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1.  Hypothyroidism in metabolic syndrome 
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and hypothyroidism are well established forerunners of atherogenic cardiovascular disease. Considerable overlap occurs in the pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism. Insulin resistance has been studied as the basic pathogenic mechanism in metabolic syndrome.[1] This cross sectional study intended to assess thyroid function in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred patients with metabolic syndrome who fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP) III criteria [ 3 out of 5 criteria positive namely blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm hg or on antihypertensive medications, fasting plasma glucose > 100 mg/dl or on anti-diabetic medications, fasting triglycerides > 150 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) < 40 mg/dl in males and < 50 mg/dl in females, waist circumference > 102 cms in men and 88 cms in women] were included in the study group.[2] Fifty patients who had no features of metabolic syndrome (0 out of 5 criteria for metabolic syndrome) were included in the control group. Patients with liver disorders, renal disorders, congestive cardiac failure, pregnant women, patients on oral contraceptive pills, statins and other medications that alter thyroid functions and lipid levels and those who are under treatment for any thyroid related disorder were excluded from the study. Acutely ill patients were excluded taking into account sick euthyroid syndrome. Patients were subjected to anthropometry, evaluation of vital parameters, lipid and thyroid profile along with other routine laboratory parameters. Students t-test, Chi square test and linear regression, multiple logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. P value < 0.05 was considered significant.
Of the 100 patients in study group, 55 were females (55%) and 45 were males (45%). Of the 50 persons in control group, 26 (52%) were females and 24 (48%) were males. The baseline characteristics of two groups are depicted in. The two groups were similar with respect to age and sex distribution. However, body mass index, waist circumference, mean systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and TSH were significantly higher in study group compared to control group. HDL-C was significantly lower in study group.
PMCID: PMC3603065  PMID: 23565417
Hypothyroidism; metabolic syndrome
2.  Comparison of hematological parameters in untreated and treated subclinical hypothyroidism and primary hypothyroidism patients 
Thyroid hormones play an important physiological role in human metabolism. Erythrocyte abnormalities are frequently associated with thyroid disorder. However, they are rarely investigated and related to the subclinical and primary hypothyroidism in Kashmiri Patients. In this study an attempt was made to study hematological parameters in untreated and treated subclinical hypothyroidism and primary hypothyroidism patients.
This retrospective study included 600 subjects, among which were untreated subclinical hypothyroid (n=110), treated subclinical hypothyroid (n=110), untreated primary hypothyroid (n=100), treated primary hypothyroid (n=100) and euthyroid (n=180). This study was carried out at Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College Srinagar. The hematological parameters and thyroid profile of the subjects were assessed by the Sysmex (Italy) and ECLIA (Germany) 2010 automatic analyzer. Mean, standard deviation (SD), analysis of variance (Two-way ANOVA), and multiple comparisons were used to report our results, with p<0.05 or p<0.01 considered as statistically significant.
In this study group we compared the hematological parameters in these groups, untreated subclinical hypothyroid, treated subclinical hypothyroid, untreated primary hypothyroid, treated primary hypothyroid and euthyroid. We found that hematological parameters like Hb, RBC, MCV, HCT, RDW,RBC% were significantly increased in untreated subclinical hypothyroidism and untreated primary hypothyroidsm, with the p value being less than 0.05 whereas, in treated SCH & Pr. Hypothyroid, results were insignificant. The results reported in these groups as mean±SD, were statistically tested by ANOVA and multiple comparison tests. In untreated subclinical hypothyroid the values were: Hb (10.83±1.33 g/dl), RBC (4.21±0.66 106/µl), MCV (84.56±6.84 fL), HCT (38.5±2.2%), RDW (17.91±2.37 fL), RBC% (84.36±13.2%) and in untreated primary hypothyroid, Hb (10.73±0.86 g/dl), RBC (4.63±0.51 106/µl), MCV (83.34±6.92 fL), HCT (38.6±2.6%), RDW (14.93±5.47 fL), RBC% (92.63±10.30%) suggesting that these patients were at risk of anemia and other erythrocyte abnormalities. MCV is an inexpensive approach to study the types of anemia and explore related information like production, destruction, loss and morphological changes of RBC'S.
The thyroid dysfunction is frequently associated with anemia in subclinical hypothyroidism and primary hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is associated with serious complications. Substantial numbers of patients with the risk of SCH could be getting converted into primary hypothyroidism. Such conditions should be identified and corrected. On the other hand, their presence could move to a thyroid dysfunction, allowing its early management.
PMCID: PMC3562538  PMID: 23482519
Subclinical hypothyroidism; Primary hypothyroidism; Blood count; Hemoglobin; Red cell distribution; Mean corpuscular volume
3.  Clinical Concepts on Thyroid Emergencies 
Objective: Thyroid-related emergencies are caused by overt dysfunction of the gland which are so severe that require admission to intensive care units (ICU) frequently. Nonetheless, in the ICU setting, it is crucial to differentiate patients with non-thyroidal illness and alterations in thyroid function tests from those with intrinsic thyroid disease. This review presents and discusses the main etiopathogenetical and clinical aspects of hypothyroid coma (HC) and thyrotoxic storm (TS), including therapeutic strategy flow-charts. Furthermore, a special chapter is dedicated to the approach to massive goiter, which represents a surgical thyroid emergency.
Data Source: We searched the electronic MEDLINE database on September 2013.
Data Selection and Data Extraction: Reviews, original articles, and case reports on “myxedematous coma,” “HC,” “thyroid storm,” “TS,” “massive goiter,” “huge goiter,” “prevalence,” “etiology,” “diagnosis,” “therapy,” and “prognosis” were selected.
