Background. Adults with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have a high risk of fracture. Currently, few treatment options are available, and bone anabolic therapies have not been tested in clinical trials for OI treatment.
Methods. 79 adults with OI were randomized to receive 20 μg recombinant human parathyroid hormone (teriparatide) or placebo for 18 months in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The primary endpoint was the percent change in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) of the lumbar spine (LS), as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Secondary endpoints included percent change in bone remodeling markers and vertebral volumetric BMD (vBMD) by quantitative computed tomography, estimated vertebral strength by finite element analysis, and self-reported fractures.
Results. Compared with the placebo group, the teriparatide group showed increased LS aBMD (6.1% ± 1.0% vs. 2.8% ± 1.0% change from baseline; P < 0.05) and total hip aBMD (2.6% ± 1.0% vs. –2.4% ± 1.0% change; P < 0.001). Vertebral vBMD and strength improved with teriparatide therapy (18% ± 6% and 15% ± 3% change, respectively), but declined with placebo (–5.0% ± 6% and –2.0% ± 3% change; P < 0.05 for both comparisons). Serum procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and urine collagen N-telopeptide (NTx) levels increased with teriparatide therapy (135% ± 14% and 64% ± 10% change, respectively). Teriparatide-induced elevation of P1NP levels was less pronounced in severe forms of OI (type III/IV) compared with the milder form (type I). Type I OI patients exhibited robust BMD increases with teriparatide; however, there was no observed benefit for those with type III/IV OI. There was no difference in self-reported fractures between the 2 groups.
Conclusions. Adults with OI, particularly those with less severe disease (type I), displayed a teriparatide-induced anabolic response, as well as increased hip and spine aBMD, vertebral vBMD, and estimated vertebral strength.
Trial registration. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00131469.
Funding. The Osteoporosis Imperfecta Foundation, Eli Lilly and Co., the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) at the NIH (grant no. UL1RR024140), and the Baylor College of Medicine General Clinical Research Center (grant no. RR00188).
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterised by brittle bones and caused by mutations in the type I collagen genes, COL1A1 and COL1A2. We identified a mutation in the carboxyl-terminal propeptide coding region of one COL1A1 allele in an infant who died with an OI phenotype that differed from the usual lethal form and had regions of increased bone density. The newborn female had dysmorphic facial features, including loss of mandibular angle. Bilateral upper and lower limb contractures were present with multiple fractures in the long bones and ribs. The long bones were not compressed and their ends were radiographically dense. She died after a few hours and histopathological studies identified extramedullary haematopoiesis in the liver, little lamellar bone formation, decreased osteoclasts, abnormally thickened bony trabeculae with retained cartilage in long bones, and diminished marrow spaces similar to those seen in dense bone diseases such as osteopetrosis and pycnodysostosis. The child was heterozygous for a COL1A1 4321G→T transversion in exon 52 that changed a conserved aspartic acid to tyrosine (D1441Y). Abnormal proα1(I) chains were slow to assemble into dimers and trimers, and abnormal molecules were retained intracellularly for an extended period. The secreted type I procollagen molecules synthesised by cultured dermal fibroblasts were overmodified along the full length but had normal thermal stability. These findings suggest that the unusual phenotype reflected both a diminished amount of secreted type I procollagen and the presence of a population of stable and overmodified molecules that might support increased mineralisation or interfere with degradation of bone.
Whereas mutations affecting the helical domain of type I procollagen classically cause Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI), helical mutations near the amino (N)-proteinase cleavage site have been suggested to result in a mixed OI/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS)-phenotype.
We performed biochemical and molecular analysis of type I (pro-) collagen in a cohort of seven patients referred with a clinical diagnosis of EDS and showing only subtle signs of OI. Transmission electron microscopy of the dermis was available for one patient.
All of these patients harboured a COL1A1 / COL1A2 mutation residing within the most N-terminal part of the type I collagen helix. These mutations affect the rate of type I collagen N-propeptide cleavage and disturb normal collagen fibrillogenesis. Importantly, patients with this type of mutation do not show a typical OI phenotype but mainly present as EDS patients displaying severe joint hyperlaxity, soft and hyperextensible skin, abnormal wound healing, easy bruising, and sometimes signs of arterial fragility. In addition, they show subtle signs of OI including blue sclerae, relatively short stature and osteopenia or fractures.
Recognition of this distinct phenotype is important for accurate genetic counselling, clinical management and surveillance, particularly in relation to the potential risk for vascular rupture associated with these mutations. Because these patients present clinical overlap with other EDS subtypes, biochemical collagen analysis is necessary to establish the correct diagnosis.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome; Osteogenesis Imperfecta; Type I collagen; Arterial fragility; Genotype; Phenotype
Osteogenesis imperfecta is an inherited disorder characterized by increased bone fragility, fractures, and osteoporosis, and most cases are caused by mutations affecting the type I collagen genes. Here, we describe a new mouse model for Osteogenesis imperfecta termed Aga2 (abnormal gait 2) that was isolated from the Munich N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis program and exhibited phenotypic variability, including reduced bone mass, multiple fractures, and early lethality. The causal gene was mapped to Chromosome 11 by linkage analysis, and a C-terminal frameshift mutation was identified in the Col1a1 (procollagen type I, alpha 1) gene as the cause of the disorder. Aga2 heterozygous animals had markedly increased bone turnover and a disrupted native collagen network. Further studies showed that abnormal proα1(I) chains accumulated intracellularly in Aga2/+ dermal fibroblasts and were poorly secreted extracellularly. This was associated with the induction of an endoplasmic reticulum stress-specific unfolded protein response involving upregulation of BiP, Hsp47, and Gadd153 with caspases-12 and −3 activation and apoptosis of osteoblasts both in vitro and in vivo. These studies resulted in the identification of a new model for Osteogenesis imperfecta, and identified a role for intracellular modulation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated unfolded protein response machinery toward osteoblast apoptosis during the pathogenesis of disease.
