Since 2001, antiretroviral therapy (ART) for people living with HIV (PLHIV) has been available in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR). A key factor in the effectiveness of ART is good adherence to the prescribed regimen for both individual well-being and public health. Poor adherence can contribute to the emergence of drug resistant strains of the virus and transmission during risky behaviors. Increased access to ART in low-income country settings has contributed to an interest in treatment adherence in resource–poor contexts. This study aims to investigate the proportion of adherence to ART and identify possible factors related to non-adherence to ART among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Lao PDR.
A cross-sectional study was conducted with adults living with HIV receiving free ART at Setthathirath hospital in the capital Vientiane and Savannakhet provincial hospitals from June to November 2011. Three hundred and forty six PLHIV were interviewed using an anonymous questionnaire. The estimation of the adherence rate was based on the information provided by the PLHIV about the intake of medicine during the previous three days. The statistical software Epidata 3.1 and Stata 10.1 were used for data analysis. Frequencies and distribution of each variable were calculated by conventional statistical methods. The chi square test, Mann–Whitney test and logistic regression were used for bivariate analyses. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the predictors of non-adherence to ART. A p-value < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.
Of a total of 346 patients, 60% reported more than 95% adherence to ART. Reasons for not taking medicine as required were being busy (97.0%), and being forgetful (62.2%). In the multivariate analysis, educational level at secondary school (OR=3.7, 95% CI:1.3-10.1, p=0.012); illicit drug use (OR=16.1, 95% CI:1.9-128.3, p=0.011); dislike exercise (OR=0.6, 95% CI:0.4-0.9, p=0.028), and forgetting to take ARV medicine during the last month (OR=2.3, 95% CI:1.4-3.7, p=0.001) were independently associated with non-adherence.
Non-adherence to ART was associated with individual factors and exposure to ART. Priority measures to increase adherence to ART should aim to intensify counseling and comprehensive interventions, such as guidance for PLHIV on medication self-management skills, tailoring the regimen to the PLHIV life style, and improving adherence monitoring and health care services.
Antiretroviral therapy; Adherence; PLWHIV; Self-report; Lao PDR
High levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) are critical to the management of HIV, yet many people living with HIV do not achieve these levels. There is a substantial body of literature regarding correlates of adherence to ART, and theory-based multivariate models of ART adherence are emerging. The current study assessed the determinants of adherence behavior postulated by the Information–Motivation–Behavioral Skills model of ART adherence in a sample of 149 HIV-positive patients in Mississippi. Structural equation modeling indicated that ART-related information correlated with personal and social motivation, and the two sub-areas of motivation were not intercorrelated. In this Deep South sample, being better informed, socially supported, and perceiving fewer negative consequences of adherence were independently related to stronger behavioral skills for taking medications, which in turn associated with self-reported adherence. The IMB model of ART adherence appeared to well characterize the complexities of adherence for this sample.
Information; Motivation; Behavioral skills; ART adherence; Mississippi
Depression and anxiety are common among HIV-infected people and rank among the strongest predictors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This longitudinal study aimed to assess whether symptoms of anxiety and depression are predictors of non-adherence among patients initiating ART at two public referral centers (n=293) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Prevalence of severe anxiety and depression symptoms before starting ART was 12.6% and 5.8%, respectively. Severe anxiety was a predictor of non-adherence to ART during follow-up period (RH=1.87; 95% CI=1.14–3.06) adjusted for low education, unemployment, alcohol use in the last month and symptoms of AIDS; while a history of injection drug use had borderline statistical significance with non-adherence. These findings suggest that using a brief screening procedure to assess anxiety and depression symptoms before initiating ART help identify individuals for interventions to improve adherence and quality of life.
anxiety; depression; psychiatric symptoms; non-adherence; antiretroviral therapy
Advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV offer life-extending benefit; however, the side effects associated with ART use negatively impact quality of life and medication adherence among people living with HIV.
This study tested the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for reducing ART symptoms and bother/distress related to ART side effects. Secondary aims were to test the impact of MBSR on medication adherence and psychological functioning.