Data Synthesis and Conclusion: Severe excess or defect of thyroid hormone is rare conditions, which jeopardize the life of patients in most cases. Both HC and TS are triggered by precipitating factors, which occur in patients with severe hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis, respectively. The pillars of HC therapy are high-dose l-thyroxine and/or tri-iodothyroinine; i.v. glucocorticoids; treatment of hydro-electrolyte imbalance (mainly, hyponatraemia); treatment of hypothermia; often, endotracheal intubation and assisted mechanic ventilation are needed. Therapy of TS is based on beta-blockers, thyrostatics, and i.v. glucocorticoids; eventually, high-dose of iodide compounds or lithium carbonate may be of benefit. Surgery represents the gold standard treatment in patients with euthyroid massive nodular goiter, although new techniques – e.g., percutaneous laser ablation – are helpful in subjects at high surgical risk or refusing operation.
PMCID: PMC4076793  PMID: 25071718
hypothyroid coma; thyrotoxic storm; hyperthyroidism; thyrotoxicosis; hypothyroidism; massive goiter
4.  Insulin resistance in hypothyroid patients under Levothyroxine therapy: a comparison between those with and without thyroid autoimmunity 
A chronic inflammation resulting from an imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) might be responsible for IR in hypothyroidism. This study was performed to investigate a probable association between autoimmune background of hypothyroidism and IR.
In this clinical study, 63 subjects with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and 49 subjects with post-ablation hypothyroidism were enrolled. All the participants were euthyroid for more than one year through Levothyroxine therapy. Serum concentrations of Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH), Free Thyroxin (FT4, FT3), Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (Anti-TPO Abs), Total Cholesterol (TC), HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C), Triglyceride (TG), Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), and insulin levels were measured and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) was performed for all of the subjects. Participants with anti TPO levels more than 1000 IU /ml were classified as having highly positive antibodies.
No significant differences regarding to plasma insulin, glucose and lipid concentration, were detected between subjects with and without Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. However, subjects with highly positive Anti TPO Abs had higher prevalence of elevated fasting insulin level than those with lower titers of Anti TPO Abs and subjects without autoimmune background (94.1% vs. 62.8% and 71.4% respectively, P = 0.05). Subjects with highly positive titers of Abs also had a lower serum HDL-c levels than the rest of the subjects (40.6 ± 2.1 vs. 47.2 ± 1.7 and 47.4 ± 1.4, P = 0.04).
There is no obvious association between thyroid autoimmunity and metabolic indexes of hypothyroid patients. Only patients with Ani TPO antibody levels more than 1000 IU/ml may experience higher insulin level and less HDL-c with the same BMI.
PMCID: PMC4216656  PMID: 25364704
Hypothyroidism; Autoimmunity; Insulin resistance
5.  Effect of Thyroid on Lipid Profile and Renal Function: An Observational Study from Tertiary Care Centre of Tribal Region of Bastar 
Thyroid hormone is a key substance in normal homeostasis, having variable influence on cell metabolism on different organs. Very little is known about the prevalence of thyroid disorders from our region.
This study was conducted with the aim of finding prevalence of thyroid disorder and relation of thyroid hormone with renal function and cholesterol metabolism.
Subjects and Methods:
A total of 96 ambulatory patients were taken for study. Serum samples were collected and evaluated for triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein (HDL). Analysis of variance and t-test were used to find a significant difference among the groups.
Prevalance of thyroid disorder among suspected patients was 64/96 (66%), of which 36/64 (56.3%) were hypothyroid and 28/64 (43.8%) were hyperthyroid. No relation was found with renal function, but cholesterol was found high (>250 mg/dl) among hypothyroid patients and significant increase in TG, LDL levels and significant decrease was in HDL.
Thyroid disorder is high among subjects with hypercholesterolemia. This underscores the need to evaluate for thyroid disorder in hypercholesterolemic patients and vice-versa.
PMCID: PMC4145511  PMID: 25184081
Hypothyroidism; Hyperthyroidism; Creatinine; Serum cholesterol; Tribal; Urea
6.  Plasma triglyceride metabolism in thyroid disease 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1972;51(8):2103-2114.
Plasma endogenous triglyceride transport kinetics were determined in 16 hyperthyroid and in 12 hypothyroid patients and the results compared with those of euthyroid control subjects. In addition, the removal of exogenous particulate fat (Intralipid; Vitrum, Sweden) from the circulation and the postheparin plasma lipolytic activity (PHLA) were studied in these patients for further characterization of the alterations of plasma triglyceride metabolism in thyroid disease.
In thyrotoxicosis the average plasma triglyceride level was slightly but significantly increased above that of control subjects. This change was associated with augmented production of triglycerides whereas the mean fractional removal rate was not different from normal. There was a significant linear correlation between the concentration and turnover rate of plasma triglycerides in both hyperthyroid and euthyroid subjects but the concentration/turnover rate ratio was less in the former group suggesting that the efficiency of removal of triglycerides from the circulation was improved in thyroid hyperfunction. The elimination of intravenously administered particulate fat occurred more rapidly in untreated hyperthyroid patients than in euthyroid control subjects. The mean PHLA was also above normal in thyrotoxicosis. Upon adequate treatment of the hyperthyroid state the fasting plasma triglyceride concentration was further increased.
