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1.  Characterization of overactive bladder in women in a primary care setting 
Overactive bladder (OAB) represents a disorder with overall increasing prevalence in the American population. However, gender-specific characteristics of OAB and how it relates to the general practitioner are not well described. We sought to determine the distribution and characteristics of OAB in women in a primary care setting.
Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to patients visiting a family medicine outpatient center. The modified questionnaire included eight questions on evidence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, OAB-validated 8-question screener [OAB-V8]), two questions on stress urinary incontinence, and one question on incomplete emptying. The questionnaire included demographic characteristics and relevant medical and surgical history. Body mass index was calculated based on weight and height. Chi-square test and risk ratio analysis were used to analyze the relationship between OAB and other independent variables.
Of 1025 questionnaires administered, 386 were completed. Patients ranged from 16 to 97 years, the majority were African American (78.2%), and 49.7% were premenopausal while 50.3% were postmenopausal. OAB was present in 46.4% of premenopausal women and 41.7% of postmenopausal women. OAB was significantly associated with overweight status (body mass index 25.0–29.9, P = 0.042) and obesity (body mass index ≥30, P < 0.001). Overall, obese women were twice as likely to have OAB (relative risk = 1.99, 1.31–3.04) than women with normal weight. OAB was not shown to correlate with race, cigarette use, history of hysterectomy, or parity.
OAB was evident in 44% of all female patients surveyed, which is much higher than previously reported estimates. In addition, overweight women were more likely to have OAB. Increased awareness of OAB in the primary care setting should be considered for women’s general health.
PMCID: PMC3818934  PMID: 24198633
overactive bladder; incontinence; women; primary care
2.  The Urologist's View of Male Overactive Bladder: Discrepancy between Reality and Belief in Practical Setting 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(3):432-437.
In order to gain insight into the physicians' awareness of and attitude towards management of overactive bladder (OAB) in males, we performed a nationwide survey of the current strategies that urologists use to diagnose and manage OAB in male patients.
Materials and Methods
A probability sample was taken from the Korean Urological Association Registry of Physicians, and a random sample of 289 Korean urologists were mailed a structured questionnaire that explored how they manage benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
A total of 185 completed questionnaires were returned. The consent rate in the survey was 64.5%. Eighty-one (44%) urologists believed that of all males with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), 20% or more had OAB and 72 (39%) believed that 10-20% had OAB. Half of the urologists surveyed believed that the most bothersome symptom in male OAB patients was nocturia. Seventy-three percent of respondents reported that they prescribed alpha blockers with anticholinergics for first line management, while 19% of urologists prescribed alpha blocker monotherapy but not anticholinergics for OAB patients. Though acute urinary retention (AUR) was considered the anticholinergic adverse event of most concern, the most frequently observed adverse event was dry mouth (95%).
The present study provides insights into urologist views of male OAB. There is a discrepancy between the awareness of urologists and actual patterns of diagnosis and treatment of male OAB. This finding indicates the need to develop further practical guidelines based on solid clinical data.
PMCID: PMC2852801  PMID: 20376898
Overactive bladder; physician's practice patterns; bladder outlet obstruction; benign prostatic hyperplasia; anticholinergics
3.  Biomarkers in Overactive Bladder: A New Objective and Noninvasive Tool? 
Advances in Urology  2011;2011:382431.
Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is a highly prevalent urinary dysfunction, with considerable economic and human costs. Clinical diagnosis of OAB is still based on subjective symptoms. A new accurate, objective and noninvasive test to diagnose OAB and assess therapeutic outcome is lacking. Recent studies in lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunctions, particularly in OAB patients, indicate that urinary proteins (neurotrophins, prostaglandins, and cytokines), serum C reactive protein, and detrusor wall thickness are altered, and such changes could be used as biomarkers of the disease. Nowadays, increasing emphasis has been given to the role of urinary neurotrophins, namely nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as key players in some urinary dysfunctions. Although recently considered to be a bladder dysfunction biomarker, urinary NGF presents low sensitivity and specificity. Preliminary results suggest that BDNF may serve as a more efficient biomarker. Even though we have to wait for future studies to confirm the potential role of NGF and BDNF as OAB biomarkers, it is already clear that neurotrophins will contribute to elucidate the physiopathological basis of OAB. Herein are reviewed the latest advances in this new and exciting field, the detection and clinical application of emerging OAB biomarkers.
