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1.  The effects of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on matrix metalloproteinase and prostaglandin E2 production by cells of the rheumatoid lesion 
Arthritis Research  1999;1(1):63-70.
The biologically active metabolite of vitamin D3, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3], acts through vitamin D receptors, which were found in rheumatoid tissues in the present study. IL-1β-activated rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts and human articular chondrocytes were shown to respond differently to exposure to 1α,25(OH)2D3, which has different effects on the regulatory pathways of specific matrix metalloproteinases and prostaglandin E2.
Introduction:
1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3], the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D3, acts through an intracellular vitamin D receptor (VDR) and has several immunostimulatory effects. Animal studies have shown that production of some matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may be upregulated in rat chondrocytes by administration of 1α,25(OH)2D3; and cell cultures have suggested that 1α,25(OH)2D3 may affect chondrocytic function. Discoordinate regulation by vitamin D of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in human mononuclear phagocytes has also been reported. These data suggest that vitamin D may regulate MMP expression in tissues where VDRs are expressed. Production of 1α,25(OH)2D3 within synovial fluids of arthritic joints has been shown and VDRs have been found in rheumatoid synovial tissues and at sites of cartilage erosion. The physiological function of 1α,25(OH)2D3 at these sites remains obscure. MMPs play a major role in cartilage breakdown in the rheumatoid joint and are produced locally by several cell types under strict control by regulatory factors. As 1α,25(OH)2D3 modulates the production of specific MMPs and is produced within the rheumatoid joint, the present study investigates its effects on MMP and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in two cell types known to express chondrolytic enzymes.
Aims:
To investigate VDR expression in rheumatoid tissues and to examine the effects of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on cultured rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RSFs) and human articular chondrocytes (HACs) with respect to MMP and PGE2 production.
Methods:
Rheumatoid synovial tissues were obtained from arthroplasty procedures on patients with late-stage rheumatoid arthritis; normal articular cartilage was obtained from lower limb amputations. Samples were embedded in paraffin, and examined for presence of VDRs by immunolocalisation using a biotinylated antibody and alkaline-phosphatase-conjugated avidin-biotin complex system. Cultured synovial fibroblasts and chondrocytes were treated with either 1α,25(OH)2D3, or interleukin (IL)-1β or both. Conditioned medium was assayed for MMP and PGE2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the results were normalised relative to control values.
Results:
The rheumatoid synovial tissue specimens (n = 18) immunostained for VDRs showed positive staining but at variable distributions and in no observable pattern. VDR-positive cells were also observed in association with some cartilage-pannus junctions (the rheumatoid lesion). MMP production by RSFs in monolayer culture was not affected by treatment with 1α,25(OH)2D3 alone, but when added simultaneously with IL-1β the stimulation by IL-1β was reduced from expected levels by up to 50%. In contrast, 1α,25(OH)2D3 had a slight stimulatory effect on basal production of MMPs 1 and 3 by monolayer cultures of HACs, but stimulation of MMP-1 by IL-1β was not affected by the simultaneous addition of 1α,25(OH)2D3 whilst MMP-3 production was enhanced (Table 1). The production of PGE2 by RSFs was unaffected by 1α,25(OH)2D3 addition, but when added concomitantly with IL-1β the expected IL-1 β-stimulated increase was reduced to almost basal levels. In contrast, IL-1β stimulation of PGE2 in HACs was not affected by the simultaneous addition of 1α,25(OH)2D3 (Table 2). Pretreatment of RSFs with 1α,25(OH)2D3 for 1 h made no significant difference to IL-1β-induced stimulation of PGE2, but incubation for 16 h suppressed the expected increase in PGE2 to control values. This effect was also noted when 1α,25(OH)2D3 was removed after the 16h and the IL-1 added alone. Thus it appears that 1α,25(OH)2D3 does not interfere with the IL-1β receptor, but reduces the capacity of RSFs to elaborate PGE2 after IL-1β induction.
Discussion:
Cells within the rheumatoid lesion which expressed VDR were fibroblasts, macrophages, lymphocytes and endothelial cells. These cells are thought to be involved in the degradative processes associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), thus providing evidence of a functional role of 1α,25(OH)2D3 in RA. MMPs may play important roles in the chondrolytic processes of the rheumatoid lesion and are known to be produced by both fibroblasts and chondrocytes. The 1α,25(OH)2D3 had little effect on basal MMP production by RSFs, although more pronounced differences were noted when IL-1β-stimulated cells were treated with 1α,25(OH)2D3, with the RSF and HAC showing quite disparate responses. These opposite effects may be relevant to the processes of joint destruction, especially cartilage loss, as the ability of 1α,25(OH)2D3 to potentiate MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression by 'activated' chondrocytes might facilitate intrinsic cartilage chondrolysis in vivo. By contrast, the MMP-suppressive effects observed for 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment of 'activated' synovial fibroblasts might reduce extrinsic chondrolysis and also matrix degradation within the synovial tissue. Prostaglandins have a role in the immune response and inflammatory processes associated with RA. The 1α,25(OH)2D3 had little effect on basal PGE2 production by RSF, but the enhanced PGE2 production observed following IL-1β stimulation of these cells was markedly suppressed by the concomitant addition of 1α,25(OH)2D3. As with MMP production, there are disparate effects of 1α,25(OH)2D3 on IL-1β stimulated PGE2 production by the two cell types; 1α,25(OH)2D3 added concomitantly with IL-1β had no effect on PGE2 production by HACs. In summary, the presence of VDRs in the rheumatoid lesion demonstrates that 1α,25(OH)2D3 may have a functional role in the joint disease process. 1α,25(OH)2D3 does not appear to directly affect MMP or PGE2 production but does modulate cytokine-induced production.
Comparative effects of 1 α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1 α,25D3) on interleukin (IL)-1-stimulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 production by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts and human articular chondrocytes in vivo
Data given are normalized relative to control values and are expressed ± SEM for three cultures of each cell type.
Comparative effects of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25D3) on Interleukin (IL)-1-stimulated prostaglandin E2 production by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts and human articular chondrocyte in vivo
Data given are normalized relative to control values and are expressed ± SEM for three cultures of each cell type.
PMCID: PMC17774  PMID: 11056661
1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; matrix metalloproteinase; prostaglandin E2; rheumatoid arthritis
2.  Mast cell activation and its relation to proinflammatory cytokine production in the rheumatoid lesion 
Arthritis Research  1999;2(1):65-74.
Mast cell (MC) activation in the rheumatoid lesion provides numerous mediators that contribute to inflammatory and degradative processes, especially at sites of cartilage erosion. MC activation in rheumatoid synovial tissue has often been associated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β production by adjacent cell types. By contrast, our in situ and in vitro studies have shown that the production of IL-15 was independent of MC activation, and was not related to TNF-α and IL-1β expression. Primary cultures of dissociated rheumatoid synovial cells produced all three proinflammatory cytokines, with production of IL-1β exceeding that of TNF-α, which in turn exceeded that of IL-15. In vitro cultures of synovial macrophages, synovial fibroblasts and articular chondrocytes all produced detectable amounts of free IL-15, macrophages being the most effective.
Introduction:
Increased numbers of mast cells (MCs) are found in the synovial tissues and fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and at sites of cartilage erosion. MC activation has been reported for a significant proportion of rheumatoid specimens. Because the MC contains potent mediators, including histamine, heparin, proteinases, leukotrienes and multifunctional cytokines, its potential contributions to the processes of inflammation and matrix degradation have recently become evident.
Proinflammatory cytokines are important mediators of inflammation, immunity, proteolysis, cell recruitment and proliferation. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) reportedly plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of RA, especially its ability to regulate interleukin (IL)-1β expression, this being important for the induction of prostanoid and matrix metalloproteinase production by synovial fibroblasts and chondrocytes. IL-15 has been assigned numerous biological effects and has been implicated as an important factor in TNF-α expression by monocyte/macrophages. Some in vitro studies have placed IL-15 upstream from TNF-α in the cytokine cascade, suggesting an interdependence between TNF, IL-1 and IL-15 for the promotion of proinflammatory cytokine expression in the rheumatoid joint.
