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1.  Therapeutic Drug Concentrations of Teicoplanin in Clinical Settings 
Infection & Chemotherapy  2014;46(1):35-41.
Background
Teicoplanin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that is widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of infections caused by drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. The aim of this study was to analyze plasma teicoplanin concentrations to determine the percentage of patients in whom therapeutic concentrations of teicoplanin were achieved in clinical practice.
Materials and Methods
The plasma teicoplanin concentrations of hospitalized patients receiving treatment at a teaching hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The target level was defined as a plasma teicoplanin concentration of 10 mg/L or greater, since this was generally regarded as the lower limit of the optimal concentration range required for the effective treatment of a majority of infections.
Results
Patients with sub-optimal (< 10 mg/L) plasma teicoplanin concentrations constituted nearly half of the total study population. The majority of these patients received the recommended loading dose, which were three 400 mg doses administered every 12 hours. Sub-group analysis showed a trend that the group receiving loading dose was more likely to reach the optimal teicoplanin concentration.
Conclusions
The data revealed that a significant proportion of patients in clinical practice achieved only sub-optimal teicoplanin concentrations, which emphasizes the importance of the mandatory use of loading dose and routine therapeutic drug monitoring. Treatment reassessment and simulation of individual dose regimens may also be necessary to achieve optimal drug concentrations.
doi:10.3947/ic.2014.46.1.35
PMCID: PMC3970309  PMID: 24693468
Teicoplanin; Drug monitoring; Loading dose; Dosing regimen
2.  Clinical practice and costs of treating catheter-related infections with teicoplanin or vancomycin 
Pharmacy Practice  2006;4(2):68-73.
Objectives
To elicit actual clinical practice of treating intensive care unit patients with catheter-related infections with teicoplanin or vancomycin from a hospital perspective. As clinical trials have demonstrated similar efficacy of these glycopeptides, a cost-minimisation analysis was also carried out.
Methods
The Delphi survey technique was used to gather the opinion of nine physicians regarding resource utilization associated with teicoplanin and vancomycin. Treatment costs considered were costs of drug acquisition, costs of material and nursing time required for drug preparation and administration, and costs of laboratory tests.
Results
Physicians tend to administer higher loading doses of teicoplanin than recommended in the drug information leaflet. Even though evidence of the effectiveness of vancomycin is mainly derived from trials using multiple-daily administration schedules, five physicians administered it on a once-daily basis. Mean treatment costs amounted to 1,272€ with teicoplanin and 1,041€ with vancomycin. Higher treatment costs with teicoplanin arose from more elevated drug acquisition costs (1,076€ versus 795€). Treatment with vancomycin was associated with higher costs of laboratory tests as a result of more frequent monitoring of serum concentrations (217€ versus 150€).
Conclusions
This analysis of clinical practice and costs indicated that the resource utilisation advantages from fewer laboratory tests with teicoplanin partially offset higher drug acquisition costs. In addition to efficacy and costs, other factors such as route of administration, patient profile and adverse effects need to inform the choice between teicoplanin and vancomycin.
PMCID: PMC4166146  PMID: 25247002
Glycopeptide; Teicoplanin; Vancomycin; Cost minimisation analysis; Belgium
3.  Severe Maternal Sepsis in the UK, 2011–2012: A National Case-Control Study 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(7):e1001672.
Marion Knight and colleagues conducted a national prospective case-control study in the UK from June 2011 through May 2012 to estimate the incidence, describe the causative organisms and sources of infection, and identify the risk factors for severe maternal sepsis.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
In light of increasing rates and severity of sepsis worldwide, this study aimed to estimate the incidence of, and describe the causative organisms, sources of infection, and risk factors for, severe maternal sepsis in the UK.
Methods and Findings
A prospective case-control study included 365 confirmed cases of severe maternal sepsis and 757 controls from all UK obstetrician-led maternity units from June 1, 2011, to May 31, 2012. Incidence of severe sepsis was 4.7 (95% CI 4.2–5.2) per 10,000 maternities; 71 (19.5%) women developed septic shock; and five (1.4%) women died. Genital tract infection (31.0%) and the organism Escherichia coli (21.1%) were most common. Women had significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of severe sepsis if they were black or other ethnic minority (aOR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.82–2.51), were primiparous (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI 1.17–2.20), had a pre-existing medical problem (aOR = 1.40; 95% CI 1.01–1.94), had febrile illness or were taking antibiotics in the 2 wk prior to presentation (aOR = 12.07; 95% CI 8.11–17.97), or had an operative vaginal delivery (aOR = 2.49; 95% CI 1.32–4.70), pre-labour cesarean (aOR = 3.83; 95% CI 2.24–6.56), or cesarean after labour onset (aOR = 8.06; 95% CI 4.65–13.97). Median time between delivery and sepsis was 3 d (interquartile range = 1–7 d). Multiple pregnancy (aOR = 5.75; 95% CI 1.54–21.45) and infection with group A streptococcus (aOR = 4.84; 2.17–10.78) were associated with progression to septic shock; for 16 (50%) women with a group A streptococcal infection there was <2 h—and for 24 (75%) women, <9 h—between the first sign of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and a diagnosis of severe sepsis. A limitation of this study was the proportion of women with sepsis without an identified organism or infection source (16.4%).
Conclusions
For each maternal sepsis death, approximately 50 women have life-threatening morbidity from sepsis. Follow-up to ensure infection is eradicated is important. The rapid progression to severe sepsis highlights the importance of following the international Surviving Sepsis Campaign guideline of early administration of high-dose intravenous antibiotics within 1 h of admission to hospital for anyone with suspected sepsis. Signs of severe sepsis in peripartum women, particularly with confirmed or suspected group A streptococcal infection, should be regarded as an obstetric emergency.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Every year, nearly 300,000 women worldwide die during pregnancy or labour, or shortly after. According to a recent World Health Organization estimate, sepsis (blood poisoning) is responsible for 10.7% of these maternal deaths. Sepsis is caused by an inappropriate immune response to an infection. Normally, when bacteria or other microbes enter the human body, the immune system efficiently destroys the invaders. In sepsis, the immune system goes into overdrive, and the chemicals it releases into the blood to combat infection trigger widespread inflammation. This inflammation leads to the formation of small blood clots and leaky blood vessels that block the flow of blood to the vital organs. In the most severe cases (septic shock), blood pressure falls to dangerously low levels, multiple organs fail, and the patient can die. Symptoms of sepsis include fever, rapid breathing, and a fast heart rate. Sepsis, which often progresses rapidly, can be treated in its early stages with antibiotics alone. People with severe sepsis need to be admitted to an intensive care unit, where their vital organs can be supported while the infection is treated.
Why Was This Study Done?
Deaths from maternal sepsis mainly occur in low- and middle-income countries, but the rate of such deaths is increasing in countries with advanced healthcare systems. In the UK, for example, the incidence (the number of cases) of fatal maternal sepsis has increased markedly over the past two decades, and although the absolute risk of maternal death from sepsis is low, increasing numbers of women are experiencing severe maternal sepsis. To avoid preventable maternal illness and death in the UK, it is essential that clinical management and infection control strategies for maternal sepsis are improved. Here, to learn more about the incidence of maternal sepsis, the causative organisms and sources of infection, and the risk factors for maternal sepsis in the UK, the researchers undertake a national case-control study of severe maternal sepsis. A case-control study compares the characteristics of individuals with and without a given disease.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
For this study, clinicians in all the UK obstetrician-led maternity units (obstetricians care for women throughout pregnancy, labour, and the post-labour period) sent information about every woman who developed severe sepsis between June 2011 and May 2012 (365 cases) and about two unaffected (control) women per case to the United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS). Using this information and data on the number of maternities in the UK during this 12-month period, the researchers calculated that the incidence of severe sepsis was 4.7 per 10,000 maternities. Seventy-one women with severe sepsis (19.5% of cases) developed septic shock, and five women (1.4% of cases) died. The most common source of sepsis (implicated in about a third of cases) was a genital tract infection. Statistical analyses identified several risk factors for severe maternal sepsis, including having a fever or taking antibiotics in the two weeks preceding sepsis and all types of operative delivery (including cesarean delivery). Importantly, although Escherichia coli was the most common causative organism in severe maternal sepsis (present in a fifth of cases), infection with group A streptococcus was strongly associated with progression to septic shock. Moreover, in half the women with a group A streptococcal infection, severe sepsis was diagnosed within two hours of the first signs of a systemic inflammatory response.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings show that for every death from maternal sepsis in the UK, about 50 women develop life-threatening severe sepsis, that the onset of severe sepsis is very rapid, and that women who have recently had an infection are at particularly high risk of developing maternal sepsis. Although some pregnant women who developed severe sepsis during the study period may not have been included in the study, these findings have important clinical implications for the management of maternal sepsis in the UK and elsewhere. The findings suggest that pregnant or recently pregnant women with an infection need closer attention than women who are not pregnant, and adequate follow-up to ensure eradication of the infection. The findings also highlight the importance of giving high-dose intravenous antibiotics to anyone with suspected sepsis within an hour of admission to hospital as recommended by the international Surviving Sepsis Campaign, an initiative that was developed to improve the management, diagnosis, and treatment of sepsis. Finally, these findings suggest that signs of severe sepsis, particularly in women with a confirmed or suspected group A streptococcal infection, should be regarded as an obstetric emergency.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001672.