PMCID: PMC3113283  PMID: 21687625
4.  Prospective pharmacologic therapies for the overactive bladder 
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) and detrusor overactivity (DO) are all conditions that can have major effects on quality of life and social functioning. Antimuscarinic drugs are first-line treatment–they often have good initial response rates, but adverse effects and decreasing efficacy cause long-term compliance problems, and alternatives are needed. The recognition of the functional contribution of the urothelium, the spontaneous myocyte activity during bladder filling, and the diversity of nerve transmitters has sparked interest in both peripheral and central modulation of LUTS/OAB/DO pathophysiology. There may be several new possibilities to treat LUTS/OAB/DO. β3-AR agonists (YM178), PDE 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil), vitamin D analogs (elocalcitol), combinations (α1-AR antagonist + antimuscarinic), and drugs with a central mode of action (tramadol, aprepitant) all have Randomized controlled trial (RCT) documented efficacy. Which of these therapeutic principles will be developed to clinically useful treatments remains to be established.
PMCID: PMC3126054  PMID: 21789056
incontinence; detrusor overactivity; drug treatment
5.  Systematic review of therapy for men with overactive bladder 
Canadian Urological Association Journal  2011;5(5 Suppl 2):S143-S145.
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) can have multiple causes in men. Overactive bladder (OAB) is an empirical diagnosis used as the basis for initial management after assessing symptoms, physical findings, urinalysis and other indicated evaluations. In men, the diagnosis is complicated by the potential of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is a histological diagnosis. Although storage symptoms (i.e., those associated with OAB) are the most bothersome group of LUTS in men with BPH, these patients are usually treated with BPH rather than OAB drugs. The standard pharmacologic treatment of patients with bothersome voiding and storage LUTS at low risk of progression should be an α1-AR antagonist. The combination α1-AR antagonist + antimuscarinic agent is an appropriate and valid option for male patients with voiding symptoms and persistent storage symptoms.
PMCID: PMC3193387  PMID: 21989528
6.  The Add-On Effect of Solifenacin for Patients with Remaining Overactive Bladder after Treatment with Tamsulosin for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Benign Prostatic Obstruction 
Advances in Urology  2010;2010:205251.
Objectives. To investigate the add-on effect of solifenacin for Japanese men with remaining overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms after tamsulosin monotherapy for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) in real-life clinical practice. Methods. Patients aged ≥ 50 having remaining OAB symptoms (≥ 3 of OAB symptom score (OABSS) with ≥2 of urgency score) after at least 4 weeks treatment by 0.2 mg of tamsulosin for BPO/LUTS received 2.5 or 5.0 mg of solifenacin for 12 weeks. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), QOL index and OABSS, maximum flow rate (Qmax) and postvoid residual urine volume (PVR) were determined. Results. A total of 48 patients (mean age 72.5 years) completed the study. There were significant improvement in IPSS (15.1 to 11.2) and QOL index (4.2 to 3.0) by add-on of solifenacin. Although the IPSS storage symptom score was significantly improved, there were no changes observed in the IPSS voiding symptom score. The OABSS showed significant improvement (8.0 to 4.8). No changes were observed in Qmax and PVR. Conclusions. Under the supervision of an experienced urologist, the additional administration of solifenacin to patients with BPO/LUTS treated with tamsulosin, is effective in controlling remaining OAB symptoms.
PMCID: PMC2964005  PMID: 20981257
7.  Pathophysiology of the lower urinary tract and CNS 
Canadian Urological Association Journal  2011;5(5 Suppl 2):S126-S127.
A number of aspects of neural control are potentially important in the control of bladder function, including both sensory and motor and peripheral and central pathways. It is likely that a combination of disorders of both central and peripheral neural mechanisms is important in the genesis of urgency and the other symptoms of the overactive bladder (OAB). Given the number of potential pathways involved, potential pharmacologic targets for OAB exist in the CNS (central nervous system; cerebral cortex, midbrain, spinal cord) and periphery (LUT; lower urinary tract). Antimuscarinics are still the mainstay of OAB treatment, but there are also a number of other potentially efficacious drugs that may also provide benefit against the neurologic components of OAB. This review discusses the impact of neurological abnormalities on lower urinary tract symptoms and the potential for treatments targeting these pathways to improve symptoms.
