;6(8):e1001053.
Recently, genetic association findings for nicotine dependence, smoking behavior, and smoking-related diseases converged to implicate the chromosome 15q25.1 region, which includes the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit genes. In particular, association with the nonsynonymous CHRNA5 SNP rs16969968 and correlates has been replicated in several independent studies. Extensive genotyping of this region has suggested additional statistically distinct signals for nicotine dependence, tagged by rs578776 and rs588765. One goal of the Consortium for the Genetic Analysis of Smoking Phenotypes (CGASP) is to elucidate the associations among these markers and dichotomous smoking quantity (heavy versus light smoking), lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We performed a meta-analysis across 34 datasets of European-ancestry subjects, including 38,617 smokers who were assessed for cigarettes-per-day, 7,700 lung cancer cases and 5,914 lung-cancer-free controls (all smokers), and 2,614 COPD cases and 3,568 COPD-free controls (all smokers). We demonstrate statistically independent associations of rs16969968 and rs588765 with smoking (mutually adjusted p-values<10−35 and <10−8 respectively). Because the risk alleles at these loci are negatively correlated, their association with smoking is stronger in the joint model than when each SNP is analyzed alone. Rs578776 also demonstrates association with smoking after adjustment for rs16969968 (p<10−6). In models adjusting for cigarettes-per-day, we confirm the association between rs16969968 and lung cancer (p<10−20) and observe a nominally significant association with COPD (p = 0.01); the other loci are not significantly associated with either lung cancer or COPD after adjusting for rs16969968. This study provides strong evidence that multiple statistically distinct loci in this region affect smoking behavior. This study is also the first report of association between rs588765 (and correlates) and smoking that achieves genome-wide significance; these SNPs have previously been associated with mRNA levels of CHRNA5 in brain and lung tissue.
Author Summary
Nicotine binds to cholinergic nicotinic receptors, which are composed of a variety of subunits. Genetic studies for smoking behavior and smoking-related diseases have implicated a genomic region that encodes the alpha5, alpha3, and beta4 subunits. We examined genetic data across this region for over 38,000 smokers, a subset of which had been assessed for lung cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We demonstrate strong evidence that there are at least two statistically independent loci in this region that affect risk for heavy smoking. One of these loci represents a change in the protein structure of the alpha5 subunit. This work is also the first to report strong evidence of association between smoking and a group of genetic variants that are of biological interest because of their links to expression of the alpha5 cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit gene. These advances in understanding the genetic influences on smoking behavior are important because of the profound public health burdens caused by smoking and nicotine addiction.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1001053
PMCID: PMC2916847  PMID: 20700436
6.  The CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 nicotinic receptor subunit gene cluster affects risk for nicotine dependence in African-Americans and in European-Americans 
Cancer research  2009;69(17):6848-6856.
Genetic association studies have demonstrated the importance of variants in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit gene cluster on chromosome 15q24-25.1 in risk for nicotine dependence, smoking, and lung cancer in populations of European descent. We have now carried out a detailed study of this region using dense genotyping in both European- and African-Americans.
We genotyped 75 known single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) and one sequencing-discovered SNP in an African-American (AA) sample (N = 710) and European-American (EA) sample (N = 2062). Cases were nicotine-dependent and controls were non-dependent smokers.
The non-synonymous CHRNA5 SNP rs16969968 is the most significant SNP associated with nicotine dependence in the full sample of 2772 subjects (p = 4.49×10−8, OR 1.42 (1.25–1.61)) as well as in AAs only (p = 0.015, OR = 2.04 (1.15–3.62)) and EAs only (p = 4.14×10−7, OR = 1.40 (1.23–1.59)). Other SNPs that have been shown to affect mRNA levels of CHRNA5 in EAs are associated with nicotine dependence in AAs but not in EAs. The CHRNA3 SNP rs578776, which has low correlation with rs16969968, is associated with nicotine dependence in EAs but not in AAs. Less common SNPs (frequency ≤ 5%) also are associated with nicotine dependence.
In summary, multiple variants in this gene cluster contribute to nicotine dependence risk, and some are also associated with functional effects on CHRNA5. The non-synonymous SNP rs16969968, a known risk variant in European-descent populations, is also significantly associated with risk in African-Americans. Additional SNPs contribute in distinct ways to risk in these two populations.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-0786
PMCID: PMC2874321  PMID: 19706762
genetic association; smoking; cholinergic nicotinic receptors; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
7.  Associations of Nicotine Intake Measures With CHRN Genes in Finnish Smokers 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2011;13(8):686-690.
Introduction:
Genetic effects contribute to individual differences in smoking behavior. Persistence to smoke despite known harmful health effects is mostly driven by nicotine addiction. As the physiological effects of nicotine are mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), we aimed at examining whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) residing in nAChR subunit (CHRN) genes, other than CHRNA3/CHRNA5/CHRNB4 gene cluster previously showing association in our sample, are associated with smoking quantity or serum cotinine levels.
Methods:
The study sample consisted of 485 Finnish adult daily smokers (age 30–75 years, 59% men) assessed for the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and serum cotinine level. We first studied SNPs residing on selected nAChR subunit genes (CHRNA2, CHRNA4, CHRNA6/CHRNB3, CHRNA7, CHRNA9, CHRNA10, CHRNB2, CHRNG/CHRND) genotyped within a genome-wide association study for single SNP and multiple SNP associations by ordinal regression. Next, we explored individual haplotype associations using sliding window technique.
