The widespread adoption of high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology among the Australian life science research community is highlighting an urgent need to up-skill biologists in tools required for handling and analysing their NGS data. There is currently a shortage of cutting-edge bioinformatics training courses in Australia as a consequence of a scarcity of skilled trainers with time and funding to develop and deliver training courses. To address this, a consortium of Australian research organizations, including Bioplatforms Australia, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation and the Australian Bioinformatics Network, have been collaborating with EMBL-EBI training team. A group of Australian bioinformaticians attended the train-the-trainer workshop to improve training skills in developing and delivering bioinformatics workshop curriculum. A 2-day NGS workshop was jointly developed to provide hands-on knowledge and understanding of typical NGS data analysis workflows. The road show–style workshop was successfully delivered at five geographically distant venues in Australia using the newly established Australian NeCTAR Research Cloud. We highlight the challenges we had to overcome at different stages from design to delivery, including the establishment of an Australian bioinformatics training network and the computing infrastructure and resource development. A virtual machine image, workshop materials and scripts for configuring a machine with workshop contents have all been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. This means participants continue to have convenient access to an environment they had become familiar and bioinformatics trainers are able to access and reuse these resources.
training; next-generation sequencing; NGS; cloud; workshop
The mainstream application of massively parallel, high-throughput assays in
biomedical research has created a demand for scientists educated in
Computational Biology and Bioinformatics (CBB). In response, formalized graduate
programs have rapidly evolved over the past decade. Concurrently, there is
increasing need for clinicians trained to oversee the responsible translation of
CBB research into clinical tools. Physician-scientists with dedicated CBB
training can facilitate such translation, positioning themselves at the
intersection between computational biomedical research and medicine. This
perspective explores key elements of the educational path to such a position,
specifically addressing: 1) evolving perceptions of the role of the
computational biologist and the impact on training and career opportunities; 2)
challenges in and strategies for obtaining the core skill set required of a
biomedical researcher in a computational world; and 3) how the combination of
CBB with medical training provides a logical foundation for a career in academic
medicine and/or biomedical research.
computational biology; bioinformatics; graduate education; MD/PhD
The authors developed mentorship programs to train minority junior faculty and advanced graduate students in mental health services research.
The programs target “mentees” in the Southwest United States and offer long-term mentoring, seminars, group supervision, seed funding for peer reviewed research proposals, peer interaction, and weeklong institutes that feature presentations and mentoring by recognized experts.
Evaluations suggest that these programs have influenced participants’ career development. Most mentees have continued to evolve in their research careers, submitted research grant applications, and obtained postdoctoral fellowships, and/or have advanced in faculty positions. Some mentees have expressed an opinion that without the support network that these programs provided, they would have abandoned their academic careers.
Future training efforts should take into account a series of challenges and tensions that affect mentees’ careers and personal lives, including the emotional legacy of discrimination and historical trauma.
Changing priorities in the NHS have underlined the crucial importance of academic general practice in providing quality training and research to underpin developments in general practice. Unfortunately, several problems and constraints mean that the full potential of general practitioners to make a contribution to teaching and research has not been realised. These issues are examined and recommendations for improvements are made. Obstacles to career development for academics in general practice should be removed. The funding of academic general practice should be the same as for other medical disciplines. Vocational training for general practice should be extended to include research and audit methods, particularly for doctors interested in an academic career. Above all, the long term objective should be to integrate undergraduate and post-graduate general practice to increase the overall effectiveness of teaching and research and hence the quality of service general practice.
A large gap presently exists between the predominantly biologic expertise of the medical profession and the complex mixture of biologic, behavioural and epidemiologic components of health problems today. Furthermore, the development of community medicine in Canada has been relatively separate from that of the clinical disciplines. To enable clinicians to acquire the knowledge and skills to manage these health problems, much more community-oriented research, applied behavioural science and clinical epidemiology is needed within the clinical sector of medicine. I have proposed a definition of clinical community medicine and presented a strategy for training clinicians in community medicine skills that calls for administrators of clinical postgraduate programs to develop training in clinical community medicine. Residency programs in community medicine cannot be expected to provide such training given their nonclinical priorities, which focus mainly on the training of public health physicians.