Aims:
To examine the in situ relationships of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-15 in relation to MC activation in rheumatoid tissues by use of immunolocalization techniques; and to compare quantitatively the proinflammatory cytokine production by specific cell cultures and rheumatoid synovial explants with and without exposure to a MC secretagogue.
Materials and methods:
Samples of rheumatoid synovial tissue and cartilage–pannus junction were obtained from patients (n = 15) with classic late-stage RA. Tissue sections were immunostained for MC (tryptase) and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, TNF-α and IL-15. Rheumatoid synovial tissue explants were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagles medium (DMEM) containing either the MC secretagogue rabbit antihuman immunoglobulin (Ig)E, or control rabbit IgG. Primary rheumatoid synovial cell cultures, human articular chondrocytes, synovial fibroblasts and synovial macrophages were prepared as described in the full article. Conditioned culture media from these cultures were collected and assayed for IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-15 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology.
Results:
Immunohistological studies of rheumatoid synovial tissues have demonstrated local concentrations of MCs in most specimens of the rheumatoid lesion. Sites of MC activation were associated with localized oedema, and TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-1β production by a proportion of mononuclear inflammatory cells. By contrast, no evidence was found for IL-15 production in tissue sites containing either intact or activated MCs, and IL-15 expression, when observed, bore no relation to tissue sites where TNF-α and IL-1β were evident. The immunodetection of IL-15 was restricted to microfocal sites and was not typical of most junctional specimens, but was associated with a proportion of articular chondrocytes in a minority of junctional specimens.
MC activation within synovial explant cultures was induced by the addition of polyclonal antibody to human IgE. MC activation significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α and IL1β released into the medium, this representing approximately 33% of control values. By contrast, MC activation had little effect on the levels of IL-15 released into the culture medium, the average value being very low in relation to the release of TNF-α and IL-1β . Thus, induced MC activation brings about changes in the amounts of released tryptase, TNF-α and IL-1β , but not of IL-15.
Four preparations of primary rheumatoid synovial cell cultures produced more IL-1β than TNF-α, with only modest values for IL-15 production, indicating that all three cytokines are produced and released as free ligands by these cultures. Of specific cell types that produced IL-15 in vitro, macrophages produced more than fibroblasts, which in turn produced more than chondrocytes. This demonstrates that all three cell types have the potential to produce IL-15 in situ.
Discussion:
The biological consequences of MC activation in vivo are extremely complex, and in all probability relate to the release of various combinations of soluble and granular factors, as well as to the expression of appropriate receptors by neighbouring cells. The subsequent synthesis and release of cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1 may well follow at specific stages after activation, or may be an induced cytokine response by adjacent macrophagic or fibroblastic cells. However, because no IL-15 was detectable either in or around activated or intact MCs, and the induced MC activation explant study showed no change in IL-15 production, it seems unlikely that the expression of this cytokine is regulated by MCs. The immunohistochemistry (IHC) demonstration of IL-15 at sites of cartilage erosion, and especially by some chondrocytes of articular cartilage, showed no spatial relationship with either T cells or neutrophils, and suggests other functional properties in these locations. The lack of evidence for an in situ association of IL-15 with TNF and IL-1 does not support a role for IL-15 in a proinflammatory cytokine 'cascade', as proposed by other in vitro experiments. We believe that sufficient evidence is available, however, to suggest that MC activation makes a significant contribution to the pathophysiological processes of the rheumatoid lesion.
PMCID: PMC17805  PMID: 11219391
interleukin-15; interleukin-1β; mast cells; rheumatoid arthritis; tumour necrosis factor-α
3.  Protection against cartilage and bone destruction by systemic interleukin-4 treatment in established murine type II collagen-induced arthritis 
Arthritis Research  1999;1(1):81-91.
Destruction of cartilage and bone are hallmarks of human rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and controlling these erosive processes is the most challenging objective in the treatment of RA. Systemic interleukin-4 treatment of established murine collagen-induced arthritis suppressed disease activity and protected against cartilage and bone destruction. Reduced cartilage pathology was confirmed by both decreased serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and histological examination. In addition, radiological analysis revealed that bone destruction was also partially prevented. Improved suppression of joint swelling was achieved when interleukin-4 treatment was combined with low-dose prednisolone treatment. Interestingly, synergistic reduction of both serum COMP and inflammatory parameters was noted when low-dose interleukin-4 was combined with prednisolone. Systemic treatment with interleukin-4 appeared to be a protective therapy for cartilage and bone in arthritis, and in combination with prednisolone at low dosages may offer an alternative therapy in RA.
Introduction:
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an increased production of a range of cytokines including tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1, which display potent proinflammatory actions that are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Although TNF-α seems to be the major cytokine in the inflammatory process, IL-1 is the key mediator with regard to cartilage and bone destruction. Apart from direct blockade of IL-1/TNF, regulation can be exerted at the level of modulatory cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-10. IL-4 is a pleiotropic T-cell derived cytokine that can exert either suppressive or stimulatory effects on different cell types, and was originally identified as a B-cell growth factor and regulator of humoral immune pathways. IL-4 is produced by activated CD4+ T cells and it promotes the maturation of Th2 cells. IL-4 stimulates proliferation, differentiation and activation of several cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells and epithelial cells. IL-4 is also known to be a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12 by macrophages and monocytes. Moreover, IL-4 stimulates the synthesis of several cytokine inhibitors such as interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), soluble IL-1-receptor type II and TNF receptors IL-4 suppresses metalloproteinase production and stimulates tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 production in human mononuclear phagocytes and cartilage explants, indicating a protective effect of IL-4 towards extracellular matrix degradation. Furthermore, IL-4 inhibits both osteoclast activity and survival, and thereby blocks bone resorption in vitro. Of great importance is that IL-4 could not be detected in synovial fluid or in tissues. This absence of IL-4 in the joint probably contributes to the disturbance in the Th1/Th2 balance in chronic RA.
Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a widely used model of arthritis that displays several features of human RA. Recently it was demonstrated that the onset of CIA is under stringent control of IL-4 and IL-10. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that exposure to IL-4 during the immunization stage reduced onset and severity of CIA. However, after cessation of IL-4 treatment disease expression increased to control values.
Aims:
Because it was reported that IL-4 suppresses several proinflammatory cytokines and matrix degrading enzymes and upregulates inhibitors of both cytokines and catabolic enzymes, we investigated the tissue protective effect of systemic IL-4 treatment using established murine CIA as a model. Potential synergy of low dosages of anti-inflammatory glucocorticosteroids and IL-4 was also evaluated.
Methods:
DBA-1J/Bom mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen and boosted at day 21. Mice with established CIA were selected at day 28 after immunization and treated for days with IL-4, prednisolone, or combinations of prednisolone and IL-4. Arthritis score was monitored visually. Joint pathology was evaluated by histology, radiology and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). In addition, serum levels of IL-1Ra and anticollagen antibodies were determined.
Results:
Treatment of established CIA with IL-4 (1 μg/day) resulted in suppression of disease activity as depicted in Figure 1. Of great interest is that, although 1 μg/day IL-4 had only a moderate effect on the inflammatory component of the disease activity, it strongly reduced cartilage pathology, as determined by histological examination (Fig. 1). Moreover, serum COMP levels were significantly reduced, confirming decreased cartilage involvement. In addition, both histological and radiological analysis showed that bone destruction was prevented (Fig. 1). Systemic IL-4 administration increased serum IL-1Ra levels and reduced anticollagen type II antibody levels. Treatment with low-dose IL-4 (0.1 μg/day) was ineffective in suppressing disease score, serum COMP or joint destruction. Synergistic suppression of both arthritis severity and COMP levels was noted when low-dose IL-4 was combined with prednisolone (0.05 mg/kg/day), however, which in itself was not effective.