Hypothyroid patients showed another pattern of alteration of triglyceride kinetics. The synthesis of plasma triglycerides was normal but the fractional removal of both endogenous and exogenous triglycerides was markedly reduced and this change seems to account for the hypertriglyceridemia associated with thyroid hypofunction. The plasma PHLA was also clearly decreased in the hypothyroid state.
Plasma FFA and glycerol levels were increased in hyperthyroidism and plasma FFA was slightly decreased in hypothyroid patients, but these variables were not significantly correlated with any parameter of triglyceride metabolism.
Endogenous triglyceride turnover rate was significantly correlated with serum protein-bound iodine (PBI) and T3 uptake in thyrotoxicosis but not in hypothyroidism. Removal of exogenous fat was not related to postheparin plasma lipolytic activity but the fractional endogenous triglyceride transport showed a highly significant relationship to this lipase activity in a mixed group of hyper- and hypothyroid patients.
The results suggest that thyroid hormones control both production and removal of plasma triglycerides. Different mechanisms for these interactions are considered.
PMCID: PMC292367  PMID: 4341014
7.  Thyroid Dysfunction and Choleduocholithiasis 
Disturbances in lipid metabolism which occur during hypothyroidism lead to the formation of gallstones. This study aims to evaluate the thyroid function pattern in patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones.
This case-control study recruited 151 patients with preliminary diagnoses of CBD stone who underwent ERCP (cases). The control group comprised healthy people who met the study criteria in the same hospital. The control group underwent ultrasonography to exclude any asymptomatic bile duct lithiasis. A questionnaire that included demographic and anthropometrics data were completed by an assigned physician. Morning blood samples that followed 12 hours of fasting were taken from all participants for measurements of serum total thyroxin (T4), serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL).
The mean TSH in patients (2.59 ± 4.86mg/dl) was higher than the control group (2.53± 4.13 9mg/dl). In subclinical hypothyroidism, serum TSH levels higher than 5 MU/L were found in 30.6% of cases compared with 22.5% of controls [OR: 1.53; 95 % confidence interval (95% CI): 0.968-2.438). Hypothyroidism was detected in 10.8% of the control group and in 11.3% of cases (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 0.578-2.043). The mean total cholesterol levels in cases was higher than the control group (p=0.61).The levels of TG (p=0.05), HDL (73.35 vs. 46.41; p<0.01) and LDL (64.81.88 vs. 111.04; p<0.01) was statistically significant between both groups.
There is an association between thyroid disorders and the presence of bile duct stones. Thyroid testing in patients with gallstone and bile duct stones is recommended because hypothyroidism may be a predisposing factor for stone passage from the gallbladder.
PMCID: PMC3990180  PMID: 24829684
Choledocholithiasis; Thyroid hormones; Obesity
8.  Dyslipidaemic Changes in Women with Subclinical Hypothyroidism 
Background: In overt hypothyroidism, many lipid abnormalities have been documented. This study was intended to demonstrate the levels of lipid in women with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH).
Material and Methods: This was a case control study which was done at referral Centre in Chennai. Women with subclinical hypothyroidism and euthyroid women attending our master health checkup clinic were enrolled in this study.Their lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, T3,T4 and TSH levels were measured. In subclinical hypothyroidism, various parameters were compared.
Results: Thirty euthyroid and 30 age matched subclinical hypothyroid women were enrolled in this study. There were significant dyslipidaemic changes is SH women as compared to euthyroid controls. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher as compared to those in controls. LDL levels were higher is SH women, but did not reach statistical significance and lower levels of HDL were noticed in SH subjects as compared to those in euthyroid women. A positive association was also reported between serum TSH and lipid parameters in our study group.
Conclusion: SH, the earliest form of thyroid failure, has negative metabolic effects on the affected subjects.SH could be one of the causes of secondary hyperlipidaemia and should be viewed as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis, along with obesity, hypertension, diabetes, etc.
PMCID: PMC3843389  PMID: 24298454
Dyslipidaemia; Subclinical hypothyroidism; Lipid profile
9.  Thyroid Function in Patients Treated with Radioactive Iodine for Thyrotoxicosis 
British Medical Journal  1974;3(5923):89-92.
A series of 105 patients treated at least two years earlier with radioactive iodine for thyrotoxicosis have been surveyed. Eighty-five patients (81%) were euthyroid clinically and on the basis of routine thyroid function tests. Of the euthyroid patients 46 (54%) had normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and 39 (46%) had raised TSH levels. There was no difference in serum triiodothyronine levels between these two groups but the serum protein bound iodine and serum thyroxine, though still well within the normal range, were significantly lower in the group with raised TSH levels. The serum cholesterol was also significantly higher in this latter group.
Most of the euthyroid patients were seen again a year later. None had become hypothyroid and neither those with normal nor those with raised TSH levels showed any evidence of a decline in the level of serum thyroxine.
It is concluded that raised serum TSH levels in patients treated with iodine-131 are not necessarily indicative of hypothyroidism. There is no indication that patients who have this abnormality become overtly hypothyroid over a 12-month follow up.
PMCID: PMC1611032  PMID: 4855207
10.  Thyroid function in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome 
Metabolic syndrome and thyroid dysfunction are two common disorders encountered in the metabolic clinic. Recently, there has been increased interest in the association between the two disorders because of the similarities between symptoms of hypothyroidism and components of the metabolic syndrome. While some reports suggest that metabolic syndrome is associated with subclinical hypothyroidism, this concept is largely under investigated in Nigerian adults with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the thyroid function status of adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome and determine the association, if any, between metabolic syndrome and thyroid function.