PMCID: PMC3193397  PMID: 21989521
8.  Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Epidemiology and Risk Factors 
The epidemiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) has evolved considerably during the past several years. The term LUTS describes a distinct phenotype and allows for a broad epidemiologic description of urinary symptoms at a population level. Although it is becoming the preferred term for studying urinary symptoms in populations, LUTS remains interconnected with BPH in the literature. The incidence and prevalence of BPH and LUTS are increasing rapidly as the US population ages. BPH and LUTS are associated with serious medical morbidities, an increased risk of falls, depression, diminished health-related quality of life, and billions of dollars in annual health care costs. Although age and genetics play important roles in the etiology of BPH and LUTS, recent insights at the population level have revealed that modifiable risk factors are likely key components as well. Serum dihydrotestosterone, obesity, elevated fasting glucose, diabetes, fat and red meat intake, and inflammation increase the risk; vegetables, regular alcohol consumption, exercise, and NSAIDs decrease the risk.
PMCID: PMC3061630  PMID: 21475707
Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Lower urinary tract symptoms; American Urological Association Symptom Index; BPH; LUTS; Epidemiology; Risk factor; Exercise; Physical activity; Metabolic syndrome; Modifiable; Obesity; Diabetes
9.  Commonly-used antihypertensives and lower urinary tract symptoms: Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey 
Bju International  2011;109(11):1676-1684.
To examine differences in the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) among users of five common antihypertensive (AHT) classes compared to non-users, adjusted for LUTS risk factors in a large, representative sample.
Subjects and Methods
Data were from the Boston Area Community Health Survey, a population-based study of community-dwelling male and female (30–79y) residents of Boston, MA for whom prescription drug information was collected (2002–2005). The urologic symptoms of storage, voiding, and nocturia were assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaires and the American Urologic Association Symptom Index. This analysis was conducted among 1,865 participants with an AHT indication. Associations of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), loop and thiazide diuretics with the three groups of LUTS were estimated using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from multivariate logistic regression (referent group=untreated hypertension). Overlap in use was accounted for using monotherapy and combination therapy exposure categories.
Among women, monotherapy with CCBs was associated with increased prevalence of nocturia (OR=2.65, 95% CI: 1.04–6.74) and voiding symptoms (OR=3.84, 95% CI: 1.24–11.87); these results were confined to women aged <55. Among men of all ages, positive associations were observed for thiazides and voiding symptoms (monotherapy OR=2.90, 95% CI: 1.17–7.19), and loop diuretics and nocturia (combination therapy OR=2.55, 95% CI: 1.26–5.14).
Results are consistent with the hypothesis that certain AHTs may aggravate LUTS. The presence of new or worsening LUTS among AHT users suggests review of medications and consideration of a change in AHT class.
PMCID: PMC3249016  PMID: 21951754
urination disorders; antihypertensive agents; epidemiology
10.  Prostatic hyperplasia is highly associated with nocturia and excessive sleepiness: a cross-sectional study 
BMJ Open  2012;2(3):e000505.
The objective of this study is to assess the impact of nocturia on sleep in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) (nocturia≥2).
Cross-sectional survey.
798 urologists and general practitioners randomly selected from the overall population of urologists and general practitioners of every French region.
A total of 2179 LUTS/BPE men (aged 67.5±7.5 years old) were recruited.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
Validated patients' self-administered questionnaires were used to assess the severity of LUTS/BPE (the International Prostate Symptom Score), sleep characteristics (sleep log) and sleep disorders (the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) and the DSM-IV). Sleepiness was assessed with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The volume of 24 h diuresis (1500 ml) was measured.
Participants had on average 2.9±0.9 nocturia episodes (three or more episodes in 67%) and the International Prostate Symptom Score of 15.8±5.7; 60.9% complained of insomnia according to the ICSD-2, 7.9% of restless leg syndrome and 6.4% of obstructive sleep apnoea. 32.3% had excessive sleepiness (ESS >10) and 3.1% severe excessive sleepiness (ESS >16). Insomnia was mainly nocturnal awakenings with an average wake after sleep onset of 89±47 min. The number of episodes of nocturia per night correlated significantly with wake after sleep onset and ESS but not with total sleep time and sleep latency.
Nocturia is significantly associated with sleep maintenance insomnia and sleepiness in men with BPE.
Article summary
Article focus
Complaint of nocturia and its links with excessive sleepiness.
Assessment of the impact of nocturia on sleep.
Key messages
By being disruptive to sleep, the nocturia episodes affected sleep efficiency and quality.
The number of nocturia episodes was associated with an increased sleepiness in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Strengths and limitations of this study
This is a cross-sectional study. It would have been more convincing to compare our subjects to a similar group of older people with no benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, our study focused on the frequency of insomnia and on the correlates between benign prostatic hyperplasia and insomnia.
