Between 2% and 5% of malignant germ-cell tumors in men arise at extragonadal sites. Of extragonadal germ cell tumors, testicular carcinoma in situ (CIS) are present in 31–42% of cases, and CIS are reported to have low sensitivity to chemotherapy in spite of the various morphology and to have a high likelihood of developing into testicular tumors. A testicular biopsy may thus be highly advisable when evaluating an extragonadal germ cell tumor.
A 36-year-old man was diagnosed as having an extragonadal non-seminomatous germ cell tumor, that was treated by cisplatin-based chemotherapy, leading to a complete remission. In the meantime, testicular tumors were not detected by means of ultrasonography. About 4 years later, a right testicular tumor was found, and orchiectomy was carried out. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of seminoma.
We herein report a case of metachronous occurrence of an extragonadal and gonadal germ cell tumor. In the evaluation of an extragonadal germ cell tumor, a histological examination should be included since ultrasonography is not sufficient to detect CIS or minute lesions of the testis.
Giant cell tumor (GCT) is usually a benign but locally aggressive primary bone neoplasm in which monocytic macrophage/osteoclast precursor cells and multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells infiltrate the tumor. The etiology of GCT is unknown, however the tumor cells of GCT have been reported to produce chemoattractants that can attract osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors. Rarely, GCT can originate at extraosseous sites. More rarely, GCT may exhibit a much more aggressive phenotype. The role of chemotherapy in metastatic GCT is not well defined.
We report a case of an aggressive GCT of the uterus with rapidly growing lung metastases, and its response to chemotherapy with pegylated-liposomal doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and bevacizumab, along with a review of the literature.
Aggressive metastasizing GCT may arise in the uterus, and may respond to combination chemotherapy.
While testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common malignancy in young men, germ cell tumors in women are uncommon. Familial clustering, epidemiologic evidence of increased risk with family or personal history of TGCT, and associations with genitourinary tract anomalies suggest an underlying genetic predisposition to TGCT, but traditional linkage studies have yet to identify a highlypenetrant TGCT cancer susceptibility gene. In this paper, we investigate the familial occurrence of testicular and ovarian germ cell tumors.
We report a family in which a TGCT and an ovarian germ cell tumor (OGCT) occurred in two siblings, summarize the existing literature on familial occurrences of OGCT, either alone or in combination with extragonadal or TGCTs, and compare the incidence of familial and sporadic testicular and ovarian GCTs. Sporadic GCT data were obtained from the US Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry.
We identified 16 reports of OGCT occurring in conjunction with either ovarian, testicular or extragonadal GCT. In these familial cases, the mean age at onset of female dysgerminoma was younger than that noted in the general population (age 17 vs age 24, p=0.01). In SEER, the incidence of TGCT was 15 times higher than that of OGCT. Histologic distributions in males and females showed distinctly different patterns.
Although the incidence of OGCTs in the general population is quite low, its occurrence in multiple members of the same family and in families with TGCT suggests that a gene conferring susceptibility to GCTs may exist in some families.
ovarian germ cell tumor; familial; epidemiology; testicular germ cell tumor; genetic predisposition; SEER
We reviewed the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) experience with salvage high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) in paediatric patients with extragonadal germ-cell tumour (GCT). A total of 23 children with extragonadal GCT, median age 12 years (range 1–20), were treated with salvage HDC with haematopoietic progenitor cell support. The GCT primary location was intracranial site in nine cases, sacrococcyx in eight, retroperitoneum in four, and mediastinum in two. In all, 22 patients had a nongerminomatous GCT and one germinoma. Nine patients received HDC in first- and 14 in second- or third-relapse situation. No toxic deaths occurred. Overall, 16 of 23 patients (70%) achieved a complete remission. With a median follow-up of 66 months (range 31–173 months), 10 (43%) are continuously disease-free. Of six patients who had a disease recurrence after HDC, one achieved a disease-free status with surgical resection followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In total, 11 patients (48%) are currently disease-free. Eight of 14 patients (57%) with extracranial primary and three of nine patients (33%) with intracranial primary GCT are currently disease-free. HDC induced impressive long-term remissions as salvage treatment in children with extragonadal extracranial GCTs. Salvage HDC should be investigated in prospective trials in these patients.