The UK National Health Service Choices website has information about sepsis
The international Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines for the treatment of sepsis are available through the campaign's website
The Sepsis Alliance, a US not-for-profit organization, also provides information about sepsis for patients and their families (in English and Spanish), including information about maternal sepsis and several personal stories about maternal sepsis (see the stories of Alanna Basinger, Alisa Proctor, Sandy C, and Natalie Banathy)
The not-for profit UK Sepsis Trust is another useful source of information about sepsis that includes patient stories
MedlinePlus provides links to additional resources about sepsis (in English and Spanish)
UKOSS provides more information about its national case-control study on severe maternal sepsis in the UK
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001672
PMCID: PMC4086731  PMID: 25003759
4.  A randomised, 52-week, treat-to-target trial comparing insulin detemir with insulin glargine when administered as add-on to glucose-lowering drugs in insulin-naive people with type 2 diabetes 
Diabetologia  2008;51(3):408-416.
Aims/hypothesis
This 52-week multinational, randomised, open-label, parallel-group, non-inferiority trial compared clinical outcomes following supplementation of oral glucose-lowering drugs with basal insulin analogues detemir and glargine in type 2 diabetic patients.
Methods
Insulin-naive adults (n = 582, HbA1c 7.5–10.0%, BMI ≤ 40.0 kg/m2) were randomised 1:1 to receive insulin detemir or glargine once daily (evening) actively titrated to target fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≤ 6.0 mmol/l. An additional morning insulin detemir dose was permitted if pre-dinner plasma glucose (PG) was >7.0 mmol/l after achieving FPG < 7.0 mmol/l. Due to labelling restrictions, no second glargine dose was allowed.
Results
Baseline HbA1c decreased from 8.6 to 7.2 and 7.1% (NS) with detemir and glargine, respectively. FPG improved from 10.8 to 7.1 and 7.0 mmol/l (NS), respectively. With detemir, 45% of participants completed the study on once daily dosing and 55% on twice daily dosing, with no difference in HbA1c. Overall, 52% of participants achieved HbA1c ≤ 7.0%: 33% (detemir) and 35% (glargine) without hypoglycaemia. Within-participant variability for self-monitored FPG and pre-dinner PG did not differ by insulin treatment, nor did the relative risk of overall or nocturnal hypoglycaemia. Modest reductions in weight gain were seen with detemir vs glargine in completers (3.0 vs 3.9 kg, p = 0.01) and in the intention-to-treat population (2.7 vs 3.5 kg, p = 0.03), primarily related to completers on once-daily detemir. Mean daily detemir dose was higher (0.78 U/kg [0.52 with once daily dosing, 1.00 U/kg with twice daily dosing]) than glargine (0.44 IU/kg). Injection site reactions were more frequent with detemir (4.5 vs 1.4%).
Conclusions/interpretation
Supplementation of oral agents with detemir or glargine achieves clinically important improvements in glycaemic control with low risk of hypoglycaemia. Non-inferiority was demonstrated for detemir using higher insulin doses (mainly patients on twice daily dosing); weight gain was somewhat reduced with once daily insulin detemir.
ClinicalTrials.gov ID no.: NCT00283751.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-007-0911-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
doi:10.1007/s00125-007-0911-x
PMCID: PMC2235909  PMID: 18204830
Body weight; Fasting plasma glucose; Glucose variability; Glucose control; Hypoglycaemia; Insulin detemir; Insulin glargine; Insulin supplementation; Oral glucose-lowering agents; Type 2 diabetes
5.  Loading regimen required to rapidly achieve therapeutic trough plasma concentration of teicoplanin and evaluation of clinical features 
Background:
A trough concentration of >20 mg/L is considered the optimal dosage of teicoplanin required to ensure early therapeutic effects against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections including those in patients who develop febrile neutropenia after chemotherapy. This study determines appropriate initial doses during the first 2 days of administration and evaluates the therapeutic target teicoplanin trough concentration.
Method:
A 2-day regimen was evaluated in patients treated with 600 mg and 1200 mg or 1200 mg and 600 mg (total 1800 mg, Group 1), 800 mg and 800 mg (total 1600 mg, Group 2), and 800 mg and 400 mg (total 1200 mg, Group 3) of teicoplanin on Days 1 and 2, respectively. We also compared the efficiency and adverse effects at trough concentrations of 15–20 mg/L (Group A, n = 28) with >20 mg/L (Group B, n = 27) of teicoplanin, and also compared them with those on the similar concentrations of vancomycin (Groups C and D, n = 50 and 34, respectively).
Results:
The mean trough concentrations of teicoplanin on Days 4 or 5 were 22.2, 17.5, and 16.2 mg/L in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The clinical efficiency was 85.7%, 81.5%, 92.0%, and 91.5%, in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. The rates of adverse effects were not high in teicoplanin (nephrotoxicity, 7.1% and 3.7%, and hepatotoxicity, 14.3% and 11.1% in Groups A and B, respectively). However, more adverse effects tended to arise in patients who received vancomycin in nephrotoxicity (14.0% and 11.8%, in Groups C and D, respectively).
Conclusion:
These results suggest that the 2-day regimens with total 1800 mg achieved the most effective therapeutic trough plasma concentration of teicoplanin (20 mg/L). However, 15–20 mg/L might also be an effective trough target for initial teicoplanin treatment. These teicoplanin regimens might be safer in terms of renal function than vancomycin.
doi:10.2147/CPAA.S37528
PMCID: PMC3516451  PMID: 23236257
therapeutic drug monitoring; pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics; Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA; dosing regimen; adverse effect
6.  Teicoplanin pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers after administration of intravenous loading and maintenance doses. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1990;34(11):2114-2117.
Teicoplanin is an investigational glycopeptide antibiotic that is structurally and microbiologically similar to vancomycin. Since teicoplanin possesses a very long elimination half-life, the manufacturer suggests that the drug be administered every 12 h for the first day of therapy and once daily thereafter. We studied the multiple-dose (6 mg/kg per dose) pharmacokinetics of teicoplanin in volunteers following intravenous administration every 12 h for 5 days and then every 24 h for 9 days in an attempt to identify the optimal duration of the every-12-h loading-dose regimen. Multiple serum samples were obtained throughout the study, including intensive sampling after the first and last doses; urine was collected during the entire study. A three-exponential equation was fitted to the serum concentration data. The mean terminal-phase half-life was 157 +/- 93 h. Concentrations of teicoplanin in serum similar to those observed after the administration of the last dose (day 14) were observed following the fourth or fifth dose given every 12 h. Therefore, it is suggested that for clinical dosing regimens for teicoplanin, dosing every 12 h for approximately 48 h should be used, followed by once-daily dosing thereafter.
