High levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) are critical to the management of HIV, yet many people living with HIV do not achieve these levels. There is a substantial body of literature regarding correlates of adherence to ART, and theory-based multivariate models of ART adherence are emerging. The current study assessed the determinants of adherence behavior postulated by the Information–Motivation–Behavioral Skills model of ART adherence in a sample of 149 HIV-positive patients in Mississippi. Structural equation modeling indicated that ART-related information correlated with personal and social motivation, and the two sub-areas of motivation were not intercorrelated. In this Deep South sample, being better informed, socially supported, and perceiving fewer negative consequences of adherence were independently related to stronger behavioral skills for taking medications, which in turn associated with self-reported adherence. The IMB model of ART adherence appeared to well characterize the complexities of adherence for this sample.
Information; Motivation; Behavioral skills; ART adherence; Mississippi
Depression and anxiety are common among HIV-infected people and rank among the strongest predictors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This longitudinal study aimed to assess whether symptoms of anxiety and depression are predictors of non-adherence among patients initiating ART at two public referral centers (n=293) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Prevalence of severe anxiety and depression symptoms before starting ART was 12.6% and 5.8%, respectively. Severe anxiety was a predictor of non-adherence to ART during follow-up period (RH=1.87; 95% CI=1.14–3.06) adjusted for low education, unemployment, alcohol use in the last month and symptoms of AIDS; while a history of injection drug use had borderline statistical significance with non-adherence. These findings suggest that using a brief screening procedure to assess anxiety and depression symptoms before initiating ART help identify individuals for interventions to improve adherence and quality of life.
anxiety; depression; psychiatric symptoms; non-adherence; antiretroviral therapy
Advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV offer life-extending benefit; however, the side effects associated with ART use negatively impact quality of life and medication adherence among people living with HIV.
This study tested the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for reducing ART symptoms and bother/distress related to ART side effects. Secondary aims were to test the impact of MBSR on medication adherence and psychological functioning.
Seventy-six people living with HIV who were actively taking ART and reported distress from ART-related side effects were randomly assigned to MBSR or a wait-list control standard care condition. We measured side effects, ART adherence, perceived stress, depression, positive and negative affect, and mindfulness at three time points: baseline, three-month follow-up, and six-month follow-up. Side effects and related distress were assessed separately from other symptoms.
Compared to a wait-list control, participants in the MBSR condition experienced a reduction in the frequency of symptoms attributable to antiretroviral therapies at three months post intervention (mean difference = 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01, 0.66; t(132) = 2.04, P = 0.044) and at six months post intervention (mean difference = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.71; t(132) = 2.27, P = 0.025). MBSR participants also experienced a reduction in distress associated with those symptoms at three months post intervention (mean difference = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.003, 0.94; t(132) = 1.99, P = 0.048) compared with the wait-list control condition.
Mindfulness-based stress reduction is a promising approach for reducing HIV treatment-related side effects.
Mindfulness-based stress reduction; HIV; antiretroviral therapy; side effects; symptoms; adherence
The objective of this study was to describe the adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among adolescents followed-up in Rio de Janeiro. This cross-sectional study included all adolescents (aged 10–19 years) followed at Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martaga~ o Gesteira and Hospital Universita’ rio Clementino Fraga Filho. Adherence was determined by self-report (number of missed ART doses in three days prior to the interview). Adherence was categorized as taking _95% of the ARTs (adherent), or ,95% (non-adherent). Variables related to demographics and treatment were evaluated and if P value _0.15, they were selected for a logistic regression analysis. One hundred and one adolescents were interviewed. The mean time on ART was 91 months and the mean adherence was 94% of this, 21 were non-adherent, and 80 adherent. The risk factors associated with non-adherence were: if the patient was not concerned about ART, odds ratio (OR) ¼ 3.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] ¼ 1.13–10.68); if they do not carry an extra dose of ART, OR ¼ 6.63 (95% CI ¼ 1.73–25.47); if a health-care worker taught them how to take ART, OR ¼ 0.27 (95% CI ¼ 0.08–0.93). Adherence among adolescents was higher than expected. Factors associated with lack of adherence were: interviewees being unaware of ARTs and lack of commitment to the treatment. Interventions involving these factors must be evaluated.