extragonadal germ cell tumour; high-dose chemotherapy; salvage therapy; children
This report reviews 48 patients who from 1979 to 1994 were treated at the Norwegian Radium Hospital for newly diagnosed noncerebral extragonadal malignant germ cell tumour (EGGCT). Based on histology and/or serum tumour markers, 12 patients had a seminoma and 36 a non-seminoma. At diagnosis, 33 and 15 patients were classified as having abdominal and mediastinal EGGCT respectively. At the time of diagnosis 13 patients, all with non-seminomatous tumours, had metastases to bone, liver or brain. One patient with abdominal seminoma was cured by radiotherapy alone, whereas cisplatin-based chemotherapy (with or without surgery) was planned in the 47 remaining patients. Twenty-seven out of 42 patients receiving four or more chemotherapy cycles were rendered tumour free by induction chemotherapy, including 5 of the 13 patients with extralymphatic non-pulmonal disease. An additional tumour-free patient died of septicaemia after only two cycles of chemotherapy. Late relapses (after > 2 years) were observed in three patients, and a testicular primary was diagnosed during follow-up in three cases. Seven patients died of treatment-related complications, five of these because of neutropenic septicaemia. The median age of these patients was 52 years compared with 35 years in the remaining 41 patients (P < 0.05). The 5-year overall survival for all 48 patients was 60% (95% CI 46-74%) [cancer-specific 5-year survival 71% (95% CI 50-92%)]. EGGCT is a potentially curable disease, even in patients with very advanced disease. Special attention should, however, be devoted to patients above the age of 40 years because of an increased risk of treatment-related side-effects. Late relapses and the subsequent development of testicular tumours indicate the need for long-term follow-up.
Of 297 patients with metastatic testicular and extragonadal germ cell tumours (GCT), bone involvement was detected clinically in 3% (7/251) of those at first presentation and in 9% (4/46) of relapsed cases. This difference was not statistically significant (95% confidence limits -2%; +14%). Concurrent systemic metastases, commonly involving lung (7/11 cases) and para-aortic lymph nodes (6/11), were present in all patients with bone disease. All affected patients had localized bone pain and lumbar spine was the most frequent site involved (9/11). Spinal cord compression occurred in two patients while a third developed progressive vertebral collapse after chemotherapy and required extensive surgical reconstruction. At median follow-up of 4 years, survival among patients presenting with bone disease (6/7) was similar to overall survival in the whole group (84%) and appeared better than in those with liver (18/26, 69%) or central nervous system (6/9) metastases at presentation. Back pain in metastatic germ cell tumours is often due to retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy but lumbar spine osseus metastases must be recognized early if severe potential complications, such as spinal cord compression, are to be avoided. In this series, bone metastases were not seen in the absence of widespread systemic disease suggesting all solitary bony lesions in GCT patients should be biopsied.
To review the experience with the diagnosis and management of extragonadal germ cell tumors (GCT) with a subset analysis of those with atypical features.
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective chart review of patients of extragonadal germ cell tumors between 2000 and 2010 was carried out.
Fifteen children aged 7 days to 15 years (median, 1.5 years) were included. Three had an antenatal diagnosis (one sacrococcygeal, one retrobulbar, one retroperitoneal tumor) and were operated in the neonatal period. The locations were distributed between the retrobulbar area (1), anterior neck-thyroid gland (1), mediastinum (4), abdominothoracic extending through the esophageal hiatus (1), retroperitoneal (4) and sacrococcygeal (4). On histological examination, five harbored immature elements while two were malignant; the latter children received postexcision adjuvant chemotherapy. There was no mortality. At a median follow-up of 4.5 years (6 months to 8 years), 14/15 have had an event-free survival. One immature mediastinal teratoma that recurred locally 7.5 years after the initial operation was excised and adjuvant chemotherapy instituted.
Extragonadal GCTs in children are uncommon and occasionally present with atypical clinical, radiological and histological features resulting in diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.
Extragonadal; germ cell tumor; atypical
We retrospectively evaluated long-term oncological outcomes in patients with germ cell tumors (GCTs) primarily treated at our institution and assessed late recurrence and second primary malignancies.
This study included a total of 139 males with newly diagnosed GCTs of the testis or extragonadal origin who received treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, at our hospital between 1980 and 2005. We reviewed late recurrence that occurred at least 2 years after the initial disease-free status and secondary malignancies as well as oncological outcomes.