PMCID: PMC3367152  PMID: 22649170
11.  Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Diet Quality: Findings From the 2000-2001 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 
Urology  2012;79(6):1262-1267.
To evaluate the association between dietary quality and the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
We used urinary symptom and dietary data obtained from the 2000-2001 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the study. Dietary quality was assessed using the 10-component United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Healthy Eating Index (HEI). We used bivariate methods to examine rates of LUTS among men with poor versus good diets. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios after applying sample weights and controlling for age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, diabetes, alcohol intake, and exercise.
Our study cohort consisted of 1385 men aged ≥40 years, of whom 279 (21.1%) reported LUTS. We found higher rates of LUTS among men with poor dietary intake of dairy (22.4% vs 16.4%, P = .013) and among men with poor intake of protein (24.6% vs 17.9%, P = .012) as well as among those with overall poor diet (25.8 vs 17.8%, P = .018) with little dietary variety (26.1 vs 17.6%, P = .001). On multivariate analysis, an unhealthy diet (odds ratios [OR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-2.90) was associated with more LUTS, whereas alcohol intake was protective from LUTS (OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.48-0.93).
In an analysis of NHANES data, we found that poor diet quality was independently associated with patient-reported LUTS.
PMCID: PMC3565589  PMID: 22656406
12.  Medical Attendance for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Is Associated with Subsequent Increased Risk of Outpatient Visits and Hospitalizations Based on a Nationwide Population-Based Database 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e57825.
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which encompass storage, voiding, and postmicturition symptoms, are highly prevalent and recognized globally. Based on a nationwide population-based database, this study tests the hypothesis that medical attendance for LUTS is associated with a subsequent increase in the number of outpatient visits and hospitalizations, with differences among medical specialties and age groups.
Participants were selected from a random population sample of approximately one million people as a representative cohort of National Health Insurance (NHI) enrollees in Taiwan. Participants had at least three outpatient service claims with a coding of LUTS during the recruitment period 2001–2004. Both the LUTS group and non-LUTS control group were monitored for subsequent outpatient visits and hospitalizations, excluding LUTS-related healthcare services, for 2 years following the index date. The results were categorized based on medical specialty and age group.
The outpatient visit rates (no. per person-year) and adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) (95% confidence interval (CI) were significantly higher in urology (4.51, 95%CI 4.15–4.91) and gynecology (1.82, 95%CI 1.76–1.89) for the LUTS group. They were also significantly high in other departments, including internal medicine (1.25), general practice (1.13), Chinese medicine (1.77), family medicine (1.19), surgery (1.38), and psychiatry (1.98). Similarly, the hospitalization rate (no. per 1000 person-year) and adjusted IRRs (95% CI) were significantly higher in urology (5.50, 95% CI = 4.60–6.50) and gynecology (1.60, 95% CI = 1.35–1.90), as well as in internal medicine (1.55) and surgery (1.56), but not in psychiatry (1.12). Furthermore, the IRRs differed among 3 age groups.
A significantly higher number of outpatient visits and hospitalizations were observed for individuals with LUTS, compared to the control group, and the effects differed with the advancement of age. This study broadens understanding of LUTS by viewing their impact on healthcare services with multiple and overlapping systems, rather than considering them exclusively as symptoms of traditional diseases of the bladder and urethra.
PMCID: PMC3589460  PMID: 23472108
13.  Intakes of Vitamins and Minerals in Relation to Urinary Incontinence, Voiding, and Storage Symptoms in Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the Boston Area Community Health Survey 
European urology  2011;59(6):1039-1047.
Whether lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), including voiding, storage, and urinary incontinence, are affected by dietary micronutrients is uncertain.
To test the hypothesis that carotenoid, vitamin C, zinc, and calcium intakes are associated with LUTS and urinary incontinence in women.
Design, setting, and participants
During an observational, cross-sectional, population-based epidemiologic study of 2060 women (30–79 yr of age) in the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) survey (2002–2005), data were collected by validated food frequency questionnaire and in-person interviews and analyzed using multivariate regression.
LUTS, storage, and voiding symptoms were assessed using the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI) and a validated severity index for urinary incontinence.
Results and limitations
Women who consumed high-dose vitamin C from diet and supplements were more likely to report storage symptoms, especially combined frequency and urgency (>500 vs <50 mg/d; odds ratio [OR]: 3.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44–8.12). However, greater consumption of dietary vitamin C or β-cryptoxanthin was inversely associated with voiding symptoms (ptrend < 0.01). Both dietary and supplemental calcium were positively associated with storage symptoms (eg, supplement >1000 mg/d vs none; OR: 2.04; 95% CI, 1.35–3.09; ptrend = 0.0002). No consistent associations were observed for β-carotene, lycopene, or other carotenoids, although smokers using β-carotene supplements were more likely to report storage problems. Whether the observed associations represent direct causes of diet on LUTS is uncertain.