For the past 12 years the Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology at the University of Kentucky has run an interdisciplinary neuroscience research experience for undergraduates. Over the years the programs funding sources and participant numbers have steadily increased, to a total of 16 undergraduates in the summer of 2003, supported with internal funds, state funds, and a Research Experience for Undergraduates site grant from the National Science Foundation. The goals of the UK summer research program include: 1) provide an interactive environment for faculty, graduate students and postdoctoral scholars where undergraduates from non-tier one research universities are exposed to the many facets of a graduate career, 2) inform undergraduate students of the career opportunities available in the field of neuroscience, 3) increase the numbers of underrepresented minorities, first generation college students and students from non-tier-1 colleges and universities admitted to graduate programs in the biomedical sciences, and 4) immerse undergraduate students in a research project of their own choosing in departmental and non-departmental faculty laboratories that cover a wide range of neuroscience research. Student placement in academic medicine graduate programs, student satisfaction surveys, return students, high numbers of women and minority participants, and an ever-increasing national interest in the program are all indicators of the programs success.
undergraduate; interdisciplinary neuroscience; research experience for undergraduates; summer program; academic-medicine
Postdoctoral training is vital to a successful career for nurse researchers with a biological or biobehavioral focus. Such training provides structured time to devote to gaining substantive knowledge, expanding one’s biological-methods repertoire, and writing grants. However, for unknown reasons, relatively few nurses pursue postdoctoral training. A few plausible explanations include a near critical shortage of nursing faculty coupled with an aging population in need of health care, a lack of available mentoring for predoctoral students to pursue postdoctoral training, and the difficulty of navigating the process of finding and choosing the right match for a postdoctoral experience. The purposes of this article are to provide a rationale for choosing postdoctoral training, review common fellowship opportunities, and discuss the process of finding and choosing the right match for postdoctoral training. The authors provide two prospective plans for postdoctoral training and include a plan for staying on track during the postdoctoral experience.
postdoctoral; research training; biobehavioral
Data management and integration are complicated and ongoing problems that will require commitment of resources and expertise from the various biological science communities. Primary components of successful cross-scale integration are smooth information management and migration from one context to another. We call for a broadening of the definition of bioinformatics and bioinformatics training to span biological disciplines and biological scales. Training programs are needed that educate a new kind of informatics professional, Biological Information Specialists, to work in collaboration with various discipline-specific research personnel. Biological Information Specialists are an extension of the informationist movement that began within library and information science (LIS) over 30 years ago as a professional position to fill a gap in clinical medicine. These professionals will help advance science by improving access to scientific information and by freeing scientists who are not interested in data management to concentrate on their science.
To discuss the literature regarding educational program ranking and to provide insights concerning undergraduate and graduate athletic training education ranking systems.
The demand for accountability and the need to evaluate the quality of educational programs have led to program ranking in many academic disciplines. As athletic training becomes more recognized within the medical community, determining a program's quality will become increasingly important.
We describe program rankings used in other disciplines for determining quality and providing measures of accountability. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of both subjective and objective ranking systems, as well as the arguments for using program rankings in athletic training. Future directions for program ranking and potential research questions are suggested.
Ranking systems on the basis of levels of perceived quality and academic productivity of programs that prepare future professionals will help potential undergraduate and graduate students make informed decisions when selecting an educational program.
graduate program ranking; undergraduate program ranking; prestige ranking; productivity ranking
Successful strategies by which to effectively recruit and retain academic subspecialists in benign hematology have not been established.
To evaluate the effectiveness of a grant-funded, mentored fellowship with respect to retention and early career goals in hemostasis/thrombosis.
Via a nested case-control survey study, we sought to compare outcomes for graduates of a grant-funded, mentored fellowship training program in hemostasis/thrombosis (the National Hemophilia Foundation [NHF]-Baxter Clinical Fellowship Award) during conventional hematology/oncology fellowship training (cases), versus their training peers who were graduates of conventional hematology/oncology fellowship training alone (controls).