In patients with seminoma, 5-year progression-free survival and cause-specific survival rates were 87.2% and 100% for Stage I, 88.9% and 100% for Stage II, and 50.0% and 50.0% for Stage III, respectively, whereas in those with non-seminomatous GCTs, they were 79.1% and 96.3% for Stage I, 89.5% and 89.4% for Stage II, and 85.7% and 78.4% for Stage III, respectively. Late recurrence was found in five (3.6%) patients and all of them responded to salvage treatment and achieved disease-free status. Second primary hematological neoplasms occurred in three (2.2%), although they had a long-term free of the primary disease. All died of the second primary disease.
Late recurrence was successfully managed with appropriate treatments, although its incidence was not negligible. Periodic follow-up may be necessary for >5 years in patients with GCTs for early detection of late recurrence. In addition, care should be taken to watch for the development of life-threatening second primary malignant disease during long-term follow-up.
urology; urologic-med; urologic-radOncol
Granular cell tumor (GCT) is an uncommon tumor and is believed to be of schwannian origin. GCT is benign but rare malignant cases are recorded. GCT occurs in almost any part of the body. The common sites are the tongue, skin, and subcutaneous tissue. GCT of hand is an extremely rare. Till date only 17 cases are reported in the literature. Preoperative diagnosis of GCT is important, because GCT mimics dermal adnexal tumor in subcutaneous tissue, other soft tissue tumor or inflammatory lesions. GCT is composed of large polygonal cells with eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and these cells are often immunoreactive for the S-100 protein. Fine-needle aspiration cytology has been suggested to be diagnostic modality of choice and this would undoubtedly aid the correct diagnosis. Excision with wide surgical margins is curative for benign GCT. Recurrence and malignant transformation requires regular follow-up. Here, this communication documents a case of cytological diagnosis of the granular cell tumor of hand in a 21-year-old female, clinically suspected to be a dermal adnexal tumor.
Fine-needle aspiration cytology; granular cell tumor; hand; histology; immunohistochemistry
Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in association with metastatic cancer, without evidence of liver metastases, has not been previously reported in the literature. This report concerns a case of FHF in a 36-year-old man with advanced germ cell tumour arising from an extragonadal (retroperitoneal) primary. Liver function and encephalopathy improved following chemotherapy, suggesting prompt diagnosis and treatment may have cured the patient. Following completion of chemotherapy, he developed spontaneous bacterial endocarditis, requiring aortic valve replacement, a rare complication of curative chemotherapy. At 44 months post completion of chemotherapy, he has regained his premorbid performance status and has returned to work.
Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor) is a rare malignant germ cell tumor arising in the testis or ovary. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor is even rarer and has only been described in case reports. Due to the rarity of the tumors, the appropriately optimal treatment remains unclear. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the seminal vesicle.
A 38-year-old Asian male presented with gross hematuria and hemospermia. Transrectal ultrasound scan showed a solid mass in the left seminal vesicle and the scrotal sonography showed no abnormalities. Bilateral seminal vesicles were resected, and histopathological examination showed a typical pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST). The patient responded poorly to comprehensive treatment of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgeries, developed systemic multiple metastases, and died of cachexia one and half years after diagnosis.
Yolk sac tumor; Seminal vesicle; Extragonadal
Only about half of patients with a poor-prognosis non-seminomatous germ-cell tumours can achieve a cure. The aim of this phase II study was to assess the efficacy and toxicity of a dose-dense alternating chemotherapy regimen in this subset of patients. High volume non-seminomatous germ-cell tumours was defined as follows: at least two sites of non pulmonary metastases, an extragonadal primary tumour, a serum human chorionic gonadotropin level higher than 10 000 mIU ml−1, or a alpha-foetoprotein level higher than 2000 mIU ml−1. Patients who fulfilled these criteria were treated with the so-called BOP-CISCA-POMB-ACE regimen (bleomycin, vincristine, and cisplatin; cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin; cisplatin, vincristine, methotrexate, and bleomycin; etoposide, dactinomycin, and cyclophosphamide) plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. A total of 58 patients were enrolled. Patients were retrospectively classified according to the International Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus Group classification; 38 patients (66%) had poor-prognosis disease and 19 patients (33%) had intermediate-prognosis. Patients received a median of 2.5 courses (range 0.25 to five courses) of the BOP-CISCA-POMB-ACE regimen. Forty-two patients (72.4%) had a complete response to therapy. With a median follow-up time of 31 months, the 3-year progression-free survival rate was 71% (95% confidence interval, 60 to 84%) and the 3-year overall survival rate was 73% (95% confidence interval: 62 to 86%). The 3-year PFS rates were 83% (95% confidence interval: 68 to 100%) in the intermediate-prognosis group and 65% (95% confidence interval: 51 to 82%) in the poor-prognosis group. Early side effects included mainly grade 4 haematologic toxicity (neutropaenia in 79% of patients, thrombocytopaenia in 69%, anaemia in 22%), grade 4 stomatitis (19%), and four early deaths (7% of patients), at least partially related to toxicity. The dose-dense BOP-CISCA-POMB-ACE regimen is highly active in patients with non-seminomatous germ-cell tumours classified as intermediate-prognosis or poor-prognosis according to the International Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus Group. Because outcomes with this regimen compare favourably with outcome after standard therapy, dose-dense chemotherapy should be further investigated in this subset of patients.