Discussion:
In the present study, we demonstrate that systemic IL-4 treatment ameliorates disease progression of established CIA. Although clinical disease progression was only arrested and not reversed, clear protection against cartilage and bone destruction was noted. This is in accord with findings in both human RA and animal models of RA that show that inflammation and tissue destruction sometimes are uncoupled processes. Of great importance is that, although inflammation was still present, strong reduction in serum COMP was found after exposure to IL-4. This indicated that serum COMP levels reflected cartilage damage, although a limited contribution of the inflamed synovium cannot be excluded.
Increased serum IL-1Ra level (twofold) was found after systemic treatment with IL-4, but it is not likely that this could explain the suppression of CIA. We and others have reported that high dosages of IL-1Ra are needed for marked suppression of CIA. As reported previously, lower dosages of IL-4 did not reduce clinical disease severity of established CIA. Of importance is that combined treatment of low dosages of IL-4 and IL-10 appeared to have more potent anti-inflammatory effects, and markedly protected against cartilage destruction. Improved anti-inflammatory effect was achieved with IL-4/prednisolone treatment. In addition, synergistic effects were found for the reduction of cartilage and bone destruction. This indicates that systemic IL-4/prednisolone treatment may provide a cartilage and bone protective therapy for human RA.
Effects in mice of treatment with interleukin-4 or control on disease activity, cartilage damage and bone destruction. Mice were treated intraperitoneally for 7 days with either vehicle (control) or 1 μg/day interleukin-4 (IL-4). CIA, collagen-induced arthritis. *P < 0.05, versus control, by Mann-Whitney U test.
PMCID: PMC17779  PMID: 11056663
bone destruction; cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels; collagen-induced arthritis; interleukin-4; prednisolone
4.  Mechanisms of disruption of the articular cartilage surface in inflammation. Neutrophil elastase increases availability of collagen type II epitopes for binding with antibody on the surface of articular cartilage. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1991;87(5):1531-1536.
We recently observed that specific antibodies to type II collagen do not bind in appreciable amounts to the intact surface of articular cartilage, whereas antibodies to the minor collagen types V, VI, and IX do. These results suggest that the outermost cartilage surface layer prevented interaction of the antibodies with the major collagen type in articular cartilage. The present studies were designed to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms involved in the disruption of the cartilage surface layer in inflammatory arthritis. Articular cartilage obtained from rabbits undergoing acute antigen-induced arthritis of 72 h duration showed a significant increase in binding of anti-type II antibody to cartilage surfaces compared with normal control cartilage (P less than 0.01). Augmentation of anti-type II binding was also observed upon in vitro incubation of bovine articular slices or intact rabbit patellar cartilage for 1 h with human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), PMN lysates, or purified human PMN elastase. This increase was not inhibited by sodium azide, nor was it enhanced by incubation of cartilage with the strong oxidant hypochlorous acid. Chondrocyte-mediated matrix proteoglycan degradation in cartilage explants cultured in the presence of cytokines failed to increase antibody binding appreciably. The augmentation in antibody binding seen with PMN lysates was inhibited by the nonspecific serine-esterase inhibitor PMSF, but not by the divalent metal chelator EDTA. The elastase-specific inhibitor AAPVCMK also inhibited most of the PMN-induced increase in antibody binding, whereas the cathepsin G-specific inhibitor GLPCMK was much less effective. Incubation of intact cartilage with purified human PMN elastase indicated that this serine esterase could account for the increase in anti-type II collagen antibody binding to intact cartilage surfaces. These studies suggest that in an inflammatory response, PMN-derived elastase degrades the outer layer of articular cartilage, exposing epitopes on type II collagen. They also help clarify the pathogenic mechanisms involved in early articular cartilage damage in inflammatory joint diseases.
PMCID: PMC295233  PMID: 1708782
5.  Chondrocyte AMP-activated Protein Kinase Activity Suppresses Matrix Degradation Responses to Inflammatory Cytokines IL-1β and TNFα 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2011;63(7):1928-1937.
Objective
IL-1β and TNFα stimulate chondrocyte matrix catabolic responses, thereby compromising cartilage homeostasis in OA. AMPK, which regulates energy homeostasis and cellular metabolism, also exerts anti-inflammatory effects in multiple tissues. Here, we tested the hypothesis that AMPK activity limits chondrocyte matrix catabolic responses to IL-1β and TNFα.
Methods
Expression of AMPK subunits was examined, and AMPKα activity was ascertained by phosphorylation status of AMPKα Thr172 in human knee articular chondrocytes and cartilage by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Pro-catabolic responses to IL-1β and TNFα such as release of GAG, NO, MMP-3 and MMP-13 were determined by DMMB assay, Griess reaction and Western blotting, respectively, in cartilage explants and chondrocytes with and without knockdown of AMPKα by siRNA approach.
Results
Normal human knee articular chondrocytes express AMPKα1, α2, β1, β2 and γ1 subunits. AMPK activity is constitutively present in normal, but is decreased in OA articular chondrocytes and cartilage, and in normal chondrocytes treated with IL-1β and TNFα. Knockdown of AMPKα results in enhanced catabolic responses to IL-1β and TNFα in chondrocytes. Moreover, AMPK activators suppress cartilage/chondrocyte pro-catabolic responses to IL-1β and TNFα and the capacity of TNFα and CXCL8 (IL-8) to induce type X collagen expression.
Conclusions
AMPK activity is reduced in OA cartilage and in chondrocytes following treatment with IL-1β or TNFα. AMPK activators attenuate dephosphorylation of AMPKα and pro-catabolic responses in chondrocytes induced by these cytokines. These observations suggest that maintenance of AMPK activity supports cartilage homeostasis by protecting cartilage matrix from inflammation-induced degradation.
doi:10.1002/art.30333
PMCID: PMC3128233  PMID: 21400477
6.  Effects of short-term glucocorticoid treatment on changes in cartilage matrix degradation and chondrocyte gene expression induced by mechanical injury and inflammatory cytokines 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2011;13(5):R142.
Introduction
Traumatic joint injury damages cartilage and causes adjacent joint tissues to release inflammatory cytokines, increasing the risk of developing osteoarthritis. The main objective of this study was to determine whether the combined catabolic effects of mechanical injury, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)/soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) on cartilage could be abolished by short-term treatment with glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone.
Methods
In an initial dexamethasone-dose-response study, bovine cartilage explants were treated with TNFα and increasing concentrations of dexamethasone. Bovine and human cartilage explants were then subjected to individual and combined treatments with TNFα, IL-6/sIL-6R and injury in the presence or absence of dexamethasone. Treatment effects were assessed by measuring glycosaminoglycans (GAG) release to the medium and synthesis of proteoglycans. Additional experiments tested whether pre-exposure of cartilage to dexamethasone could prevent GAG loss and inhibition of biosynthesis induced by cytokines, and whether post-treatment with dexamethasone could diminish the effects of pre-established cytokine insult. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels for genes involved in cartilage homeostasis (proteases, matrix molecules, cytokines, growth and transcription factors) were measured in explants subjected to combined treatments with injury, TNFα and dexamethasone. To investigate mechanisms associated with dexamethasone regulation of chondrocyte metabolic response, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist (RU486) and proprotein convertase inhibitor (RVKR-CMK) were used.