PMCID: PMC172008  PMID: 2149920
7.  Effects of teicoplanin and those of vancomycin in initial empirical antibiotic regimen for febrile, neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies. Gimema Infection Program. 
The efficacy and toxicity of teicoplanin and vancomycin in the initial empirical antibiotic regimen in febrile, neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies were compared in a prospective, randomized, unblinded, multicenter trial in the setting of 29 hematologic units in tertiary-care or university hospitals. A total of 635 consecutive febrile patients with hematologic malignancies and chemotherapy-induced neutropenia were randomly assigned to receive intravenously amikacin plus ceftazidime plus either teicoplanin at 6 mg/kg of body weight once daily or vancomycin at 1 g twice daily. An efficacy analysis was done for 527 evaluable patients: 275 treated with teicoplanin and 252 treated with vancomycin. Overall, successful outcomes were recorded for 78% of patients who received teicoplanin and 75% of those who were randomized to vancomycin (difference, 3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -10 to 4%; P = 0.33). A total of 102 patients presented with primary, single-agent, gram-positive bacteremia. Coagulase-negative staphylococci accounted for 42%, Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 27%, and streptococci accounted for 21% of all gram-positive blood isolates. The overall responses to therapy of gram-positive bacteremias were 92 and 87% for teicoplanin and vancomycin, respectively (difference, 5%; CI, -17 to 6%; P = 0.22). Side effects, mainly represented by skin rash, occurred in 3.2 and 8% of teicoplanin- and vancomycin-treated patients, respectively (difference, -4.8%; CI, 0.7 to 8%; P = 0.03); the rate of nephrotoxicity was 1.4 and 0.8% for the teicoplanin and vancomycin groups, respectively (difference, 0.6%; CI, -2 to 1%; P = 0.68). Further infections were caused by gram-positive organisms in two patients (0.7%) treated with teicoplanin and one patient (0.4%) who received vancomycin (difference, 0.3%; CI, -0.9 to 1.0%; P = 0.53). Overall mortalities were 8.5 and 11% for teicoplanin- and vancomycin-treated patients, respectively (difference, -2.5%; CI, - 2 to 7%; P = 0.43); death was caused by primary gram-positive infections in three patients (1%) in each treatment group. When used for initial empirical antibiotic therapy in febrile, neutropenic patients, teicoplanin was at least as efficacious as vancomycin, but it was associated with fewer side effects.
PMCID: PMC284681  PMID: 7811016
8.  Absence of "red man syndrome" in patients being treated with vancomycin or high-dose teicoplanin. 
Twenty-five febrile patients with a history of intravenous drug use who were receiving either vancomycin (15 patients) or teicoplanin (10 patients) as part of a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, clinical efficacy trial were enrolled, upon receipt of their first dose of antibiotic, into a study to evaluate the effect of 1 g of vancomycin and high-dose teicoplanin (30 mg/kg of body weight) on histamine release and the occurrence of "red man syndrome" (RMS). In addition, 10 healthy volunteer subjects (HVS) were randomized to receive either 1 g of vancomycin intravenously or a saline infusion in a double-blind, crossover design study. Patients and HVS were observed for the presence of erythema, flushing, pruritus, and hypotension during and for up to 1 h postinfusion by a blinded investigator. Histamine concentrations in plasma were measured at baseline and during and after drug infusion. No significant differences were noted in baseline temperature between patients (vancomycin recipients, 102.3 degrees F [39.1 degrees C]; teicoplanin recipients, 102.4 degrees F [39.1 degrees C]) or incidence of bacteremia (7 of 15 vancomycin recipients; 5 of 10 teicoplanin recipients). There were no significant differences in peak vancomycin concentrations in the sera of patients (40.8 micrograms/ml) and HVS (49.9 micrograms/ml). There were no reactions consistent with RMS in any patient who received teicoplanin (0 of 10); there was a significant difference in the occurrence of RMS in patients in comparison with that in HVS (0 of 15 patients, 9 of 10 HVS; P less than 0.001) who received vancomycin. The predominant reaction was erythema and pruritus. Histamine concentrations in plasma and the area under the histamine plasma concentration-time curve were highly variable within groups and were not statistically different between patients and HVS. The incidence of RMS secondary to vancomycin or teicoplanin in our patient population appears to be low and consistent with clinical observations. Similar to previous investigations, RMS secondary to vancomycin in HVS was high (90%). However, we found no relationship between the histamine concentration in plasma or the area under the plasma histamine concentration-time curve and the severity of RMS in HVS. The reason for the discrepancy of RMS in patients versus that in HVS in unknown, but it may be related to a blunted effect of glycopeptides to produce the reaction in the presence of infection or it may be specific to our patient population.
PMCID: PMC190318  PMID: 1384423
9.  In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacies of Teicoplanin-Loaded Calcium Sulfate for Treatment of Chronic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Osteomyelitis▿  
The in vitro and in vivo therapeutic efficacies of teicoplanin-loaded calcium sulfate (TCS; 10% [wt] teicoplanin) were investigated in a rabbit model of chronic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) osteomyelitis. The in vitro elution characteristics of teicoplanin from TCS pellets were realized by carrying out an evaluation of the release kinetics, recovery rate, and antibacterial activity of the released teicoplanin. Chronic osteomyelitis was induced by inoculating 107 CFU of a MRSA strain into the tibial cavity of rabbits. After 3 weeks, the animals were treated by debridement followed by implantation of TCS pellets in group 1, calcium sulfate (CS) pellets alone in group 2, and intravenous (i.v.) teicoplanin (6 mg/kg of body weight every 12 h for three doses and then every 24 h up to 4 weeks) in group 3. Animals in group 4 were left untreated. After 6 weeks, the efficacy of the osteomyelitis treatment was evaluated by hematological, radiological, microbiological, and histological examinations. In vitro elution studies showed sustained release of teicoplanin at a therapeutic level over a time period of 3 weeks. The released teicoplanin maintained its antibacterial activity. In vivo, the best therapeutic effect was observed in animals treated with TCS pellets, resulting in significantly lower radiological and histological scores, lower positive rates of MRSA culture and bacterial load, and excellent bone regeneration compared with those treated by CS alone or i.v. teicoplanin, without any local or systemic adverse effects. TCS pellets are an effective alternative to i.v. teicoplanin for the treatment of chronic MRSA osteomyelitis, particularly because teicoplanin is delivered locally while the TCS pellets simultaneously promote bone defect repair.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01122-09
PMCID: PMC2798490  PMID: 19917757
10.  4-week treatment of streptococcal native valve endocarditis with high-dose teicoplanin. 
The efficacy and safety of a 4-week course of intravenous teicoplanin (500 mg every 12 h for the first 2 days and 10 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h thereafter) in the treatment of streptococcal native valve endocarditis in 20 patients were evaluated. All blood isolates were inhibited by a concentration of 0.12 micrograms of teicoplanin per ml. Serum bactericidal activity levels were measured 1/2 and 24 h after antibiotic infusion on days 5 to 7 of therapy in 19 patients, and titers of greater than or equal to 1:32 and greater than or equal to 1:8, respectively, were obtained with 17 patients (89%). On the other hand, for two patients who were infected with teicoplanin-tolerant Streptococcus bovis, serum bactericidal activity levels of less than 1:2 were found. Of 20 patients, 4 were excluded from further analysis because of protocol violation or prosthetic valve infection. Of the remaining 16 patients, 6 did not complete teicoplanin therapy because of early death (1 patient) or drug fever (5 patients). Among patients who developed drug fever, three who discontinued teicoplanin by day 15 were switched to penicillin therapy, whereas the remaining two, who discontinued teicoplanin on day 22 and 25, respectively, did not receive any further therapy and have shown no relapse during the follow-up. Of 10 patients who completed trial therapy, 9 were cured and 1 relapsed. It is concluded that a 4-week course of high-dose teicoplanin may be a useful regimen for home treatment of selected cases of streptococcal native valve endocarditis. However, drug fever and infection with teicoplanin-tolerant S. bovis may be factors of concern with this therapeutic approach.