Results:
At one of the 8 loci studied, CHRNG/CHRND (chr2), single SNP (rs1190452), multiple SNP, and 2-SNP haplotype analyses (SNPs rs4973539–rs1190452) all showed statistically significant association with cotinine level. The median cotinine levels varied between the 2-SNP haplotypes from 220 ng/ml (AA haplotype) to 249 ng/ml (AG haplotype). We did not observe significant associations with CPD.
Conclusions:
These results provide further evidence that the γ−δ nAChR subunit gene region is associated with cotinine levels but not with the number of CPD, illustrating the usefulness of biomarkers in genetic analyses.
doi:10.1093/ntr/ntr059
PMCID: PMC3150688  PMID: 21498873
8.  Four SNPs in the CHRNA3/5 Alpha-Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunit Locus Are Associated with COPD Risk Based on Meta-Analyses 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e102324.
Background
Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an α-neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (CHRNA3/5) were identified to be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a study based on a Norwegian population. However, results from subsequent studies have been controversial, particularly in studies recruiting Asians. In the present study, we conducted a comprehensive search and meta-analyses to identify susceptibility SNPs for COPD in the CHRNA3/5 locus.
Methods
A comprehensive literature search was conducted to find studies that have reported an association between SNPs in the CHRNA3/5 locus and COPD risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each SNP were calculated with the major allele or genotype as the reference group. The influence of individual studies on pooled measures was assessed, in addition to publication bias.
Results
A total of 12 articles with 14 eligible studies were included in this analysis. Association between 4 SNPs in the CHRNA3/5 locus and COPD was evaluated and included rs1051730, rs8034191, rs6495309, and rs16969968. Significant associations between the 4 SNPs and COPD were identified under allele (rs1051730: OR = 1.14, 95%CI = 1.10–1.18; rs8034191: OR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.18–1.41; rs6495309: OR = 1.26, 95%CI = 1.09–1.45; rs16969968: OR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.17–1.39) and genotype models. Subgroup analysis conducted for rs1051730 showed a significant association between this SNP and COPD risk in non-Asians (OR = 1.14, 95%CI = 1.10–1.18), but not Asians (OR = 1.23, 95%CI = 0.91–1.67). Rs1051730 and rs6495309 were also significantly associated with COPD after adjusting for multiple variables, including age and smoking status.
Conclusion
Our results indicate that 4 SNPs in the CHRNA3/5 locus are associated with COPD risk. Rs1051730 was particularly associated with COPD in non-Asians, but its role in Asians still needs to be verified. Additional studies will be necessary to assess the effect of rs6495309 on COPD. Although rs1051730 and rs6495309 were shown to be independent risk factors for COPD, validation studies should be performed.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102324
PMCID: PMC4106784  PMID: 25051068
9.  From Men to Mice: CHRNA5/CHRNA3, Smoking Behavior and Disease 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2012;14(11):1291-1299.
Introduction:
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene cluster CHRNA5-A3-B4 on chromosome 15 has been the subject of a considerable body of research over recent years. Two highly correlated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within this region—rs16969968 in CHRNA5 and rs1051730 in CHRNA3—have generated particular interest.
Methods:
We reviewed the literature relating to SNPs rs16969968 and rs1051730 and smoking-related phenotypes, and clinical and preclinical studies, which shed light on the mechanisms underlying these associations.
Results:
Following the initial discovery of an association between this locus and smoking behavior, further associations with numerous phenotypes have been subsequently identified, including smoking-related behaviors, diseases, and cognitive phenotypes. Potential mechanisms thought to underlie these have also been described, as well as possible gene × environment interaction effects.
Conclusions:
Perhaps counter to the usual route of scientific inquiry, these initial findings, based exclusively on human samples and strengthened by their identification through agnostic genome-wide methods, have led to preclinical research focused on determining the mechanism underlying these associations. Progress has been made using knockout mouse models, highlighting the importance of α5 nAChR subunits in regulating nicotine intake, particularly those localized to the habenula–interpeduncular nucleus pathway. Translational research seeking to evaluate the effect of nicotine challenge on brain activation as a function of rs16969968 genotype using neuroimaging technologies is now called for, which may point to new targets for novel smoking cessation therapies.
doi:10.1093/ntr/nts106
PMCID: PMC3482013  PMID: 22544838
10.  The CHRNA3 rs578776 Variant is Associated with an Intrinsic Reward Sensitivity Deficit in Smokers 
A compromised brain reward system has been postulated as a key feature of drug dependence. We examined whether several polymorphisms of genes found to regulate nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and dopamine expression were related to an intrinsic reward sensitivity (IRS) deficit we previously identified among a subgroup of smokers using event-related potentials (ERPs). We examined genetic polymorphisms within the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster (CHRNA3 rs578776, CHRNA5 rs16969968, LOC123688 rs8034191, and CHRNA3 rs1051730), the ANKK1 gene (rs1800497), and the D2 dopamine receptor gene (DRD2 rs1079597, DRD2 rs1799732) from 104 smokers of European ancestry in a smoking cessation trial. Prior to treatment, we recorded ERPs evoked by emotional (both pleasant and unpleasant), neutral, and cigarette-related pictures. Smokers were assigned to two groups (IRS+/IRS−) based on the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) component to the pictures, a neural marker of motivational salience. Smokers (n = 42) with blunted brain responses to intrinsically rewarding (pleasant) pictures and enhanced responses to cigarette pictures were assigned to the IRS− group, while smokers (n = 62) with the opposite pattern of LPP responding were assigned to the IRS+ group. Carriers of the protective minor T allele (T/T, C/T) of the CHRNA3 rs578776 were less likely to be members of the IRS− group than those homozygous for the at-risk C allele (C/C). The CHRNA3 rs578776 polymorphism did not differ on questionnaires of nicotine dependence, depressed mood, or trait affective disposition and did not predict abstinence at 6 months after the quit date. These results suggest that polymorphisms of genes influencing nAChR expression are related to an endophenotype of reward sensitivity in smokers.
doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00114
PMCID: PMC3779859  PMID: 24065931
nAChR; DRD2; nicotine; reward sensitivity; ERP; LPP; smoking cessation; genetics
11.  Association of the CHRNA5-A3-B4 Gene Cluster With Heaviness of Smoking: A Meta-Analysis 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2011;13(12):1167-1175.
Introduction:
Variation in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster is a promising candidate region for smoking behavior and has been linked to multiple smoking-related phenotypes (e.g., nicotine dependence) and diseases (e.g., lung cancer). Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs16969968 in CHRNA5 and rs1051730 in CHRNA3, have generated particular interest.
Methods:
We evaluated the published evidence for association between rs16969968 (k = 27 samples) and rs1051730 (k = 44 samples) SNPs with heaviness of smoking using meta-analytic techniques. We explored which SNP provided a stronger genetic signal and investigated study-level characteristics (i.e., ancestry, disease state) to establish whether the strength of association differed across populations. We additionally tested for small study bias and explored the impact of year of publication.
Results and Conclusions:
Meta-analysis indicated compelling evidence of an association between the rs1051730/rs16966968 variants and daily cigarette consumption (fixed effects: B = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.77, 1.06, p < .001; random effects: B = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.22, p < .001), equivalent to a per-allele effect of approximately 1 cigarette/day. SNP rs1051730 was found to provide a stronger signal than rs16966968 in stratified analyses (pdiff = .028), although this difference was only qualitatively observed in the subset of samples that provided data on both SNPs. While the functional relevance of rs1051730 is unknown, it may be a strong tagging SNP for functional haplotypes in this region.
doi:10.1093/ntr/ntr118
PMCID: PMC3223575  PMID: 22071378
12.  Genome-wide association study of smoking behaviors in COPD patients 
Thorax  2011;66(10):894-902.
Background
Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for COPD and COPD severity. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and a Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase (DBH) locus associated with smoking cessation in multiple populations.
Objective
To identify SNPs associated with lifetime average and current CPD, age at smoking initiation, and smoking cessation in COPD subjects.
Methods
GWAS were conducted in 4 independent cohorts encompassing 3,441 ever-smoking COPD subjects (GOLD stage II or higher). Untyped SNPs were imputed using HapMap (phase II) panel. Results from all cohorts were meta-analyzed.
Results
Several SNPs near the HLA region on chromosome 6p21 and in an intergenic region on chromosome 2q21 showed associations with age at smoking initiation, both with the lowest p=2×10−7. No SNPs were associated with lifetime average CPD, current CPD or smoking cessation with p<10−6. Nominally significant associations with candidate SNPs within alpha-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors 3/5 (CHRNA3/CHRNA5; e.g. p=0.00011 for SNP rs1051730) and Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6; e.g. p=2.78×10−5 for a nonsynonymous SNP rs1801272) regions were observed for lifetime average CPD, however only CYP2A6 showed evidence of significant association with current CPD. A candidate SNP (rs3025343) in the DBH was significantly (p=0.015) associated with smoking cessation.
Conclusion
We identified two candidate regions associated with age at smoking initiation in COPD subjects. Associations of CHRNA3/CHRNA5 and CYP2A6 loci with CPD and DBH with smoking cessation are also likely of importance in the smoking behaviors of COPD patients.
doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2011-200154
PMCID: PMC3302576  PMID: 21685187
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD); Genome Wide Association study (GWAS); smoking behaviors; Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
13.  Relationship Between CYP2A6 and CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 Variation and Smoking Behaviors and Lung Cancer Risk 
Genetic variations in the CYP2A6 nicotine metabolic gene and the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 (CHRNA5-A3-B4) nicotinic gene cluster have been independently associated with lung cancer. With genotype data from ever-smokers of European ancestry (417 lung cancer patients and 443 control subjects), we investigated the relative and combined associations of polymorphisms in these two genes with smoking behavior and lung cancer risk. Kruskal–Wallis tests were used to compare smoking variables among the different genotype groups, and odds ratios (ORs) for cancer risk were estimated using logistic regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Cigarette consumption (P < .001) and nicotine dependence (P = .036) were the highest in the combined CYP2A6 normal metabolizers and CHRNA5-A3-B4 AA (tag single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1051730 G>A) risk group. The combined risk group also exhibited the greatest lung cancer risk (OR = 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21 to 3.40), which was even higher among those who smoked 20 or fewer cigarettes per day (OR = 3.03; 95% CI = 1.38 to 6.66). Variation in CYP2A6 and CHRNA5-A3-B4 was independently and additively associated with increased cigarette consumption, nicotine dependence, and lung cancer risk. CYP2A6 and CHRNA5-A3-B4 appear to be more strongly associated with smoking behaviors and lung cancer risk, respectively.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djr237
PMCID: PMC3168937  PMID: 21747048
14.  Increased Genetic Vulnerability to Smoking at CHRNA5 in Early-Onset Smokers 
Hartz, Sarah M. | Short, Susan E. | Saccone, Nancy L. | Culverhouse, Robert | Chen, LiShiun | Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi | Coon, Hilary | Han, Younghun | Stephens, Sarah H. | Sun, Juzhong | Chen, Xiangning | Ducci, Francesca | Dueker, Nicole | Franceschini, Nora | Frank, Josef | Geller, Frank | Guđbjartsson, Daniel | Hansel, Nadia N. | Jiang, Chenhui | Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu | Liu, Zhen | Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka | Michel, Martha | Rawal, Rajesh | Hum, Sc | Rosenberger, Albert | Scheet, Paul | Shaffer, John R. | Teumer, Alexander | Thompson, John R. | Vink, Jacqueline M. | Vogelzangs, Nicole | Wenzlaff, Angela S. | Wheeler, William | Xiao, Xiangjun | Yang, Bao-Zhu | Aggen, Steven H. | Balmforth, Anthony J. | Baumeister, Sebastian E. | Beaty, Terri | Bennett, Siiri | Bergen, Andrew W. | Boyd, Heather A. | Broms, Ulla | Campbell, Harry | Chatterjee, Nilanjan | Chen, Jingchun | Cheng, Yu-Ching | Cichon, Sven | Couper, David | Cucca, Francesco | Dick, Danielle M. | Foroud, Tatiana | Furberg, Helena | Giegling, Ina | Gu, Fangyi | Hall, Alistair S. | Hällfors, Jenni | Han, Shizhong | Hartmann, Annette M. | Hayward, Caroline | Heikkilä, Kauko | Lic, Phil | Hewitt, John K. | Hottenga, Jouke Jan | Jensen, Majken K. | Jousilahti, Pekka | Kaakinen, Marika | Kittner, Steven J. | Konte, Bettina | Korhonen, Tellervo | Landi, Maria-Teresa | Laatikainen, Tiina | Leppert, Mark | Levy, Steven M. | Mathias, Rasika A. | McNeil, Daniel W. | Medland, Sarah E. | Montgomery, Grant W. | Muley, Thomas | Murray, Tanda | Nauck, Matthias | North, Kari | Pergadia, Michele | Polasek, Ozren | Ramos, Erin M. | Ripatti, Samuli | Risch, Angela | Ruczinski, Ingo | Rudan, Igor | Salomaa, Veikko | Schlessinger, David | Styrkársdóttir, Unnur | Terracciano, Antonio | Uda, Manuela | Willemsen, Gonneke | Wu, Xifeng | Abecasis, Goncalo | Barnes, Kathleen | Bickeböller, Heike | Boerwinkle, Eric | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Caporaso, Neil | Duan, Jubao | Edenberg, Howard J. | Francks, Clyde | Gejman, Pablo V. | Gelernter, Joel | Grabe, Hans Jörgen | Hops, Hyman | Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Viikari, Jorma | Kähönen, Mika | Kendler, Kenneth S. | Lehtimäki, Terho | Levinson, Douglas F. | Marazita, Mary L. | Marchini, Jonathan | Melbye, Mads | Mitchell, Braxton D. | Murray, Jeffrey C. | Nöthen, Markus M. | Penninx, Brenda W. | Raitakari, Olli | Rietschel, Marcella | Rujescu, Dan | Samani, Nilesh J. | Sanders, Alan R. | Schwartz, Ann G. | Shete, Sanjay | Shi, Jianxin | Spitz, Margaret | Stefansson, Kari | Swan, Gary E. | Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir | Völzke, Henry | Wei, Qingyi | Wichmann, H.-Erich | Amos, Christopher I. | Breslau, Naomi | Cannon, Dale S. | Ehringer, Marissa | Grucza, Richard | Hatsukami, Dorothy | Heath, Andrew | Johnson, Eric O. | Kaprio, Jaakko | Madden, Pamela | Martin, Nicholas G. | Stevens, Victoria L. | Stitzel, Jerry A. | Weiss, Robert B. | Kraft, Peter | Bierut, Laura J.
Archives of general psychiatry  2012;69(8):854-860.
Context
Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968.
Objective
To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking.
Data Sources
Primary data.
Study Selection
Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy.
Data Extraction
Uniform statistical analysis scripts were run locally. Starting with 94 050 ever-smokers from 43 studies, we extracted the heavy smokers (CPD >20) and light smokers (CPD ≤10) with age-at-onset information, reducing the sample size to 33 348. Each study was stratified into early-onset smokers (age at onset ≤16 years) and late-onset smokers (age at onset >16 years), and a logistic regression of heavy vs light smoking with the rs16969968 genotype was computed for each stratum. Meta-analysis was performed within each age-at-onset stratum.
Data Synthesis
Individuals with 1 risk allele at rs16969968 who were early-onset smokers were significantly more likely to be heavy smokers in adulthood (odds ratio [OR]=1.45; 95% CI, 1.36–1.55; n=13 843) than were carriers of the risk allele who were late-onset smokers (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21–1.33, n = 19 505) (P = .01).