Results
Dexamethasone dose-dependently inhibited GAG loss and the reduction in biosynthesis caused by TNFα. The combination of mechanical injury, TNFα and IL-6/sIL-6R caused the most severe GAG loss; dexamethasone reduced this GAG loss to control levels in bovine and human cartilage. Additionally, dexamethasone pre-treatment or post-treatment of bovine explants lowered GAG loss and increased proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage explants exposed to TNFα. Dexamethasone did not down-regulate aggrecanase mRNA levels. Post-transcriptional regulation by dexamethasone of other genes associated with responses to injury and cytokines was noted. GR antagonist reversed the effect of dexamethasone on sulfate incorporation. RVKR-CMK significantly reduced GAG loss caused by TNFα + IL-6 + injury.
Conclusions
Short-term glucocorticoid treatment effectively abolished the catabolic effects exerted by the combination of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mechanical injury: dexamethasone prevented proteoglycan degradation and restored biosynthesis. Dexamethasone appears to regulate the catabolic response of chondrocytes post-transcriptionally, since the abundance of transcripts encoding aggrecanases was still elevated in the presence of dexamethasone.
doi:10.1186/ar3456
PMCID: PMC3308070  PMID: 21888631
7.  The influence of scaffold material on chondrocytes in inflammatory conditions 
Acta biomaterialia  2013;9(5):6563-6575.
Cartilage tissue engineering aims to repair damaged cartilage tissue in arthritic joints. As arthritic joints have significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-1β and TNFα that cause cartilage destruction, it is critical to engineer stable cartilage in an inflammatory environment. Biomaterial scaffolds constitute an important component of the microenvironment for chondrocytes in engineered cartilage. However, it remains unclear how scaffold material influences the response of chondrocytes seeded in these scaffolds under inflammatory stimuli. Here, we compared the response of articular chondrocytes seeded within three different polymeric scaffolding materials (silk, collagen and polylactic acid (PLA)) to IL-1β and TNFα. These scaffolds have different physical characteristics and yielded significant differences in the expression of genes associated with cartilage matrix production and degradation, cell adhesion and cell death. Silk and collagen scaffolds released pro-inflammatory cytokines faster and had higher uptake water abilities than PLA scaffolds. Correspondingly, chondrocytes cultured in silk and collagen scaffolds maintained higher levels of cartilage matrix than those in PLA, suggesting that these biophysical properties of scaffolds may regulate gene expression and response to inflammatory stimuli in chondrocytes. Based on this study, we concluded that selecting the proper scaffolding material will aid in the engineering of more stable cartilage tissues for cartilage repair; and that silk and collagen are the more optimal scaffolds in supporting the stability of 3D cartilage under inflammatory conditions.
doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2013.01.004
PMCID: PMC3713500  PMID: 23333441
cartilage matrix production; scaffold; pro-inflammatory cytokines; cytokine release; water uptake
8.  Carprofen inhibits the release of matrix metalloproteinases 1, 3, and 13 in the secretome of an explant model of articular cartilage stimulated with interleukin 1β 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2013;15(6):R223.
Introduction
Arthritic diseases are characterized by the degradation of collagenous and noncollagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) components in articular cartilage. The increased expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is partly responsible for cartilage degradation. This study used proteomics to identify inflammatory proteins and catabolic enzymes released in a serum-free explant model of articular cartilage stimulated with the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β). Western blotting was used to quantify the release of selected proteins in the presence or absence of the cyclooxygenase-2 specific nonsteroidal pro-inflammatory drug carprofen.
Methods
Cartilage explant cultures were established by using metacarpophalangeal joints from horses euthanized for purposes other than research. Samples were treated as follows: no treatment (control), IL-1β (10 ng/ml), carprofen (100 μg/ml), and carprofen (100 μg/ml) + IL-1β (10 ng/ml). Explants were incubated (37°C, 5% CO2) over twelve day time courses. High-throughput nano liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry uncovered candidate proteins for quantitative western blot analysis. Proteoglycan loss was assessed by using the dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay, which measures the release of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs).
Results
Mass spectrometry identified MMP-1, -3, -13, and the ECM constituents thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and fibronectin-1 (FN1). IL-1β stimulation increased the release of all three MMPs. IL-1β also stimulated the fragmentation of FN1 and increased chondrocyte cell death (as assessed by β-actin release). Addition of carprofen significantly decreased MMP release and the appearance of a 60 kDa fragment of FN1 without causing any detectable cytotoxicity to chondrocytes. DMMB assays suggested that carprofen initially inhibited IL-1β-induced GAG release, but this effect was transient. Overall, during the two time courses, GAG release was 58.67% ± 10.91% (SD) for IL-1β versus 52.91% ± 9.35% (SD) with carprofen + IL-1β.
Conclusions
Carprofen exhibits beneficial anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects in vitro without causing any detectable cytotoxicity. Combining proteomics with this explant model provides a sensitive screening system for anti-inflammatory compounds.
doi:10.1186/ar4424
PMCID: PMC3978949  PMID: 24373218
9.  Linked decreases in liver kinase B1 and AMP-activated protein kinase activity modulate matrix catabolic responses to biomechanical injury in chondrocytes 
Introduction
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) maintains cultured chondrocyte matrix homeostasis in response to inflammatory cytokines. AMPK activity is decreased in human knee osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes. Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is one of the upstream activators of AMPK. Hence, we examined the relationship between LKB1 and AMPK activity in OA and aging cartilages, and in chondrocytes subjected to inflammatory cytokine treatment and biomechanical compression injury, and performed translational studies of AMPK pharmacologic activation.
Methods
We assessed activity (phosphorylation) of LKB1 and AMPKα in mouse knee OA cartilage, in aging mouse cartilage (6 to 24 months), and in chondrocytes after mechanical injury by dynamic compression, via immunohistochemistry or western blot. We knocked down LKB1 by siRNA transfection. Nitric oxide, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, and MMP-13 release were measured by Griess reaction and ELISA, respectively.
Results
Knockdown of LKB1 attenuated chondrocyte AMPK activity, and increased nitric oxide, MMP-3 and MMP-13 release (P <0.05) in response to IL-1β and TNFα. Both LKB1 and AMPK activity were decreased in mouse knee OA and aged knee cartilage, and in bovine chondrocytes after biomechanical injury. Pretreatment of bovine chondrocytes with AMPK activators AICAR and A-769662 inhibited both AMPKα dephosphorylation and catabolic responses after biomechanical injury.
Conclusion
LKB1 is required for chondrocyte AMPK activity, thereby inhibiting matrix catabolic responses to inflammatory cytokines. Concurrent loss of LKB1 and AMPK activity in articular chondrocytes is associated with OA, aging and biomechanical injury. Conversely, pharmacologic AMPK activation attenuates catabolic responses to biomechanical injury, suggesting a potentially novel approach to inhibit OA development and progression.
doi:10.1186/ar4254
PMCID: PMC3979085  PMID: 23883619
osteoarthritis; cartilage; aging; MMP-3; nitric oxide
10.  Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ1 expression is diminished in human osteoarthritic cartilage and is downregulated by interleukin-1β in articular chondrocytes 
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor involved in the regulation of many cellular processes. We and others have previously shown that PPARγ activators display anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective properties in vitro and improve the clinical course and histopathological features in an experimental animal model of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the expression and regulation of PPARγ expression in cartilage are poorly defined. This study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative expression and distribution of PPARγ in normal and OA cartilage and to evaluate the effect of IL-1β, a prominent cytokine in OA, on PPARγ expression in cultured chondrocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the levels of PPARγ protein expression were significantly lower in OA cartilage than in normal cartilage. Using real-time RT-PCR, we demonstrated that PPARγ1 mRNA levels were about 10-fold higher than PPARγ2 mRNA levels, and that only PPARγ1 was differentially expressed: its levels in OA cartilage was 2.4-fold lower than in normal cartilage (p < 0.001). IL-1 treatment of OA chondrocytes downregulated PPARγ1 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect probably occurred at the transcriptional level, because IL-1 decreases both PPARγ1 mRNA expression and PPARγ1 promoter activity. TNF-α, IL-17, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which are involved in the pathogenesis of OA, also downregulated PPARγ1 expression. Specific inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38 (SB203580) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125), but not of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (PD98059), prevented IL-1-induced downregulation of PPARγ1 expression. Similarly, inhibitors of NF-κB signaling (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, MG-132, and SN-50) abolished the suppressive effect of IL-1. Thus, our study demonstrated that PPARγ1 is downregulated in OA cartilage. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1 may be responsible for this downregulation via a mechanism involving activation of the MAPKs (p38 and JNK) and NF-κB signaling pathways. The IL-1-induced downregulation of PPARγ expression might be a new and additional important process by which IL-1 promotes articular inflammation and cartilage degradation.
doi:10.1186/ar2151
PMCID: PMC1906809  PMID: 17386086
11.  Chondrocyte IGF-1 receptor expression and responsiveness to IGF-1 stimulation in mouse articular cartilage during various phases of experimentally induced arthritis. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1995;54(8):645-653.