PMCID: PMC189370  PMID: 1386972
11.  Randomized Comparison of Serum Teicoplanin Concentrations following Daily or Alternate Daily Dosing in Healthy Adults 
Trough serum teicoplanin concentrations were compared in healthy adults following intravenous administration of one of two regimens: (i) 12 mg/kg of body weight every 12 h for 3 doses and then 15 mg/kg every 48 h for 4 doses (n = 16 subjects) or (ii) 6 mg/kg every 12 h for 2 doses and then 6 mg/kg every 24 h for 9 doses (n = 8 subjects). The mean ± standard deviation trough concentrations in serum on day 11 (24 and 48 h after administration of the last dose for the daily and alternate-day dosing schedules, respectively) were 16.0 ± 2.1 and 17.9 ± 3.5 mg/liter for subjects receiving the two regimens, respectively, by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The limits of the 95% confidence interval of the difference (−0.2, 3.6 mg/liter) determined by a nonparametric test were situated above the −1.3-mg/liter maximum set difference and indicated a noninferiority of the alternate-day dosing to the daily dosing. Throughout the study the individual trough concentrations in serum in the alternate-day dosing group constantly exceeded 10 mg/liter, the presently recommended target concentration for the treatment of severe infections. The trough concentrations in the sera of all subjects were bactericidal for six Staphylococcus aureus strains for which teicoplanin MICs are between 0.5 and 4 mg/liter. The bactericidal activity of serum was related to total teicoplanin (protein bound and unbound). In conclusion, an alternate-day dosing schedule (15 mg/kg on alternate days following administration of a 12-mg/kg loading dose three times every 12 h) could be considered for further efficacy and safety studies.
doi:10.1128/AAC.48.7.2394-2399.2004
PMCID: PMC434169  PMID: 15215086
12.  Balloon Kyphoplasty 
Executive Summary
Objective
To review the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of balloon kyphoplasty for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs).
Clinical Need
Vertebral compression fractures are one of the most common types of osteoporotic fractures. They can lead to chronic pain and spinal deformity. They are caused when the vertebral body (the thick block of bone at the front of each vertebra) is too weak to support the loads of activities of daily living. Spinal deformity due to a collapsed vertebral body can substantially affect the quality of life of elderly people, who are especially at risk for osteoporotic fractures due to decreasing bone mass with age. A population-based study across 12 European centres recently found that VCFs have a negative impact on health-related quality of life. Complications associated with VCFs are pulmonary dysfunction, eating disorders, loss of independence, and mental status change due to pain and the use of medications. Osteoporotic VCFs also are associated with a higher rate of death.
VCFs affect an estimated 25% of women over age 50 years and 40% of women over age 80 years. Only about 30% of these fractures are diagnosed in clinical practice. A Canadian multicentre osteoporosis study reported on the prevalence of vertebral deformity in Canada in people over 50 years of age. To define the limit of normality, they plotted a normal distribution, including mean and standard deviations (SDs) derived from a reference population without any deformity. They reported a prevalence rate of 23.5% in women and a rate of 21.5% in men, using 3 SDs from the mean as the limit of normality. When they used 4 SDs, the prevalence was 9.3% and 7.3%, respectively. They also found the prevalence of vertebral deformity increased with age. For people older than 80 years of age, the prevalence for women and men was 45% and 36%, respectively, using 3 SDs as the limit of normality.
About 85% of VCFs are due to primary osteoporosis. Secondary osteoporosis and neoplasms account for the remaining 15%. A VCF is operationally defined as a reduction in vertebral body height of at least 20% from the initial measurement. It is considered mild if the reduction in height is between 20% and 25%; moderate, if it is between 25% and 40%; and severs, if it is more than 40%. The most frequently fractured locations are the third-lower part of the thorax and the superior lumbar levels. The cervical vertebrae and the upper third of the thorax are rarely involved.
Traditionally, bed rest, medication, and bracing are used to treat painful VCFs. However, anti-inflammatory and narcotic medications are often poorly tolerated by the elderly and may harm the gastrointestinal tract. Bed rest and inactivity may accelerate bone loss, and bracing may restrict diaphragmatic movement. Furthermore, medical treatment does not treat the fracture in a way that ameliorates the pain and spinal deformity.
Over the past decade, the injection of bone cement through the skin into a fractured vertebral body has been used to treat VCFs. The goal of cement injection is to reduce pain by stabilizing the fracture. The secondary indication of these procedures is management of painful vertebral fractures caused by benign or malignant neoplasms (e.g., hemangioma, multiple myeloma, and metastatic cancer).
The Technology
Balloon kyphoplasty is a modified vertebroplasty technique. It is a minimally invasive procedure that aims to relieve pain, restore vertebral height, and correct kyphosis. During this procedure, an inflatable bone tamp is inserted into the collapsed vertebral body. Once inflated, the balloon elevates the end plates and thereby restores the height of the vertebral body. The balloon is deflated and removed, and the space is filled with bone cement. Creating a space in the vertebral body enables the application of more viscous cement and at a much lower pressure than is needed for vertebroplasty. This may result in less cement leakage and fewer complications. Balloons typically are inserted bilaterally, into each fractured vertebral body. Kyphoplasty usually is done under general anesthesia in about 1.5 hours. Patients typically are observed for only a few hours after the surgery, but some may require an overnight hospital stay.
Health Canada has licensed KyphX Xpander Inflatable Bone Tamp (Kyphon Inc., Sunnyvale, CA), for kyphoplasty in patients with VCFs. KyphX is the only commercially available device for percutaneous kyphoplasty. The KyphX kit uses a series of bone filler device tubes. Each bone filler device must be loaded manually with cement. The cement is injected into the cavity by pressing an inner stylet.
In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration cleared the KyphX Inflatable Bone Tamp for marketing in July 1998. CE (Conformité European) marketing was obtained in February 2000 for the reduction of fracture and/or creation of a void in cancellous bone.
Review Strategy
The aim of this literature review was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of balloon kyphoplasty in the treatment of painful VCFs.
INAHTA, Cochrane CCTR (formerly Cochrane Controlled Trials Register), and DSR were searched for health technology assessment reports. In addition, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations were searched from January 1, 2000 to September 21, 2004. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies.
The positive end points selected for this assessment were as follows:
Reduction in pain scores
Reduction in vertebral height loss
Reduction in kyphotic (Cobb) angle
Improvement in quality of life scores
The search did not yield any health technology assessments on balloon kyphoplasty. The search yielded 152 citations, including those for review articles. No randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on balloon kyphoplasty were identified. All of the published studies were either prospective cohort studies or retrospective studies with no controls. Eleven studies (all case series) met the inclusion criteria. There was also a comparative study published in German that had been translated into English.
Summary of Findings
The results of the 1 comparative study (level 3a evidence) that was included in this review showed that, compared with conservative medical care, balloon kyphoplasty significantly improved patient outcomes.
Patients who had balloon kyphoplasty reported a significant reduction in pain that was maintained throughout follow-up (6 months), whereas pain scores did not change in the control group. Patients in the balloon kyphoplasty group did not need pain medication after 3 days. In the control group, about one-half of the patients needed more pain medication in the first 4 weeks after the procedure. After 6 weeks, 82% of the patients in the control group were still taking pain medication regularly.
Adjacent fractures were more frequent in the control group than in the balloon kyphoplasty group.
The case series reported on several important clinical outcomes.
Pain: Four studies on osteoporosis patients and 1 study on patients with multiple myeloma/primary cancers used the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) to measure pain before and after balloon kyphoplasty. All of these studies reported that patients had significantly less pain after the procedure. This was maintained during follow-up. Two other studies on patients with osteoporosis also used the VAS to measure pain and found a significant improvement in pain scores; however, they did not provide follow-up data.
Vertebral body height: All 5 studies that assessed vertebral body height in patients with osteoporosis reported a significant improvement in vertebral body height after balloon kyphoplasty. One study had 1-year follow-up data for 26 patients. Vertebral body height was significantly better at 6 months and 1 year for both the anterior and midline measurements.
Two studies reported that vertebral body height was restored significantly after balloon kyphoplasty for patients with multiple myeloma or metastatic disease. In another study, the researchers reported complete height restoration in 9% of patients, a mean 56% height restoration in 60% of patients, and no appreciable height restoration in 31% of the patients who received balloon kyphoplasty.