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous collection of connective tissue disorders typically caused by mutations in the COL1A1/2 genes that encode the chains of type I collagen, the principle structural protein of bone. Phenotypic expression in OI depends on the nature of the mutation, causing a clinical heterogeneity ranging from a mild risk of fractures to perinatal lethality. Here, we describe a new OI mouse model with a dominant mutation in the terminal C-propeptide domain of Col1a1 generated using the N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis strategy. Heterozygous animals developed severe-to-lethal phenotypes that were associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, and caspases-12 and −3 activation within calvarial osteoblasts. We provide evidence for endoplasmic reticulum stress–associated apoptosis as a key component in the pathogenesis of disease.
Cyclophilin B (CyPB), encoded by PPIB, is an ER-resident peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) that functions independently and as a component of the collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation complex. CyPB is proposed to be the major PPIase catalyzing the rate-limiting step in collagen folding. Mutations in PPIB cause recessively inherited osteogenesis imperfecta type IX, a moderately severe to lethal bone dysplasia. To investigate the role of CyPB in collagen folding and post-translational modifications, we generated Ppib−/− mice that recapitulate the OI phenotype. Knock-out (KO) mice are small, with reduced femoral areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone volume per total volume (BV/TV) and mechanical properties, as well as increased femoral brittleness. Ppib transcripts are absent in skin, fibroblasts, femora and calvarial osteoblasts, and CyPB is absent from KO osteoblasts and fibroblasts on western blots. Only residual (2–11%) collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation is detectable in KO cells and tissues. Collagen folds more slowly in the absence of CyPB, supporting its rate-limiting role in folding. However, treatment of KO cells with cyclosporine A causes further delay in folding, indicating the potential existence of another collagen PPIase. We confirmed and extended the reported role of CyPB in supporting collagen lysyl hydroxylase (LH1) activity. Ppib−/− fibroblast and osteoblast collagen has normal total lysyl hydroxylation, while increased collagen diglycosylation is observed. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of bone and osteoblast type I collagen revealed site-specific alterations of helical lysine hydroxylation, in particular, significantly reduced hydroxylation of helical crosslinking residue K87. Consequently, underhydroxylated forms of di- and trivalent crosslinks are strikingly increased in KO bone, leading to increased total crosslinks and decreased helical hydroxylysine- to lysine-derived crosslink ratios. The altered crosslink pattern was associated with decreased collagen deposition into matrix in culture, altered fibril structure in tissue, and reduced bone strength. These studies demonstrate novel consequences of the indirect regulatory effect of CyPB on collagen hydroxylation, impacting collagen glycosylation, crosslinking and fibrillogenesis, which contribute to maintaining bone mechanical properties.
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), or brittle bone disease, is characterized by susceptibility to fractures from minimal trauma and growth deficiency. Deficiency of components of the collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation complex, CRTAP, P3H1 and CyPB, cause recessive types VII, VIII and IX OI, respectively. We have previously shown that mutual protection within the endoplasmic reticulum accounts for the overlapping severe phenotype of patients with CRTAP and P3H1 mutations. However, the bone dysplasia in patients with CyPB deficiency is distinct in terms of phenotype and type I collagen biochemistry. Using a knock-out mouse model of type IX OI, we have demonstrated that CyPB is the major, although not unique, peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in collagen folding. CyPB is also required for activity of the collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation complex; collagen α1(I) P986 modification is lost in the absence of CyPB. Unexpectedly, CyPB was found to also influence collagen helical lysyl hydroxylation in a tissue-, cell- and residue-specific manner. Thus CyPB facilitates collagen folding directly, but also indirectly regulates collagen hydroxylation, glycosylation, crosslinking and fibrillogenesis through its interactions with other collagen modifying enzymes in the endoplasmic reticulum.