High-dose intakes of vitamin C and calcium were positively associated with urinary storage or incontinence, whereas vitamin C and β-cryptoxanthin from foods and beverages were inversely associated with voiding symptoms. Results indicate that micronutrient intakes may contribute to LUTS in dose-dependent and symptom-specific ways. Further study is needed to confirm these findings and their relevance to clinical treatment decisions.
PMCID: PMC3085565  PMID: 21444148
Ascorbic acid; Calcium; dietary; Carotenoids; Diet; Micronutrients; Nutrition; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Urinary bladder; overactive; Urinary incontinence; Urination disorders; Zinc
14.  Current Evaluation and Treatment of Nocturia 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(8):492-498.
Nocturia is usually considered to be just one of the symptoms included with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and is treated with therapy based on LUTS. Recent research suggests, however, that nocturia is not merely a simple symptom of LUTS but is a multifactorial condition with many contributing etiological factors. The causes of nocturia can be classified into bladder storage problems, increased urine output, sleep disturbance problems, and other potential diseases. The frequency-volume chart (FVC) is very important in evaluating and diagnosing nocturia. Patients usually record the volume and timing of voids for a period of 1 to 3 days on the FVC. The FVC data can provide information on voiding patterns and clues about the etiology and treatment of nocturia. It is doubtful that alpha-blockers will have clinical significance for treatment because the difference in nocturia episodes between treatment with alpha-blockers and placebo is too small. Antimuscarinics also exert no effect on nocturnal polyuria, and the evidence supporting the efficacy of antimuscarinics for the treatment of nocturia is limited. However, several randomized placebo-controlled trials have shown the efficacy of oral desmopressin in the treatment of adults with nocturia. Short-acting hypnotics may be helpful for patients with sleep disturbances. Although surgical or interventional therapy is not indicated for nocturia, transurethral resection of the prostate appears to confer a greater improvement in benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms including nocturia. The management of nocturia may require a team approach by making optimal use of multidisciplinary expertise.
PMCID: PMC3742899  PMID: 23956822
Epidemiology; Evaluation; Nocturia; Pathophysiology; Treatment
15.  Association of overactive bladder and C-reactive protein levels. Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey 
Bju International  2011;110(3):401-407.
To investigate the association between overactive bladder (OAB) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a population-based sample of men and women.
Epidemiological survey of urological symptoms among men and women aged 30–79 years. A multi-stage stratified cluster design was used to randomly sample 5503 adults from the city of Boston. Analyses were conducted on 1898 men and 1854 women with available CRP levels.
The International Continence Society defines OAB as ‘Urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia.’ OAB was defined as: (1) urgency, (2) urgency with frequency, and (3) urgency with frequency and nocturia.
Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of the CRP and OAB association were estimated using logistic regression.
Prevalence of OAB increased with CRP levels in both men and women.
In men, adjusted ORs (95% CI) per log10(CRP) levels were 1.90 (1.26–2.86) with OAB defined as urgency, 1.65 (1.06–2.58) with OAB defined as urgency and frequency, and 1.92 (1.13–3.28) with OAB defined as urgency, frequency and nocturia.
The association was more modest in women with ORs (95% CI) of 1.53 (1.07–2.18) for OAB as defined urgency, 1.51 (1.02–2.23) for OAB defined as urgency and frequency, and 1.34 (0.85–2.12) for OAB defined as urgency, frequency and nocturia.
Results show a consistent association of increasing CRP levels and OAB among both men and women.
These results support our hypothesis for the role of inflammation in the development of OAB and a possible role for anti-inflammatory agents in its treatment.
PMCID: PMC3325364  PMID: 22176817
C-reactive protein; epidemiology; inflammation; overactive bladder
16.  Urodynamic studies in the evaluation of the older man with lower urinary tract symptoms: when, which ones, and what to do with the results 
Therapeutic Advances in Urology  2010;2(5-6):187-194.