Kyphosis correction: Four studies that assessed Cobb angle before and after balloon kyphoplasty in patients with osteoporosis found a significant reduction in degree of kyphosis after the procedure. In these studies, the differences between preoperative and postoperative Cobb angles were 3.4°, 7°, 8.8°, and 9.9°.
Only 1 study investigated kyphosis correction in patients with multiple myeloma or metastatic disease. The authors reported a significant improvement (5.2°) in local kyphosis.
Quality of life: Four studies used the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey Questionnaire to measure the quality of life in patients with osteoporosis after they had balloon kyphoplasty. A significant improvement in most of the domains of the SF-36 (bodily pain, social functioning, vitality, physical functioning, mental health, and role functioning) was observed in 2 studies. One study found that general health declined, although not significantly, and another found that role emotional declined.
Both studies that used the Oswestry Disability Index found that patients had a better quality of life after balloon kyphoplasty. In one study, this improvement was statistically significant. In another study, researchers found that quality of life after kyphoplasty improved significantly, as measured with the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Yet another study used a quality of life questionnaire and found that 62% of the patients that had balloon kyphoplasty had returned to normal activities, whereas 2 patients had reduced mobility.
To measure quality of life in patients with multiple myeloma or metastatic disease, one group of researchers used the SF-36 and found significantly better scores on bodily pain, physical functioning, vitality, and social functioning after kyphoplasty. However, the scores for general health, mental health, role physical, and role emotional had not improved. A study that used the Oswestry Disability Index reported that patients’ scores were better postoperatively and at 3 months follow-up.
These were the main findings on complications in patients with osteoporosis:
The bone cement leaked in 37 (6%) of 620 treated fractures.
There were no reports of neurological deficits.
There were no reports of pulmonary embolism due to cement leakage.
There were 6 cases of cardiovascular events in 362 patients:
3 (0.8%) patients had myocardial infarction.
3 (0.8%) patients had cardiac arrhythmias.
There was 1 (0.27%) case of pulmonary embolism due to deep venous thrombosis.
There were 20 (8.4%) cases of new fractures in 238 patients.
For patients with multiple myeloma or metastatic disease, these were the main findings:
The bone cement leaked in 12 (9.6%) of 125 procedures.
There were no reports of neurological deficits.
Economic Analysis
Balloon kyphoplasty requires anesthesia. Standard vertebroplasty requires sedation and an analgesic. Based on these considerations, the professional fees (Cdn) for each procedure is shown in Table 1.
Professional Fees for Standard Vertebroplasty and Balloon Kyphoplasty
Balloon kyphoplasty has a sizable device cost add-on of $3,578 (the device cost per case) that standard vertebroplasty does not have. Therefore, the up-front cost (i.e., physician’s fees and device costs) is $187 for standard vertebroplasty and $3,812 for balloon kyphoplasty. (All costs are in Canadian currency.)
There are also “downstream costs” of the procedures, based on the different adverse outcomes associated with each. This includes the risk of developing new fractures (21% for vertebroplasty vs. 8.4% for balloon kyphoplasty), neurological complications (3.9% for vertebroplasty vs. 0% for balloon kyphoplasty), pulmonary embolism (0.1% for vertebroplasty vs. 0% for balloon kyphoplasty), and cement leakage (26.5% for vertebroplasty vs. 6.0% for balloon kyphoplasty). Accounting for these risks, and the base costs to treat each of these complications, the expected downstream costs are estimated at less than $500 per case. Therefore, the expected total direct medical cost per patient is about $700 for standard vertebroplasty and $4,300 for balloon kyphoplasty.
Kyphon, the manufacturer of the inflatable bone tamps has stated that the predicted Canadian incidence of osteoporosis in 2005 is about 29,000. The predicted incidence of cancer-related vertebral fractures in 2005 is 6,731. Based on Ontario having about 38% of the Canadian population, the incidence in the province is likely to be about 11,000 for osteoporosis and 2,500 for cancer-related vertebral fractures. This means there could be as many as 13,500 procedures per year in Ontario; however, this is highly unlikely because most of the cancer-related fractures likely would be treated with medication. Given a $3,600 incremental direct medical cost associated with balloon kyphoplasty, the budget impact of adopting this technology could be as high as $48.6 million per year; however, based on data from the Provider Services Branch, about 120 standard vertebroplasties are done in Ontario annually. Given these current utilization patterns, the budget impact is likely to be in the range of $430,000 per year. This is because of the sizable device cost add-on of $3,578 (per case) for balloon kyphoplasty that standard vertebroplasty does not have.
Policy Considerations
Other treatments for osteoporotic VCFs are medical management and open surgery. In cases without neurological involvement, the medical treatment of osteoporotic VCFs comprises bed rest, orthotic management, and pain medication. However, these treatments are not free of side effects. Bed rest over time can result in more bone and muscle loss, and can speed the deterioration of the underlying condition. Medication can lead to altered mood or mental status. Surgery in these patients has been limited because of its inherent risks and invasiveness, and the poor quality of osteoporotic bones. However, it may be indicated in patients with neurological deficits.
Neither of these vertebral augmentation procedures eliminates the need for aggressive treatment of osteoporosis. Osteoporotic VCFs are often under-diagnosed and under-treated. A survey of physicians in Ontario (1) who treated elderly patients living in long-term care homes found that although these physicians were aware of the rates of osteoporosis in these patients, 45% did not routinely assess them for osteoporosis, and 26% did not routinely treat them for osteoporosis.
Management of the underlying condition that weakens the vertebral bodies should be part of the treatment plan. All patients with osteoporosis should be in a medical therapy program to treat the underlying condition, and the referring health care provider should monitor the clinical progress of the patient.
The main complication associated with vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty is cement leakage (extravertebral or vascular). This may result in more patient morbidity, longer hospitalizations, the need for open surgery, and the use of pain medications, all of which have related costs. Extravertebral cement leakage can cause neurological complications, like spinal cord compression, nerve root compression, and radiculopathy. In some cases, surgery is required to remove the cement and release the nerve. The rate of cement leakage is much lower after balloon kyphoplasty than after vertebroplasty. Furthermore, the neurological complications seen with vertebroplasty have not seen in the studies of balloon kyphoplasty. Rarely, cement leakage into the venous system will cause a pulmonary embolism. Finally, compared with vertebroplasty, the rate of new fractures is lower after balloon kyphoplasty.
Diffusion – International, National, Provincial
In Canada, balloon kyphoplasty has not yet been funded in any of the provinces. The first balloon kyphoplasty performed in Canada was in July 2004 in Ontario.
In the United States, the technology is considered by some states as medically reasonable and necessary for the treatment of painful vertebral body compression fractures.
Conclusion
There is level 4 evidence that balloon kyphoplasty to treat pain associated with VCFs due to osteoporosis is as effective as vertebroplasty at relieving pain. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that it restores the height of the affected vertebra. It also results in lower fracture rates in other vertebrae compared with vertebroplasty, and in fewer neurological complications due to cement leakage compared with vertebroplasty. Balloon kyphoplasty is a reasonable alternative to vertebroplasty, although it must be reiterated that this conclusion is based on evidence from level 4 studies.
Balloon kyphoplasty should be restricted to facilities that have sufficient volumes to develop and maintain the expertise required to maximize good quality outcomes. Therefore, consideration should be given to limiting the number of facilities in the province that can do balloon kyphoplasty.
PMCID: PMC3387743  PMID: 23074451
13.  Double-blind comparison of teicoplanin versus vancomycin in febrile neutropenic patients receiving concomitant tobramycin and piperacillin: effect on cyclosporin A-associated nephrotoxicity. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1991;35(11):2246-2252.