Measurement of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been shown to predict fracture risk. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) yields additional information about volumetric BMD (vBMD), microarchitecture, and strength that may increase understanding of fracture susceptibility. Women with (n = 68) and without (n = 101) a history of postmenopausal fragility fracture had aBMD measured by DXA and trabecular and cortical vBMD and trabecular microarchitecture of the radius and tibia measured by HR-pQCT. Finite-element analysis (FEA) of HR-pQCT scans was performed to estimate bone stiffness. DXA T-scores were similar in women with and without fracture at the spine, hip, and one-third radius but lower in patients with fracture at the ultradistal radius (p < .01). At the radius fracture, patients had lower total density, cortical thickness, trabecular density, number, thickness, higher trabecular separation and network heterogeneity (p < .0001 to .04). At the tibia, total, cortical, and trabecular density and cortical and trabecular thickness were lower in fracture patients (p < .0001 to .03). The differences between groups were greater at the radius than at the tibia for inner trabecular density, number, trabecular separation, and network heterogeneity (p < .01 to .05). Stiffness was reduced in fracture patients, more markedly at the radius (41% to 44%) than at the tibia (15% to 20%). Women with fractures had reduced vBMD, microarchitectural deterioration, and decreased strength. These differences were more prominent at the radius than at the tibia. HR-pQCT and FEA measurements of peripheral sites are associated with fracture prevalence and may increase understanding of the role of microarchitectural deterioration in fracture susceptibility. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
MICROARCHITECTURE; STIFFNESS; FRACTURE; OSTEOPOROSIS; POSTMENOPAUSAL
Long courses of bisphosphonates are widely administered to children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), although bisphosphonates do not block mutant collagen secretion and may affect bone matrix composition or structure. The Brtl mouse has a glycine substitution in col1a1, and is ideal for modeling the effects of bisphosphonate in classical OI. We treated Brtl and wild-type mice with alendronate (0.219 mg/kg/wk sq) for 6 or 12 weeks and compared treated and untreated femora of both genotypes. Mutant and wild-type bone had similar responses to Aln treatment. Femoral areal BMD and cortical vBMD increased significantly after 12 weeks, but femoral length and growth curves were unaltered. Alendronate improved Brtl diaphyseal cortical thickness and trabecular number after 6 weeks, and cross-sectional shape after 12 weeks. Mechanically, Aln significantly increased stiffness in wild-type femora, and load to fracture in both genotypes after 12 weeks. However, predicted material strength and elastic modulus were negatively impacted by 12 week Aln in both genotypes, and metaphyseal remnants of mineralized cartilage also increased. Brtl femoral brittleness was unimproved. Brtl osteoclast and osteoblast surface were unchanged by treatment. However, decreased MAR and BFR/BS and the flattened morphology of Brtl osteoblasts suggested that Aln impaired osteoblast function and matrix synthesis. We conclude that alendronate treatment improves Brtl femoral geometry and load to fracture, but decreases bone matrix synthesis and predicted material modulus and strength, with striking retention of mineralized cartilage. Beneficial and detrimental changes appear concomitantly. Limiting cumulative bisphosphonate exposure of OI bone will minimize detrimental effects.
Brtl Mouse; Bisphosphonates; Osteogenesis Imperfecta; Biomechanics; Histomorphometry; Bone Quality
Osteoporosis of the axial skeleton is a known complication of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), but bone loss affecting the peripheral skeleton is less studied. This study on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and bone microarchitecture in AS was conducted to compare peripheral vBMD in AS patients with that in healthy controls, to study vBMD in axial compared with peripheral bone, and to explore the relation between vertebral fractures, spinal osteoproliferation, and peripheral bone microarchitecture and density.
High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) of ultradistal radius and tibia and QCT and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of lumbar spine were performed in 69 male AS patients (NY criteria). Spinal radiographs were assessed for vertebral fractures and syndesmophyte formation (mSASSS). The HRpQCT measurements were compared with the measurements of healthy controls.
The AS patients had lower cortical vBMD in radius (P = 0.004) and lower trabecular vBMD in tibia (P = 0.033), than did the controls. Strong correlations were found between trabecular vBMD in lumbar spine, radius (rS = 0.762; P < 0.001), and tibia (rS = 0.712; P < 0.001).
When compared with age-matched AS controls, patients with vertebral fractures had lower lumbar cortical vBMD (-22%; P = 0.019), lower cortical cross-sectional area in radius (-28.3%; P = 0.001) and tibia (-24.0%; P = 0.013), and thinner cortical bone in radius (-28.3%; P = 0.001) and tibia (-26.9%; P = 0.016).
mSASSS correlated negatively with trabecular vBMD in lumbar spine (rS = -0.620; P < 0.001), radius (rS = -0.400; p = 0.001) and tibia (rS = -0.475; p < 0.001) and also with trabecular thickness in radius (rS = -0.528; P < 0.001) and tibia (rS = -0.488; P < 0.001).
Adjusted for age, syndesmophytes were significantly associated with decreasing trabecular vBMD, but increasing cortical vBMD in lumbar spine, but not with increasing cortical thickness or density in peripheral bone. Estimated lumbar vBMD by DXA correlated with trabecular vBMD measured by QCT (rS = 0.636; P < 0.001).
Lumbar osteoporosis, syndesmophytes, and vertebral fractures were associated with both lower vBMD and deteriorated microarchitecture in peripheral bone. The results indicate that trabecular bone loss is general, whereas osteoproliferation is local in AS.
Measurement of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been shown to predict fracture risk. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) yields additional information about volumetric BMD (vBMD), microarchitecture, and strength that may increase understanding of fracture susceptibility. Women with (n = 68) and without (n = 101) a history of postmenopausal fragility fracture had aBMD measured by DXA and trabecular and cortical vBMD and trabecular microarchitecture of the radius and tibia measured by HR-pQCT. Finite-element analysis (FEA) of HR-pQCT scans was performed to estimate bone stiffness. DXA T-scores were similar in women with and without fracture at the spine, hip, and one-third radius but lower in patients with fracture at the ultradistal radius (p <.01). At the radius fracture, patients had lower total density, cortical thickness, trabecular density, number, thickness, higher trabecular separation and network heterogeneity (p <.0001 to .04). At the tibia, total, cortical, and trabecular density and cortical and trabecular thickness were lower in fracture patients (p <.0001 to .03). The differences between groups were greater at the radius than at the tibia for inner trabecular density, number, trabecular separation, and network heterogeneity (p <.01 to .05). Stiffness was reduced in fracture patients, more markedly at the radius (41% to 44%) than at the tibia (15% to 20%). Women with fractures had reduced vBMD, microarchitectural deterioration, and decreased strength. These differences were more prominent at the radius than at the tibia. HR-pQCT and FEA measurements of peripheral sites are associated with fracture prevalence and may increase understanding of the role of microarchitectural deterioration in fracture susceptibility.