Survey response rate was 85% (11/13) for cases and 90% (9/10) for controls. All respondents had pursued careers in academic hematology/oncology. Median (range) percent time spent in benign hematology post-fellowship was 98% (70–100%) for cases versus 0% (0–20%) for controls. Time spent in research was significantly greater among cases than controls (median 80% [range: 42–90%] vs. 55% [10–80%], respectively; P=0.01). By years 3–4 post-fellowship, median annual number of peer-reviewed publications was higher for cases than controls (3.5 vs. 1.0; P=0.01). Cases were also more successful in grant funding (including K-awards).
These data suggest that a grant-funded, mentored fellowship training program in hemostasis/thrombosis may be superior to conventional hematology/oncology fellowship training alone with respect to outcomes of retention in clinical care/research, early-career grant funding, and publication productivity.
Benign hematology; Coagulation; Fellowship; Training; Outcomes
Modernising Medical Careers (MMC) is a project designed to reconfigure postgraduate medical education throughout the United Kingdom. It is proposed that all UK medical school graduates undertake a 2 year foundation programme to build basic professional skills to which specialist training can be added. Implicit in these proposals is that career choices need to be made at a relatively early phase of training. In the case of emergency medicine, a common stem of training in emergency and critical care is being proposed which would be suitable early training for potential specialists in emergency medicine, anaesthesia, intensive care, and acute medicine. In both foundation training and higher specialist training, the trainee should have the skills of a self directing, reflective learner and the trainer the skills required to produce a good learning environment with a supportive and open atmosphere and learning structured to maximise the opportunities for experiential learning in the workplace.
medical education; Modernising Medical Careers; postgraduate
In this report, the authors compare and contrast medical informatics (MI) and bioinformatics (BI) and provide a viewpoint on their complementarities and potential for collaboration in various subfields. The authors compare MI and BI along several dimensions, including: (1) historical development of the disciplines, (2) their scientific foundations, (3) data quality and analysis, (4) integration of knowledge and databases, (5) informatics tools to support practice, (6) informatics methods to support research (signal processing, imaging and vision, and computational modeling, (7) professional and patient continuing education, and (8) education and training. It is pointed out that, while the two disciplines differ in their histories, scientific foundations, and methodologic approaches to research in various areas, they nevertheless share methods and tools, which provides a basis for exchange of experience in their different applications. MI expertise in developing health care applications and the strength of BI in biological “discovery science” complement each other well. The new field of biomedical informatics (BMI) holds great promise for developing informatics methods that will be crucial in the development of genomic medicine. The future of BMI will be influenced strongly by whether significant advances in clinical practice and biomedical research come about from separate efforts in MI and BI, or from emerging, hybrid informatics subdisciplines at their interface.
The highly interdisciplinary field of bioinformatics has emerged as a powerful
modern science. There has been a great demand for undergraduate- and
graduate-level trained bioinformaticists in the industry as well in the
academia. In order to address the needs for trained bioinformaticists, its
curriculum must be offered at the undergraduate level, especially at four-year
colleges, where a majority of the United States gets its education. There are
many challenges in developing an undergraduate-level bioinformatics program that
needs to be carefully designed as a well-integrated and cohesive
interdisciplinary curriculum that prepares the students for a wide variety of
career options. This article describes the challenges of establishing a highly
interdisciplinary undergraduate major, the development of an undergraduate
bioinformatics degree program at Ramapo College of New Jersey, and lessons
learned in the last 10 years during its management.
bioinformatics; genomics; undergraduate education; undergraduate curriculum
Assessment is one of the teachers’ most important activities in teaching process which bears many purposes. With the rapid change of different sciences,old methods and tools are not meeting the present needs. Since in medical sciences, half of the educational course, including nursing courses,occurs at patients’ bedside, the assessment of clinical competency is of great importance. In this study the goals , skills and expected level of competency for each skill and procedural skills needed for training nursing studentsreceivingcardiac care field training compiled.