A prospective, randomized, and double-blind study comparing teicoplanin with vancomycin in the initial management of febrile neutropenic patients was conducted. Teicoplanin was administered at 6 mg per kg of body weight every 24 h (q24h) intravenously (i.v.) after initial loading at 6 mg/kg q12h for three doses. Vancomycin was administered at 15 mg/kg q12h i.v. Patients also received piperacillin (3 g q4h i.v.) and tobramycin (1.5 to 2.0 mg/kg q8h i.v.). Of 53 patients enrolled, 50 were judged to be evaluable. Among these, 25 received teicoplanin and 25 received vancomycin. At enrollment, both groups were comparable in age, sex, renal function, underlying hematologic condition, and concurrent therapy. Both groups had similar sites of infection and microbial pathogens. Empirical antimicrobial therapy resulted in the cure of or improvement in 23 (92%) teicoplanin patients and 21 (84%) vancomycin patients (P = 0.67). Failures occurred with two vancomycin patients but no teicoplanin patients. Clinical response was indeterminate for two patients in each group. Adverse reactions occurred significantly more often in the vancomycin group than in the teicoplanin group (P = 0.01), and these reactions required the termination of the study regimens of 6 vancomycin versus 0 teicoplanin patients (P = 0.02). Nephrotoxicity was observed more frequently in the vancomycin group (10 versus 2 patients; P = 0.02). Subgroup analysis revealed a significant deterioration of renal function when vancomycin and cyclosporin A, but not teicoplanin and cyclosporin A, were used concurrently (P = 0.02). Among patients who received vancomycin and amphotericin B or teicoplanin and amphotericin B concurrently, deterioration in renal function was equivalent in both groups. Teicoplanin in the dosage employed was tolerated better than vancomycin in the empirical treatment of fever and neutropenia in our patient population.
PMCID: PMC245367  PMID: 1839490
14.  Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of flumazenil in the treatment of portal systemic encephalopathy: a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled multicentre study. 
Gut  1996;39(2):319-324.
BACKGROUND: Portal systemic encephalopathy (PSE) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with hepatic failure. Small scale studies have shown the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil to be effective in ameliorating PSE. AIMS: To determine the efficacy of flumazenil in patients with non-comatous mild to moderate PSE (stages I to III) due to severe chronic liver disease. PATIENTS: 49 male and female adults without symptoms of severe bleeding and sepsis and who screened negative for benzodiazepine in both blood and urine, were included in the study. METHODS: Patients were randomised to receive either three sequential bolus injections of flumazenil (0.4, 0.8, and 1 mg) or placebo at one minute intervals, followed by intravenous infusions of either flumazenil (1 mg/h) or placebo for three hours. Clinical PSE grading and vital signs were assessed hourly during baseline and post-treatment periods and half hourly during treatment. The main outcome measures were improvement in group average PSE score and reduction of two points in individual PSE score (clinically relevant improvement). RESULTS: The mean average improvement in the PSE score in the subjects treated with flumazenil was not statistically significantly different from placebo. However, for patients showing clinically relevant improvement, the difference between flumazenil and placebo was statistically significant (seven of 28 v none of 21; p = 0.015). Flumazenil was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: A subgroup of patients with PSE resulting from chronic liver disease may benefit from the administration of flumazenil.
PMCID: PMC1383318  PMID: 8977350
15.  Prospective Evaluation of the Effect of an Aminoglycoside Dosing Regimen on Rates of Observed Nephrotoxicity and Ototoxicity 
The nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity associated with once-daily versus twice-daily administration of aminoglycosides was assessed in patients with suspected or proven gram-negative bacterial infections in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Patients who received therapy for ≥72 h were evaluated for toxicity. Patients also received concomitant antibiotics as deemed necessary for treatment of their infection. Plasma aminoglycoside concentrations, prospective aminoglycoside dosage adjustment, and serial audiologic and renal status evaluations were performed. The probability of occurrence of a nephrotoxic event and its relationship to doses and daily aminoglycoside exposure served as the main outcome measurement. One hundred twenty-three patients were enrolled in the study, with 83 patients receiving therapy for at least 72 h. For 74 patients plasma aminoglycoside concentrations were available for analysis, and the patients formed the group evaluable for toxicity. The primary infectious diagnosis for the patients who were enrolled in the study were bacteremia or sepsis, respiratory infections, skin and soft tissue infections, or urosepsis or pyelonephritis. Of the 74 patients evaluable for toxicity, 39 received doses twice daily and 35 received doses once daily and a placebo 12 h later. Nephrotoxicity occurred in 6 of 39 (15.4%) patients who received aminoglycosides twice daily and 0 of 35 patients who received aminoglycosides once daily. The schedule of aminoglycoside administration, concomitant use of vancomycin, and daily area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for the aminoglycosides were found to be significant predictors of nephrotoxicity by multivariate logistic regression analysis (P ≤ 0.001). The time to a nephrotoxic event was significantly influenced by vancomycin use and the schedule of administration, as assessed by Cox proportional hazards modeling (P ≤ 0.002). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis and the Cox proportional hazards modeling demonstrate that both the probability of occurrence and the time to occurrence of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity are influenced by the schedule on which the aminoglycoside is administered as well as by the concomitant use of vancomycin. Furthermore, this risk of occurrence is modulated by the daily AUC for aminoglycoside exposure. These data suggest that once-daily administration of aminoglycosides has a predictably lower probability of causing nephrotoxicity than twice-daily administration.
PMCID: PMC89322  PMID: 10390201
16.  Use of nicotine substitute prescribed at hourly plus ab libitum intake or ad libitum for heavy smokers willing to quit: a randomized controlled trial 
Objective
To assess the impact of instructional guidance in the regular use of use nicotine nasal spray (NNS) on the true use of NNS during the first three weeks of smoking cessation for heavy smokers who are willing to quit.
Methods
This randomized, open, controlled trial included 50 patients who were heavy smokers, were willing to quit, and attending an academic outpatient clinic in Western Switzerland. Patients were randomised to instruction on NNS use as "ad libitum" (administration whenever cravings appear; control group) or to use NNS when craving appears and at least every hour when awake (intervention group). Intakes were monitored using an electronic device fixed in the spray unit (MDILog™) during the first three weeks of use. Self reported abstinence from smoking at six months was confirmed by expired-air carbon monoxide. Using intention-to-treat analysis, random-effect GLS regression was used to calculate the mean difference of daily doses between groups controlling for lack of independence between measures from the same individual.
Results
One patient was lost to follow-up. At baseline randomization, the group receiving instruction to use NNS hourly included more women, patients with previous desires to quit, and patients with more psychiatric comorbidities and less somatic complaints compared to the group instructed to use NNS with cravings (group imbalance). Both groups self-administered more than the daily recommended dosage of 8 uses. Mean daily usage was 13.6 dose/day and 11.1 dose/day for the group instructed to use NNS hourly and with cravings, respectively. Adjusting for baseline imbalance, the increased daily doses in the intervention group (hourly use) remained nonsignificant compared to ad libitum use (-0.5 dose/day; CI 95% -6.2; 5.3, from day 1 to day 7; and 2.3 dose/day; CI 95% -5.4; 10.0, from day 8 to day 21). Instructing patients to use the NNS daily had no effect on smoking cessation at six months (RR = 0.69; CI 95% 0.34; 1.39).
Conclusion
Heavy smokers willing to quit use NNS frequently, regardless of the instructions given. Recommending the use of NNS only when craving appears for heavy smokers willing to quit seems acceptable compared to prescribing hourly administration.