MICROARCHITECTURE; STIFFNESS; FRACTURE; OSTEOPOROSIS; POSTMENOPAUSAL
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder of connective tissue characterized by bone fragility and alteration in synthesis and posttranslational modification of type I collagen. Autosomal dominant OI is caused by mutations in the genes (COL1A1 or COL1A2) encoding the chains of type I collagen. Bruck syndrome is a recessive disorder featuring congenital contractures in addition to bone fragility; Bruck syndrome type 2 is caused by mutations in PLOD2 encoding collagen lysyl hydroxylase, whereas Bruck syndrome type 1 has been mapped to chromosome 17, with evidence suggesting region 17p12, but the gene has remained elusive so far. Recently, the molecular spectrum of OI has been expanded with the description of the basis of a unique posttranslational modification of type I procollagen, that is, 3-prolyl-hydroxylation. Three proteins, cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP), prolyl-3-hydroxylase-1 (P3H1, encoded by the LEPRE1 gene), and the prolyl cis-trans isomerase cyclophilin-B (PPIB), form a complex that is required for fibrillar collagen 3-prolyl-hydroxylation, and mutations in each gene have been shown to cause recessive forms of OI. Since then, an additional putative collagen chaperone complex, composed of FKBP10 (also known as FKBP65) and SERPINH1 (also known as HSP47), also has been shown to be mutated in recessive OI. Here we describe five families with OI-like bone fragility in association with congenital contractures who all had FKBP10 mutations. Therefore, we conclude that FKBP10 mutations are a cause of recessive osteogenesis imperfecta and Bruck syndrome, possibly Bruck syndrome Type 1 since the location on chromosome 17 has not been definitely localized. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA; BRUCK SYNDROME; FKBP10 (ALSO KNOWN AS FKBP65); BRITTLE BONE DISEASE; COLLAGEN
The features of a baby with lethal perinatal osteogenesis imperfecta (OI II), owing to a frameshift mutation that resulted in the production of a truncated and functionless carboxy terminal propeptide of the pro alpha 1(I) chain of type I procollagen, were studied. The baby (OI26) was heterozygous for an insertion of a single uridine nucleotide after base pair 4088 of the prepro alpha 1(I) mRNA of type I procollagen. Only normal type I collagen was incorporated into the extracellular matrix of bone and dermis resulting in a type I collagen content of about 20% of control tissues. The baby was born at 35 weeks' gestation and died shortly afterwards. He was small and had the radiographical features most like those of OI IIB. The skeleton was poorly ossified. The ribs were discontinuously beaded and the femora were broad with multiple healed fractures of the diaphyses and metaphyses. Other long bones had broad metaphyses with overmodelled diaphyses. The calvarium contained many hundreds of wormian bones. Histological examination showed grossly deficient endochondral and intramembranous ossification. The bone was of a woven type without evidence of lamellar bone or Haversian systems and the osteoblasts did not mature into osteocytes. The cortex of the femur contained Haversian canals but they were surrounded by loose collagen fibres and a mosaic pattern of woven bone and islands of cartilage. We propose that OI IIB can be sub-classified into two groups, one with helical mutations and both normal and mutant type I collagen in the tissues, and the other with carboxy terminal propeptide mutations and a severe type I collagen deficiency, but without mutant collagen in the tissues.
Children who sustain a forearm fracture when injured have lower bone density throughout their skeleton, and have a smaller cortical area and a lower strength index in their radius. Odds ratios per SD decrease in bone characteristics measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were similar (1.28 to 1.41).
Forearm fractures are common in children. Bone strength is affected by bone mineral density (BMD) and bone geometry, including cross-sectional dimensions and distribution of mineral. Our objective was to identify bone characteristics that differed between children who sustained a forearm fracture compared to those who did not fracture when injured.
Children (5–16 years) with a forearm fracture (cases, n=224) and injured controls without fracture (n=200) were enrolled 28±8 days following injury. Peripheral QCT scans of the radius (4% and 20% sites) were obtained to measure volumetric BMD (vBMD) of total, trabecular and cortical bone compartments, and bone geometry (area, cortical thickness, and strength strain index [SSI]). DXA scans (forearm, spine, and hip) were obtained to measure areal BMD (aBMD) and bone area. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to assess screening performance of bone measurements.
At the 4% pQCT site, total vBMD, but not trabecular vBMD or bone area, was lower (−3.4%; p= 0.02) in cases than controls. At the 20% site, cases had lower cortical vBMD (−0.9%), cortical area (−2.8%), and SSI (−4.6%) (p<0.05). aBMD, but not bone area, at the 1/3 radius, spine, and hip were 2.7–3.3% lower for cases (p< 0.01). Odds ratios per 1 SD decrease in bone measures (1.28–1.41) and areas under the ROC curves (0.56–0.59) were similar for all bone measures.