OBJECTIVE--To examine the distribution of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors and the biological response to IGF-1 stimulation in articular cartilage of normal mouse knee joints and arthritic joints taken at various stages of experimentally induced arthritis. METHODS--In situ IGF-1 receptor expression and responsiveness to IGF-1 stimulation were examined in murine articular cartilage at different phases in two models of experimentally induced arthritis. IGF-1 receptor expression was visualised in joint sections with the use of anti-IGF-1 receptor antibodies and quantified by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Chondrocyte proteoglycan (PG) synthesis was measured by incorporation of 35S-sulphate. RESULTS--In control cartilage, the majority of IGF-1 receptors were found on chondrocytes localised in the middle and deeper zones of the cartilage, whereas receptor expression in surface zone chondrocytes was very low. During culture of normal articular cartilage, IGF-1 was able to maintain chondrocyte PG synthesis at the in vivo level. Concurrently with the development of arthritis, cartilage lost its capacity to react to IGF-1, but IGF-1 stimulation recovered when the inflammatory response waned. Shortly after induction of arthritis, IGF-1 receptor expression initially declined, but it had returned to normal levels by day 1 and remained increased thereafter. CONCLUSION--The distribution of IGF-1 receptor expression in the different zones of normal articular cartilage reflects IGF-1 stimulation and metabolic activity of chondrocytes in these layers. This correlation is disturbed in arthritic cartilage, suggesting inadequate or overruled signalling.
Images
PMCID: PMC1009962  PMID: 7677441
12.  In vitro model for the analysis of synovial fibroblast-mediated degradation of intact cartilage 
Introduction
Activated synovial fibroblasts are thought to play a major role in the destruction of cartilage in chronic, inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, profound insight into the pathogenic mechanisms and the impact of synovial fibroblasts in the initial early stages of cartilage destruction is limited. Hence, the present study sought to establish a standardised in vitro model for early cartilage destruction with native, intact cartilage in order to analyse the matrix-degrading capacity of synovial fibroblasts and their influence on cartilage metabolism.
Methods
A standardised model was established by co-culturing bovine cartilage discs with early-passage human synovial fibroblasts for 14 days under continuous stimulation with TNF-α, IL-1β or a combination of TNF-α/IL-1β. To assess cartilage destruction, the co-cultures were analysed by histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and laser scanning microscopy. In addition, content and/or neosynthesis of the matrix molecules cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and collagen II was quantified. Finally, gene and protein expression of matrix-degrading enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines were profiled in both synovial fibroblasts and cartilage.
Results
Histological and immunohistological analyses revealed that non-stimulated synovial fibroblasts are capable of demasking/degrading cartilage matrix components (proteoglycans, COMP, collagen) and stimulated synovial fibroblasts clearly augment chondrocyte-mediated, cytokine-induced cartilage destruction. Cytokine stimulation led to an upregulation of tissue-degrading enzymes (aggrecanases I/II, matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) 1, MMP-3) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) in both cartilage and synovial fibroblasts. In general, the activity of tissue-degrading enzymes was consistently higher in co-cultures with synovial fibroblasts than in cartilage monocultures. In addition, stimulated synovial fibroblasts suppressed the synthesis of collagen type II mRNA in cartilage.
Conclusions
The results demonstrate for the first time the capacity of synovial fibroblasts to degrade intact cartilage matrix by disturbing the homeostasis of cartilage via the production of catabolic enzymes/pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppression of anabolic matrix synthesis (i.e., collagen type II). This new in vitro model may closely reflect the complex process of early stage in vivo destruction in RA and help to elucidate the role of synovial fibroblasts and other synovial cells in this process, and the molecular mechanisms involved in cartilage degradation.
doi:10.1186/ar2618
PMCID: PMC2688258  PMID: 19226472
13.  Potential involvement of oxidative stress in cartilage senescence and development of osteoarthritis: oxidative stress induces chondrocyte telomere instability and downregulation of chondrocyte function 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2005;7(2):R380-R391.
Oxidative stress leads to increased risk for osteoarthritis (OA) but the precise mechanism remains unclear. We undertook this study to clarify the impact of oxidative stress on the progression of OA from the viewpoint of oxygen free radical induced genomic instability, including telomere instability and resulting replicative senescence and dysfunction in human chondrocytes. Human chondrocytes and articular cartilage explants were isolated from knee joints of patients undergoing arthroplastic knee surgery for OA. Oxidative damage and antioxidative capacity in OA cartilage were investigated in donor-matched pairs of intact and degenerated regions of tissue isolated from the same cartilage explants. The results were histologically confirmed by immunohistochemistry for nitrotyrosine, which is considered to be a maker of oxidative damage. Under treatment with reactive oxygen species (ROS; 0.1 μmol/l H2O2) or an antioxidative agent (ascorbic acid: 100.0 μmol/l), cellular replicative potential, telomere instability and production of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) were assessed in cultured chondrocytes. In tissue cultures of articular cartilage explants, the presence of oxidative damage, chondrocyte telomere length and loss of GAG to the medium were analyzed in the presence or absence of ROS or ascorbic acid. Lower antioxidative capacity and stronger staining of nitrotyrosine were observed in the degenerating regions of OA cartilages as compared with the intact regions from same explants. Immunostaining for nitrotyrosine correlated with the severity of histological changes to OA cartilage, suggesting a correlation between oxidative damage and articular cartilage degeneration. During continuous culture of chondrocytes, telomere length, replicative capacity and GAG production were decreased by treatment with ROS. In contrast, treatment with an antioxidative agent resulted in a tendency to elongate telomere length and replicative lifespan in cultured chondrocytes. In tissue cultures of cartilage explants, nitrotyrosine staining, chondrocyte telomere length and GAG remaining in the cartilage tissue were lower in ROS-treated cartilages than in control groups, whereas the antioxidative agent treated group exhibited a tendency to maintain the chondrocyte telomere length and proteoglycan remaining in the cartilage explants, suggesting that oxidative stress induces chondrocyte telomere instability and catabolic changes in cartilage matrix structure and composition. Our findings clearly show that the presence of oxidative stress induces telomere genomic instability, replicative senescence and dysfunction of chondrocytes in OA cartilage, suggesting that oxidative stress, leading to chondrocyte senescence and cartilage ageing, might be responsible for the development of OA. New efforts to prevent the development and progression of OA may include strategies and interventions aimed at reducing oxidative damage in articular cartilage.