This was a cross sectional study of one hundred and fifty adults, members of staff of the College of Medicine of the University of Lagos. The participants were recruited using a cluster random sampling method. The Ethical Research & Review Committee of the institution approved the study protocol and signed informed consent was obtained from the participants. The statistics was analysed using the IBM SPSS Software of version 19.0. The Student's t test, Chi square test and multivariate regression analysis were employed for the analysis. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.
Thirty nine (twenty-six percent) of the study participants had metabolic syndrome and one hundred and eleven (seventy-four percent) of the study participants did not have metabolic syndrome, served as controls. Those who had metabolic syndrome group were significantly older (p = 0.03), metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with the female gender (p = 0.0002), higher systolic blood pressure (p = 0.0034), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.0009), waist circumference (p < 0.0001), body mass index (p < 0.0001), waist-hip ratio (p = 0.003), fasting serum glucose (p = 0.0457) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels (p = 0.0496). Those with metabolic syndrome had significantly lower HDL (P = 0.004) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels (p = 0.037). There was no statistically significant difference in the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels between individuals with and without metabolic syndrome. Thirty-three percent of the metabolic syndrome cases had sick euthyroid syndrome (p= < 0.0001). In multivariate regression, waist circumference was significantly and inversely associated with the sick euthyroid syndrome (p = 0.011).
Metabolic syndrome is associated with the sick euthyroid syndrome in adult Nigerians. Abdominal obesity appears to be the link between metabolic syndrome and the sick euthyroid syndrome.
PMCID: PMC4282811  PMID: 25574328
Thyroid; diastolic blood pressure; euthyroid syndrome
11.  Turmeric use is associated with reduced goitrogenesis: Thyroid disorder prevalence in Pakistan (THYPAK) study 
South Asian population has a particularly high prevalence of thyroid disorders mainly due to iodine deficiency and goitrogen use. There is no data available for prevalence of thyroid disorders in the general population living in nonmountainous regions of Pakistan.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 2335 residents of Pak Pattan, Punjab, Pakistan were interviewed about demographic, dietary, medical and environmental history as well as screened for goiter. Individuals of all ages and either gender were included.
Median age was 34 (10–88) years and 1164 (49.9%) were males. Median monthly income was 49 (3.9–137) USD. Six hundred and sixty-nine (28.7%) subjects had palpable goiter. 77.5% (n = 462) and 22.5% (n = 133) had World Health Organization Grade I and Grade II goiters respectively, further screened by measuring thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In subjects with TSH <0.4 mg/dL, free T3 and free T4 levels were measured. In 185 goiter subjects when TSH was measured, 50% (n = 93) were euthyroid, 48% (n = 89) were hyperthyroid, and one subject each was hypothyroid and subclinically hyperthyroid. 29/89 hyperthyroid subjects underwent radionuclide scanning. Twelve subjects had heterogeneous uptake consistent with multinodular goiter, 12 subjects had diffuse uptake, two had cold nodules and two had hyperfunctioning single nodules. Goiter was significantly more common among females, unmarried individuals and individuals drinking tube well (subterranean) water. Goiter was less common among those who consumed daily milk, daily ghee (hydrogenated oil), spices, chilies, and turmeric.
In our study population, goiter was endemic with very high prevalence of hyperthyroidism. Turmeric use was association with reduced goitrogenesis. Further studies to assess iodine sufficiency, thiocyanate exposure and autoimmunity need to be conducted. Masses consuming high goitrogen diets should be educated to incorporate turmeric, spices and green chilies in their cooking recipes, to reduce the risk of goiter development. In addition, use of iodized salt in their daily diet cannot be overemphasized.
PMCID: PMC4366771  PMID: 25932388
Goiter; Pakistan; iodine deficiency; turmeric; goitrogens
12.  Inherent Suppression of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in Newly Diagnosed Dyslipidemic Patients – Indication for Use of Thyromimetics? 
Background: Dyslipidemia triggers a sequel of metabolic derangements such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via vicious cycle. Dyslipidemia is characterised by elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), or both, or a low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) which in turn can progress to atherosclerosis a forerunner for ischemic heart disease (IHD). Dyslipidemia is seen even in subclinical hypothyroid patients.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to look for thyroid & glycemic abnormalities in dyslipidemic patients and compare it with euthyroid, normolipidemic group.
Materials and Methods: Thirty primarily dyslipidemic patients and 30 euthyroid normolipidemic subjects aged 25-55 years were tested for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fructosamine, lipid profile, thyroid hormones - T3, T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The values were compared with those of age matched euthyroid normolipidemic control group.
Results: The dyslipidemic pool showed small but significant decrease in the TSH levels with comparable T3, T4 levels as compared to euthyroid group. The group also had significantly higher FPG, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and lower high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels as compared to the euthyroid normolipidemic group. The plasma fructosamine levels were similar in both the groups. The observed results reflected a picture of subclinical hyperthyroidism in dyslipidemic patients.
Conclusion: The observations of the present study preclude a need to assess the thyroid status in patients of primary dyslipidemia as both conditions per se have an increased risk of cardio vascular diseases. A subclinical hyperthyroid state may essentially be helpful in maintaining the lipid metabolism. The prevailing mild hyperthyroid status also makes it important to reconsider the accuracy of long term glycemic indicators like fructosamine and possibly glycated haemoglobin in these patients. Upon establishment of their efficacy and safety, thyromimetics may have a role in the treatment of dyslipidemia.