Low vBMD, aBMD, cortical area, and SSI of the distal radius were associated with an increased fracture risk. Interventions to increase these characteristics are needed to help reduce forearm fracture occurrence.
Bone densitometry; Epidemiology; Fracture; Orthopedics; Pediatrics; QCT
Understanding the etiology of skeletal fragility during growth is critical for the development of treatments and prevention strategies aimed at reducing the burden of childhood fractures. Thus we evaluated the relationship between prior fracture and bone parameters in young girls. Data from 465 girls aged 8 to 13 years from the Jump-In: Building Better Bones study were analyzed. Bone parameters were assessed at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the nondominant femur and tibia using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to assess femur, tibia, lumbar spine, and total body less head bone mineral content. Binary logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between prior fracture and bone parameters, controlling for maturity, body mass, leg length, ethnicity, and physical activity. Associations between prior fracture and all DXA and pQCT bone parameters at diaphyseal sites were nonsignificant. In contrast, lower trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) at distal metaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia was significantly associated with prior fracture. After adjustment for covariates, every SD decrease in trabecular vBMD at metaphyseal sites of the distal femur and tibia was associated with 1.4 (1.1–1.9) and 1.3 (1.0–1.7) times higher fracture prevalence, respectively. Prior fracture was not associated with metaphyseal bone size (ie, periosteal circumference). In conclusion, fractures in girls are associated with lower trabecular vBMD, but not bone size, at metaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia. Lower trabecular vBMD at metaphyseal sites of long bones may be an early marker of skeletal fragility in girls. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
FRACTURE; YOUTH; BONE GEOMETRY; VOLUMETRIC BONE MINERAL DENSITY (VBMD); PERIPHERAL QUANTITATIVE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (PQCT)
The majority of Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) cases are caused by mutations in one of the two genes, COL1A1 and COL1A2 encoding for the two chains that trimerize to form the procollagen 1 molecule. However, alterations in gene expression and microRNAs (miRNAs) are responsible for the regulation of cell fate determination and may be evolved in OI phenotype.
In this work, we analyzed the coding region and intron/exon boundaries of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes by sequence analysis using an ABI PRISM 3130 automated sequencer and Big Dye Terminator Sequencing protocol. COL1A1 and miR-29b expression were also evaluated during the osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) by qRT-PCR using an ABI7500 Sequence Detection System.
We have identified eight novel mutations, where of four may be responsible for OI phenotype. COL1A1 and miR-29b showed lower expression values in OI type I and type III samples. Interestingly, one type III OI sample from a patient with Bruck Syndrome showed COL1A1 and miR-29b expressions alike those from normal samples.
Results suggest that the miR-29b mechanism directed to regulate collagen protein accumulation during mineralization is dependent upon the amount of COL1A1 mRNA. Taken together, results indicate that the lower levels observed in OI samples were not sufficient for the induction of miR-29b.
Osteogenesis Imperfecta; miR-29b; COL1A1; Osteogenesis; Mesenchymalstem cells
Until 2006 the only mutations known to cause osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) were in the two genes coding for type I collagen chains. These dominant mutations affecting the expression or primary sequence of collagen α1(I) and α2(I) chains account for over 90% of OI cases. Since then a growing list of mutant genes causing the 5–10% of recessive cases has rapidly emerged. They include CRTAP, LEPRE1 and PPIB, which encode three proteins forming the prolyl 3-hydroxylase complex; PLOD2 and FKBP10, which encode respectively lysyl hydroxylase 2 and a foldase required for its activity in forming mature cross-links in bone collagen; SERPIN H1, which encodes the collagen chaperone HSP47; SERPIN F1, which encodes pigment epithelium-derived factor required for osteoid mineralization; and BMP1, which encodes the type I procollagen C-propeptidase. All cause fragile bone in infancy, which can include over-mineralization or under-mineralization defects as well as abnormal collagen post-translational modifications. Consistently both dominant and recessive variants lead to abnormal cross-linking chemistry in bone collagen.
These recent discoveries strengthen the potential for a common pathogenic mechanism of misassembled collagen fibrils. Of the new genes identified, eight encode proteins required for collagen post-translational modification, chaperoning of newly synthesized collagen chains into native molecules or transport through the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi for polymerization, cross-linking and mineralization. In reviewing these findings, we conclude that a common theme is emerging in the pathogenesis of brittle bone disease of mishandled collagen assembly with important insights on post-translational features of bone collagen that have evolved to optimize it as a biomineral template.
Collagen; Bone; Cross-Linking; Osteogenesis Imperfecta; Post-Translational modifications
Autosomal dominant osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is caused by mutations in the genes (COL1A1 or COL1A2) encoding the chains of type I collagen. Recently, dysregulation of hydroxylation of a single proline residue at position 986 of both the triple-helical domains of type I collagen α1(I) and type II collagen α1(II) chains has been implicated in the pathogenesis of recessive forms of OI. Two proteins, CRTAP, or cartilage-associated protein, and prolyl-3-hydroxylase-1 (P3H1, encoded by the LEPRE1 gene) form a complex that performs the hydroxylation and brings the prolyl cis-trans isomerase cyclophilin-B (CYPB) to the unfolded collagen. In our screen of 78 subjects diagnosed with OI type II or III, we identified three probands with mutations in CRTAP and sixteen with mutations in LEPRE1. The latter group includes a mutation in patients from the Irish Traveller population, a genetically isolated community with increased incidence of OI. The clinical features resulting from CRTAP or LEPRE1 loss of function mutations were difficult to distinguish at birth. Infants in both groups had multiple fractures, decreased bone modeling (affecting especially the femurs), and extremely low bone mineral density. Interestingly, “popcorn” epiphyses may reflect underlying cartilaginous and bone dysplasia in this form of OI. These results expand the range of CRTAP/LEPRE1 mutations that result in recessive OI and emphasize the importance of distinguishing recurrence of severe OI of recessive inheritance from those that result from parental germline mosaicism for COL1A1 or COL1A2 mutations.