British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1555–1560. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600272 www.bjcancer.com
© 2002 Cancer Research UK
chemotherapy; dose-dense chemotherapy; germ-cell tumours; International Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus Group; non-seminomatous germ cell-tumours
A huge retroperitoneal tumor with a right orbital mass was detected and proved to be an extragonadal nonseminomatous germ cell tumor on biopsy. BEP chemotherapy caused some regression in orbital mass however no change in retroperitoneal tumor size as well as serum tumor marker levels occurred. Herein, we present a rarely seen entity of extragonadal retroperitoneal nonseminomatous germ cell tumor with synchronous orbital metastases and discuss its diagnosis and management.
The association of hematological malignancies with a mediastinal germ cell tumor (GCT) is very rare. We report one case of a young adult male with primary mediastinal GCT who subsequently developed acute megakaryoblastic leukemia involving isochromosome (12p). A 25-yr-old man had been diagnosed with a mediastinal GCT and underwent surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy. At 1 week after the last cycle of chemotherapy, his peripheral blood showed leukocytosis with blasts. A bone marrow study confirmed the acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. A cytogenetic study revealed a complex karyotype with i(12p). Although additional chemotherapy was administered, the patient could not attain remission and died of septic shock. This case was definitely distinct from therapy-related secondary leukemia in terms of clinical, morphologic, and cytogenetic features. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient with mediastinal GCT subsequently developing acute megakaryoblastic leukemia involving i(12p) in Korea.
Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumor; Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Isochromosome (12p)
We present a case of leptomeningeal metastases in a 30-year-old man with an extragonadal germ cell tumor. The patient was referred to our hospital for treatment of an occipital brain metastasis. This lesion was resected, followed by whole brain radiotherapy and further chemotherapy, and a temporary complete remission was achieved. However, leptomeningeal recurrence developed, and despite salvage chemotherapy, the patient died of disease. Although multidisciplinary treatment is given to treat brain metastases of germ cell tumors, the patients’ prognosis has been unsatisfactory. The identification of a standard/effective treatment is required.
leptomeningeal metastasis; brain metastasis; germ cell tumor; surgery; chemotherapy
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) of the testis are rare, but are the most common cancer in young men. GCTs may consist of one predominant histologic pattern or may represent a mixture of multiple histologic types. For treatment purposes, two broad categories are recognized: 1) pure seminoma and 2) others, which together are termed nonseminomatous GCTs (NSGCTs). In general, seminoma tends to be less aggressive, to be diagnosed at an earlier stage, and to spread predictably along lymphatic channels to the retroperitoneum before spreading hematogenously to the lung or other organs. Compared with NSGCTs, seminoma is exquisitely sensitive to radiation therapy and platinum-based chemotherapy. NSGCTs are usually mixed tumors and teratoma often exists at the sites of metastasis with other GCT elements; cure often requires chemotherapy to kill the chemosensitive-components and surgery to remove the teratomatous components. The main factors contributing to excellent cure rates of GCTs are careful staging at diagnosis; adequate early treatment using chemotherapeutic combinations, with or without radiotherapy and surgery; and very strict follow-up and salvage therapy. We review several clinical studies and summarize the current trends in the management of GCTs.
Neoplasms; Testis; Therapeutics
Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary account for 2 to 5 of ovarian malignancies. We present two patients with malignant ovarian adult GCT. In one patient, a combination of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin was effective after initial surgery for malignant GCT. In the other, an aromatase inhibitor was effective for recurrent malignant GCT. We also review the literature for further management of this tumor. Because GCT of the ovary is rare, it will be necessary to elucidate the clinical phenotype and establish treatment protocols by accumulating and analyzing more patients.