HIV; antiretroviral; adherence; adolescent; Brazil
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is relatively common among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and may be associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. We examined the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and adherence among 214 African American males. Because PLHA may experience discrimination, potentially in the form of traumatic stress (e.g., hate crimes), we also examined whether perceived discrimination (related to race, HIV status, sexual orientation) is an explanatory variable in the relationship between PTSD and adherence. Adherence, monitored electronically over 6 months, was negatively correlated with PTSD total and re-experiencing symptom severity; all 3 discrimination types were positively correlated with PTSD symptoms and negatively correlated with adherence. Each discrimination type separately mediated the relationship between PTSD and adherence; when both PTSD and discrimination were included in the model, discrimination was the sole predictor of adherence. Findings highlight the critical role that discrimination plays in adherence among African American men experiencing posttraumatic stress.
HIV; adherence; posttraumatic stress; discrimination; mediation
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) requires high-level (> 95%) adherence. Kenya is rolling out ART access programmes and, issue of adherence to therapy is therefore imperative. However, published data on adherence to ART in Kenya is limited. This study assessed adherence to ART and identified factors responsible for non adherence in Nairobi.
This is a multiple facility-based cross-sectional study, where 416 patients aged over 18 years were systematically selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire about their experience taking ART. Additional data was extracted from hospital records. Patients were grouped into adherent and non-adherent based on a composite score derived from a three questions adherence tool developed by Center for Adherence Support Evaluation (CASE). Multivariate regression model was used to determine predictors of non-adherence.
Overall, 403 patients responded; 35% males and 65% females, 18% were non-adherent, and main (38%) reason for missing therapy were being busy and forgetting. Accessing ART in a clinic within walking distance from home (OR = 2.387, CI.95 = 1.155-4.931; p = 0.019) and difficulty with dosing schedule (OR = 2.310, CI.95 = 1.211-4.408, p = 0.011) predicted non-adherence.
The study found better adherence to HAART in Nairobi compared to previous studies in Kenya. However, this can be improved further by employing fitting strategies to improve patients' ability to fit therapy in own lifestyle and cue-dose training to impact forgetfulness. Further work to determine why patients accessing therapy from ARV clinics within walking distance from their residence did not adhere is recommended.
Adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) among children in developing settings is poorly understood.
To understand the level, distribution, and correlates of ART adherence behavior, we prospectively determined monthly ART adherence through multiple measures and six-monthly HIV RNA levels among 121 Ugandan children aged 2–10 years for one year. Median adherence levels were 100% by three-day recall, 97.4% by 30-day visual analog scale, 97.3% by unannounced pill count/liquid formulation weights, and 96.3% by medication event monitors (MEMS). Interruptions in MEMS adherence of ≥48 hours were seen in 57.0% of children; 36.3% had detectable HIV RNA at one year. Only MEMS correlated significantly with HIV RNA levels (r = −0.25, p = 0.04). Multivariable regression found the following to be associated with <90% MEMS adherence: hospitalization of child (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6–5.5; p = 0.001), liquid formulation use (AOR 1.4, 95%CI 1.0–2.0; p = 0.04), and caregiver’s alcohol use (AOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.8–5.2; p<0.0001). Child’s use of co-trimoxazole (AOR 0.5, 95%CI 0.4–0.9; p = 0.009), caregiver’s use of ART (AOR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4–0.9; p = 0.03), possible caregiver depression (AOR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4–0.8; p = 0.001), and caregiver feeling ashamed of child’s HIV status (AOR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3–0.6; p<0.0001) were protective against <90% MEMS adherence. Change in drug manufacturer (AOR 4.1, 95%CI 1.5–11.5; p = 0.009) and caregiver’s alcohol use (AOR 5.5, 95%CI 2.8–10.7; p<0.0001) were associated with ≥48-hour interruptions by MEMS, while second-line ART (AOR 0.3, 95%CI 0.1–0.99; p = 0.049) and increasing assets (AOR 0.7, 95%CI 0.6–0.9; p = 0.0007) were protective against these interruptions.