Conclusion
These results highlight an increased genetic vulnerability to smoking in early-onset smokers.
doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2012.124
PMCID: PMC3482121  PMID: 22868939
15.  Scrutiny of the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 smoking behavior locus reveals a novel association with alcohol use in a Finnish population based study 
The CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster on chromosome 15q25.1 encoding the cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunits is robustly associated with smoking behavior and nicotine dependence. Only a few studies to date have examined the locus with alcohol related traits and found evidence of association with alcohol abuse and dependence. Our main goal was to examine the role of three intensively studied single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs16969968, rs578776 and rs588765, tagging three distinct loci, in alcohol use. Our sample was drawn from two independent Finnish population-based surveys, the National FINRISK Study and the Health 2000 (Health Examination) Survey. The combined sample included a total of 32,592 adult Finns (54% women) of whom 8,356 were assessed for cigarettes per day (CPD). Data on alcohol use were available for 31,812 individuals. We detected a novel association between rs588765 and alcohol use defined as abstainers and low-frequency drinkers versus drinkers (OR=1.15, p=0.00007). Additionally, we provide precise estimates of strength of the association between the three loci and smoking quantity in a very large population based sample. As a conclusion, our results provide further evidence for the nicotine-specific role of rs16969968 (locus 1). Further, our data suggest that the effect of rs588765 (locus 3) may be specific to alcohol use as the effect is seen also in never smokers.
PMCID: PMC3709115  PMID: 23875064
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; 15q25.1; alcohol use; smoking behavior; public health; population-based sample; genetic association
16.  Multiple Distinct Risk Loci for Nicotine Dependence Identified by Dense Coverage of the Complete Family of Nicotinic Receptor Subunit (CHRN) Genes 
Tobacco smoking continues to be a leading cause of preventable death. Recent research has underscored the important role of specific cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit (CHRN) genes in risk for nicotine dependence and smoking. To detect and characterize the influence of genetic variation on vulnerability to nicotine dependence, we analyzed 226 SNPs covering the complete family of 16 CHRN genes, which encode the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits, in a sample of 1050 nicotine-dependent cases and 879 non-dependent controls of European descent. This expanded SNP coverage has extended and refined the findings of our previous large scale genome-wide association and candidate gene study. After correcting for the multiple tests across this gene family, we found significant association for two distinct loci in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster, one locus in the CHRNB3-CHRNA6 gene cluster, and a fourth, novel locus in the CHRND-CHRNG gene cluster. The two distinct loci in CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 are represented by the non-synonymous SNP rs16969968 in CHRNA5 and by rs578776 in CHRNA3, respectively, and joint analyses show that the associations at these two SNPs are statistically independent. Nominally significant single-SNP association was detected in CHRNA4 and CHRNB1. In summary, this is the most comprehensive study of the CHRN genes for involvement with nicotine dependence to date. Our analysis reveals significant evidence for at least four distinct loci in the nicotinic receptor subunit genes that each influence the transition from smoking to nicotine dependence and may inform the development of improved smoking cessation treatments and prevention initiatives.
doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.30828
PMCID: PMC2693307  PMID: 19259974
cholinergic nicotinic receptors; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; smoking; genetic association
17.  Genome-Wide and Candidate Gene Association Study of Cigarette Smoking Behaviors 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(2):e4653.
The contribution of common genetic variation to one or more established smoking behaviors was investigated in a joint analysis of two genome wide association studies (GWAS) performed as part of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) project in 2,329 men from the Prostate, Lung, Colon and Ovarian (PLCO) Trial, and 2,282 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). We analyzed seven measures of smoking behavior, four continuous (cigarettes per day [CPD], age at initiation of smoking, duration of smoking, and pack years), and three binary (ever versus never smoking, ≤10 versus >10 cigarettes per day [CPDBI], and current versus former smoking). Association testing for each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was conducted by study and adjusted for age, cohabitation/marital status, education, site, and principal components of population substructure. None of the SNPs achieved genome-wide significance (p<10−7) in any combined analysis pooling evidence for association across the two studies; we observed between two and seven SNPs with p<10−5 for each of the seven measures. In the chr15q25.1 region spanning the nicotinic receptors CHRNA3 and CHRNA5, we identified multiple SNPs associated with CPD (p<10−3), including rs1051730, which has been associated with nicotine dependence, smoking intensity and lung cancer risk. In parallel, we selected 11,199 SNPs drawn from 359 a priori candidate genes and performed individual-gene and gene-group analyses. After adjusting for multiple tests conducted within each gene, we identified between two and five genes associated with each measure of smoking behavior. Besides CHRNA3 and CHRNA5, MAOA was associated with CPDBI (gene-level p<5.4×10−5), our analysis provides independent replication of the association between the chr15q25.1 region and smoking intensity and data for multiple other loci associated with smoking behavior that merit further follow-up.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004653
PMCID: PMC2644817  PMID: 19247474
18.  A case-control study of a sex-specific association between a 15q25 variant and lung cancer risk 
Background
Genetic variants located at 15q25, including those in the cholinergic receptor nicotinic cluster (CHRNA5) have been implicated in both lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence in recent genome-wide association studies. Among these variants, a 22 base pair insertion/deletion, rs3841324 showed the strongest association with CHRNA5 mRNA expression levels. However the influence of rs3841324 on lung cancer risk has not been studied in depth.