doi:10.1186/ar1499
PMCID: PMC1065334  PMID: 15743486
cellular senescence; chondrocyte; osteoarthritis; oxidative stress; telomere
14.  Metalloproteinase and inhibitor expression profiling of resorbing cartilage reveals pro-collagenase activation as a critical step for collagenolysis 
Excess proteolysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of articular cartilage is a key characteristic of arthritis. The main enzymes involved belong to the metalloproteinase family, specifically the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and a group of proteinases with a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS). Chondrocytes are the only cell type embedded in the cartilage ECM, and cell-matrix interactions can influence gene expression and cell behaviour. Thus, although the use of monolayer cultures can be informative, it is essential to study chondrocytes encapsulated within their native environment, cartilage, to fully assess cellular responses. The aim of this study was to profile the temporal gene expression of metalloproteinases and their endogenous inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), and α2-macroglobulin (α2M), in actively resorbing cartilage. The addition of the pro-inflammatory cytokine combination of interleukin-1 (IL-1) + oncostatin M (OSM) to bovine nasal cartilage induces the synthesis and subsequent activation of pro-metalloproteinases, leading to cartilage resorption. We show that IL-1+OSM upregulated the expression of MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, 12, -13, -14, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-4, -5, and -9. Differences in basal expression and the magnitude of induction were observed, whilst there was no significant modulation of TIMP-2, -3, RECK, or ADAMTS-15 gene expression. IL-1+OSM downregulated MMP-16,TIMP-4, and α2M expression. All IL-1+OSM-induced metalloproteinases showed marked upregulation early in the culture period, whilst inhibitor expression was reduced throughout the stimulation period such that metalloproteinase production would be in excess of inhibitors. Moreover, although pro-collagenases were upregulated and synthesized early (by day 5), collagenolysis became apparent later with the presence of active collagenases (day 10) when inhibitor levels were low. These findings indicate that the activation cascades for pro-collagenases are delayed relative to collagenase expression, further confirm the coordinated regulation of metalloproteinases in actively resorbing cartilage, and support the use of bovine nasal cartilage as a model system to study the mechanisms that promote cartilage degradation.
doi:10.1186/ar2034
PMCID: PMC1779431  PMID: 16919164
15.  Reactive nitrogen and oxygen species in interleukin-1-mediated DNA damage associated with osteoarthritis 
Objective
Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with increased levels of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1). Nitric oxide (NO) can mediate a number of the catabolic effects of IL-1 in articular cartilage. The aims of this study were to determine if OA cartilage shows evidence of DNA damage, and if IL-1 could induce DNA damage in non-OA cartilage by increasing NO or superoxide.
Methods
Articular chondrocytes were isolated from porcine femoral condyles and embedded in 1.2% alginate. The effects of 24 hrs incubation with IL-1, the nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) selective inhibitor, the free radical scavenger SOD, the NO donor NOC18, or the combined NO and peroxynitrite donor SIN-1 on DNA damage were tested, using the “comet” assay. NO production was measured using the Griess assay. The type of oxidative damage present was assessed using a modified comet assay.
Results
OA cartilage had significantly more DNA damage than non-OA cartilage (p < 0.001). IL-1 caused an increase in DNA damage (p < 0.01), which was associated with increased NO production (p < 0.01). Both oxidative DNA strand breaks and base modifications of purines and pyrimidines were observed. IL-1-induced DNA damage was inhibited by a NOS2 inhibitor or by superoxide dismutase (p < 0.01). Furthermore, NOC-18 or SIN-1 caused DNA damage (p < 0.001).
Conclusion
Our work shows chondrocytes in osteoarthritic cartilage exhibit DNA damage, and that IL-1 induces DNA damage and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in non-OA chondrocytes in alginate.
doi:10.1016/j.joca.2007.09.012
PMCID: PMC2430155  PMID: 17945515
16.  Quantitative ultrasound can assess the regeneration process of tissue-engineered cartilage using a complex between adherent bone marrow cells and a three-dimensional scaffold 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2005;7(3):R552-R559.
Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) defects resulting from traumatic injury or degenerative joint disease do not repair themselves spontaneously. Therefore, such defects may require novel regenerative strategies to restore biologically and biomechanically functional tissue. Recently, tissue engineering using a complex of cells and scaffold has emerged as a new approach for repairing cartilage defects and restoring cartilage function. With the advent of this new technology, accurate methods for evaluating articular cartilage have become important. In particular, in vivo evaluation is essential for determining the best treatment. However, without a biopsy, which causes damage, articular cartilage cannot be accurately evaluated in a clinical context. We have developed a novel system for evaluating articular cartilage, in which the acoustic properties of the cartilage are measured by introducing an ultrasonic probe during arthroscopy of the knee joint. The purpose of the current study was to determine the efficacy of this ultrasound system for evaluating tissue-engineered cartilage in an experimental model involving implantation of a cell/scaffold complex into rabbit knee joint defects. Ultrasonic echoes from the articular cartilage were converted into a wavelet map by wavelet transformation. On the wavelet map, the percentage maximum magnitude (the maximum magnitude of the measurement area of the operated knee divided by that of the intact cartilage of the opposite, nonoperated knee; %MM) was used as a quantitative index of cartilage regeneration. Using this index, the tissue-engineered cartilage was examined to elucidate the relations between ultrasonic analysis and biochemical and histological analyses. The %MM increased over the time course of the implant and all the hyaline-like cartilage samples from the histological findings had a high %MM. Correlations were observed between the %MM and the semiquantitative histologic grading scale scores from the histological findings. In the biochemical findings, the chondroitin sulfate content increased over the time course of the implant, whereas the hydroxyproline content remained constant. The chondroitin sulfate content showed a similarity to the results of the %MM values. Ultrasonic measurements were found to predict the regeneration process of the tissue-engineered cartilage as a minimally invasive method. Therefore, ultrasonic evaluation using a wavelet map can support the evaluation of tissue-engineered cartilage using cell/scaffold complexes.
doi:10.1186/ar1710
PMCID: PMC1174952  PMID: 15899042
17.  Antirheumatic drug response signatures in human chondrocytes: potential molecular targets to stimulate cartilage regeneration 
Introduction
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) leads to progressive destruction of articular cartilage. This study aimed to disclose major mechanisms of antirheumatic drug action on human chondrocytes and to reveal marker and pharmacological target genes that are involved in cartilage dysfunction and regeneration.
Methods
An interactive in vitro cultivation system composed of human chondrocyte alginate cultures and conditioned supernatant of SV40 T-antigen immortalised human synovial fibroblasts was used. Chondrocyte alginate cultures were stimulated with supernatant of RA synovial fibroblasts, of healthy donor synovial fibroblasts, and of RA synovial fibroblasts that have been antirheumatically treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) (azathioprine, gold sodium thiomalate, chloroquine phosphate, and methotrexate), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (piroxicam and diclofenac), or steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) (methylprednisolone and prednisolone). Chondrocyte gene expression profile was analysed using microarrays. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed for validation of microarray data.
Results
Genome-wide expression analysis revealed 110 RA-related genes in human chondrocytes: expression of catabolic mediators (inflammation, cytokines/chemokines, and matrix degradation) was induced, and expression of anabolic mediators (matrix synthesis and proliferation/differentiation) was repressed. Potential marker genes to define and influence cartilage/chondrocyte integrity and regeneration were determined and include already established genes (COX-2, CXCR-4, IL-1RN, IL-6/8, MMP-10/12, and TLR-2) and novel genes (ADORA2A, BCL2-A1, CTGF, CXCR-7, CYR-61, HSD11B-1, IL-23A, MARCKS, MXRA-5, NDUFA4L2, NR4A3, SMS, STS, TNFAIP-2, and TXNIP). Antirheumatic treatment with SAIDs showed complete and strong reversion of RA-related gene expression in human chondrocytes, whereas treatment with NSAIDs and the DMARD chloroquine phosphate had only moderate to minor effects. Treatment with the DMARDs azathioprine, gold sodium thiomalate, and methotrexate efficiently reverted chondrocyte RA-related gene expression toward the 'healthy' level. Pathways of cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, transforming growth factor-beta/Toll-like receptor/Jak-STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) signalling and extracellular matrix receptor interaction were targeted by antirheumatics.