Adherence success depends on a well-established medication taking routine, including caregiver support and adequate education on medication changes. Caregiver-reported depression and shame may reflect fear of poor outcomes, functioning as motivation for the child to adhere. Further research is needed to better understand and build on these key influential factors for adherence intervention development.
Adherence is integral to improving and maintaining the health and quality of life of people living with HIV. Two-hundred HIV-positive adults recruited from teaching hospitals and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Rio de Janeiro City were assessed on socio-demographic factors, adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and psychosocial factors hypothesized to be associated with ART. Predictors of non-adherence were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Self-reported medication adherence was high (82% had adherence > 90%). Non-adherence was associated with personal factors (i.e. sexual orientation, self-efficacy), physical factors (i.e. loss of appetite) and interpersonal factors (i.e. doctor-patient relationship). Adherence in Brazil is as good, if not better, than that seen in the US and western Europe, which is noteworthy since the sample was derived predominantly from public healthcare settings. It is possible that the connection to NGOs in Rio de Janeiro City played a helpful role in achieving high levels of adherence in this sample of people living with HIV and AIDS. Recommendations, based on study findings, include enhancing and sustaining supportive services for NGOs, promoting patient self-efficacy and behavioral skills for adherence, increasing social network support and having healthcare providers directly address patients’ medication beliefs, attitudes and experience with side effects.
The Center for Adherence Support Evaluation (CASE) Adherence Index, a simple composite measure of self-reported antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, was compared to a standard three-day self-reported adherence measure among participants in a longitudinal, prospective cross-site evaluation of 12 adherence programs throughout the United States. The CASE Adherence Index, consisting of three unique adherence questions developed for the cross-site study, along with a three-day adherence self-report were administered by interviews every three months over a one-year period. Data from the three cross-site adherence questions (individually and in combination) were compared to three-day self-report data and HIV RNA and CD4 outcomes in cross-sectional analyses. The CASE Adherence Index correlated strongly with the three-day self-reported adherence data (p < 0.001) and was more strongly associated with HIV outcomes, including a 1-log decline in HIV RNA level (maximum OR = 2.34; p < 0.05), HIV RNA<400 copies/ml (maximum OR = 2.33; p < 0.05) and performed as well as the three-day self-report when predicting CD4 count status. Participants with a CASE Index score >10 achieved a 98 cell mean increase in CD4 count over 12 months, compared to a 41 cell increase for those with scores ≤10 (p < 0.05). The CASE Adherence Index is an easy to administer instrument that provides an alternative method for assessing ART adherence in clinical settings.
At the end of 2011, over 8 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), a 26-fold increase from 2003. Some degree of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) will emerge among populations on combination ART even when high levels of adherence are achieved. In 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated global HIVDR surveillance to monitor emergence and transmission of HIVDR in countries scaling-up ART.
WHO HIVDR surveillance strategy was designed to inform public health decision-making regarding choice of ART and to identify ART programme factors which could be adjusted to minimize HIVDR emergence. The strategy includes (1) surveillance of transmitted HIVDR (TDR) in recently infected populations, (2) surveillance of acquired HIVDR (ADR) in populations on ART and (3) monitoring of early warning indicators (EWI) of HIVDR which are ART programme factors favouring HIVDR emergence. Surveys used standardized protocols. Epidemiological and sequence data were quality assured.