Osteogenesis Imperfecta; Prolyl 3-Hydroxylation; CRTAP; LEPRE1
Previous reports using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) suggest that up to 70% of adults with thalassemia major (Thal) have low bone mass. However, few studies have controlled for body size and pubertal delay, variables known to affect bone mass in this population. In this study, bone mineral content and areal density (BMC, aBMD) of the spine and whole body were assessed by DXA, and volumetric BMD and cortical geometries of the distal tibia by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in subjects with Thal (n=25, 11 male, 10 to 30 yrs) and local controls (n=34, 15 male, 7 to 30 yrs). Z-scores for bone outcomes were calculated from reference data from a large sample of healthy children and young adults. Fasting blood and urine were collected, pubertal status determined by self-assessment and dietary intake and physical activity assessed by written questionnaires. Subjects with Thal were similar in age, but had lower height, weight and lean mass index Z-scores (all p<0.001) compared to controls. DXA aBMD was significantly lower in Thal compared to controls at all sites. Adult Thal subjects (>18 yrs, n=11) had lower tibial trabecular vBMD (p=0.03), cortical area, cortical BMC, cortical thickness, periosteal circumference and section modulus Z-scores (all p<0.01) compared to controls. Cortical area, cortical BMC, cortical thickness, and periosteal circumference Z-scores (p=0.02) were significantly lower in young Thal (≤18 yrs, n=14) compared to controls. In separate multivariate models, tibial cortical area, BMC, and thickness and spine aBMD and whole body BMC Z-scores remained lower in Thal compared to controls after adjustment for gender, lean mass and/or growth deficits (all p<0.01). Tanner stage was not predictive in these models. Osteocalcin, a marker of bone formation, was significantly reduced in Thal compared to controls after adjusting for age, puberty and whole body BMC (p=0.029). In summary, we have found evidence of skeletal deficits that cannot be dismissed as an artifact of small bone size or delayed maturity alone. Given that reduced bone density and strength are associated with increased risk of fracture, therapies focused on increasing bone formation and bone size in younger patients are worthy of further evaluation.
High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) is a new in vivo imaging technique for assessing three-dimensional microstructure of cortical and trabecular bone at the distal radius and tibia. No studies have investigated the extent to which measurements of the peripheral skeleton by HR-pQCT reflect those of the spine and hip, where the most serious fractures occur. To address this research question, we performed dual energy absorptiometry (DXA), central QCT (cQCT), HR-pQCT, and image-based finite element analyses in 69 premenopausal women to evaluate relationships among cortical and trabecular bone density, geometry, microstructure, and stiffness of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, distal radius and distal tibia. Significant correlations were found between stiffness of the two peripheral sites (r=0.86), two central sites (r=0.49), and between peripheral and central skeletal sites (r=0.56-0.70). These associations were partially explained by significant correlations in areal BMD (aBMD), volumetric BMD (vBMD), and cross-sectional area (CSA) between the multiple skeletal sites. For prediction of proximal femoral stiffness, vBMD (r=0.75) and stiffness (r=0.69) of the distal tibia by HR-pQCT were comparable to direct measurements of the proximal femur: aBMD of hip by DXA (r=0.70) and vBMD of hip by cQCT (r=0.64). For prediction of vertebral stiffness, trabecular vBMD (r=0.58) and stiffness (r=0.70) of distal radius by HR-pQCT were comparable to direct measurements of lumbar spine: aBMD by DXA (r=0.78) and vBMD by cQCT (r=0.67). Our results suggest that bone density, microstructural and mechanical properties measured by HR-pQCT of the distal radius and tibia reflect mechanical competence of the central skeleton.
high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography; finite element analysis; lumbar spine; proximal femur; distal radius; distal tibia
Most previous genetic epidemiology studies within the field of osteoporosis have focused on the genetics of the complex trait areal bone mineral density (aBMD), not being able to differentiate genetic determinants of cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD), trabecular vBMD, and bone microstructural traits. The objective of this study was to separately identify genetic determinants of these bone traits as analysed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Separate GWA meta-analyses for cortical and trabecular vBMDs were performed. The cortical vBMD GWA meta-analysis (n = 5,878) followed by replication (n = 1,052) identified genetic variants in four separate loci reaching genome-wide significance (RANKL, rs1021188, p = 3.6×10−14; LOC285735, rs271170, p = 2.7×10−12; OPG, rs7839059, p = 1.2×10−10; and ESR1/C6orf97, rs6909279, p = 1.1×10−9). The trabecular vBMD GWA meta-analysis (n = 2,500) followed by replication (n = 1,022) identified one locus reaching genome-wide significance (FMN2/GREM2, rs9287237, p = 1.9×10−9). High-resolution pQCT analyses, giving information about bone microstructure, were available in a subset of the GOOD cohort (n = 729). rs1021188 was significantly associated with cortical porosity while rs9287237 was significantly associated with trabecular bone fraction. The genetic variant in the FMN2/GREM2 locus was associated with fracture risk in the MrOS Sweden cohort (HR per extra T allele 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.60–0.93) and GREM2 expression in human osteoblasts. In conclusion, five genetic loci associated with trabecular or cortical vBMD were identified. Two of these (FMN2/GREM2 and LOC285735) are novel bone-related loci, while the other three have previously been reported to be associated with aBMD. The genetic variants associated with cortical and trabecular bone parameters differed, underscoring the complexity of the genetics of bone parameters. We propose that a genetic variant in the RANKL locus influences cortical vBMD, at least partly, via effects on cortical porosity, and that a genetic variant in the FMN2/GREM2 locus influences GREM2 expression in osteoblasts and thereby trabecular number and thickness as well as fracture risk.