Trial registration-
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00861276
doi:10.1186/1747-597X-4-12
PMCID: PMC2698911  PMID: 19490626
17.  Evaluation of teicoplanin for treatment of endocarditis caused by gram-positive cocci in 20 patients. 
Teicoplanin, a new glycopeptide antibiotic similar to vancomycin, was evaluated for the treatment of bacterial endocarditis in an open multicenter study from May 1985 to August 1987. A total of 20 patients with positive blood culture endocarditis received teicoplanin once daily as a mean intravenous injection of 7.3 mg/kg of body weight (range, 4.8 to 10.6 mg/kg); in 17 patients, teicoplanin was combined with another antibiotic, usually an aminoglycoside. The mean duration of therapy was 28 days (range, 7 to 66 days). The diagnosis of endocarditis was confirmed by echocardiography or anatomical findings in 15 patients and established on the basis of clinical manifestations plus positive blood cultures in 5 patients. The tricuspid valve was involved in 11 of the 20 patients. Isolates from blood were 12 Staphylococcus aureus, 1 Staphylococcus hominis, 1 Micrococcus sedentarius, 1 Enterococcus faecalis, 3 Streptococcus bovis, and 2 nongroupable Streptococcus sp. At the end of therapy, bacterial eradication was achieved in 17 of 20 patients (85%), and a favorable clinical outcome had occurred in 14 of 17 evaluable patients (82%). Of these 14 patients, one relapsed 4 months after the end of treatment. Thus, teicoplanin was effective in 13 of 17 patients (76%). Mean peak levels of teicoplanin in serum were lower, 23.1 +/- 2.9 micrograms/ml, in patients who failed than in those who were cured (45.8 +/- 8.4 micrograms/ml). Side effects occurred in 7 of 20 patients (35%), and required premature discontinuation of teicoplanin in 3 patients. These side effects were fever in three patients, rash in three patients, hearing loss in two patients, and increased serum transaminase levels in two patients. This study demonstrates the efficacy of teicoplanin in the treatment of endocarditis and the need for achieving peak levels in serum close to 40 micrograms/ml. Teicoplanin should now be further evaluated in endocarditis caused by gram-positive cocci means of controlled comparative study with standard therapy.
PMCID: PMC284248  PMID: 2527483
18.  Intramuscular loading dose of quinine for falciparum malaria: pharmacokinetics and toxicity. 
In a study of intramuscular injection of quinine eight adults with moderately severe falciparum malaria resistant to chloroquine were treated with quinine dihydrochloride, being given a loading dose of 20 mg salt (16.7 mg base)/kg followed by three or four eight hourly maintenance doses of 10 mg salt (8.3 mg base)/kg injected into the anterior thigh. All patients responded to treatment. Fever and parasite clearance times (mean (SD) 60 (23) h and 53 (22) h respectively) were comparable with those obtained with intravenous quinine. The mean peak plasma quinine concentration of 11.0 mg/l (34.4 mu mol/l) [corrected] was reached a median of five hours after administration of the loading dose. In all patients plasma quinine concentrations exceeded the high minimum inhibitory concentration for Plasmodium falciparum malaria prevalent in Thailand within four hours of the start of treatment but did not cause toxicity other than mild cinchonism. When intravenous infusion is not possible an intramuscular quinine loading dose is an effective means of starting treatment in patients with moderately severe falciparum malaria who cannot swallow tablets.
PMCID: PMC1340765  PMID: 3524743
19.  Effect of N-acetyl cysteine on the concentrations of thiols in plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lung tissue. 
Thorax  1994;49(7):670-675.
BACKGROUND--Oxidant/antioxidant imbalance may occur in the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Glutathione is an important extracellular and intracellular thiol oxidant in the lungs. These studies were carried out to determine the effect of N-acetyl cysteine on thiol concentrations in plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lung tissue. METHODS--Studies were carried out on normal subjects, patients with COPD, and those undergoing lung resection. In the first study N-acetyl cysteine was given to three groups; healthy subjects (600 mg once daily by mouth) and two groups of patients with COPD. In the first group of patients with COPD the dose was 600 mg once daily and in the second 600 mg thrice daily, all for five days. The latter dosage regimen was also given to six patients before bronchoscopy and to 11 patients before lung resection. Lung glutathione (GSH) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung tissue were compared with the same numbers of patients who did not receive N-acetyl cysteine. RESULTS--N-acetyl cysteine was detected in plasma after a single 600 mg dose in normal subjects and patients with COPD up to 1.5 hours after the drug was given. Plasma cysteine concentrations increased in normal subjects on both days 1 and 5, and in patients with COPD on day 5. Glutathione concentrations in plasma increased on day 1 in normal subjects but not in patients with COPD given 600 mg N-acetyl cysteine daily. With the higher dose of 600 mg thrice daily, however, there was a sustained elevation of GSH concentrations in plasma in patients with COPD. In patients undergoing routine diagnostic bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage those who were given N-acetyl cysteine (600 mg) thrice daily for five days had higher concentrations of cysteine in the plasma, but no significant differences in cysteine concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage or epithelial lining fluid compared with a control group; nor were there any differences in reduced glutathione concentrations in plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage or epithelial lining fluids between the control and treated groups. Moreover, in patients undergoing lung resection those treated with N-acetyl cysteine (600 mg thrice daily for five days) had similar concentrations of cysteine and glutathione in both plasma and lung tissue when compared with a control untreated group. CONCLUSIONS--These data suggest that, even when given in high oral doses, N-acetyl cysteine does not produce a sustained increase in glutathione levels sufficient to increase the antioxidant capacity of the lungs.
PMCID: PMC475055  PMID: 8066561
20.  Effectiveness of a reduced dose of efavirenz plus 2 NRTIs as maintenance antiretroviral therapy with the guidance of therapeutic drug monitoring 
Journal of the International AIDS Society  2014;17(4Suppl 3):19524.
Introduction
Wide inter-patient variation of plasma efavirenz (EFV) concentrations has been observed, and a substantial proportion of HIV-positive patients may have unnecessarily higher plasma EFV concentrations than recommended while receiving EFV-containing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at the currently recommended daily dose of 600 mg. A lower daily dose (400 mg) of EFV has recently been demonstrated to be as efficacious as the recommended 600 mg when combined with tenofovir/mtricitabine in a multinational clinical trial, with a lower incidence of adverse effects. We aimed to use a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)-guided strategy to optimize the EFV dose in HIV-positive Taiwanese patients.
Materials and Methods
The plasma EFV concentrations at 12 hours (C12) after taking the previous dose were determined among HIV-positive adults who had received EFV-containing cART with viral suppression (plasma HIV RNA load (PVL) <200 copies/mL). For those with EFV C12 >2.0 mg/L, EFV (Stocrit, MSD) was reduced to half a tablet daily. Determinations of EFV C12 were repeated 4–12 weeks after switch using high-performance liquid chromatography. CYP2B6 G516T polymorphisms were determined using polymerase-chain-reaction restriction fragment-length polymorphism.
Results
Between April 2013 and June 2014, 111 patients (95.5% male; mean age, 39 years; 96.4% with PVL <40 copies/ml; 26.4% HBsAg-positive and 7.5% anti-HCV-positive) with plasma C12 efavirenz >2.0 mg/L were switched to a reduced dose (1/2# hs) of EFV; 45.5% of them had CYP2B6 G516T or TT genotypes; and 32.4% weighed 60 kg or less. The mean baseline EFV C12 before switch was 3.65 mg/L (interquartile range (IQR), 2.62–4.17) for 111 patients, which decreased to 1.96 mg/L (IQR, 1.53–2.33) for 64 patients who had completed follow-up of C12 EFV 4 weeks after switch, with a reduction of 49.4% (IQR, 38.9–57.0%). As of 10 July, 2014, all of the 38 patients (100%) who had completed at least one follow-up of PVL achieved undetectable PVL (<40 copies/ml) following switch to a reduced dose of EFV after a mean observation of 13 weeks (IQR, 7–15 weeks).
Conclusions
Switch to cART containing a half tablet of EFV (1/2#) in HIV-positive Taiwanese patients with higher plasma EFV concentrations who had achieved viral suppression could maintain successful viral suppression with the guidance of TDM.
doi:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19524
PMCID: PMC4224938  PMID: 25394033
21.  Teicoplanin in the treatment of gram-positive-bacterial endocarditis. 
Intravenous teicoplanin has been used to treat 23 cases of gram-positive-bacterial endocarditis, usually with 3 to 7 mg/kg every 12 h on the first day, followed by 3 to 7 mg/kg every 24 h. For some cases (staphylococcal and enterococcal endocarditis), the dosage was 8 to 14.4 mg/kg per day and/or other antibiotics were given. The mean duration was 48.2 days (range, 23 to 130 days). Of 23 patients, 21 (91.3%) had negative cultures or were cured. A total of 18 patients were treated with teicoplanin alone; of these, 4 had surgery, and all (except 2 who relapsed) were cured. Teicoplanin was combined with one or more antibiotics in five cases; in all cases appropriate cultures were negative, but three patients died during therapy or follow-up. Mild renal impairment was seen in two patients; both were receiving teicoplanin in combination with an aminoglycoside. We conclude that intravenous teicoplanin administered once a day at doses of 7 to 14 mg/kg per day is well tolerated, easy to administer, and may represent an efficacious therapy for gram-positive-bacterial endocarditis.