TDR: Eighty-two surveys were conducted in 30 countries in 2004 to 2010, assessing 3588 recently infected individuals. Pooled analysis indicates an overall prevalence of 3.1% TDR to at least one drug class, 1.6% to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), 1.3% to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and 0.7% to protease inhibitor (PI). Levels of NNRTI resistance, particularly in the areas surveyed in Africa, increased over time, reaching 3.4% (95% CI=1.8 to 5.2%) in 2009. Greater ART coverage was associated, though modestly, with increased prevalence of TDR to NNRTI (P-value adjusted for region=0.039). ADR: Thirty-six ADR surveys assessing 6370 people in 12 LMIC were conducted in 2007 to 2010. HIVDR prevalence to any drug among those initiating ART ranged from 4.8% (95% CI=3.8 to 6.0%) in 2007 to 6.8% (95% CI=4.8 to 9.0%) in 2010. Ninety per cent of patients alive and on therapy at 12 months achieved viral load <1000 c/mL. Among people with virological failure, 72% had HIVDR to at least one drug. EWI: EWIs were monitored at 2017 clinics in 50 countries assessing 131,686 people since 2004. Overall, 75% of clinics met the target of 100% of patients receiving appropriate ART; 69% of clinics met the <20% target for lost to follow-up at 12 months; and only 65% of clinics provided a continuous supply of ART during a 12-month period.
Expansion of ART in LMIC has resulted in an overall increase in HIVDR, particularly to NNRTI in Africa. EWIs reveal important gaps in service delivery and programme performance. While these data call for continued and improved scale up of surveillance, they also suggest that resistance is under control in the areas surveyed, and the majority of patients initiating or switching therapy are likely to respond to currently available first- and second-line therapy.
To know the perceptions regarding barriers and facilitators to cART adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS
Materials and Methods:
To adapt U.S. based SAFETALK “prevention with positives” intervention to be culturally relevant in Gujarat, India in assisting PLWHA, a formative study was conducted. We conducted 30 in-depth interviews with PLWHA in the local language, assessing the experiences, perceived barriers, and facilitators to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) among PLWHA in Gujarat. PLWHA were selected from the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre (VCTC) in Gujarat. To triangulate interview findings, we conducted two focus group discussions (FGDs) with medical and non-medical providers, respectively.
Travel and commuting to clinic, fear of possible physical reactions, high cost of ART from private practitioners, CD4 count being in normal limits and resistance to medication acted as barriers to cART adherence. Initiation of cART was facilitated by family members′ suggestion, advice of treating doctors and counselors, appropriate counseling before starting cART, belief that cART would aid in living a better and longer life and due to lowering of the CD4 count.
Interpretation and Conclusions:
Our study suggests that several issues need to be considered when providing cART. Further research is needed to study interactions between patients and their health care providers.
Barriers; cART; facilitators; HIV positive people; qualitative study
Good adherence to antiretroviral therapy is necessary to achieve the best virological response, lower the risk that drug resistance will develop, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the rate and predictors of adherence in Ethiopia. Therefore this study determines the magnitude and predictors of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS in Southwest Ethiopia.
A cross sectional study was carried out from January 1, 2009 to March 3, 2009 among 319 adult PLWHA (≥ 18 years) attending ART clinic at Jimma university Specialized Hospital (JUSH). Multiple Logistic regression models were constructed with adherence and independent variables to identify the predictors.
About 303(95%) of the study subjects were adherent based on self report of missed doses (dose adherence) in a one-week recall before the actual interview. The rate of self reported adherence in the study based on the combined indicator of the dose, time and food adherence measurement was 72.4%. Patients who got family support were 2 times [2.12(1.25-3.59)] more likely to adhere than those who didn't get family support as an independent predictor of overall adherence (dose, time and food). The reasons given for missing drugs were 9(27.3%) running out of medication/drug, 7(21.2%) being away from home and 7(21.2%) being busy with other things.
The adherence rate found in this study is similar to other resource limited setting and higher than the developed country. This study highlights emphasis should be given for income generating activities and social supports that helps to remember the patients for medication taking and management of opportunistic infections during the course of treatment.
The efficiency of antiretroviral therapy (ART) depends on a near perfect level of patients' adherence. The level of adherence of adults HIV-infected patients treated in the HIV/AIDS health care centres of the association "Espoir Vie Togo" in Togo, West Africa is not properly documented. The aim of the present study was to examine by means of self-reports the knowledge, the adherence level and associated factors to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among these patients.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey among adult people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) through a structured questionnaire.