Seventy-six people living with HIV who were actively taking ART and reported distress from ART-related side effects were randomly assigned to MBSR or a wait-list control standard care condition. We measured side effects, ART adherence, perceived stress, depression, positive and negative affect, and mindfulness at three time points: baseline, three-month follow-up, and six-month follow-up. Side effects and related distress were assessed separately from other symptoms.
Compared to a wait-list control, participants in the MBSR condition experienced a reduction in the frequency of symptoms attributable to antiretroviral therapies at three months post intervention (mean difference = 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01, 0.66; t(132) = 2.04, P = 0.044) and at six months post intervention (mean difference = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.71; t(132) = 2.27, P = 0.025). MBSR participants also experienced a reduction in distress associated with those symptoms at three months post intervention (mean difference = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.003, 0.94; t(132) = 1.99, P = 0.048) compared with the wait-list control condition.
Mindfulness-based stress reduction is a promising approach for reducing HIV treatment-related side effects.
Mindfulness-based stress reduction; HIV; antiretroviral therapy; side effects; symptoms; adherence
The objective of this study was to describe the adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among adolescents followed-up in Rio de Janeiro. This cross-sectional study included all adolescents (aged 10–19 years) followed at Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martaga~ o Gesteira and Hospital Universita’ rio Clementino Fraga Filho. Adherence was determined by self-report (number of missed ART doses in three days prior to the interview). Adherence was categorized as taking _95% of the ARTs (adherent), or ,95% (non-adherent). Variables related to demographics and treatment were evaluated and if P value _0.15, they were selected for a logistic regression analysis. One hundred and one adolescents were interviewed. The mean time on ART was 91 months and the mean adherence was 94% of this, 21 were non-adherent, and 80 adherent. The risk factors associated with non-adherence were: if the patient was not concerned about ART, odds ratio (OR) ¼ 3.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] ¼ 1.13–10.68); if they do not carry an extra dose of ART, OR ¼ 6.63 (95% CI ¼ 1.73–25.47); if a health-care worker taught them how to take ART, OR ¼ 0.27 (95% CI ¼ 0.08–0.93). Adherence among adolescents was higher than expected. Factors associated with lack of adherence were: interviewees being unaware of ARTs and lack of commitment to the treatment. Interventions involving these factors must be evaluated.
HIV; antiretroviral; adherence; adolescent; Brazil
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is relatively common among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and may be associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. We examined the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and adherence among 214 African American males. Because PLHA may experience discrimination, potentially in the form of traumatic stress (e.g., hate crimes), we also examined whether perceived discrimination (related to race, HIV status, sexual orientation) is an explanatory variable in the relationship between PTSD and adherence. Adherence, monitored electronically over 6 months, was negatively correlated with PTSD total and re-experiencing symptom severity; all 3 discrimination types were positively correlated with PTSD symptoms and negatively correlated with adherence. Each discrimination type separately mediated the relationship between PTSD and adherence; when both PTSD and discrimination were included in the model, discrimination was the sole predictor of adherence. Findings highlight the critical role that discrimination plays in adherence among African American men experiencing posttraumatic stress.
HIV; adherence; posttraumatic stress; discrimination; mediation
Optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is necessary for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). There have been relatively few systematic analyses of factors that promote or inhibit adherence to antiretroviral therapy among PLHIV in Asia. This study assessed ART adherence and examined factors associated with suboptimal adherence in northern Viet Nam.
Data from 615 PLHIV on ART in two urban and three rural outpatient clinics were collected by medical record extraction and from patient interviews using audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI).
The prevalence of suboptimal adherence was estimated to be 24.9% via a visual analogue scale (VAS) of past-month dose-missing and 29.1% using a modified Adult AIDS Clinical Trial Group scale for on-time dose-taking in the past 4 days. Factors significantly associated with the more conservative VAS score were: depression (p < 0.001), side-effect experiences (p < 0.001), heavy alcohol use (p = 0.001), chance health locus of control (p = 0.003), low perceived quality of information from care providers (p = 0.04) and low social connectedness (p = 0.03). Illicit drug use alone was not significantly associated with suboptimal adherence, but interacted with heavy alcohol use to reduce adherence (p < 0.001).