Ovarian malignant granulosa cell tumor; BEP combination therapy; Aromatase inhibitor
Neoplasms from germ cell origin are a heterogeneous group of tumors rarely seen in the pediatric population, teratoma is the most frequent among them. They can occur in either gonadal or extragonadal locations. Extragonadal teratoma arising from abdominal viscera is very unusual. There are less than a hundred reported cases of gastric teratoma in the worldwide literature. Since the occurrence of this pathology in the pediatric age group is quite rare, we describe a case of a teratoma located in the lesser curvature of the stomach in an infant with an emphasis in radiologic-pathologic correlation.
Teratoma; neoplasm; stomach; germ cell tumor
Teratomas are the commonest germ cell tumours and are most frequently found in the testes and ovary. Extragonadal teratomas are rare and mainly occur in midline structures. Uterine teratomas are extremely rare with only a few previous case reports, usually involving mature teratomas of the uterine cervix.
We report an 82-year-old lady presenting with post-menopausal bleeding. Initial investigations revealed a benign teratoma of the uterus which was removed. Her symptoms persisted and a recurrent, now malignant, teratoma of the uterine corpus was resected at hysterectomy. Six months after surgery she relapsed with para-aortic lymphadenopathy and was treated with a taxane, etoposide and cisplatin-containing chemotherapy regimen followed by retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
In this report we discuss the aetiology, diagnosis and management of uterine teratomas, and review previous case studies.
Objective: Multiple therapeutic modalities exist for giant cell tumors (GCT) in the distal radius. The majority of GCTs are amenable to curettage, with the expanded lesions requiring a more radical approach. This case report examines the technique of managing a GCT that has extended beyond the boundaries of the cortex and into local tissues. The decision to use arthroplasty versus arthrodesis and the proximal fibular head as a vascularized free flap is discussed in reference to a patient requiring a proximal row carpectomy (PRC) secondary to tumor invasion. Methods: A 47-year-old woman with GCT in the right distal radius presented with decreased range of motion secondary to pain. Confirmation of the GCT was made with radiographic imaging and biopsy. The extensive invasion of the lesion required en bloc tumor resection with PRC and subsequent arthroplasty. Results: Treatment involved resection of tumor and PRC with arthroplasty using the proximal head of the fibula and reattachment of the radioscaphocapitate and ulnar carpal ligaments. Success was measured on functionality of the joint, viability of the flap, and the absence of tumor recurrence and pain. Conclusion: This case presents an example of successful excision of a GCT in the distal radius with a PRC and arthroplasty using a vascularized fibula free flap autograft. The patient remained pain-free, had no evidence of tumor recurrence, demonstrated 50% range of motion in the wrist, and 80% preoperative strength as expected following PRC.
Human male germ cell tumors (GCTs) arise from undifferentiated primordial germ cells (PGCs), a stage in which extensive methylation reprogramming occurs. GCTs exhibit pluripotentality and are highly sensitive to cisplatin therapy. The molecular basis of germ cell (GC) transformation, differentiation, and exquisite treatment response is poorly understood.
To assess the role and mechanism of promoter hypermethylation, we analyzed CpG islands of 21 gene promoters by methylation-specific PCR in seminomatous (SGCT) and nonseminomatous (NSGCT) GCTs. We found 60% of the NSGCTs demonstrating methylation in one or more gene promoters whereas SGCTs showed a near-absence of methylation, therefore identifying distinct methylation patterns in the two major histologies of GCT. DNA repair genes MGMT, RASSF1A, and BRCA1, and a transcriptional repressor gene HIC1, were frequently methylated in the NSGCTs. The promoter hypermethylation was associated with gene silencing in most methylated genes, and reactivation of gene expression occured upon treatment with 5-Aza-2' deoxycytidine in GCT cell lines.
Our results, therefore, suggest a potential role for epigenetic modification of critical tumor suppressor genes in pathways relevant to GC transformation, differentiation, and treatment response.