A total of 99 patients were enrolled. Among them, 55.6% knew the name of antiretroviral agents of regimens prescribed. All patients had a good knowledge of treatment schedule. The treatment regimens based on 2 NRTIs + 1 NNRTI were used in 90% of patients. The average adherence rate was 89.8% of the total doses prescribed while 62.62% of patients showed an adherence rate of 95% or above. The treated groups were similar in term of median % of medication doses taken according to PLWHA epidemiological characteristics. However, patients reported forgetting (34.9%), travel (25.6%), cost of treatment (13.9%) and side effects (11.6%) as the main factors of missing at least once a dose intake.
These results should encourage the association and all the involved actors in the HIV/AIDS's program to strengthen counseling, education and information interventions for HIV-infected patients in order to overcome the potential barriers of poor adherence.
Adherence to HIV medication regimens is a function of multiple dimensions including psychological functioning, social support, adherence self-efficacy and optimism regarding treatment. Active substance use can also negatively affect adherence. An understanding of the nature of the associations among the correlates of adherence can better inform the design of interventions to improve adherence. This study developed an exploratory path model of schedule adherence using data from a sample 130 African-American HIV-positive crack cocaine users on highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART). This model was based on the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping developed by Lazarus and Folkman. Following the theory, the effects of psychological distress on schedule adherence were mediated by patients’ relationship with their doctor and optimism towards antiretroviral treatment. Adherence was also associated with patients’ self-efficacy regarding their medical regimen which, in turn, was associated with their social support.
This is a systematic review of eighty-two published studies investigating the impact of DSM-IV mental disorders on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) adherence and persistence among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Sixty-two articles examined depression, with 58 % (N = 32/62) finding lower cART adherence and persistence. Seventeen articles examined one or more anxiety disorders, with the majority finding no association with cART adherence or persistence. Eighty percent of the studies that evaluated the impact of psychotic (N = 3), bipolar (N = 5) and personality disorders (N = 2) on cART adherence and persistence also found no association. Seven out of the nine studies (78 %) evaluating the impact of antidepressant treatment (ADT) on cART adherence found improvement. Adherence and depression measurements varied significantly in studies; common research measurements would improve data harmonization. More research specifically addressing the impact of other mental disorders besides depression on cART adherence and RCTs evaluating ADT on cART adherence are also needed.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10461-012-0212-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
HIV/AIDS; Mental illness; Adherence; Antiretroviral therapy; Systematic review; Persistence; cART; Depression; Anxiety; Psychotic disorders
Despite disproportionate rates of HIV among transgender women and evidence that medication adherence is necessary for treatment success and increased likelihood of survival, there has been little investigation into antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence issues among transgender women. This study examined rates of self-reported ART adherence among transgender women on ART (n = 35) and well-established correlates of nonadherence including depression, adherence self-efficacy, patient perceptions of interactions with their providers, and perceived adverse side effects of ART compared to other respondents (n = 2,770). Transgender women on ART were less likely to report 90% adherence rates or higher and reported less confidence in their abilities to integrate treatment regimens into their daily lives. When transgender women were compared to other respondents, regardless of the current medication regimen, they reported significantly fewer positive interactions with their health care providers. Training for providers and integration of hormone therapy into HIV care is recommended.
adherence; AIDS; antiretroviral therapy; HIV; transgender; women
Emotional distress is among the more common factors associated with HIV treatment adherence. Typical barriers to adherence may be overshadowed by poverty experiences in the most disadvantaged populations of people living with HIV/AIDS, such as people with lower-literacy skills.
This study examined the association of social, health and poverty-related stressors in relation to antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence in a sample of people with low-literacy living with HIV/AIDS in the southeastern US.
One hundred eighty-eight men and women living with HIV/AIDS who demonstrated poor health literacy completed measures of social and health-related stress, indicators of extreme poverty as well as other factors associated with non-adherence. HIV treatment adherence was monitored prospectively using unannounced pill counts.