This is the largest survey of ART adherence yet reported from Asia and the first in a developing country to use the ACASI method in this context. The evidence strongly indicates that ART services in Viet Nam should include screening and treatment for depression, linkage with alcohol and/or drug dependence treatment, and counselling to address the belief that chance or luck determines health outcomes.
ACASI; Adherence; Antiretroviral therapy; Depression; Substance use; Viet Nam
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) requires high-level (> 95%) adherence. Kenya is rolling out ART access programmes and, issue of adherence to therapy is therefore imperative. However, published data on adherence to ART in Kenya is limited. This study assessed adherence to ART and identified factors responsible for non adherence in Nairobi.
This is a multiple facility-based cross-sectional study, where 416 patients aged over 18 years were systematically selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire about their experience taking ART. Additional data was extracted from hospital records. Patients were grouped into adherent and non-adherent based on a composite score derived from a three questions adherence tool developed by Center for Adherence Support Evaluation (CASE). Multivariate regression model was used to determine predictors of non-adherence.
Overall, 403 patients responded; 35% males and 65% females, 18% were non-adherent, and main (38%) reason for missing therapy were being busy and forgetting. Accessing ART in a clinic within walking distance from home (OR = 2.387, CI.95 = 1.155-4.931; p = 0.019) and difficulty with dosing schedule (OR = 2.310, CI.95 = 1.211-4.408, p = 0.011) predicted non-adherence.
The study found better adherence to HAART in Nairobi compared to previous studies in Kenya. However, this can be improved further by employing fitting strategies to improve patients' ability to fit therapy in own lifestyle and cue-dose training to impact forgetfulness. Further work to determine why patients accessing therapy from ARV clinics within walking distance from their residence did not adhere is recommended.
Background. The efficacy of antiretroviral treatment (ART) depends on strict adherence to the regimen, but many factors have been identified for nonadherence. Method. To identify the factors for non-adherence to ART, a cross-sectional study was conducted on people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and attending the ART service at Hiwot Fana and Jugal hospitals; it was done from October to December, 2010. Adherence was defined as taking 95% of the prescribed doses in the week before the survey. Data were collected using a standard interview questionnaire and were analyzed using SPSS Version 16.
Result. Among the 239 study participants, the magnitude of adherence to ART in the week before interview was 87%. The main reasons for nonadherence were forgetting (47.2%), traveling (18.9%), and being busy doing other things (15.1%). There was not any independent predicator identified for adherence to ART. Conclusion. Compared to other similar studies in Ethiopia, in this study a high adherence rate was found. Forgetfulness was the most common reason for the nonadherence. Therefore, the ART counseling needs to give emphasis to using memory aids. In addition, a further study on adherence rate and its determinants with multiple adherence measurements is recommended.
Adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) among children in developing settings is poorly understood.
To understand the level, distribution, and correlates of ART adherence behavior, we prospectively determined monthly ART adherence through multiple measures and six-monthly HIV RNA levels among 121 Ugandan children aged 2–10 years for one year. Median adherence levels were 100% by three-day recall, 97.4% by 30-day visual analog scale, 97.3% by unannounced pill count/liquid formulation weights, and 96.3% by medication event monitors (MEMS). Interruptions in MEMS adherence of ≥48 hours were seen in 57.0% of children; 36.3% had detectable HIV RNA at one year. Only MEMS correlated significantly with HIV RNA levels (r = −0.25, p = 0.04). Multivariable regression found the following to be associated with <90% MEMS adherence: hospitalization of child (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6–5.5; p = 0.001), liquid formulation use (AOR 1.4, 95%CI 1.0–2.0; p = 0.04), and caregiver’s alcohol use (AOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.8–5.2; p<0.0001). Child’s use of co-trimoxazole (AOR 0.5, 95%CI 0.4–0.9; p = 0.009), caregiver’s use of ART (AOR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4–0.9; p = 0.03), possible caregiver depression (AOR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4–0.8; p = 0.001), and caregiver feeling ashamed of child’s HIV status (AOR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3–0.6; p<0.0001) were protective against <90% MEMS adherence. Change in drug manufacturer (AOR 4.1, 95%CI 1.5–11.5; p = 0.009) and caregiver’s alcohol use (AOR 5.5, 95%CI 2.8–10.7; p<0.0001) were associated with ≥48-hour interruptions by MEMS, while second-line ART (AOR 0.3, 95%CI 0.1–0.99; p = 0.049) and increasing assets (AOR 0.7, 95%CI 0.6–0.9; p = 0.0007) were protective against these interruptions.