PMCID: PMC4225880  PMID: 25386428
Dyslipidemia; Fructosamine; Lipid profile; Subclinical hyperthyroidism
13.  The Effect of L-Thyroxine Treatment on Hypothyroid Symptom Scores and Lipid Profile in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism 
Objective: To evaluate i) the frequency of typical hypothyroidism symptoms in children with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH), ii) to evaluate the association of SH with lipoproteins and iii) to investigate possible improving effects of L-thyroxine (LT4) treatment on these findings.
Methods: Twenty-seven children with SH who had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH: >4.94 µIU/L) but normal free T4 levels and healthy euthyroid children of similar age and sex were enrolled in the study. Anthropometric and laboratory (lipid profile and thyroid function tests) measurements were performed at diagnosis and six months after euthyroidism was achieved. All children were also subjected to a questionnaire on hypothyroid symptoms at diagnosis. The SH patients were subjected to the questionnaire also following treatment. Pre-treatment data were compared with those of controls and post-treatment measurements.
Results: Anthropometric and laboratory parameters of the groups were not statistically different except for higher TSH levels in the SH group. Serum lipoprotein levels and dyslipidemia frequency were similar between the groups. Compared to the controls, hypothyroidism symptom score was significantly higher in the SH group. Six months after euthyroidism was achieved, a significant reduction in the hypothyroid symptom score was obtained in the SH group. Except for significantly higher serum TSH values, no significant differences regarding demographic characteristics, symptom scores and lipid parameters were present between patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and the remaining SH patients.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that in children with SH i) the hypothyroidism symptom score was significantly higher than in euthyroid children, ii) LT4 treatment improved the hypothyroidism symptom score and iii) SH does not seem to be associated with dyslipidemia.
PMCID: PMC4293659  PMID: 25541895
Subclinical hypothyroidism; children; dyslipidemia; LT4; hypothyroid symptom score
14.  Altered Fructosamine and Lipid Fractions in Subclinical Hypothyroidism 
Background: Thyroid function disorders lead to changes in the lipoprotein metabolism.
Objectives: To study the lipid and the glycaemic abnormalities in the subclinical hypothyroidism cases and to compare the same with the euthyroid, overt hypothyroid and the hyperthyroid subjects.
Methodology: Four groups, euthyroid (Group-I), hypothyroid (Group-II), subclinical hypothyroid (Group-III) and hyperthyroid (Group-IV), which consisted of 30 subjects each, of either sex, who were aged 25-55 years, underwent Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), fructosamine, lipid profile and total T3, T4 and TSH estimations. The subjects who were on lipid lowering or thyroid disorder drugs and known diabetics were excluded from the study.
Results: In Group-III, all the lipid fractions were comparable to those of Group-II and they were significantly deranged, as compared to those of Group-I. The fructosamine levels were significantly higher in Group-II and Group-III (p<0.05), but the subclinical hypothyroid pool had statistically lower levels than the hypothyroid pool (376.63±54.73, 587.80±65.10). In the Group-IV patients, the LDL-C levels were significantly higher as compared to those in the euthyroid pool. The fructosamine levels were significantly lower in comparison with both the euthyroid and the hypothyroid pools (both in Groups-II and III). The FPG levels were higher in all the classes of the thyroid abnormalities (subclinical hypothyroidnot significant) but within the reference range of 70-100mg/dl.
Conclusion: Since the lipid derangement in subclinical hypothyroidism is on par with that in overt hypothyrodism, the subclinical hypothyroid cases also need to be treated similarly. The fructosamine values which are largely in excess of the FPG values, indicate a higher propensity to glycation and a decreased turnover of the proteins in the hypothyroid and the subclinical hypothyroid pools. Vice versa is true of the hyperthyroid pool. Fructosamine can be included in the thyroid work up of the patients to assess the metabolic function and the subsequent response after the initiation of the therapy.
PMCID: PMC3576741  PMID: 23449765
Fructosamine; Lipid Profile; Hyperthyroid; Subclinical Hypothyroid
15.  Weight Changes in Euthyroid Patients Undergoing Thyroidectomy 
Thyroid  2011;21(12):1343-1351.
Thyroidectomized patients frequently report weight gain resistant to weight loss efforts, identifying their thyroidectomy as the event precipitating subsequent weight gain. We wished to determine whether recently thyroidectomized euthyroid patients gained more weight over 1 year than matched euthyroid patients with preexisting hypothyroidism.
We performed a retrospective chart review of subjects receiving medical care at an academic medical center. One hundred twenty patients had their weight and thyroid status documented after thyroidectomy and achievement of euthyroidism on thyroid hormone replacement, and one year later. Three additional groups of 120 patients with preexisting hypothyroidism, no thyroid disease, and thyroid cancer were matched for age, gender, menopausal status, height, and weight. Anthropometric data were documented at two time points 1 year apart. We compared the weight changes and body mass index changes occurring over a 1-year period in the four groups.
Patients with recent postsurgical hypothyroidism gained 3.1 kg during the year, whereas matched patients with preexisting hypothyroidism gained 2.2 kg. The patients without thyroid disease and those with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism gained 1.3 and 1.2 kg, respectively. The weight gain in the thyroidectomized group was significantly greater than that in the matched hypothyroid group (p-value 0.004), the group without thyroid disease (p-value 0.001), and the patients with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism (p-value 0.001). Within the thyroidectomized group, the weight gain in menopausal women was greater than in either premenopausal women (4.4 vs. 2.3 kg, p-value 0.007) or men (4.4 vs. 2.5 kg, p-value 0.013).