Methods
We have therefore evaluated the association of rs3841324 genotypes with lung cancer risk in a case-control study of 624 Caucasian subjects with lung cancer and 766 age- and sex-matched cancer-free Caucasian controls. We also evaluated the joint effects of rs3841324 with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs16969968 and rs8034191 in the 15q25 region that have been consistently implicated in lung cancer risk.
Results
We found that the homozygous genotype with both short alleles (SS) of rs3841324 was associated with a decreased lung cancer risk in female ever smokers relative to the homozygous wild-type (LL) and heterozygous (LS) genotypes combined in a recessive model (OR adjusted = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31–0.89, P = 0.0168). There was no evidence for a sex difference in the association between this variant and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Diplotype analysis of rs3841324 with either rs16969968 or rs8034191 showed that these polymorphisms influenced the lung cancer risk independently.
Conclusions and impact
This study has shown a sex difference in the association between the 15q25 variant rs3841324 and lung cancers. Further research is warranted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these observations.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0749
PMCID: PMC3277830  PMID: 22028403
lung cancer; CHRNA5; Chromosome 15q25; rs3841324; sex-specific association
19.  Association Between Genetic Variants on Chromosome 15q25 Locus and Objective Measures of Tobacco Exposure 
Background
Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms, rs1051730 and rs16969968, located within the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15q25 locus, are associated with heaviness of smoking, risk for lung cancer, and other smoking-related health outcomes. Previous studies have typically relied on self-reported smoking behavior, which may not fully capture interindividual variation in tobacco exposure.
Methods
We investigated the association of rs1051730 and rs16969968 genotype (referred to as rs1051730–rs16969968, because these are in perfect linkage disequilibrium and interchangeable) with both self-reported daily cigarette consumption and biochemically measured plasma or serum cotinine levels among cigarette smokers. Summary estimates and descriptive statistical data for 12 364 subjects were obtained from six independent studies, and 2932 smokers were included in the analyses. Linear regression was used to calculate the per-allele association of rs1051730–rs16969968 genotype with cigarette consumption and cotinine levels in current smokers for each study. Meta-analysis of per-allele associations was conducted using a random effects method. The likely resulting association between genotype and lung cancer risk was assessed using published data on the association between cotinine levels and lung cancer risk. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Results
Pooled per-allele associations showed that current smokers with one or two copies of the rs1051730–rs16969968 risk allele had increased self-reported cigarette consumption (mean increase in unadjusted number of cigarettes per day per allele = 1.0 cigarette, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.57 to 1.43 cigarettes, P = 5.22 × 10−6) and cotinine levels (mean increase in unadjusted cotinine levels per allele = 138.72 nmol/L, 95% CI = 97.91 to 179.53 nmol/L, P = 2.71 × 10−11). The increase in cotinine levels indicated an increased risk of lung cancer with each additional copy of the rs1051730–rs16969968 risk allele (per-allele odds ratio = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.21 to 1.42).
Conclusions
Our data show a stronger association of rs1051730–rs16969968 genotype with objective measures of tobacco exposure compared with self-reported cigarette consumption. The association of these variants with lung cancer risk is likely to be mediated largely, if not wholly, via tobacco exposure.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djs191
PMCID: PMC3352832  PMID: 22534784
20.  Association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Variation with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk and Smoking Behaviors in a Chinese Population 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e67664.
Background
CHRNA5-A3-B4, the gene cluster encoding nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits, is associated with lung cancer risk and smoking behaviors in people of European descent. Because cigarette smoking is also a major risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we investigated the associations between variants in CHRNA5-A3-B4 and ESCC risk, as well as smoking behaviors, in a Chinese population.
Methods
A case-control study of 866 ESCC patients and 952 healthy controls was performed to study the association of polymorphisms (rs667282 and rs3743073) in CHRNA5-A3-B4 with cancer risk using logistic regression models. The relationships between CHRNA5-A3-B4 polymorphisms and smoking behaviors that can be quantified by cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and pack-years of smoking were separately estimated with Kruskal-Wallis tests among all 840 smokers.
Results
CHRNA5-A3-B4 rs667282 TT/TG genotypes were associated with significantly increased risk of ESCC [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03 – 1.69, P = 0.029]. The increased ESCC risk was even higher among younger subjects (≤60 years) (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.04 – 1.98, P = 0.024). These effects were not found in another polymorphism rs3743073. No evident association between the two polymorphisms and smoking behaviors was observed.