Materials and Methods:
This research was a descriptive measurement study conducted in Esfahan in 2010-2011. Research community was nursing trainers who are responsible for training students takingcardiac care field training coursesin state medical science universities all over the country. Sampling was performed first in the form of the multi-stage cluster and then after selecting the colleges, their trainers entered the study in the form of census. To gather the information, after literature review and performing a focusing group, an initial questionnaire was compiled and survey was conducted using Delphi three-stage method.
After literature review and focus group, 23 modules and 142 skills in the first section and 14 general procedural skills and 15 special procedural skills in the second stage were compiled. Finally after passing the Delphi stages, 150 skills in the form of 23 modules in the first section and 14 general procedural skill and 13 special procedural skills were obtainedin the second section. The expectancy levels of all the skills were also determined.
This study has introduced an assessment pattern in the form of clinical performance logbook which can be a valuable tool for assessing the clinical competency of nursing students receiving field training in cardiac care units(CCU).
Student assessment; clinical competency; nursing; cardiac care
Objective: To provide an overview of the limited amount of peer-reviewed literature on athletic training education that has been published in athletic training journals. Publications that related specifically to the development of evaluation tools or specific addenda to the required athletic training curriculum were not included.
Background: As education reform continues to unfold in athletic training, it is important for all certified athletic trainers to understand the research that undergirds the educational practices in athletic training. Many of the profession's educational practices have been taken from standards and methods developed by the discipline of education, with very little validation for applicability to the discipline of athletic training. A very limited number of comprehensive scientific investigations of the educational standards and practices in athletic training education have been carried out; however, for more research to be conducted, it is essential that the currently available research be reviewed.
Description: The summaries of athletic training educational research in this article include the topics of learning styles, facilitation of learning and professional development, instructional methods, clinical instruction and supervision, predictors of success on the National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Certification certification examination, program administration, and continuing education. The amount of research in athletic training education is limited when compared with the amount and quality of educational research available in other professions, such as medicine, nursing, dentistry, physical therapy, and occupational therapy. In this article, I attempt to describe the existing literature and identify what is needed to expand the breadth and depth of research in athletic training education.
Clinical Advantages: This article is intended to help educators identify areas within athletic training education that require further validation and to provide both educators and clinicians with insight into the current validated educational practices that may be appropriate to incorporate into educational settings or practice.
learning styles; professional development; instructional methods; clinical instruction; clinical supervision; predictors of success; administration; continuing education
This Feature describes a National Research Council project centered on educating faculty in the Middle East/North Africa and Asia to use active learning when teaching responsible conduct of science (RCS). It provides insights for faculty in the United States as they engage students in the intricacies of RCS or establish “train-the-trainer” programs at their home institutions.
Numerous studies are demonstrating that engaging undergraduate students in original research can improve their achievement in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and increase the likelihood that some of them will decide to pursue careers in these disciplines. Associated with this increased prominence of research in the undergraduate curriculum are greater expectations from funders, colleges, and universities that faculty mentors will help those students, along with their graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, develop an understanding and sense of personal and collective obligation for responsible conduct of science (RCS). This Feature describes an ongoing National Research Council (NRC) project and a recent report about educating faculty members in culturally diverse settings (Middle East/North Africa and Asia) to employ active-learning strategies to engage their students and colleagues deeply in issues related to RCS. The NRC report describes the first phase of this project, which took place in Aqaba and Amman, Jordan, in September 2012 and April 2013, respectively. Here we highlight the findings from that report and our subsequent experience with a similar interactive institute in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Our work provides insights and perspectives for faculty members in the United States as they engage undergraduate and graduate students, as well as postdoctoral fellows, to help them better understand the intricacies of and connections among various components of RCS. Further, our experiences can provide insights for those who may wish to establish “train-the-trainer” programs at their home institutions.