Lower urinary tract dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity and decreased quality of life in older men. Most urinary dysfunctions in the elderly are multifactorial in origin and associated with a broad spectrum of mental and physical conditions. In this population, it is essential to have a comprehensive assessment of the lower urinary tract, functional impairments and concurrent medical diseases. A holistic and individualized approach to management is important. Urodynamic studies (UDS) are objective tests which provide a major contribution to our understanding of the pathophysiology of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Urodynamic findings in older men may include common diagnoses such as bladder outlet obstruction and urinary incontinence. However, coexisting conditions such as detrusor overactivity and impaired detrusor contractility are common in older men. The identification of these conditions is necessary to appropriately counsel patients regarding treatment options. Simple urodynamic tests should be used whenever possible such as uroflowmetry and residual volume estimation. However, in complicated cases more invasive tests such as pressure flow studies are important to help choose the best treatment.
PMCID: PMC3126081  PMID: 21789074
urodynamic studies; older men; lower urinary tract symptoms
17.  A Prospective Study of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Erectile Dysfunction 
The Journal of urology  2008;179(6):2321-2326.
Several studies have reported that men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are more likely to experience erectile dysfunction (ED). All but one of these studies was cross-sectional, limiting inferences about whether LUTS precipitate ED.
Materials and Methods
The association between LUTS and incident ED was examined prospectively in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. LUTS were assessed biennially by the American Urological Association Symptom Index, which captures symptoms of frequency, urgency and force of urinary stream. Severe LUTS was defined as a symptom score of ≥ 20 points and no LUTS was defined as a score of ≤ 7 points, both among men not treated for LUTS. In 2000, the men were asked to rate their erectile function for several time periods. ED was defined as “poor” or “very poor” function or use of ED medications and no ED was defined as “very good” or “good” function and no use of ED medications. We estimated risk ratios using Poisson regression adjusting for age and other potentially confounding factors.
We observed 3,953 incident ED cases among 17,086 men. Men with severe LUTS in 1994 or earlier had a statistically significant 40% higher risk of ED subsequently than men without LUTS. The risk of ED increased with increasing LUTS severity (p trend < 0.0001). The positive association between LUTS and ED was stronger among younger than older men (p interaction = 0.03).
This study provides evidence that men with LUTS are more likely to develop ED subsequently.
PMCID: PMC3217213  PMID: 18423761
erectile dysfunction; prostatic hyperplasia; urination disorders; prospective studies
18.  Effects of coffee and tea consumption on urinary incontinence in female twins 
To assess the effect of coffee and tea consumption on symptoms of urinary incontinence.
Population based study
The Swedish Twin Register
In 2005, all twins born between 1959–1985 in Sweden (n = 42 852) were invited to participate in a web-based survey to screen for common complex diseases and common exposures. The present study was limited to female twins with information about at least one urinary symptoms and coffee and tea consumption (n = 14 031).
Main outcome measure
The association between coffe and tea consumption and urinary incontinence, as well as, nocturia was estimated as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Women with a high coffee intake were at lower risk of any urinary incontinence (OR 0.78, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.64-0.98) compared to women not drinking coffee. Coffee intake and incontinence subtypes showed no significant associations whereas high tea consumption was specifically associated with a risk for overactive bladder (OR 1.34, 95% CI 11.07-1.67) and nocturia (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.01-1.38). Results from co-twin control analysis suggested that the associations observed in logistic regression were mainly due to familial effects.
This study suggests that coffee and tea consumption has a limited effect on urinary incontinence symptoms. Familial and genetic effects may have confounded the associations observed in previous studies.
PMCID: PMC3094486  PMID: 21401855
Caffeine; Coffee; Tea; Twin; Urinary incontinence
19.  Are Physical Activity, Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Associated with the Development of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men or Women? Results from a Population-Based Observational Study 
The Journal of urology  2012;188(2):490-495.
Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) are highly prevalent and reduce quality of life. Lifestyle behaviors and LUTS development are largely unexamined. The objective of this study was to investigate physical activity, smoking, and alcohol drinking and LUTS development in men and women.
Materials and Methods
Data were from a longitudinal observational study, the Boston Area Community Health Survey. Baseline (2002–2005) in-person interviews assessed activity, smoking and alcohol. Five-year follow-up interviews (2006–2010, N=4,145) assessed new reports of moderate-to-severe LUTS, defined by the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI). Analysis used multivariable logistic regression.
LUTS developed among 7.7% and 12.7% of at-risk men and women, respectively. Women were 68% less likely to develop LUTS (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.17–0.60, P<0.001) if they had high vs. low physically activity. Although the association was similar among men, it was not statistically significant upon adjustment for medical or sociodemographic characteristics in the multivariable model. Women smokers were twice as likely to develop LUTS, particularly storage symptoms (OR=2.15, 95% CI: 1.30–3.56, P=0.003), compared to never-smokers. Among men, smoking was not associated with LUTS. Results for alcohol intake were inconsistent by intake level and symptom subtype.