Osteoporosis is a common highly heritable skeletal disease characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and deteriorated bone microstructure, resulting in an increased risk of fracture. Most previous genetic epidemiology studies have focused on the genetics of the complex trait BMD, not being able to separate genetic determinants of the trabecular and cortical bone compartments and bone microstructure. The trabecular and cortical BMDs can be analysed separately by computed tomography. Therefore, we performed separate genome-wide association studies for trabecular and cortical BMDs, demonstrating that the genetic determinants of cortical and trabecular BMDs differ. Genetic variants in the RANKL, LOC285735, OPG, and ESR1 loci were associated with cortical BMD, while a genetic variant in the FMN2/GREM2 locus was associated with trabecular BMD. Two of these are novel bone-related loci. Follow-up analyses of bone microstructure demonstrated that a genetic variant in the RANKL locus is associated with cortical porosity and that the FMN2/GREM2 locus is associated with trabecular number and thickness. We propose that a genetic variant in the RANKL locus influences cortical BMD via effects on cortical porosity, and that a genetic variant in the FMN2/GREM2 locus influences trabecular BMD and fracture risk via effects on both trabecular number and thickness.
Dermal fibroblasts in culture from a woman with a mild to moderate form of osteogenesis imperfecta synthesize two species of the pro alpha 2-chain of type I procollagen. One chain is normal. The abnormal chain has a slightly faster mobility than normal during electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels. Analysis of cyanogen bromide peptides of the pro alpha-chain, the alpha-chain, and of the mammalian collagenase cleavage products of the pro alpha- and alpha-chains indicates that the abnormality is confined to the alpha 2(I)CB4 fragment and is consistent with loss of a short triple-helical segment. Type I collagen production was decreased, perhaps because the molecules that contained the abnormal chain were unstable, with a resultant alteration in the ratio of type III to type I collagen secreted into culture medium. Collagen fibrils in bone and skin had a normal periodicity but their diameters were 50% of control; the bone matrix was undermineralized. The structural abnormality in the alpha 2(I)-chain in this patient may affect molecular stability, intermolecular interactions, and collagen-mineral relationships that act to decrease the collagen content of tissues and affect the mineralization of bone.
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary disease causing reduced bone mass, increased fracture rate, long bone deformities and vertebral compressions. Additional non skeletal findings are caused by impaired collagen function and include hyperlaxity of joints and blue sclera. Most OI cases are caused by dominant mutations in COL1A1/2 affecting bone formation. During the last years, recessive forms of OI have been identified, mostly affecting posttranslational modification of collagen. In 2011, mutations in SERPINF1 were identified as the molecular cause of OI type VI, and thereby a novel pathophysiology of the disease was elucidated. The subgroup of patients with OI type VI are affected by an increased bone resorption, leading to the same symptoms as observed in patients with an impaired bone formation. Severely affected children are currently treated with intravenous bisphosphonates regardless of the underlying mutation and pathophysiology. Patients with OI type VI are known to have a poor response to such a bisphosphonate treatment.
Deciphering the genetic cause of OI type VI in our 4 patients (three children and one adolescent) led to an immediate translational approach in the form of a treatment with the monoclonal RANKL antibody Denosumab (1 mg/kg body weight every 12 weeks).
Short-term biochemical response to this treatment was reported previously. We now present the results after 2 years of treatment and demonstrate a long term benefit as well as an increase of bone mineral density, a normalization of vertebral shape, an increase of mobility, and a reduced fracture rate.
This report presents the first two-year data of denosumab treatment in patients with Osteogenesis imperfecta type VI and in Osteogenesis imperfecta in general as an effective and apparently safe treatment option.
Osteogenesis imperfecta VI; SERPINF1; RANKL Antibody; Denosumab; Bone mineral density
Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) can estimate volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and distinguish trabecular from cortical bone. Few comprehensive studies have examined correlates of vBMD in older men. This study evaluated the impact of demographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and medical factors on vBMD in 1172 men aged 69 to 97 years and enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS). Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to measure vBMD of the radius and tibia. The multivariable linear regression models explained up to 10% of the variance in trabecular vBMD and up to 9% of the variance in cortical vBMD. Age was not correlated with radial trabecular vBMD. Correlates associated with both cortical and trabecular vBMD were age (−), caffeine intake (−), total calcium intake (+), nontrauma fracture (−), and hypertension (+). Higher body weight was related to greater trabecular vBMD and lower cortical vBMD. Height (−), education (+), diabetes with thiazolidinedione (TZD) use (+), rheumatoid arthritis (+), using arms to stand from a chair (−), and antiandrogen use (−) were associated only with trabecular vBMD. Factors associated only with cortical vBMD included clinic site (−), androgen use (+), grip strength (+), past smoker (−), and time to complete five chair stands (−). Certain correlates of trabecular and cortical vBMD differed among older men. An ascertainment of potential risk factors associated with trabecular and cortical vBMD may lead to better understanding and preventive efforts for osteoporosis in men. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
osteoporosis; vBMD; pQCT; radius; tibia
An automated image processing method is presented for simulating areal bone mineral density measures using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in the ultra-distal radius. The accuracy of the method is validated against clinical dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This technique represents a useful reference to gauge the utility of novel 3D quantification methods applied to HR-pQCT in multi-center clinical studies and potentially negates the need for separate forearm DXA measurements.