Two thirds of the sample demonstrated adherence below 85% of pills taken. Multivariable analyses showed that food insufficiency and hunger predicted ART non-adherence over and above depression, internalized stigma, substance use and HIV-related social stressors.
Interventions for HIV treatment non-adherence with the most socially disadvantaged persons in developed countries should be re-conceptualized to directly address poverty, especially food insufficiency and hunger, as both a moral and public health imperative.
HIV/AIDS; Stress; Poverty; Food security; HIV treatment adherence
Potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV from a death sentence to a chronic illness. Accordingly, the goal of HIV care has shifted from delaying death to achieving optimal health outcomes through ART treatment. ART treatment success hinges on medication adherence. Extensive research has demonstrated that the primary barriers to ART adherence include mental illness, especially depression and substance abuse, as well as histories of traumatic experiences such as childhood sexual and physical abuse. These psychosocial factors are highly prevalent in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and predict poor ART adherence, increased sexual risk behaviours, ART treatment failure, HIV disease progression and higher mortality rates. The efficacy of standard mental health interventions, such as antidepressant treatment and psychotherapy, has been well-defined, and a small but growing body of research demonstrates the potential for such interventions to improve ART adherence and reduce sexual risk behaviours. Despite this evidence, mental disorders in PLWHA frequently go undiagnosed and untreated. Challenges to the provision of mental healthcare for PLWHA in HIV clinical settings include time and resource constraints, lack of expertise in psychiatric diagnosis and treatment, and lack of available mental health referral services. Future research should prioritize the evaluation of mental health interventions that are cost-effective and feasible for widespread integration into HIV clinical care; the impact of such interventions on ART adherence and clinical outcomes; and interventions to identify individuals with histories of traumatic experiences and to elucidate the mechanisms through which such histories pose barriers to effective HIV treatment.
mental illness; depression; trauma; adherence
Adherence is a necessary part of successful antiretroviral treatment (ART). We assessed risk factors for incomplete adherence among a cohort of HIV-infected women initiating ART and examined associations between adherence and virologic response to ART.
A secondary data analysis was conducted on a cohort of 154 women initiating non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART at a single site in Johannesburg, South Africa. Ninety women had been enrolled in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT) program and were exposed to single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) >18 months earlier. Women were interviewed pre-treatment and clinical, virologic and adherence data were collected during follow-up to 24 weeks. Incomplete adherence to ART was defined as returning >5% of medications, estimated by pill counts at scheduled visits. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and unadjusted odds ratio (95%CI) were performed, using STATA/SE (ver 10.1).
About half of the women (53%) were <30 years of age, 63% had <11 years of schooling, 69% were unemployed and 37% lived in a shack. Seven percent of women had a viral load >400 copies/ml at 24 weeks and 37% had incomplete adherence at one or more visits. Incomplete adherence was associated with less education (p = 0.01) and lack of financial support from a partner (p = 0.02) after adjustment for confounders. Only when adherence levels dropped below 80% was there a significant association with viremia in the group overall (p = 0.02) although adherence <95% was associated with viremia in the sdNVP-exposed group (p = 0.03). The main reasons for incomplete adherence were being away from home, busy with other things and forgetting to take their medication.
Virologic response to NNRTI-treatment in the cohort was excellent. However, women who received sdNVP were at greater risk of virologic failure when adherence was <95%. Women exposed to sdNVP, and those with less education and less social support may benefit from additional adherence counseling to ensure the long-term success of ART. More than 80% adherence may be sufficient to maintain virologic suppression on NNRTI-based regimens in the short-term, however complete adherence should be encouraged.