Low physical activity was associated with 2–3 times higher likelihood of LUTS development. Smoking may contribute to LUTS development in women, but not men. Clinicians should continue to promote physical activity and smoking cessation noting the additional potential benefits of LUTS prevention, particularly for women.
PMCID: PMC3427389  PMID: 22704109
Exercise; Smoking; Alcohol drinking; Urinary bladder; overactive; Nocturia; Epidemiology; Bladder Outlet Obstruction; Physical activity; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Voiding dysfunction; Observational
20.  In a free healthcare system, why do men not consult for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)? 
The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) varies among different populations but the rate of seeking medical advice is consistently low. Little is known about the reasons for this low rate. In the city of Macau, China, primary healthcare is free and easily accessible to all citizens. We aim to study the patients' rate of consulting for LUTS and their reasons for not consulting under a free healthcare system.
A convenience sample of 549 male patients aged 40-85 years in a government health centre filled in the International Prostate Symptoms Scale (IPSS) questionnaire. They were also asked if they had consulted doctors for LUTS, and if not, why not.
Of the whole sample, 64 men (11.7%) had ever consulted doctors for LUTS. Of 145 with moderate to severe LUTS, 35 (24.1%) consulted. Of 73 who were dissatisfied with their quality of life, 22 (30.1%) consulted. Regarding the symptoms as normal or not problematic was the main reason for not consulting. Advancing age and duration of symptoms were the significant factors for consulting.
Primary care doctors could help many of LUTS patients by sensitively initiating the discussion when these patients consult for other problems.
PMCID: PMC3129303  PMID: 21651776
LUTS; IPSS; help-seeking behaviour; primary care; free healthcare
21.  Symptom-based diagnosis of overactive bladder: an overview 
Canadian Urological Association Journal  2011;5(5 Suppl 2):S135-S136.
The current definition of overactive bladder (OAB) is “urgency, with or without urge incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia in the absence of an underlying metabolic or pathologic condition.” Urgency, in turn, is defined as a “sudden, compelling desire to pass urine that is difficult to defer.” While these definitions provide the framework for making a clinical diagnosis of OAB, they rely on subjective assessment of the symptoms by the patient. As well, the symptoms of OAB can be similar to those seen in other conditions, such as urinary tract infection, benign prostatic enlargement and bladder cancer. These other potential diagnoses should be ruled out in a noninvasive manner before making a diagnosis of OAB.
PMCID: PMC3193392  PMID: 21989525
22.  Assessing the Influence of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) on Erectile Dysfunction (ED) among patients in Poland 
Erectile dysfunction (ED) and the lower urinary tract symptoms caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) are highly prevalent among aging men. More data are needed from studies evaluating the impact of LUTS/BPH on ED. This study aimed to assess ED in patients with LUTS/BPH independent of comorbidities.
Material and methods
During 2007 and 2008, we examined 10,932 patients aged 50 to 69 years with LUTS/BPH (IPSS = 8-19 points) using questionnaires: Sex-Score and International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5). Patients who used alcohol and/or cigarettes and those with hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia and cholesterolemia were excluded from meta analyses, which left 4,354 patients with LUTS/BPH without any comorbidity for the analyses. The main survey instruments used were the Sex-Score and IIEF-5.
Regarding sexual coexistence, 1,497 (34.4%) and 2,638 (60.6%) patients considered it very important or important respectively; however, 219(5%) patients reported no sexual activity. After excluding sexually inactive patients, only 1,088 (25%) patients had the ability to obtain an erection during sexual activity always or nearly always. However, that erection was only strong enough to penetrate their partner almost always or most of the time in 218 (5%) and 826 (19%) patients respectively and only 610 (14%) patients were always able to maintain their erection during sexual intercourse. While only 87 (2%) patients had no difficulty maintaining their erection until the completion of intercourse, 174 (4%) and 914 (21%) patients stated that sexual intercourse gave satisfaction nearly always or most of the time respectively.
The impact of ED on patients with LUTS/BPH is evident across domains.
PMCID: PMC3921801  PMID: 24578949
benign prostatic hyperplasia; erectile dysfunction; International Index of Erectile Function 5; International Prostate Symptom Score; lower urinary tract symptoms
23.  Prevalence of post-micturition symptoms in association with lower urinary tract symptoms and health-related quality of life in men and women 
BJU international  2011;108(9):1452-1458.