Adherence success depends on a well-established medication taking routine, including caregiver support and adequate education on medication changes. Caregiver-reported depression and shame may reflect fear of poor outcomes, functioning as motivation for the child to adhere. Further research is needed to better understand and build on these key influential factors for adherence intervention development.
We seek to determine the optimized multidisciplinary care team (MDCT) composition for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence.
We analyzed all new regimen starts (n=10,801; 7,071 ART naïve, 3,730 ART experienced) among HIV+ patients in Kaiser Permanente California from 1996–2006. We measured 12-month adherence to ART (pharmacy refill methodology) and medical center-specific patient exposure to HIV/ID specialist (reference group), non-HIV primary care provider (PC), clinical pharmacist, nurse case manager, non-nurse care coordinator, dietician, social worker/benefits coordinator, health educator, and mental health. We used recursive partitioning to ascertain potential MDCT compositions associated with maximal mean ART adherence. We then employed mixed linear regression with clustering by provider and medical center (adjusting for ART experience, age, gender, race/ethnicity, HIV risk, HCV+, ART regimen class and calendar year) to test which potential MDCT identified had statistically significant association with ART adherence.
We found maximal increase in adherence with pharmacist +coordinator +PC (+8.1% ART adherence difference compared to reference; 95%CI: +2.7–+13.5%). Other MDCT teams with significant (p<0.05) improved adherence compared to specialist only were: nurse +social work +PC (+7.5%; +5.4–+9.7%); specialist +mental health (+6.5%; +2.6–+10.4%); pharmacist +social work +PC (+5.7%; +4.1–+7.4%); pharmacist +PC (+3.3%; +0.8–+5.8%). Among these MDCTs, there were no significant differences in mean adherence, odds maximal viral control, or change CD4+ at 12 months (except pharmacist +PC).
Various MDCTs were associated with improved adherence, including ones that did not include HIV specialist but included primary care plus other health professionals. These findings have application to HIV care team design.
Multidisciplinary Care Team; Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence; Clinical Pharmacist; Patient Centered Medical Home; HIV Specialist; Recursive Partitioning
Adherence is integral to improving and maintaining the health and quality of life of people living with HIV. Two-hundred HIV-positive adults recruited from teaching hospitals and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Rio de Janeiro City were assessed on socio-demographic factors, adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and psychosocial factors hypothesized to be associated with ART. Predictors of non-adherence were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Self-reported medication adherence was high (82% had adherence > 90%). Non-adherence was associated with personal factors (i.e. sexual orientation, self-efficacy), physical factors (i.e. loss of appetite) and interpersonal factors (i.e. doctor-patient relationship). Adherence in Brazil is as good, if not better, than that seen in the US and western Europe, which is noteworthy since the sample was derived predominantly from public healthcare settings. It is possible that the connection to NGOs in Rio de Janeiro City played a helpful role in achieving high levels of adherence in this sample of people living with HIV and AIDS. Recommendations, based on study findings, include enhancing and sustaining supportive services for NGOs, promoting patient self-efficacy and behavioral skills for adherence, increasing social network support and having healthcare providers directly address patients’ medication beliefs, attitudes and experience with side effects.