Osteoporotic status is primarily assessed by measuring areal bone mineral density (aBMD) using 2D dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, this technique does not sufficiently explain bone strength and fracture risk. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) has been introduced as a method to quantify 3D bone microstructure and biomechanics. In this study, an automated method is proposed to simulate aBMD measures from HR-pQCT distal radius images.
A total of 117 subject scans were retrospectively analyzed from two clinical bone quality studies. The distal radius was imaged by HR-pQCT and DXA on one of two devices (Hologic or Lunar). Areal BMD was calculated by simulation from HR-pQCT images (aBMDsim) and by standard DXA analysis (aBMDdxa).
The reproducibility of the simulation technique was 1.1% (root mean-squared coefficient of variation). HR-pQCT-based aBMDsim correlated strongly to aBMDdxa (Hologic: R2 = 0.82, Lunar: R2 = 0.87), though aBMDsim underestimated aBMDdxa for both DXA devices (p < 0.0001). Finally, aBMDsim predicted aBMD at the proximal femur and lumbar spine with equal power compared to aBMDdxa.
The results demonstrate that aBMD can be simulated from HR-pQCT images of the distal radius. This approach has the potential to serve as a surrogate forearm aBMD measure for clinical HR-pQCT studies when axial bone mineral density values are not required.
Bone mineral density; DXA; HR-pQCT; Osteoporosis; Simulation
Osteogenesis imperfecta, also known as “brittle bone disease”, is a heterogeneous disorder of connective tissue generally caused by dominant mutations in the genes COL1A1 and COL1A2, encoding the α1 and α2 chains of type I (pro)collagen. Symptomatic patients are usually prescribed bisphosphonates, but this treatment is neither curative nor sufficient. A promising field is gene silencing through RNA interference. In this study small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were designed to target each allele of 3'UTR insertion/deletion polymorphisms (indels) in COL1A1 (rs3840870) and COL1A2 (rs3917). For both indels, the frequency of heterozygous individuals was determined to be approximately 50% in Swedish cohorts of healthy controls as well as in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. Cultures of primary human bone derived cells were transfected with siRNAs through magnet-assisted transfection. cDNA from transfected cells was sequenced in order to measure targeted allele/non-targeted allele ratios and the overall degree of silencing was assessed by quantitative PCR. Successful allele dependent silencing was observed, with promising results for siRNAs complementary to both the insertion and non-insertion harboring alleles. In COL1A1 cDNA the indel allele ratios were shifted from 1 to 0.09 and 0.19 for the insertion and non-insertion allele respectively while the equivalent resulting ratios for COL1A2 were 0.05 and 0.01. Reductions in mRNA abundance were also demonstrated; in cells treated with siRNAs targeting the COL1A1 alleles the average COL1A1 mRNA levels were reduced 65% and 78% compared to negative control levels and in cells treated with COL1A2 siRNAs the average COL1A2 mRNA levels were decreased 26% and 49% of those observed in the corresponding negative controls. In conclusion, allele dependent silencing of collagen type I utilizing 3'UTR indels common in the general population constitutes a promising mutation independent therapeutic approach for osteogenesis imperfecta.
osteogenesis imperfecta; collagen type I; siRNA
Increased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) has been associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) in animal models and longitudinal studies of women, but a direct effect has not been demonstrated.
We tested associations between FSH, non-bone body composition measures and BMD in 94 younger (aged 50 to 64 years) postmenopausal women without current use of hormone therapy, adjusting for sex hormone concentrations and clinical risk factors for osteoporosis. Lean mass, fat mass and areal BMD (aBMD) at the spine, femoral neck and total hip were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Volumetric BMD (vBMD) was measured at the distal radius using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Results: FSH was inversely correlated with lean and fat mass, bioavailable estradiol, spine and hip aBMD, and vBMD at the ultradistal radius. In the multivariable analysis, FSH was independently associated with lean mass (β= −0.099, p=0.005) after adjustment for age, race, years since menopause, bioavailable estradiol, bioavailable testosterone, LH, PTH, SHBG and urine N-telopeptide. FSH showed no statistically significant association with aBMD at any site or pQCT measures at the distal radius in adjusted models. Race was independently associated with aBMD, and race and urine N-telopeptide were independently associated with bone area and vBMD.
After adjustment for hormonal measures and osteoporosis risk factors, higher concentrations of FSH were independently associated with lower lean mass, but not with BMD. Previously reported correlations between FSH and BMD might have been due to indirect associations via lean mass or weight.
bone mineral density; follicle-stimulating hormone; menopausal