Patients who had undergone thyroidectomy in the previous year did, in fact, gain more weight than their matched counterparts with preexisting hypothyroidism. In addition, all patients with hypothyroidism, even though treated to achieve euthyroidism, experienced more weight gain than both subjects without hypothyroidism and subjects with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism. The greatest weight gain in the thyroidectomized group was in menopausal women. These data raise the question of an unidentified factor related to taking thyroid hormone replacement that is associated with weight gain, with an additional intriguing effect of thyroidectomy itself. Menopausal status confers additional risk. These groups should be targeted for diligent weight loss efforts.
PMCID: PMC3229816  PMID: 22066482
16.  Effect of Insulin Resistance in Assessing the Clinical Outcome of Clinical and Subclinical Hypothyroid Patients 
Background: The effect of thyroid status on insulin sensitivity is of great interest but despite various studies there is conflicting data on this subject. Hypothyroidism has been associated with disorders of glucose and insulin metabolism involving defective insulin secretion in response to glucose, hyperinsulinemia, altered peripheral glucose disposal and insulin resistance. Thyroid dysfunction leads to alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism which is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The dyslipidemia and insulin resistance should be managed aggressively to reduce the impending risk.
Objectives: The prime objectives of the study were as follows:
1. To compare and correlate insulin resistance levels with T3, T4, and TSH in hypothyroidism patients.
2. To compare and correlate lipid profile with T3, T4, and TSH in hypothyroidism patients with healthy controls.
Materials and Methods: Forty hypothyroidism patients and Forty healthy age and sex matched controls in the age group of 18 to 45 years were taken for the study. The venous blood samples collected were used for estimation of thyroid hormones, insulin, glucose and lipid profile.
Results and Discussion: There is significant increase in insulin, Homa-IR and glucose levels in hypothyroidism cases when compared to controls. Cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and triglycerides were significantly increased, whereas HDL was significantly decreased in hypothyroidism cases when compared with controls. Insulin was moderately correlated with cholesterol but there was no correlation with other lipid profile parameters in hypothyroidism patients. Homa-IR was significantly correlated with TSH in hypothyroidism cases when compared with controls. TSH was significantly correlated with cholesterol and LDL in hypothyroidism cases (both clinical and subclinical) when compared with controls. The present study helps to evaluate changes in insulin resistance and lipid risk factors. These factors should be managed aggressively to reduce the impending risk of cardiovascular diseases.
PMCID: PMC4378759  PMID: 25859477
Dyslipidemia; Hypothyroidism; HOMA-IR; Insulin; TSH
17.  Hypothyroidism in diabetes mellitus patients in Eastern Nepal 
The coexistence of diabetes mellitus (DM) with hypothyroidism is a known clinical observation.
To estimate prevalence and co-relate that of hypothyroidism in patients with DM in relation to the age and sex, the lipid profile, body mass index visiting diabetes clinic and inpatients in B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences.
Settings and Design:
The hospital-based descriptive study.
Materials and Methods:
Two hundred and seventy-one known or newly detected cases of DM aged more than 15 years were selected randomly from September 2012 to September 2013 and subjected to evaluation for thyroid function – clinically and biochemically and other relevant investigations were done.
Statistical Analysis Used:
For descriptive statistics mean, standard deviation, percentage, proportion were calculated. For inferential statistics following test were carried out at the level of significant 0.05 where confidence interval is 95%. The statistical operations were done through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 10.
Of 271 subjects, the prevalence of hypothyroidism (clinical and subclinical) in diabetics was, 4.05% (11/271) with females preponderance, of which 7 (30.4%) were clinically hypothyroid and 4 (17.4%) were subclinical hypothyroid. One (4.3%) patient had subclinical hyperthyroidism. The mean age at diagnosis of type 2 DM was 51–60 years. 8.69% of diabetics with primary hypothyroids were having morbid obesity. High-density lipoprotein among different thyroid status were statistically significant (P = 0.042).
Hypothyroidism is not uncommon in diabetes, and we found body mass index, mean triglyceride and cholesterol levels were more in those diabetic patients having coexisting hypothyroidism.
PMCID: PMC4366783  PMID: 25932400
Diabetes mellitus; Eastern Nepal; hypothyroidism
18.  Prevalence and gender distribution of the metabolic syndrome 
The Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cardiovascular risk factor of public health significance and of recent has become a topical issue. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is on the increase and with this scenario, a possible increase in burden of DM which may be largely attributed to cardiovascular complications is expected. The objective of this report is to determine the prevalence of the MetS and compare gender characteristics in subjects with type 2 DM.
Subjects with type 2 DM were recruited from an urban hospital for the study. Clinical data was obtained by interviewing the patients and referring to their Case folders. The anthropometric indices and blood pressure measurements were documented. Laboratory parameters analysed for included total cholesterol, high density and low density cholesterol, triglyceride and glycosylated haemoglobin. Statistical analysis included usage of Student's t test and chi square.
963 patients with type 2 DM aged between 35-85 years were recruited for the study. The main outcome measures included the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and the gender differences of its components. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 86%. The frequency of occurrence of the MetS was similar for men (83%) and women (86%) and increased with age in both sexes. The prevalence of MetS increased from 11% among participants aged 20 through 29 years to 89% in participants aged 70 through 79. In our patients with DM, the commonest occurring and least detected MetS defining parameters are central obesity and elevated triglyceride levels respectively. The components of the MetS that differed significantly in both sexes was HDL-C. The combination of the components of the MetS were comparable in both genders and 5.8% of the subjects with the MetS had all components of the MetS.