The Center for Adherence Support Evaluation (CASE) Adherence Index, a simple composite measure of self-reported antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, was compared to a standard three-day self-reported adherence measure among participants in a longitudinal, prospective cross-site evaluation of 12 adherence programs throughout the United States. The CASE Adherence Index, consisting of three unique adherence questions developed for the cross-site study, along with a three-day adherence self-report were administered by interviews every three months over a one-year period. Data from the three cross-site adherence questions (individually and in combination) were compared to three-day self-report data and HIV RNA and CD4 outcomes in cross-sectional analyses. The CASE Adherence Index correlated strongly with the three-day self-reported adherence data (p < 0.001) and was more strongly associated with HIV outcomes, including a 1-log decline in HIV RNA level (maximum OR = 2.34; p < 0.05), HIV RNA<400 copies/ml (maximum OR = 2.33; p < 0.05) and performed as well as the three-day self-report when predicting CD4 count status. Participants with a CASE Index score >10 achieved a 98 cell mean increase in CD4 count over 12 months, compared to a 41 cell increase for those with scores ≤10 (p < 0.05). The CASE Adherence Index is an easy to administer instrument that provides an alternative method for assessing ART adherence in clinical settings.
Research in India has extensively examined the factors associated with non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) with limited focus on examining the relationship between adherence to ART regimen and survival status of HIV infected patients. This study examines the effect of optimal adherence to ART on survival status of HIV infected patients attending ART centers in Jharkhand, India.
Materials and Methods
Data from a cohort of 239 HIV infected individuals who were initiated ART in 2007 were compiled from medical records retrospectively for 36 months. Socio-demographic characteristics, CD4 T cell count, presence of opportunistic infections at the time of ART initiation and ART regimen intake and survival status was collected periodically. Optimal adherence was assessed using pill count methods; patients who took <95% of the specified regimens were identified as non-adherent. Cox-proportional hazard model was used to determine the relative hazards of mortality.
More than three-fourths of the patients were male, on an average 34 year old and median CD4 T cell count was 118 cells/cmm at the time of ART registration. About 57% of the patients registered for ART were found to be adherent to ART. A total of 104 patients died in 358.5 patient-years of observation resulting in a mortality rate of 29 per 100 patient-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 23.9–35.2) and median survival time of 6.5 months (CI: 2.7–10.9). The mortality rate was higher among patients who were non-adherent to ART (64.5, CI: 50.5–82.4) than who were adherent (15.4, CI: 11.3–21.0). The risk of mortality was fourfold higher among individuals who were non-adherent to ART than who were adherent (Adjusted hazard ratio: 3.9, CI: 2.6–6.0).
Adherence to ART is associated with a higher chance of survival of HIV infected patients, ascertaining the need for interventions to improve the ART adherence and early initiation of ART.
At the end of 2011, over 8 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), a 26-fold increase from 2003. Some degree of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) will emerge among populations on combination ART even when high levels of adherence are achieved. In 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated global HIVDR surveillance to monitor emergence and transmission of HIVDR in countries scaling-up ART.
WHO HIVDR surveillance strategy was designed to inform public health decision-making regarding choice of ART and to identify ART programme factors which could be adjusted to minimize HIVDR emergence. The strategy includes (1) surveillance of transmitted HIVDR (TDR) in recently infected populations, (2) surveillance of acquired HIVDR (ADR) in populations on ART and (3) monitoring of early warning indicators (EWI) of HIVDR which are ART programme factors favouring HIVDR emergence. Surveys used standardized protocols. Epidemiological and sequence data were quality assured.
TDR: Eighty-two surveys were conducted in 30 countries in 2004 to 2010, assessing 3588 recently infected individuals. Pooled analysis indicates an overall prevalence of 3.1% TDR to at least one drug class, 1.6% to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), 1.3% to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and 0.7% to protease inhibitor (PI). Levels of NNRTI resistance, particularly in the areas surveyed in Africa, increased over time, reaching 3.4% (95% CI=1.8 to 5.2%) in 2009. Greater ART coverage was associated, though modestly, with increased prevalence of TDR to NNRTI (P-value adjusted for region=0.039). ADR: Thirty-six ADR surveys assessing 6370 people in 12 LMIC were conducted in 2007 to 2010. HIVDR prevalence to any drug among those initiating ART ranged from 4.8% (95% CI=3.8 to 6.0%) in 2007 to 6.8% (95% CI=4.8 to 9.0%) in 2010. Ninety per cent of patients alive and on therapy at 12 months achieved viral load <1000 c/mL. Among people with virological failure, 72% had HIVDR to at least one drug. EWI: EWIs were monitored at 2017 clinics in 50 countries assessing 131,686 people since 2004. Overall, 75% of clinics met the target of 100% of patients receiving appropriate ART; 69% of clinics met the <20% target for lost to follow-up at 12 months; and only 65% of clinics provided a continuous supply of ART during a 12-month period.