Conclusions
These results support the hypothesis that CHRNA5-A3-B4 is a susceptibility gene cluster for ESCC. The relationship between CHRNA5-A3-B4 and smoking behaviors in a Chinese population needs further investigation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067664
PMCID: PMC3699625  PMID: 23844051
21.  Sequence variants at CHRNB3-CHRNA6 and CYP2A6 affect smoking behavior 
Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E. | Gudbjartsson, Daniel F. | Surakka, Ida | Vink, Jacqueline M. | Amin, Najaf | Geller, Frank | Sulem, Patrick | Rafnar, Thorunn | Esko, Tõnu | Walter, Stefan | Gieger, Christian | Rawal, Rajesh | Mangino, Massimo | Prokopenko, Inga | Mägi, Reedik | Keskitalo, Kaisu | Gudjonsdottir, Iris H. | Gretarsdottir, Solveig | Stefansson, Hreinn | Thompson, John R. | Aulchenko, Yurii S. | Nelis, Mari | Aben, Katja K. | den Heijer, Martin | Dirksen, Asger | Ashraf, Haseem | Soranzo, Nicole | Valdes, Ana M | Steves, Claire | Uitterlinden, André G | Hofman, Albert | Tönjes, Anke | Kovacs, Peter | Hottenga, Jouke Jan | Willemsen, Gonneke | Vogelzangs, Nicole | Döring, Angela | Dahmen, Norbert | Nitz, Barbara | Pergadia, Michele L. | Saez, Berta | De Diego, Veronica | Lezcano, Victoria | Garcia-Prats, Maria D. | Ripatti, Samuli | Perola, Markus | Kettunen, Johannes | Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa | Pouta, Anneli | Laitinen, Jaana | Isohanni, Matti | Huei-Yi, Shen | Allen, Maxine | Krestyaninova, Maria | Hall, Alistair S | Jones, Gregory T. | van Rij, Andre M. | Mueller, Thomas | Dieplinger, Benjamin | Haltmayer, Meinhard | Jonsson, Steinn | Matthiasson, Stefan E. | Oskarsson, Hogni | Tyrfingsson, Thorarinn | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. | Mayordomo, Jose I. | Lindholt, Jes S | Pedersen, Jesper Holst | Franklin, Wilbur A. | Wolf, Holly | Montgomery, Grant W. | Heath, Andrew C. | Martin, Nicholas G. | Madden, Pamela A.F. | Giegling, Ina | Rujescu, Dan | Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Salomaa, Veikko | Stumvoll, Michael | Spector, Tim D | Wichmann, H-Erich | Metspalu, Andres | Samani, Nilesh J. | Penninx, Brenda W. | Oostra, Ben A. | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Tiemeier, Henning | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Kaprio, Jaakko | Gulcher, Jeffrey R. | McCarthy, Mark I. | Peltonen, Leena | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Stefansson, Kari
Nature genetics  2010;42(5):448-453.
Smoking is a risk factor for most of the diseases leading in mortality1. We conducted genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analyses of smoking data within the ENGAGE consortium to search for common alleles associating with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in smokers (N=31,266) and smoking initiation (N=46,481). We tested selected SNPs in a second stage (N=45,691 smokers), and assessed some in a third sample (N=9,040). Variants in three genomic regions associated with CPD (P< 5·10−8), including previously identified SNPs at 15q25 represented by rs1051730-A (0.80 CPD,P=2.4·10−69), and SNPs at 19q13 and 8p11, represented by rs4105144-C (0.39 CPD, P=2.2·10−12) and rs6474412-T (0.29 CPD,P= 1.4·10−8), respectively. Among the genes at the two novel loci, are genes encoding nicotine-metabolizing enzymes (CYP2A6 and CYP2B6), and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits (CHRNB3 and CHRNA6) highlighted in previous studies of nicotine dependence2-3. Nominal associations with lung cancer were observed at both 8p11 (rs6474412-T,OR=1.09,P=0.04) and 19q13 (rs4105144-C,OR=1.12,P=0.0006).
doi:10.1038/ng.573
PMCID: PMC3080600  PMID: 20418888
22.  CHRNA5-A3-B4 genetic variants alter nicotine intake and interact with tobacco use to influence body weight in Alaska-Native tobacco users 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2013;108(10):1818-1828.
Background and aims
Gene variants in CHRNA5-A3-B4, which encode for the α5, α3 and β4 nicotinic receptor subunits, are associated with altered smoking behaviors in European-Americans. Little is known about CHRNA5-A3-B4 and its association with smoking behaviors and weight in Alaska-Native people, which is a population with high prevalence but low levels of tobacco consumption, extensive smokeless tobacco use, and high rates of obesity. We investigated CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotype structure and its association with nicotine intake and obesity in Alaska-Native people.
Design, Setting, Participants
A cross sectional study of 400 Alaska-Native individuals including 290 tobacco users.
Measurements
CHRNA5-A3-B4 genotype, body weight, and tobacco consumption biomarkers such as plasma cotinine and urinary total nicotine equivalents (TNE).
Findings
Alaska-Native people have a distinct CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotype structure compared with European/African-Americans. In 290 Alaska-Native tobacco users, the ‘G’ allele of rs578776, which tagged a 30kb haplotype in CHRNA5-A3-B4, was prevalent (16%) and significantly associated with nicotine intake (20% higher plasma cotinine, P<0.001, 16% higher TNE, P=0.076), while rs16969968 was not associated with nicotine intake. Rs578776 acted in combination with CYP2A6, the main nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, to increase nicotine intake by 1.8 fold compared with the low risk group (P<0.001). Furthermore rs2869950, a single nucleotide polymorphism 5′ to CHRNB4, was significantly associated with increased body mass index (P<0.01) in the tobacco users even after controlling for differences in nicotine intake (P<0.01).
Conclusions
Genetic variants in CHRNA5-A3-B4 alter nicotine intake and body mass index in a population of Alaska-Native people, who have a distinct haplotype structure, smoking behaviors and prevalence of obesity.
doi:10.1111/add.12250
PMCID: PMC3775934  PMID: 23692359
Alaska-Native People; Smoking; CHRNA5-A3-B4; Obesity
23.  Variation in Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Genes is Associated with Multiple Substance Dependence Phenotypes 
Neuropsychopharmacology  2010;35(9):1921-1931.