Conclusions
Our findings indicate that RA-relevant stimuli result in the molecular activation of catabolic and inflammatory processes in human chondrocytes that are reverted by antirheumatic treatment. Candidate genes that evolved in this study for new therapeutic approaches include suppression of specific immune responses (COX-2, IL-23A, and IL-6) and activation of cartilage regeneration (CTGF and CYR-61).
doi:10.1186/ar2605
PMCID: PMC2688247  PMID: 19192274
18.  Damage Control Mechanisms in Articular Cartilage 
Articular chondrocytes maintain cartilage throughout life by replacing lost or damaged matrix with freshly synthesized material. Synthesis activity is regulated, rapidly increasing to well above basal levels in response to cartilage injury. Such responses suggest that synthesis activity is linked to the rate of matrix loss by endogenous "damage control" mechanisms. As a major stimulator of matrix synthesis in cartilage, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is likely to play a role in such mechanisms. Although IGF-I is nearly ubiquitous, its bioavailability in cartilage is controlled by IGF-I binding proteins (IGFBPs) secreted by chondrocytes. IGFBPs are part of a complex system, termed the IGF-I axis, that tightly regulates IGF-I activities. For the most part, IGFBPs block IGF-I activity by sequestering IGF-I from its cell surface receptor. We recently found that the expression of one binding protein, IGFBP-3, increases with chondrocyte age, paralleling an age-related decline in synthesis activity. In addition, IGFBP-3 is overexpressed in osteoarthritic cartilage, leading to metabolic disturbances that contribute to cartilage degeneration. These observations indicate that IGFBP-3 plays a crucial role in regulating matrix synthesis in cartilage, and suggest that cartilage damage control mechanisms may fail due to age-related changes in IGFBP-3 expression or distribution. Our investigation of this hypothesis began with immunolocalization studies to determine the tissue distribution of IGFBP-3 in human cartilage. We found that IGFBP-3 accumulated around chondrocytes in the pericellular/territorial matrix, where it co-localized with fibronectin, but not with the other matrix proteins tenascin-C and type VI collagen. This result suggested that the IGFBP-3 distribution is determined by binding to fibronectin. Binding studies using purified proteins demonstrated that IGFBP-3 does in fact bind to fibronectin, but not to tenascin-C or type VI collagen. Finally, we investigated the metabolic effects of fibronectin and IGFBP-3 in a chondrocyte culture system. These experiments showed that fibronectin enhanced the inhibitory effect that low concentrations of IGFBP-3 had on matrix synthesis. Taken together, these observations confirm that IGFBP-3-fibronectin interactions affect the IGF-I axis, and they indicate that IGF-I is stored in the chondrocyte territorial matrix through binding to a complex of IGFBP-3 and intact fibronectin. This arrangement may play an important role in cartilage damage control mechanisms. The local increase in matrix synthesis following injury could result from damage-induced IGF-I release from such pools. An age-related failure to organize this system may contribute to degenerative disease.
PMCID: PMC1888750  PMID: 10934618
19.  Post-traumatic glenohumeral cartilage lesions: a systematic review 
Background
Any cartilage damage to the glenohumeral joint should be avoided, as these damages may result in osteoarthritis of the shoulder. To understand the pathomechanism leading to shoulder cartilage damage, we conducted a systematic review on the subject of articular cartilage lesions caused by traumas where non impression fracture of the subchondral bone is present.
Methods
PubMed (MEDLINE), ScienceDirect (EMBASE, BIOBASE, BIOSIS Previews) and the COCHRANE database of systematic reviews were systematically scanned using a defined search strategy to identify relevant articles in this field of research. First selection was done based on abstracts according to specific criteria, where the methodological quality in selected full text articles was assessed by two reviewers. Agreement between raters was investigated using percentage agreement and Cohen's Kappa statistic. The traumatic events were divided into two categories: 1) acute trauma which refers to any single impact situation which directly damages the articular cartilage, and 2) chronic trauma which means cartilage lesions due to overuse or disuse of the shoulder joint.
Results
The agreement on data quality between the two reviewers was 93% with a Kappa value of 0.79 indicating an agreement considered to be 'substantial'. It was found that acute trauma on the shoulder causes humeral articular cartilage to disrupt from the underlying bone. The pathomechanism is said to be due to compression or shearing, which can be caused by a sudden subluxation or dislocation. However, such impact lesions are rarely reported. In the case of chronic trauma glenohumeral cartilage degeneration is a result of overuse and is associated to other shoulder joint pathologies. In these latter cases it is the rotator cuff which is injured first. This can result in instability and consequent impingement which may progress to glenohumeral cartilage damage.
Conclusion
The great majority of glenohumeral cartilage lesions without any bony lesions are the results of overuse. Glenohumeral cartilage lesions with an intact subchondral bone and caused by an acute trauma are either rare or overlooked. And at increased risk for such cartilage lesions are active sportsmen with high shoulder demand or athletes prone to shoulder injury.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-9-107
PMCID: PMC2503981  PMID: 18651982
20.  Transient anabolic effects accompany epidermal growth factor receptor signal activation in articular cartilage in vivo 
Introduction
Signals from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have typically been considered to provide catabolic activities in articular cartilage, and accordingly have been suggested to have a causal role in osteoarthritis progression. The aim of this study was to determine in vivo roles for endogenous EGFR signal activation in articular cartilage.
Methods
Transgenic mice with conditional, limb-targeted deletion of the endogenous intracellular EGFR inhibitor Mig-6 were generated using CreLoxP (Mig-6-flox; Prx1Cre) recombination. Histology, histochemical staining and immunohistochemistry were used to confirm activation of EGFR signaling in the articular cartilage and joints, and to analyze phenotypic consequences of Mig-6 loss on articular cartilage morphology, proliferation, expression of progenitor cell markers, presence of chondrocyte hypertrophy and degradation of articular cartilage matrix.
Results
The articular cartilage of Mig-6-conditional knockout (Mig-6-cko) mice was dramatically and significantly thicker than normal articular cartilage at 6 and 12 weeks of age. Mig-6-cko articular cartilage contained a population of chondrocytes in which EGFR signaling was activated, and which were three to four times more proliferative than normal Mig-6-flox articular chondrocytes. These cells expressed high levels of the master chondrogenic regulatory factor Sox9, as well as high levels of putative progenitor cell markers including superficial zone protein (SZP), growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) and Notch1. Expression levels were also high for activated β-catenin and the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) mediators phospho-Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3). Anabolic effects of EGFR activation in articular cartilage were followed by catabolic events, including matrix degradation, as determined by accumulation of aggrecan cleavage fragments, and onset of hypertrophy as determined by type × collagen expression. By 16 weeks of age, the articular cartilage of Mig-6-cko knees was no longer thickened and was degenerating.
Conclusions
These results demonstrate unexpected anabolic effects of EGFR signal activation in articular cartilage, and suggest the hypothesis that these effects may promote the expansion and/or activity of an endogenous EGFR-responsive cell population within the articular cartilage.
doi:10.1186/ar4233
PMCID: PMC4060279  PMID: 23705804
Epidermal growth factor receptor; EGFR; Articular cartilage; Osteoarthritis; Progenitor cells; Chondroprogenitors; Cartilage repair; Mig-6
21.  Blockade of endogenous interleukin 12 results in suppression of murine streptococcal cell wall arthritis by enhancement of interleukin 10 and interleukin 1Ra 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2000;59(3):196-205.
OBJECTIVE—The goal of this study was to investigate the role of endogenous interleukin 12 (IL12) in acute murine streptococcal cell wall (SCW) arthritis.
METHODS—C57black/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with rat anti-murine IL12 (C17.8), shortly before induction of arthritis by intra-articular injection of 25 µg SCW fragments into the right knee joint. Joint swelling and chondrocyte synthetic function was analysed several days after induction of SCW arthritis. Local cytokine profile was determined, protein by using ELISA and mRNA by RT-PCR technology. To confirm the findings at later time points, tissue chamber model of inflammation was used. Histology was performed to examine cell influx and cartilage damage.