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical in maintaining viral suppression and minimizing resistance in HIV-infected patients. We compared physician estimates of their patients' ART adherence with participant's self-reported adherence to determine patient-provider agreement and identify correlates of discordance in three private clinics in Mumbai, India. Between December 2004 and April 2005, 277 persons receiving ART at three private clinics in Mumbai, India, were interviewed regarding adherence to ART using the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group questionnaire. Physicians were also asked to assess their patients' adherence. Quantitative HIV-1 RNA level was determined for 200 participants. Agreement between provider estimate of adherence and participant self-report was low, κ = 0.058 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.011–0126). Of 200 participants whose viral load was obtained, viral suppression was associated with participant self-reported adherence (odds ratio [OR] 3.08; 95% CI 1.65–5.74; p < 0.05), but not with provider estimated adherence (OR 1.2; 95% CI 0.67-2.14; p = 0.54). Cost of ART was positively associated with physician underestimation of participant adherence and older age was negatively associated. No independent correlates of physician overestimation of participant adherence were found. There was poor agreement between physician estimate of adherence and patient self-report. Providers should avoid using their own assessment of patient ART adherence. Instead, providers should rely on effective and validated measures, especially when viral load or drug level monitoring are not readily available.
The benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) cannot be experienced if they are not taken as prescribed. Yet, not all causes of non-adherence are dependent on the patient. Having to pay for medication reduces adherence rates. Non- adherence has severe public health implications which must be addressed locally and globally. This paper seeks to describe the trends in adherence rates reported in Cameroon and to investigate the determinants of adherence to ART in the Cameroon Mobile Phone SMS (CAMPS) trial.
We conducted a systematic review of electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, CINAHL, EMBASE and PSYCINFO) for publications on adherence to ART in Cameroon (from January 1999 to May 2012) and described the trend in reported adherence rates and the factors associated with adherence. Data were extracted in duplicate. We used multivariable analyses on the baseline data for 200 participants in the CAMPS trial to determine the factors associated with adherence in four models using different measures of adherence (more than 90% or 95% on the visual analogue scale, no missed doses and a composite measure: 100% on the visual analogue scale, no missed doses and all pills taken on time).
We identified nine studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Adherence to ART in Cameroon has risen steadily between 2000 and 2010, corresponding to reductions in the cost of medication. The factors associated with adherence to ART in Cameroon are grouped into patient, medication and disease related factors. We also identified factors related to the health system and the patient-provider relationship. In the CAMPS trial, education, side effects experienced and number of reminder methods were found to improve adherence, but only using multiple reminder methods was associated with better adherence in all the regression models (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 4.11, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.89, 8.93; p<0.001; model IV).
Reducing the cost of ART is an important aspect of ensuring adequate adherence rates. Using multiple reminder methods may have a cumulative effect on adherence to ART, but should be investigated further.
Adherence; Antiretroviral therapy; Cameroon; Reminder methods; CAMPS
The provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to migrant populations raises particular challenges with respect to ensuring adequate treatment support, adherence, and retention in care. We assessed rates of loss to follow-up for migrant workers compared with non-migrant workers in a routine treatment programme in Morjia, Lesotho.
All adult patients (≥18 years) initiating ART between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2008, and followed up until the end of 2009, were included in the study. We described rates of loss to follow-up according to migrant status by Kaplan-Meier estimates, and used Poisson regression to model associations between migrant status and loss to follow-up controlling for potential confounders identified a priori.
Our cohort comprised 1185 people, among whom 12% (148) were migrant workers. Among the migrant workers, median age was 36.1 (29.6–45.9) and the majority (55%) were male. We found no statistically significant differences between baseline characteristics and migrant status. Rates of lost to follow up were similar between migrants and non-migrants in the first 3 months but differences increased thereafter. Between 3 and 6 months after initiating antiretroviral therapy, migrants had a 2.78-fold increased rate of defaulting (95%CI 1.15–6.73); between 6 and 12 months the rate was 2.36 times greater (95%CI 1.18–4.73), whereas after 1 year the rate was 6.69 times greater (95%CI 3.18–14.09).
Our study highlights the need for programme implementers to take into account the specific challenges that may influence continuity of antiretroviral treatment and care for migrant populations.
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the cornerstone of HIV clinical care and is increasingly recognized as a key component of HIV prevention. However, the benefits of ART can be realized only if HIV-infected persons maintain high levels of adherence.