The prevalence of the MetS in type 2DM is high in both genders and increases with age thus posing a potential high cardiovascular risk in this group of patients. The modifiable risk factors for the MetS should be a focus point in the management of subjects with type 2 DM,
PMCID: PMC2836983  PMID: 20180954
19.  Thyroid function modifies the association between ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and renal function: a multicenter cross-sectional study 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:11052.
Hypothyroidism was confirmed to be associated with both dyslipidemia and renal dysfunction. However, the impact of thyroid function on the relationship between serum lipid levels and renal function has never been given sufficient attention. In this large-scale multicenter cross-sectional study, the ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) and the prevalence of hypothyroidism in CKD subjects were significantly higher than those in non-CKD ones (P < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, TG/HDL was shown to be significantly associated with serum Cr levels (β = 0.551; 95%CI, 0.394–0.708), and eGFR (β = −0.481; 95%CI, −0.731–−0.230). The risk for CKD was significantly increased as TG/HDL ratio was elevated (adjusted odds ratio = 1.20; 95%CI, 1.11–1.27). These significant associations were found among subjects with euthyroidism and hypothyroidism rather than hyperthyroidism. Furthermore, the associations between TG/HDL and Cr or CKD status were significantly greater in hypothyroidism than those in euthyroidism (P < 0.05). These results suggested that elevated TG/HDL ratio was associated with renal dysfunction; it exhibited a significantly stronger association with Cr and CKD in hypothyroidism than in euthyroidism. Therefore, more attention should be paid on lipid profile to prevent or delay the occurrence and progression of renal dysfunction, especially for those with hypothyroidism.
PMCID: PMC4503948  PMID: 26179571
20.  Alteration of Lipid Parameters in Patients With Subclinical Hypothyroidism 
Overt hypothyroidism is associated with abnormalities of lipid metabolism, but conflicting results regarding the degree of lipid changes in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) exist.
The aim of this study was to assess differences in lipid profile parameters between subjects with and without SCH in a north Indian population.
Patients and Methods:
Serum lipid parameters of 70 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and 100 age and sex matched euthyroid controls were evaluated in a cross-sectional study.
Mean serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and very low-density cholesterol (VLDL) were significantly higher in patients with SCH than controls (P < 0.05). Mean TC, TG and low-density cholesterol (LDL) concentrations were higher in patients with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) greater than 10 mU/L than those with serum TSH equal to or less than 10 mU/L, but this difference was not statistically significant. No association was found between serum high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and serum TSH level.
High TC, TG and VLDL were observed in our patients with SCH.
PMCID: PMC4166037  PMID: 25237326
Hypothyroidism; Lipids; Hypothyroidism
21.  Assessment of thyroid and gonadal function in liver diseases 
Liver is involved with the synthesis of carrier proteins and metabolism of various hormones and liver diseases may, therefore, be associated with various endocrine disturbances. This study was conducted to assess thyroid and gonadal function in subjects with acute hepatitis (AH), chronic liver disease (CLD), and those who had undergone liver transplantation (LT).
Materials and Methods:
Patients with AH, CLD with Child-Pugh stage A (CLD-1) and Child-Pugh stage B or C (CLD-2), and LT seen at our tertiary level hospital were assessed clinically, biochemically, and for thyroid and gonadal functions besides 25 healthy controls.
Thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism were present in 14 (16%) and 24 (28%) patients with liver diseases respectively. Among thyroid dysfunction, the commonest was sick euthyroid syndrome six (7%), followed by subclinical hypothyroidism in three patients (3.5%), subclinical hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis in two patients each (2.3%) and overt hypothyroidism in one patient. Among patients with LT and AH groups, the only abnormality was significantly lower total T3 compared with healthy controls. The CLD2 group had significantly lower levels of all thyroid hormones compared with controls and CLD1 group. Hypogonadism was commonest in patients with CLD-2 (14; 50%) followed by LT (3; 33%), CLD-1 (4; 20%), and AH (3; 14%). Hypogonadism was predicted by older age, lower levels of serum albumin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides and higher levels of plasma glucose, serum bilirubin, aspartate transaminases, and international normalized ratio. Gonadal functions showed recovery following LT.
Thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism form an important part of the spectrum of acute and CLD, and patients with LT. Deterioration of synthetic functions of liver disease predicts presence of hypogonadism.
PMCID: PMC4287788  PMID: 25593833
Acute hepatitis; acute liver disease; chronic liver disease; gonadal function; hypogonadism; hypothyroidism; liver transplantation; thyroid function
22.  Prevalence, clinical and biochemical profile of subclinical hypothyroidism in normal population in Mumbai 
Subclinical Hypothyroidism (ScHt) affects 3–15% of the adult population. It's clinical and biochemical profile is not well defined, especially in Indian scenario. Our study aimed at screening normal population to define normative ranges of thyroid hormones and Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S.TSH) and prevalence of ScHt and thyroid autoimmunity.
Materials and Methods:
Two-hundred thirty-seven normal subjects without family history of thyroid disease were evaluated for symptoms and laboratory tests for thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity.
The thyroid function tests were as follows:
Euthyroid Group:
Mean values were: T3: 1.79 ± 0.42 ng/mL, T4: 10.23 ± 2.25 μg/dL, FT3: 1.88 ± 0.19 pg/mL, FT4: 1.12 ± 0.21 ng/dL, S.TSH: 2.22 ± 1.06 μlu/mL. 10.2% of euthyroid subjects had antimicrosomal antibodies (AMA) +ve (mean titer 1:918) and 23.6% were anti-thyroid peroxidase autoantibody (anti-TPO) +ve (mean titer 15.06 Au/mL). The euthyroid outlier range for S.TSH was 0.3–4.6 μlu/mL. The values were comparable in both the sexes. Those with S.TSH ≥ 5 μlu/mL were defined to have ScHt.