Expansion of ART in LMIC has resulted in an overall increase in HIVDR, particularly to NNRTI in Africa. EWIs reveal important gaps in service delivery and programme performance. While these data call for continued and improved scale up of surveillance, they also suggest that resistance is under control in the areas surveyed, and the majority of patients initiating or switching therapy are likely to respond to currently available first- and second-line therapy.
To know the perceptions regarding barriers and facilitators to cART adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS
Materials and Methods:
To adapt U.S. based SAFETALK “prevention with positives” intervention to be culturally relevant in Gujarat, India in assisting PLWHA, a formative study was conducted. We conducted 30 in-depth interviews with PLWHA in the local language, assessing the experiences, perceived barriers, and facilitators to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) among PLWHA in Gujarat. PLWHA were selected from the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre (VCTC) in Gujarat. To triangulate interview findings, we conducted two focus group discussions (FGDs) with medical and non-medical providers, respectively.
Travel and commuting to clinic, fear of possible physical reactions, high cost of ART from private practitioners, CD4 count being in normal limits and resistance to medication acted as barriers to cART adherence. Initiation of cART was facilitated by family members′ suggestion, advice of treating doctors and counselors, appropriate counseling before starting cART, belief that cART would aid in living a better and longer life and due to lowering of the CD4 count.
Interpretation and Conclusions:
Our study suggests that several issues need to be considered when providing cART. Further research is needed to study interactions between patients and their health care providers.
Barriers; cART; facilitators; HIV positive people; qualitative study
Good adherence to antiretroviral therapy is necessary to achieve the best virological response, lower the risk that drug resistance will develop, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the rate and predictors of adherence in Ethiopia. Therefore this study determines the magnitude and predictors of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS in Southwest Ethiopia.
A cross sectional study was carried out from January 1, 2009 to March 3, 2009 among 319 adult PLWHA (≥ 18 years) attending ART clinic at Jimma university Specialized Hospital (JUSH). Multiple Logistic regression models were constructed with adherence and independent variables to identify the predictors.
About 303(95%) of the study subjects were adherent based on self report of missed doses (dose adherence) in a one-week recall before the actual interview. The rate of self reported adherence in the study based on the combined indicator of the dose, time and food adherence measurement was 72.4%. Patients who got family support were 2 times [2.12(1.25-3.59)] more likely to adhere than those who didn't get family support as an independent predictor of overall adherence (dose, time and food). The reasons given for missing drugs were 9(27.3%) running out of medication/drug, 7(21.2%) being away from home and 7(21.2%) being busy with other things.
The adherence rate found in this study is similar to other resource limited setting and higher than the developed country. This study highlights emphasis should be given for income generating activities and social supports that helps to remember the patients for medication taking and management of opportunistic infections during the course of treatment.
The efficiency of antiretroviral therapy (ART) depends on a near perfect level of patients' adherence. The level of adherence of adults HIV-infected patients treated in the HIV/AIDS health care centres of the association "Espoir Vie Togo" in Togo, West Africa is not properly documented. The aim of the present study was to examine by means of self-reports the knowledge, the adherence level and associated factors to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among these patients.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey among adult people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) through a structured questionnaire.
A total of 99 patients were enrolled. Among them, 55.6% knew the name of antiretroviral agents of regimens prescribed. All patients had a good knowledge of treatment schedule. The treatment regimens based on 2 NRTIs + 1 NNRTI were used in 90% of patients. The average adherence rate was 89.8% of the total doses prescribed while 62.62% of patients showed an adherence rate of 95% or above. The treated groups were similar in term of median % of medication doses taken according to PLWHA epidemiological characteristics. However, patients reported forgetting (34.9%), travel (25.6%), cost of treatment (13.9%) and side effects (11.6%) as the main factors of missing at least once a dose intake.
These results should encourage the association and all the involved actors in the HIV/AIDS's program to strengthen counseling, education and information interventions for HIV-infected patients in order to overcome the potential barriers of poor adherence.