To estimate the prevalence of post-micturition symptoms (a feeling of incomplete emptying following urination and post-micturition dribble) in a population-based sample of men and women, and to examine overlap with storage and voiding LUTS and associations with health-related quality of life (HRQL).
Patients and methods
Data were obtained by in-person interview in the Boston Area Community Health survey, a population-based random sample of 2301 men and 3202 women aged 30–79 years in the USA.
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were defined using the International Prostate Symptom Score and standardized terminology.
Multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate associations between urological symptoms and validated HRQL measures (SF-12 and activities interference) cross-sectionally.
The overall prevalence of post-micturition symptoms was 11.8% in men and 8.5% in women.
The prevalence increased with age in men but not women.
In men, post-void dribbling contributed to much of the post-micturition symptoms, whereas, in women, incomplete emptying was more common.
For both genders, over 50% with voiding symptoms also had post-micturition symptoms, compared to less than 50% of respondents who reported storage symptoms.
The presence of post-micturition symptoms, particularly incomplete emptying, was indicative of mildly impaired physical HRQL and activities interference in men and women, and mental HRQL in men (P < 0.01).
Post-micturition symptoms were more prevalent than any individual voiding symptom and commonly overlapped with other LUTS.
Over half of men and women with a voiding symptom also had a post-micturition symptom.
The presence of post-micturition symptoms was indicative of impaired HRQL.
PMCID: PMC3135743  PMID: 21223471
urological diseases; urination disorders; urinary incontinence; urinary retention; prevalence; post-micturition symptoms; health-related quality of life
24.  Are commonly-used psychoactive medications associated with lower urinary tract symptoms? 
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as urinary frequency and urgency are bothersome and associated with reduced quality-of-life. Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) have been implicated in increasing the risk of urinary incontinence. In a large community-based sample of men and women, we examined the associations of AAP use and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) use with LUTS.
Data were collected (2002–2005) from a generalizable sample of Boston, MA, USA residents aged 30–79 (N=5503). LUTS were assessed using the American Urologic Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI). The prevalence of clinically-significant LUTS was estimated using a cutoff AUA-SI score of 8+ to indicate moderate-to-severe symptoms. Confounder-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated from multivariate logistic regression to estimate the associations for psychoactive drugs used in the previous month (SSRIs, AAPs, both) and LUTS.
Among women, AAP users had a higher prevalence of LUTS (46.2%) compared to SSRI users (23.5%) and those with depressive symptoms not using SSRIs or AAPs (26.3%). Corresponding prevalence estimates among men were 32.7%, 29.8%, and 33.3%. In multivariate models, AAP use was significantly associated with LUTS among women when used either with SSRIs (OR=2.72, 95%CI:1.45–5.10), or without SSRIs (OR=3.05, 95%CI:1.30–7.16) but SSRI use without AAP use was not associated with LUTS, compared to non-users without depressive symptoms. No associations were observed among men.
In our study, AAPs but not SSRIs were associated with increased prevalence of LUTS among women only. Further prospective research is needed to determine time sequence and cause-and-effect.
PMCID: PMC3538827  PMID: 22138718
antipsychotic agents; antidepressive agents; urination disorders; pharmacoepidemiology; epidemiology
25.  Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Use and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Results From the Boston Area Community Health Survey 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2011;173(9):1022-1031.
There is evidence for a role of inflammation in the etiology of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), raising the possibility that use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may inhibit the development or progression of LUTS. The authors examined the association between use of prescription and over-the-counter NSAIDs and LUTS among 1,974 men and 2,661 women in the Boston Area Community Health Survey (2002–2005). Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for LUTS, voiding symptoms, storage symptoms, and nocturia. There was no clear association between use of prescription or over-the-counter NSAIDs (compared with no NSAID use) and overall LUTS, voiding symptoms, or nocturia in men or women. However, over-the-counter NSAID use was positively associated with storage symptoms in women (odds ratio = 1.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.83), and there was a positive association between over-the-counter NSAID use and overall LUTS among women with a history of arthritis (odds ratio = 2.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.20, 3.64). These results do not provide strong support for an association between NSAIDs and LUTS. However, the associations between over-the-counter NSAID use and certain urologic symptoms, particularly among women with arthritis, and the potential mechanisms involved should be evaluated in future studies.
PMCID: PMC3121220  PMID: 21357657
analgesics; anti-inflammatory agents; non-steroidal; cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors; nocturia; urination disorders

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