ScHt Group:
Prevalence of ScHt was 11.3% (M:F ratio 1:3.7). 74% belonged to 35–54 years age group and prevalence increased with age (post-menopausal females: prevalence 20%). S.TSH was 9.8 ± 7.22 μlu/mL, mean S.AMA was 1:5079 (40.7% positivity) and mean S.anti-TPO was 260 Au/mL (47.6% positivity). Majority were agoitrous (74%), and stage I goiter was seen in 26% of this population. Symptom score of 5–8 was seen in 55% ScHt subjects versus 35% normal subjects.
Mean S.TSH in our population was 2.22 μlu/mL (euthyroid outliers: 0.3–4.6 μlu/mL); hence, S.TSH above 4.6 μlu/mL should be considered as abnormal. The prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity increases after age of 35 years. ScHt presents mainly in agoitrous form and with positive antibodies, suggesting autoimmunity as the cause.
PMCID: PMC3712376  PMID: 23869302
Autoimmunity; normative ranges; prevalence; subclinical hypothyroidism
23.  Hyperthyroid and Hypothyroid Status Was Strongly Associated with Gout and Weakly Associated with Hyperuricaemia 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e114579.
The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of hyperuricaemia and gout in people with hypothyroid or hyperthyroid status.
This study analyzed data from individuals who participated in health screening programs at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in northern Taiwan (2000–2010). Participants were categorized as having euthyroid, hypothyroid, or hyperthyroid status according to their thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios (95% CI) for hyperuricaemia and gout in participants with thyroid dysfunction compared to euthyroid participants.
A total of 87,813 (euthyroid, 83,502; hypothyroid, 1,460; hyperthyroid, 2,851) participants were included. The prevalence of hyperuricaemia was higher in hyperthyroid subjects (19.4%) than in euthyroid subjects (17.8%) but not in hypothyroid subjects (19.3%). The prevalence of gout was significantly higher in both hypothyroid (6.0%) and hyperthyroid (5.3%) subjects than in euthyroid subjects (4.3%). In men, hypothyroid or hyperthyroid status was not associated with hyperuricaemia. However, hypothyroid or hyperthyroid status was associated with ORs (95% CI) of 1.47 (1.10–1.97) and 1.37 (1.10–1.69), respectively, for gout. In women, hypothyroid status was not associated with hyperuricaemia or gout. However, hyperthyroid status was associated with ORs (95% CI) of 1.42 (1.24–1.62) for hyperuricaemia and 2.13 (1.58–2.87) for gout.
Both hyperthyroid and hypothyroid status were significantly associated with gout and weakly associated with hyperuricaemia. A thyroid function test for gout patients may by warranted.
PMCID: PMC4259336  PMID: 25486420
24.  Primary Thyroid Disorders in Patients with Endogenous Hypercortisolism: An Observational Study 
Cushing's syndrome (CS) may alter the performance of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-thyroid axis. We searched for a relationship between hypercortisolism and primary thyroid disorders. The medical records of 40 patients with CS were retrospectively examined. Thyroid ultrasonography (USG), basal thyroid function test results (TFT), and antithyroglobulin and antithyroperoxidase antibodies were analyzed. In 80 control subjects, matched by age and gender with CS patients, thyroid USG, TFTs, and autoantibody panel were obtained. Among the CS patients, 17 had nodular goiter, versus 24 controls (42.5% versus 30%, P > 0.05). Among the twenty-five patients with an available TFT and autoantibody panel—before and after surgical curative treatment—autoantibody positivity was detected in 2 (8%) patients before and 3 (12%) after surgery (P = 0.48). Regarding TFT results, 1 (2.5%) patient had subclinical hyperthyroidism and 1 (2.5%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, whereas 1 (2.5%) control had hyperthyroidism. In total, 21 (52.5%) patients and 32 (40%) controls had ≥1 of the features of thyroid disorder, including goiter, positive thyroid autoantibody, and thyroid function abnormality; the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). The prevalence of primary thyroid disorders is not significantly increased in patients with CS.
PMCID: PMC4026973  PMID: 24876839
25.  Congestive heart failure in subjects with thyrotoxicosis in a black community 
Thyroid hormone has profound effects on a number of metabolic processes in virtually all tissues but the cardiovascular manifestations are prominent usually creating a hyperdynamic circulatory state. Thyrotoxicosis is not a common cause of congestive heart failure among black communities.
To determine the hospital prevalence, clinical characteristics and echocardiographic findings in patients with thyrotoxicosis who present with congestive heart failure (CCF) in the eastern part of Nigeria.
Subjects and methods:
A total of 50 subjects aged 15 years and above who were diagnosed as thyrotoxic following clinical and thyroid function tests were consecutively recruited. Fifty age- and sex-matched controls with no clinical or biochemical evidence of thyrotoxicosis and no comorbidities were used as controls. Two-dimensional echocardiography was carried out on all the subjects. CCF was determined clinically and echocardiographically.
Eight patients (5 females and 3 males) out of a total of 50 thyrotoxic patients presented with congestive heart failure.
The study revealed that congestive heart failure can occur in thyrotoxicosis in spite of the associated hyperdynamic condition. The underlying mechanism may include direct damage by autoimmune myocarditis, congestive circulation secondary to excess sodium, and fluid retention.
PMCID: PMC2922308  PMID: 20730063
thyrotoxicosis; congestive heart failure; echocardiography; black community

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