PMCID: PMC172649  PMID: 2529815
22.  Treatment of bone, joint, and vascular-access-associated gram-positive bacterial infections with teicoplanin. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1990;34(12):2392-2397.
Teicoplanin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, was evaluated for safety and efficacy in the treatment of vascular-access-associated bacteremias and of bone and joint infections due to susceptible gram-positive organisms. Of 35 patients enrolled, 26 had osteomyelitis, 8 had vascular-access-associated bacteremias, and 1 had a joint infection. A total of 38 gram-positive isolates were identified: 23 Staphylococcus aureus and 6 coagulase-negative staphylococcus and 9 streptococcus isolates. After at least 6 months of follow-up, 17 patients were evaluable for efficacy: 10 of 14 (71%) with osteomyelitis and 3 of 3 with vascular-access-associated bacteremias had full resolution of their infections. Inadequate debridement, the presence of metal, and inadequate dosing were likely causes of two failures and two relapses in patients with osteomyelitis. For all but two organisms, teicoplanin MICs were less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml. Patients who responded had median peak and trough serum bactericidal levels at serum dilutions of 1:64 and 1:16; trough levels of teicoplanin in serum were greater than 30 micrograms/ml. Patients did not respond as expected to daily doses of 4 mg/kg of body weight, which consequently were increased to greater than or equal to 15 mg/kg. Audiology testing of 20 patients found 2 with a mild loss of high-frequency hearing; 1 patient complained of tinnitus. Patients tolerated peak levels in serum as high as 127 micrograms/ml and trough levels of 49 micrograms/ml. However, 5 of 18 patients (28%) whose daily dose was greater than or equal to 12 mg/kg developed drug fever and rash and had teicoplanin discontinued. Further study of the antibiotic at such higher doses is needed.
PMCID: PMC172067  PMID: 2150908
23.  Prospective randomized clinical trial of teicoplanin for empiric combined antibiotic therapy in febrile, granulocytopenic acute leukemia patients. 
The increasing prevalence of bacteremia caused by gram-positive bacteria in granulocytopenic acute leukemia patients prompted us to evaluate, in a prospective randomized trial, the role of teicoplanin, a new glycopeptide antibiotic, when it was added to amikacin plus ceftazidime, as an empiric therapy of fever in these patients. Of 47 evaluable episodes, 22 were treated with the teicoplanin regimen and 25 were treated with the combination of amikacin and ceftazidime. The overall response to therapy of patients treated with teicoplanin was slightly better (82% improvement) than that obtained with amikacin plus ceftazidime (52%). The response rate of patients with gram-positive bacteremias was 80% (4 of 5) to the regimen that included teicoplanin; 25% (1 of 4) of the patients treated with amikacin plus ceftazidime responded to treatment; and for patients with gram-negative bacteremias, the response rates were, respectively, 100% (4 of 4) and 70% (7 of 10). The better results obtained with amikacin-ceftazidime-teicoplanin treatment were most evident in patients with profound (less than 100/mm3) and persistent neutropenia (83 versus 30% improvement). Furthermore, a good response rate of patients with gram-positive bacteremias (seven of eight; 87% improvement) was achieved in a small group of bone marrow transplant patients who were all treated with amikacin-ceftazidime-teicoplanin. No severe side effects were documented in any patient. Teicoplanin, as a drug administered as a single daily dose, seems to be a safe and useful anti-gram-positive agent when used in combination with amikacin-ceftazidime as an empiric therapy of febrile episodes in granulocytopenic acute leukemia patients.
PMCID: PMC174882  PMID: 2959198
24.  Association Between Timing of Antibiotic Administration and Mortality from Septic Shock in Patients Treated with a Quantitative Resuscitation Protocol 
Critical care medicine  2011;39(9):2066-2071.
Objective
We sought to determine the association between time to initial antibiotics and mortality of septic shock patients treated with an emergency department (ED) based early resuscitation protocol.
Design
Pre-planned analysis of a multicenter randomized controlled trial of early sepsis resuscitation.
Setting
3 urban US EDs.
Patients
Adult septic shock patients.
Interventions
A quantitative resuscitation protocol in the ED targeting 3 physiological variables: central venous pressure, mean arterial pressure and either central venous oxygen saturation or lactate clearance. The study protocol was continued until all endpoints were achieved or a maximum of 6 hours.
Measurements
Data on patients who received an initial dose of antibiotics after presentation to the ED were categorized based on both time from triage and time from shock recognition to initiation of antibiotics. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality.
Main Results
Of 291 included patients, mortality did not change with hourly delays in antibiotic administration up to 6 hours after triage: 1 hour (OR 1.2, 0.6–2.5), 2 hours (OR 0.71, 0.4–1.3), 3 hours (OR 0.59, 0.3–1.3). Mortality was significantly increased patients who received initial antibiotics after shock recognition (N=172, 59%) compared with before shock recognition (OR 2.4, 1.1–4.5); however, among patients who received antibiotics after shock recognition, mortality did not change with hourly delays in antibiotic administration.
Conclusion
In this large, prospective study of ED patients with septic shock, we found no increase in mortality with each hour delay to administration of antibiotics after triage. However, delay in antibiotics until after shock recognition was associated with increased mortality.
doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31821e87ab
PMCID: PMC3158284  PMID: 21572327
sepsis; antibiotics; septic shock; emergency medicine
25.  Efficacy of Teicoplanin-Gentamicin Given Once a Day on the Basis of Pharmacokinetics in Humans for Treatment of Enterococcal Experimental Endocarditis 
With the aim of investigating home therapy for enterococcal endocarditis, we compared the efficacy of teicoplanin combined with gentamicin given once a day or in three daily doses (t.i.d.) with the standard treatment, ampicillin plus gentamicin administered t.i.d., for treating experimental enterococcal endocarditis. The antibiotics were administered by using “human-like pharmacokinetics” (H-L), i.e, pharmacokinetics like those in humans, that simulated the profiles of these drugs in human serum. Animals with catheter-induced endocarditis were infected intravenously with 108 CFU of Enterococcus faecalis EF91 (MICs and MBCs of ampicillin, gentamicin, and teicoplanin, 0.5 and 32, 16 and 32, and 0.5 and 1 μg/ml, respectively) and were treated for 3 days with ampicillin H-L at 2 g every 4 h plus gentamicin H-L at 1 mg/kg every 8 h, or teicoplanin H-L at 10 mg/kg every 24 h, alone or combined with gentamicin, administered at dose of H-L at 1 mg/kg every 8 h or H-L at 4.5 mg/kg every 24 h. The results of therapy for experimental endocarditis due to EF91 showed that teicoplanin alone was as effective as ampicillin alone in reducing the bacterial load (P > 0.05). The combination of ampicillin or teicoplanin with gentamicin was more effective than the administration of both drugs alone in reducing the log10CFU/gram of aortic vegetation (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Teicoplanin plus gentamicin H-L at 4.5 mg/kg, both administered every 24 h, showed an efficacy equal to the “gold standard,” ampicillin plus gentamicin H-L at 1 mg/kg t.i.d. (P > 0.05). Increasing the interval of administration of gentamicin to a single daily dose combined with teicoplanin resulted in a reduction of bacteria in the vegetations equivalent to that achieved with the recommended regimen of ampicillin plus thrice-daily gentamicin in the treatment of experimental endocarditis due to E. faecalis. Teicoplanin plus gentamicin, both administered once a day, may be useful home therapy for selected cases of enterococcal endocarditis.
doi:10.1128/AAC.45.5.1387-1393.2001
PMCID: PMC90478  PMID: 11302800

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