Adherence to HIV medication regimens is a function of multiple dimensions including psychological functioning, social support, adherence self-efficacy and optimism regarding treatment. Active substance use can also negatively affect adherence. An understanding of the nature of the associations among the correlates of adherence can better inform the design of interventions to improve adherence. This study developed an exploratory path model of schedule adherence using data from a sample 130 African-American HIV-positive crack cocaine users on highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART). This model was based on the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping developed by Lazarus and Folkman. Following the theory, the effects of psychological distress on schedule adherence were mediated by patients’ relationship with their doctor and optimism towards antiretroviral treatment. Adherence was also associated with patients’ self-efficacy regarding their medical regimen which, in turn, was associated with their social support.
This is a systematic review of eighty-two published studies investigating the impact of DSM-IV mental disorders on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) adherence and persistence among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Sixty-two articles examined depression, with 58 % (N = 32/62) finding lower cART adherence and persistence. Seventeen articles examined one or more anxiety disorders, with the majority finding no association with cART adherence or persistence. Eighty percent of the studies that evaluated the impact of psychotic (N = 3), bipolar (N = 5) and personality disorders (N = 2) on cART adherence and persistence also found no association. Seven out of the nine studies (78 %) evaluating the impact of antidepressant treatment (ADT) on cART adherence found improvement. Adherence and depression measurements varied significantly in studies; common research measurements would improve data harmonization. More research specifically addressing the impact of other mental disorders besides depression on cART adherence and RCTs evaluating ADT on cART adherence are also needed.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10461-012-0212-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
HIV/AIDS; Mental illness; Adherence; Antiretroviral therapy; Systematic review; Persistence; cART; Depression; Anxiety; Psychotic disorders
Despite disproportionate rates of HIV among transgender women and evidence that medication adherence is necessary for treatment success and increased likelihood of survival, there has been little investigation into antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence issues among transgender women. This study examined rates of self-reported ART adherence among transgender women on ART (n = 35) and well-established correlates of nonadherence including depression, adherence self-efficacy, patient perceptions of interactions with their providers, and perceived adverse side effects of ART compared to other respondents (n = 2,770). Transgender women on ART were less likely to report 90% adherence rates or higher and reported less confidence in their abilities to integrate treatment regimens into their daily lives. When transgender women were compared to other respondents, regardless of the current medication regimen, they reported significantly fewer positive interactions with their health care providers. Training for providers and integration of hormone therapy into HIV care is recommended.
adherence; AIDS; antiretroviral therapy; HIV; transgender; women
Emotional distress is among the more common factors associated with HIV treatment adherence. Typical barriers to adherence may be overshadowed by poverty experiences in the most disadvantaged populations of people living with HIV/AIDS, such as people with lower-literacy skills.
This study examined the association of social, health and poverty-related stressors in relation to antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence in a sample of people with low-literacy living with HIV/AIDS in the southeastern US.
One hundred eighty-eight men and women living with HIV/AIDS who demonstrated poor health literacy completed measures of social and health-related stress, indicators of extreme poverty as well as other factors associated with non-adherence. HIV treatment adherence was monitored prospectively using unannounced pill counts.
Two thirds of the sample demonstrated adherence below 85% of pills taken. Multivariable analyses showed that food insufficiency and hunger predicted ART non-adherence over and above depression, internalized stigma, substance use and HIV-related social stressors.
Interventions for HIV treatment non-adherence with the most socially disadvantaged persons in developed countries should be re-conceptualized to directly address poverty, especially food insufficiency and hunger, as both a moral and public health imperative.
HIV/AIDS; Stress; Poverty; Food security; HIV treatment adherence
Little is known about factors associated with suboptimal antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our objective was to determine the level of ART adherence and predictors of non-adherence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adolescents at the Botswana-Baylor Children’s Clinical Centre of Excellence in Gaborone, Botswana.
In a cross-sectional study, 82 HIV-infected adolescents receiving ART and their caregivers were administered a structured questionnaire. The patient’s clinical information was retrieved from medical records. Outcome measures included excellent pill count ART adherence (>95%) and virologic suppression (HIV viral load <400 copies/mL). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of ART non-adherence.