Germ cell tumor; promoter hypermethylation; MGMT; RASSF1A; BRCA1; gene expression
Patients with disorders of sex development (DSD), especially those with gonadal dysgenesis and hypovirilization, are at risk of developing the so-called type II germ cell tumors (GCTs). Both carcinoma in situ and gonadoblastoma (GB) can be the precursor lesion, resulting in a seminomatous or non-seminomatous invasive cancer. SRY mutations residing in the HMG domain are found in 10–15% of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis cases. This domain contains two nuclear localization signals (NLSs). In this study, we report a unique case of a phenotypical normal woman, diagnosed as a patient with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, with an NLS missense mutation, on the basis of the histological diagnosis of a unilateral GB. The normal role of SRY in gonadal development is the upregulation of SOX9 expression. The premalignant lesion of the initially removed gonad was positive for OCT3/4, TSPY and stem cell factor in germ cells, and for FOXL2 in the stromal component (ie, granulosa cells), but not for SOX9. On the basis of these findings, prophylactical gonadectomy of the other gonad was performed, also showing a GB lesion positive for both FOXL2 (ovary) and SOX9 (testis). The identified W70L mutation in the SRY gene resulted in a 50% reduction in the nuclear accumulation of the mutant protein compared with wild type. This likely explains the diminished SOX9 expression, and therefore the lack of proper Sertoli cell differentiation during development. This case shows the value of the proper diagnosis of human GCTs in identification of patients with DSD, which allows subsequent early diagnosis and prevention of the development of an invasive cancer, likely to be treated by chemotherapy at young age.
disorders of sex development; germ cell tumors; gonadoblastoma; SRY
The pathogenesis of testicular germ cell tumours (GCTs) is potentially influenced by high-energy nutrition during infancy. As adult height is a proxy for childhood nutrition, we investigated the role of nutrition in GCT pathogenesis by comparing stature of patients with healthy men. In a matched case–control study, 6415 patients with GCT were compared with healthy army conscripts (1:6 matching modus) with regard to height (cm) and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Statistical analysis involved tabulation of descriptive height measures and BMI. Conditional logistic regression models were used to quantify the association of GCT with height, with odds ratios (OR) adjusted for BMI. The literature was searched for studies on stature in GCT patients. Body size is significantly associated with risk of GCT, very tall men (>195 cm) having a GCT risk of OR=3.35 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.88–3.90; adjusted). Short stature is protective (OR=0.798; 95% CI: 0.68–0.93). Both histologic subgroups are associated with tallness. Of 16 previous reports, 7 were confirmative, 5 had null and 4 equivocal results. The association of stature with GCT risk accords with the nutrition hypothesis of GCT. This study expands the current view of GCT tumorigenesis by suggesting that high-calorie intake in childhood promotes GCT precursors originating in utero.
testicular cancer; body size; childhood nutrition; seminoma; non-seminoma; BMI
Male germ cell tumors (GCTs) are extremely sensitive to platinum-containing chemotherapy, with only 10% of patients showing therapy resistance. However, the biological basis of the high curability of disseminated GCTs by chemotherapy is still unknown. Recently, we demonstrated that the mammalian serine/arginine-rich protein-specific kinase 1 (SRPK1) is a cisplatin-sensitive gene, inactivation of which leads to cisplatin resistance. Because, in mammalians, the expression of SRPK1 is preferentially high in testicular tissues, cisplatin responsiveness of male GCTs might be associated with SRPK1 levels. In the present study, we monitored SRPK1 protein expression in a unique series of nonseminomatous GCTs by immunohistochemistry. Randomly selected GCTs (n = 70) and tumors from patients responding to standard chemotherapy (n = 20) generally showed strong SRPK1 staining. In contrast, expression in refractory GCTs (n = 20) as well as in GCTs from poor-prognosis patients responding to high-dose chemotherapy only (n = 11) was significantly lower (two-sided Wilcoxon rank sum test: P < .001). In conclusion, our data suggest that SRPK1 expression might be an important prognostic indicator for the chemoresponsiveness of nonseminomatous GCTs.
Chemotherapy resistance; germ cell tumors; chemotherapy sensitivity; protein kinase SRPK1; immunohistochemistry
Granular cell tumors (GCTs) can be divided into neural type with S-100 reactivity and non-neural type without that. The latter has not been widely recognized and there are only fewer reports available when compared to conventional GCT. A 65-year-old man was presented with the presence of a painless mass on his back. The mass had developed into a small nodule on the scar developed because of previous surgery carried out 2 years ago. The tumor consisted of large, polygonal cells comprising of an enormous number of faintly eosinophilic small granules in the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic granules were stained positively for periodic acid-Schiff stain. Immunohistochemical stains for S-100 protein and neuron-specific enolase were found to be negative. Herein, we report the appearance of a very rare case of non neural GCT developed on the surgical scar in support with relevant literature reviews.
Granular cell tumors; Scar; S-100