We present interview data (collected from June 2007 through September 2008) from a national HIV surveillance system in the United States—the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP)—to describe persons taking ART. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess behavioral, sociodemographic, and medication regimen factors associated with three measures that capture different dimensions of nonadherence to ART: dose, schedule, and instruction.
The use of ART among HIV-infected adults in care was high (85%), but adherence to ART was suboptimal and varied across the three measures of nonadherence. Of MMP participants currently taking ART, the following reported nonadherence during the past 48 hours: 13% to dose, 27% to schedule, and 30% to instruction. The determinants of the three measures also varied, although younger age and binge drinking were associated with all aspects of nonadherence.
Our results support the measurement of multiple dimensions of medication-taking behavior in order to avoid overestimating adherence to ART.
HIV; medication adherence; antiretroviral therapy; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.).
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a lifesaver for individual patients treated for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Maintaining optimal adherence to antiretroviral drugs is essential for HIV infection management. This study aimed to understand the factors influencing adherence amongst ART-prescribed patients and care providers in Nepal.
A cross-sectional mixed-methods study surveying 330 ART-prescribed patients and 34 in-depth interviews with three different types of stakeholders: patients, care providers, and key people at policy level. Adherence was assessed through survey self-reporting and during the interviews. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with adherence, supplemented with a thematic analysis of the interview transcripts.
A total of 282 (85.5%) respondents reported complete adherence, i.e. no missed doses in the four-weeks prior to interview. Major factors influencing adherence were: non-disclosure of HIV status (OR = 17.99, p = 0.014); alcohol use (OR = 12.89, p = <0.001), being female (OR = 6.91, p = 0.001), being illiterate (OR = 4.58, p = 0.015), side-effects (OR = 6.04, p = 0.025), ART started ≤24 months (OR = 3.18, p = 0.009), travel time to hospital >1 hour (OR = 2.84, p = 0.035). Similarly, lack of knowledge and negative perception towards ART medications also significantly affected non-adherence. Transport costs (for repeat prescription), followed by pills running out, not wanting others to notice, side-effects, and being busy were the most common reasons for non-adherence. The interviews also revealed religious or ritual obstacles, stigma and discrimination, ART-associated costs, transport problems, lack of support, and side-effects as contributing to non-adherence.
Improving adherence requires a supportive environment; accessible treatment; clear instructions about regimens; and regimens tailored to individual patients’ lifestyles. Healthcare workers should address some of the practical and cultural issues around ART medicine whilst policy-makers should develop appropriate social policy to promote adherence among ART-prescribed patients.
Drug and alcohol use have been associated with a worse prognosis in short-term and cross-sectional analyses of HIV-infected populations, but longitudinal effects on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and clinical outcomes in advanced AIDS are less well characterized. We assessed self-reported drug and alcohol use in AIDS patients, and examined their association with non-adherence and death or disease progression in a multicenter observational study. We defined non-adherence as reporting missed ART doses in the 48 hours before study visits. The association between drug use and ART non-adherence was evaluated using repeated measures generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. The association between drug and alcohol use and time to new AIDS diagnosis or death was evaluated via Cox regression models, controlling for covariates including ART adherence. Of 643 participants enrolled between 1997–1999 and followed through 2007, at entry 39% reported ever using cocaine, 24% amphetamines, and 10% heroin. Ongoing drug use during study follow-up was reported by 9% using cocaine, 4% amphetamines, and 1% heroin. Hard drug (cocaine, amphetamines, or heroin) users had 2.1 times higher odds (p=0.001) of ART non-adherence in GEE models and 2.5 times higher risk (p=0.04) of AIDS progression or death in Cox models. Use of hard drugs was attenuated as a risk factor for AIDS progression or death after controlling for non-adherence during follow-up (HR=2.11, p=0.08), but was still suggestive of a possible adherence-independent mechanism of harm. This study highlights the need to continuously screen and treat patients for drug use as a part of ongoing HIV care.
Substance use; drug use; alcohol use; HIV/AIDS; Outcomes; Adherence; Antiretroviral Therapy; Mortality