The overall median (interquartile range) ART adherence was 99% (96.5–100) (N = 82). Seventy-six percent of adolescents had excellent pill count ART adherence levels and 94% achieved virologic suppression. Male adolescents made up 65% of the non-adherent group (P = 0.02). Those who displayed suboptimal ART adherence were more likely to report having ever missed ART doses due to failure to pick up medication at the pharmacy (30.0% versus 9.7%, P = 0.03). In the multivariate logistic regression model, male sex (odds ratio [OR] 3.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13–9.54; P = 0.03) was the only factor which was independently associated with suboptimal ART adherence.
A high proportion of HIV-infected adolescents studied had excellent ART adherence and virologic suppression, with male adolescents at higher risk of suboptimal adherence than females. Further research to investigate how sex relates to suboptimal adherence may aid in the design of targeted intervention strategies.
HIV/AIDS; ART adherence; adolescents; barriers; Botswana
Potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV from a death sentence to a chronic illness. Accordingly, the goal of HIV care has shifted from delaying death to achieving optimal health outcomes through ART treatment. ART treatment success hinges on medication adherence. Extensive research has demonstrated that the primary barriers to ART adherence include mental illness, especially depression and substance abuse, as well as histories of traumatic experiences such as childhood sexual and physical abuse. These psychosocial factors are highly prevalent in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and predict poor ART adherence, increased sexual risk behaviours, ART treatment failure, HIV disease progression and higher mortality rates. The efficacy of standard mental health interventions, such as antidepressant treatment and psychotherapy, has been well-defined, and a small but growing body of research demonstrates the potential for such interventions to improve ART adherence and reduce sexual risk behaviours. Despite this evidence, mental disorders in PLWHA frequently go undiagnosed and untreated. Challenges to the provision of mental healthcare for PLWHA in HIV clinical settings include time and resource constraints, lack of expertise in psychiatric diagnosis and treatment, and lack of available mental health referral services. Future research should prioritize the evaluation of mental health interventions that are cost-effective and feasible for widespread integration into HIV clinical care; the impact of such interventions on ART adherence and clinical outcomes; and interventions to identify individuals with histories of traumatic experiences and to elucidate the mechanisms through which such histories pose barriers to effective HIV treatment.
mental illness; depression; trauma; adherence
Adherence is a necessary part of successful antiretroviral treatment (ART). We assessed risk factors for incomplete adherence among a cohort of HIV-infected women initiating ART and examined associations between adherence and virologic response to ART.
A secondary data analysis was conducted on a cohort of 154 women initiating non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART at a single site in Johannesburg, South Africa. Ninety women had been enrolled in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT) program and were exposed to single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) >18 months earlier. Women were interviewed pre-treatment and clinical, virologic and adherence data were collected during follow-up to 24 weeks. Incomplete adherence to ART was defined as returning >5% of medications, estimated by pill counts at scheduled visits. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and unadjusted odds ratio (95%CI) were performed, using STATA/SE (ver 10.1).
About half of the women (53%) were <30 years of age, 63% had <11 years of schooling, 69% were unemployed and 37% lived in a shack. Seven percent of women had a viral load >400 copies/ml at 24 weeks and 37% had incomplete adherence at one or more visits. Incomplete adherence was associated with less education (p = 0.01) and lack of financial support from a partner (p = 0.02) after adjustment for confounders. Only when adherence levels dropped below 80% was there a significant association with viremia in the group overall (p = 0.02) although adherence <95% was associated with viremia in the sdNVP-exposed group (p = 0.03). The main reasons for incomplete adherence were being away from home, busy with other things and forgetting to take their medication.
Virologic response to NNRTI-treatment in the cohort was excellent. However, women who received sdNVP were at greater risk of virologic failure when adherence was <95%. Women exposed to sdNVP, and those with less education and less social support may benefit from additional adherence counseling to ensure the long-term success of ART. More than 80% adherence may be sufficient to maintain virologic suppression on NNRTI-based regimens in the short-term, however complete adherence should be encouraged.