The Regional Training Centres (RTCs) have established a new, non-traditional model of applied health services research training. Graduates report that the programs provide an academic “home” where they can pursue their health and nursing services research interests while engaging with decision-makers. This discussion paper shares perspectives from eight RTC graduates about their lives and careers at the interface of applied health and nursing services research, policy and decision-making, in particular, training in a novel graduate program, building lasting connections among researchers, policy makers and managers and acting as liaisons among these communities. Graduates cite their exclusive access to a health services and policy network as an enticing feature of their training experience. They have forged careers that require work in both the research and decision-making realms, and clearly prefer having “a foot in both camps.”
The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) were initiated to improve the conduct and impact of NIH's research portfolio, transforming training programs and research infrastructure at academic institutions and creating a nationwide consortium. They provide a model for translating research across disciplines and offer an efficient and powerful platform for comparative effectiveness research (CER), an effort that has long struggled but enjoys renewed hope under health care reform. CTSAs include study design and methods expertise, informatics, and regulatory support; programs in education, training, and career development in domains central to CER; and robust programs in community engagement, both of the general public and of clinical practice communities.
Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University and Montefiore Medical Center have entered a formal partnership that places their CTSA at a critical intersection for clinical and translational research. Their CTSA leaders were asked to develop a strategy for enhancing CER activities, and in 2010 they developed a model that encompasses four broadly defined “compartments” of research strength that must be coordinated for this enterprise to succeed: evaluation and health services research, biobehavioral research and prevention, efficacy studies and clinical trials, and social science and implementation research.
This article provides historical context for CER, elucidates Einstein-Montefiore’s CER model and strategic planning efforts, and illustrates how a CTSA can provide a vision, leadership, coordination, and services to support an academic health center’s collaborative efforts to develop a robust CER portfolio and thus contribute to the national effort to improve health and health care.
Dissemination and implementation (D&I) research is a relatively young discipline, underscoring the importance of training and career development in building and sustaining the field. As such, D&I research faces several challenges in designing formal training programs and guidance for career development. A cohort of early-stage investigators (ESI) recently involved in an implementation research training program provided a resource for formative data in identifying needs and solutions around career development.
Responses outlined fellows’ perspectives on the perceived usefulness and importance of, as well as barriers to, developing practice linkages, acquiring additional methods training, academic advancement, and identifying institutional supports. Mentorship was a cross-cutting issue and was further discussed in terms of ways it could foster career advancement in the context of D&I research.
Advancing an emerging field while simultaneously developing an academic career offers a unique challenge to ESIs in D&I research. This article summarizes findings from the formative data that outlines some directions for ESIs and provides linkages to the literature and other resources on key points.
Dissemination and implementation research; Career development; Early-stage investigators
Global commerce, travel, and emerging and resurging infectious diseases have increased awareness of global health threats and opportunities for collaborative and service learning. We review course materials, knowledge archives, data management archives, and student evaluations for the first 10 years of an intensive summer field course in infectious disease epidemiology and surveillance offered in Jamaica. We have trained 300 students from 28 countries through collaboration between the University of the West Indies and U.S. partner universities. Participants were primarily graduate students in public health, but also included health professionals with terminal degrees, and public health nurses and inspectors. Strong institutional synergies, committed faculty, an emphasis on scientific and cultural competencies, and use of team-based field research projects culminate in a unique training environment that provides participants with career-developing experiences. We share lessons learned over the past decade, and conclude that South-to-North leadership is critical in shaping transdisciplinary, cross-cultural, global health practice.