RESULTS—Suppression of joint swelling was noted at days 2 and 4, whereas no suppressive effect of anti-IL12 was found at day 1. Severe inhibition of chondrocyte proteoglycan synthesis was seen at day 1 in both arthritic control and anti-IL12 treated mice. However, chondrocyte function was restored at day 4 of arthritis in the anti-IL12 injected animals, but not in the arthritic controls. Moreover, cell influx in synovial tissue and joint cavity was reduced by anti-IL12 treatment. Neutralisation of IL12 reduced the local levels of IL1β, IL12 and interferon γ, when examined shortly after induction of SCW arthritis, whereas tumour necrosis factor α levels were not affected. In contrast, IL10 and IL1Ra protein and mRNA levels were strongly up regulated in synovial tissues after IL12 blockade. Enhancement of IL10 and IL1Ra by anti-IL12 was confirmed in a tissue chamber model with SCW induced inflammation.
CONCLUSIONS—This study indicates that IL12 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine during onset of acute SCW arthritis. Balances of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were strongly improved by anti-IL12 treatment.


doi:10.1136/ard.59.3.196
PMCID: PMC1753084  PMID: 10700428
22.  Curcumin mediated suppression of nuclear factor-κB promotes chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in a high-density co-culture microenvironment 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2010;12(4):R127.
Introduction
Osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are characterised by joint inflammation and cartilage degradation. Although mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like progenitors are resident in the superficial zone of articular cartilage, damaged tissue does not possess the capacity for regeneration. The high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines present in OA/RA joints may impede the chondrogenic differentiation of these progenitors. Interleukin (IL)-1β activates the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which in turn activates proteins involved in matrix degradation, inflammation and apoptosis. Curcumin is a phytochemical capable of inhibiting IL-1β-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of apoptotic and pro-inflammatory genes in chondrocytes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of curcumin on IL-1β-induced NF-κB signalling pathway in MSCs during chondrogenic differentiation.
Methods
MSCs were either cultured in a ratio of 1:1 with primary chondrocytes in high-density culture or cultured alone in monolayer with/without curcumin and/or IL-1β.
Results
We demonstrate that although curcumin alone does not have chondrogenic effects on MSCs, it inhibits IL-1β-induced activation of NF-κB, activation of caspase-3 and cyclooxygenase-2 in MSCs time and concentration dependently, as it does in chondrocytes. In IL-1β stimulated co-cultures, four-hour pre-treatment with curcumin significantly enhanced the production of collagen type II, cartilage specific proteoglycans (CSPGs), β1-integrin, as well as activating MAPKinase signaling and suppressing caspase-3 and cyclooxygenase-2.
Conclusions
Curcumin treatment may help establish a microenvironment in which the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines are antagonized, thus facilitating chondrogenesis of MSC-like progenitor cells in vivo. This strategy may support the regeneration of articular cartilage.
doi:10.1186/ar3065
PMCID: PMC2945017  PMID: 20594343
23.  Complement C1s activation in degenerating articular cartilage of rheumatoid arthritis patients: immunohistochemical studies with an active form specific antibody 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1999;58(3):175-181.
OBJECTIVE—The first complement component C1s was reported to have novel functions to degrade matrix components, besides its activities in the classic complement pathway. This study explores participation of C1s in articular cartilage degradation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
METHODS—Normal articular cartilage (n=6) and cartilage obtained from joints with RA (n=15) and osteoarthritis (OA, n=10) were immunostained using anti-C1s monoclonal antibodies PG11, which recognises both active and inactive C1s, and M241, which is specifically reactive to activated C1s. The effects of inflammatory cytokines on C1s production by human articular chondrocytes were also examined by sandwich ELISA.
RESULTS—In normal articular cartilage, C1s was negative in staining with both PG11 and M241. In contrast, degenerating cartilage of RA was stained with PG11 (14 of 15 cases), and in most of the cases (13 of 15 cases) C1s was activated as revealed by M241 staining. In OA, C1s staining was restricted in severely degrading part of cartilage (5 of 10 cases), and even in that part C1s was not activated. In addition, C1s production by chondrocytes in vitro was increased by an inflammatory cytokine, tumour necrosis factor α.
CONCLUSION—These results suggest that C1s activated in degenerative cartilage matrix of RA but not in that of OA. C1s is thought to participate in the pathogenesis of RA through its collagenolytic activity in addition to the role in the classic cascade.

 Keywords: complement C1s; articular cartilage; rheumatoid arthritis
PMCID: PMC1752845  PMID: 10364916
24.  Chondrocyte outgrowth into a gelatin scaffold in a single impact load model of damage/repair – effect of BMP-2 
Background
Articular cartilage has little capacity for repair in vivo, however, a small number of studies have shown that, in vitro, a damage/repair response can be induced. Recent work by our group has shown that cartilage can respond to single impact load and culture by producing repair cells on the articular surface. The purpose of this study was to identify whether chondrocyte outgrowth into a 3D scaffold could be observed following single impact load and culture. The effect of bone morphogenic-2 (BMP-2) on this process was investigated.
Methods
Cartilage explants were single impact loaded, placed within a scaffold and cultured for up to 20 days +/- BMP-2. Cell numbers in the scaffold, on and extruding from the articular surface were quantified and the immunohistochemistry used to identify the cellular phenotype.
Results
Following single impact load and culture, chondrocytes were observed in a 3D gelatin scaffold under all culture conditions. Chondrocytes were also observed on the articular surface of the cartilage and extruding out of the parent cartilage and on to the cartilage surface. BMP-2 was demonstrated to quantitatively inhibit these events.
Conclusion
These studies demonstrate that articular chondrocytes can be stimulated to migrate out of parent cartilage following single impact load and culture. The addition of BMP-2 to the culture medium quantitatively reduced the repair response. It may be that the inhibitory effect of BMP-2 in this experimental model provides a clue to the apparent inability of articular cartilage to heal itself following damage in vivo.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-8-120
PMCID: PMC2244625  PMID: 18053249
25.  Cytokine signaling-1 suppressor is inducible by IL-1beta and inhibits the catabolic effects of IL-1beta in chondrocytes: its implication in the paradoxical joint-protective role of IL-1beta 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2013;15(6):R191.
Introduction
Although IL-1β is believed to be crucial in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA), the IL-1β blockade brings no therapeutic benefit in human OA and results in OA aggravation in several animal models. We explored the role of a cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) suppressor as a regulatory modulator of IL-1β signaling in chondrocytes.
Methods
Cartilage samples were obtained from patients with knee OA and those without OA who underwent surgery for femur-neck fracture. SOCS1 expression in cartilage was assessed with immunohistochemistry. IL-1β-induced SOCS1 expression in chondrocytes was analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot. The effect of SOCS1 on IL-1β signaling pathways and the synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and aggrecanase-1 was investigated in SOCS1-overexpressing or -knockdown chondrocytes.
Results
SOCS1 expression was significantly increased in OA cartilage, especially in areas of severe damage (P < 0.01). IL-1β stimulated SOCS1 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent pattern (P < 0.01). The IL-1β-induced production of MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, and ADAMTS-4 (aggrecanase-1, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4) was affected by SOCS1 overexpression or knockdown in both SW1353 cells and primary human articular chondrocytes (all P values < 0.05). The inhibitory effects of SOCS1 were mediated by blocking p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation, and by downregulating transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) expression.
Conclusions
Our results show that SOCS1 is induced by IL1-β in OA chondrocytes and suppresses the IL-1β-induced synthesis of matrix-degrading enzymes by inhibiting IL-1β signaling at multiple levels. It suggests that the IL-1β-inducible SOCS1 acts as a negative regulator of the IL-1β response in OA cartilage.
doi:10.1186/ar4381
PMCID: PMC3979110  PMID: 24238405

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