There is shared genetic risk for dependence on multiple substances, and the nicotinic receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15 harbors multiple polymorphisms that associate to this risk. Here, we report the results of an association study with 21 SNPs genotyped across the CHRNA5, CHRNA3, and CHRNB4 loci on chromosome 15q25.1. The sample consists of a discovery set (N=1858) of European-American and African-American (AA) families, ascertained on the basis of a sibling pair with cocaine and/or opioid dependence, and a case–control replication sample (N=3388) collected for association studies of alcohol, cocaine, and opioid dependence. We tested the SNPs for association with lifetime cocaine, opioid, nicotine, and alcohol dependence. We replicated several previous findings, including associations between rs16969968 and nicotine dependence (P=0.002) and cocaine dependence (P=0.02), with opposite risk alleles for each substance. We observed these associations in AAs, which is a novel finding. The strongest association signal in either sample was between rs684513 in CHRNA5 and cocaine dependence (OR=1.43, P=0.0004) in the AA replication set. We also observed two SNPs associated with alcohol dependence, that is, rs615470 in CHRNA5 (OR=0.77, P=0.0006) and rs578776 (OR=0.78, P=0.001). The associations between CD and rs684513, AD and rs615470, and AD and rs578776 remained significant after a permutation-based correction for multiple testing. These data reinforce the importance of variation in the chromosome 15 nicotinic receptor subunit gene cluster for risk of dependence on multiple substances, although the direction of the effects may vary across substances.
doi:10.1038/npp.2010.64
PMCID: PMC3055642  PMID: 20485328
genetic association; substance dependence; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; Acetylcholine; Addiction & Substance Abuse; Neurogenetics; Epidemiology; Genetic Association
24.  Peer Smoking and the Nicotinic Receptor Genes: An Examination of Genetic and Environmental Risks for Nicotine Dependence 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2010;105(11):2014-2022.
Background
Peer smoking provides a socially reinforcing context of friends’ encouragement and approval that contributes to smoking behavior. Twin studies show correlations and interactions between peer substance use and genetic liability for substance use. However, none examined specific genes. Here we test the hypothesis that the nicotinic receptor genes CHRNA5 (rs16969968), CHRNA3 (rs578776), CHRNB3 (rs13277254), and CHRND (rs12466358) modify the risk for nicotine dependence (ND) associated with peer smoking.
Methods
Cases of current nicotine dependence (FTND ≥ 4) and smoking-exposed (smoked 100+ cigarettes lifetime), but non-dependent controls (lifetime FTND = 0) came from the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence (n=2,038). Peer smoking was retrospectively assessed for grades 9–12.
Results
Peer smoking and the four SNPs were associated with ND. A statistically significant interaction was found between peer smoking and rs16969968 (p = 0.0077). Overall risk of ND was highest for the rs16969968 AA genotype. However, variance in ND attributable to peer smoking was substantially lower among those with the AA genotype at rs16969968 than the lower risk genotypes: AA = 2.5%, GA/AG = 11.2%, GG = 14.2%; p ≤ 0.004.
Conclusions
Peer smoking had a substantially lower effect on ND among those with the high risk AA genotype at the functional SNP rs16969968 (CHRNA5) than among those with lower risk genotypes. Such results highlight the possibility that given drug exposure those with specific genetic risks may be less affected by social contexts and intervention strategies focused on social factors could have less influence on those at highest genetic risk.
doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03074.x
PMCID: PMC2970633  PMID: 20840187
nicotine dependence; peer smoking; gene-environmental interaction; nicotinic receptor genes; case control study
25.  A recall-by-genotype study of CHRNA5-A3-B4 genotype, cotinine and smoking topography: study protocol 
BMC Medical Genetics  2014;15:13.
Background
Genome-wide association studies have revealed an association between several loci in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster CHRNA5-A3-B4 and daily cigarette consumption. Recent studies have sought to refine this phenotype, and have shown that a locus within this cluster, marked primarily by rs1051730 and rs16969968, is also associated with levels of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine. This association remains after adjustment for self-reported smoking, which suggests that even amongst people who smoke the same number of cigarettes there is still genetically-influenced variation in nicotine consumption. This is likely to be due to differences in smoking topography, that is, how a cigarette is smoked (e.g., volume of smoke inhaled per puff, number of puffs taken per cigarette). The aim of this study is to determine potential mediation of the relationship between the rs1051730 locus and cotinine levels by smoking topography.
Methods/Design
Adopting a recall-by-genotype design, we will recruit 200 adults from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children on the basis of minor or major homozygote status at rs1051730 (100 in each genotype group). All participants will be current, daily smokers. Our primary study outcome measures will be measures of smoking topography: total volume of smoke (ml) inhaled per cigarette, total volume of smoke (ml) inhaled over of the course of one day, and salivary cotinine level (ng/ml).
Discussion
This study will extend our understanding of the biological basis of inter-individual variability in heaviness of smoking, and therefore in exposure to smoking-related toxins. The novel recall-by-genotype approach we will use is efficient, maximising statistical power, and enables the collection of extremely precise phenotypic data that are impractical to collect in a larger sample. The methods described within this protocol also hold the potential for wider application in the field of molecular genetics.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-15-13
PMCID: PMC3900674  PMID: 24451018
Smoking; Cotinine; Genetics; CHRNA3; CHRNA5; Smoking topography

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