Located at Montana State University, the biomolecular Core Facilities support education and research by providing a wide range of multidisciplinary expertise, resources, and personnel. There are nine individual Cores, each focusing on a particular discipline: the Animal Resource Center, Bioinformatics, FACS, Functional Genomics, Imaging and Chemical Analysis (ICAL), Metabolomics, Microscopy, Proteomics, and TEM. The Bioinformatics Core provides training, manages computational clusters, organizes the Bioinformatics Users' Group, and provides support for genomic and proteomic analysis and computational tools. The Functional Genomics Core houses mini-fluorometers and nanodrop spectrometers; Affymetrix and slide array hybridization, scanning, and analysis equipment; and CombiMatrix arrays. Microdissection is provided via a Zeiss fluorescence-equipped microscope, PALM LMPC, and optical tweezers. The Microscopy Core provides optical and confocal microscopy with two Nikon microscopes for light and epi-fluorescent imaging and two Leica CSLMs. The confocal microscopes have multiple laser lines for excitation and a two-photon infrared laser for thicker samples. ICAL is dedicated to the characterization of materials through high resolution imaging and spectroscopy. Instrumentation includes AFM, FESEM, SEM, TOF-SIMS, X-ray powder diffraction spec, and scanning auger electron microprobe. The Metabolomics Core makes use of both NMR and MS to identify and quantify small molecule metabolites (<1000 Da) in complex biological systems, and the NMR facility is also involved in the characterization of protein structure and dynamics for larger molecules. MS and 2D-PAGE services are provided by the Proteomics Core for the analysis of proteomics, intact proteins, metabolites, and small molecules. Instruments include GCMS, MALDI with MS/MS, Agilent Chip Cube ion trap, and several high-resolution ESI-quad-TOFs. Cooperation between the Core Facilities improves efficiency and provides vertical integration for research: researchers can perform diverse experiments hands-on via open-access facilities, avoiding experiment outsourcing and the associated delays. This accelerates research and encourages researcher involvement in novel collaboratory projects.
Evaluation of scientific work underlies the process of career advancement in academic science, with publications being a fundamental metric. Many aspects of the evaluation process for grants and promotions are deeply ingrained in institutions and funding agencies and have been altered very little in the past several decades, despite substantial changes that have taken place in the scientific work force, the funding landscape, and the way that science is being conducted. This article examines how scientific productivity is being evaluated, what it is rewarding, where it falls short, and why richer information than a standard curriculum vitae/biosketch might provide a more accurate picture of scientific and educational contributions. The article also explores how the evaluation process exerts a profound influence on many aspects of the scientific enterprise, including the training of new scientists, the way in which grant resources are distributed, the manner in which new knowledge is published, and the culture of science itself.
The authors describe the evolution of a novel national training program to develop minority faculty for mental health services research careers. Recruiting, training, and sustaining minority health professionals for academic research careers in mental health services research have proven challenging.
Over the past 8 years the authors developed NIMH-funded programs to educate, train, and mentor minority psychiatrists and other junior faculty and graduate and post-graduate students. Their areas of academic interest focus primarily on minority mental health issues in primary care and community settings.
The authors began with a program that targeted local trainees from the University of New Mexico and expanded to regional and national programs offering weeklong institutes, onsite and distance mentoring by experts, and supportive peer interactions that addressed the considerable challenges affecting trainee career decisions and paths.
Early outcomes support the value of these programs.
Academic physicians aiming to build careers on the scholarship of teaching require specific career development opportunities designed to provide the skills necessary for successful advancement and promotion as clinician-educators and scholars. Completing this training prior to embarking on an academic career may facilitate a smooth transition to a faculty position, and establish mentoring networks and research collaboratives. This article describes two pilot medical education fellowships that have been successfully implemented in separate and unique departments of emergency medicine (EM). By comparing and contrasting the curricula and incorporating the experiences of graduating 10 EM education fellows over the past decade, the authors propose a fellowship structure that may be adapted to meet the needs of medical educators in a broad variety of fields and disciplines.
During a time when governmental funding, resources and staff are decreasing and travel restrictions are increasing, attention to efficient methods of public health workforce training is essential. A literature review was conducted to inform the development and delivery of web-based trainings for public health practitioners. Literature was gathered and summarized from five disciplines: Information Technology, Health, Education, Business and Communications, following five research themes: benefits, barriers, retention, promotion and evaluation. As a result, a total of 138 articles relevant to web-based training design and implementation were identified. Key recommendations emerged, including the need to conduct formative research and evaluation, provide clear design and layout, concise content, interactivity, technical support, marketing and promotion and incentives. We conclude that there is limited application of web-based training in public health. This review offers an opportunity to learn from other disciplines. Web-based training methods may prove to be a key training strategy for reaching our public health workforce in the environment of limited resources.