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1.  Testicular seminoma after the complete remission of extragonadal yolk sac tumor : a case report 
BMC Urology  2004;4:13.
Background
Between 2% and 5% of malignant germ-cell tumors in men arise at extragonadal sites. Of extragonadal germ cell tumors, testicular carcinoma in situ (CIS) are present in 31–42% of cases, and CIS are reported to have low sensitivity to chemotherapy in spite of the various morphology and to have a high likelihood of developing into testicular tumors. A testicular biopsy may thus be highly advisable when evaluating an extragonadal germ cell tumor.
Case presentation
A 36-year-old man was diagnosed as having an extragonadal non-seminomatous germ cell tumor, that was treated by cisplatin-based chemotherapy, leading to a complete remission. In the meantime, testicular tumors were not detected by means of ultrasonography. About 4 years later, a right testicular tumor was found, and orchiectomy was carried out. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of seminoma.
Conclusions
We herein report a case of metachronous occurrence of an extragonadal and gonadal germ cell tumor. In the evaluation of an extragonadal germ cell tumor, a histological examination should be included since ultrasonography is not sufficient to detect CIS or minute lesions of the testis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-4-13
PMCID: PMC535804  PMID: 15546481
2.  Gonadal germ cell tumors in children and adolescents 
Pediatric germ cell tumors (GCT) are rare tumors: 80% are benign, 20% malignant (2-3% of all malignant pediatric tumors). The gonadal sites (ovary and testis) account for 40% of cases.
Ovarian GCTs:
Represent 30% of GCTs and 70% of neoplastic ovarian masses, being the most common ovarian neoplasms in children and teenagers. Benign and immature forms (teratomas) constitute about 80% of all ovarian GCTs, malignant forms represent 20% increasing during adolescence. The most common malignant entity in children is the yolk sac tumors (YST); dysgerminoma is frequent during adolescence and being bilateral in 10% of cases. Presentation is similar in malignant and benign lesions; abdominal pain (70-80%) and lower abdominal mass are common symptoms. Evaluation of alpha-fetoprotein (αFP) or beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (βHCG) is essential to address the nature of the tumors: Their elevation means presence of malignancy. Surgery includes intraoperative staging procedures and requires ovariectomy or ovarosalpingectomy for malignant lesions, but may be conservative in selected benign tumors. Since malignant GCTs are very chemosensitive, primary chemotherapy is recommended in metastatic or locally advanced tumors.
Testicular GCT:
Represent 10% of pediatric GCT, and about 30% of malignant GCT with two age peaks: Children <3 years may experience mature teratoma and malignant GCTs, represented almost exclusively by YST, while adolescents may also show seminomas or other mixed tumors. The main clinical feature is a painless scrotal mass. Surgery represents the cornerstone of the management of testicular GCTs, with an inguinal approach and a primary high orchidectomy for malignant tumors, while a testis-sparing surgery can be considered for benign lesions. A retroperitoneal lymph node (LN) biopsy may be necessary to define the staging when the involvement of retroperitoneal LN is uncertain at imaging investigations.
Conclusion:
Patients with gonadal malignant GCTs fare better than those with extragonadal mediastinal germ cell tumors (MGCTs) and survival rate exceeds 90% in localized forms. Chemotherapy has significantly improved the outcome of malignant forms since the introduction of platinum based regimens. The surgical procedure has to be performed in agreement with the ongoing protocols.
doi:10.4103/0971-9261.141995
PMCID: PMC4204242  PMID: 25336799
Children; germ cell tumors; gonadal
3.  A Mini-Review of Familial Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors: An Additional Manifestation of the Familial Testicular Germ Cell Tumor Syndrome 
Cancer epidemiology  2009;33(1):31-36.
Introduction
While testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common malignancy in young men, germ cell tumors in women are uncommon. Familial clustering, epidemiologic evidence of increased risk with family or personal history of TGCT, and associations with genitourinary tract anomalies suggest an underlying genetic predisposition to TGCT, but traditional linkage studies have yet to identify a highlypenetrant TGCT cancer susceptibility gene. In this paper, we investigate the familial occurrence of testicular and ovarian germ cell tumors.
Methods
We report a family in which a TGCT and an ovarian germ cell tumor (OGCT) occurred in two siblings, summarize the existing literature on familial occurrences of OGCT, either alone or in combination with extragonadal or TGCTs, and compare the incidence of familial and sporadic testicular and ovarian GCTs. Sporadic GCT data were obtained from the US Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry.
Results
We identified 16 reports of OGCT occurring in conjunction with either ovarian, testicular or extragonadal GCT. In these familial cases, the mean age at onset of female dysgerminoma was younger than that noted in the general population (age 17 vs age 24, p=0.01). In SEER, the incidence of TGCT was 15 times higher than that of OGCT. Histologic distributions in males and females showed distinctly different patterns.
Discussion
Although the incidence of OGCTs in the general population is quite low, its occurrence in multiple members of the same family and in families with TGCT suggests that a gene conferring susceptibility to GCTs may exist in some families.
doi:10.1016/j.canep.2009.04.015
PMCID: PMC2735217  PMID: 19679044
ovarian germ cell tumor; familial; epidemiology; testicular germ cell tumor; genetic predisposition; SEER
4.  Inferior vena cava prosthetic replacement in a patient with horseshoe kidney and metastatic testicular tumor: technical considerations and review of the literature 
BMC Urology  2014;14:40.
Background
Seminomatous and non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumors (GCT) of the testis are a rare cancer, with an estimated incidence of 56.3 per million white males and 10 per million black males in the United States.
The association between non-seminomatous GCT and horseshoe kidney is a rare event and is seen in about 1.3% of patients requiring retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. To our knowledge, no cases have been reported in which replacement of the IVC was also necessary.
Case presentation
We report the case of a 22-year-old man with horseshoe kidney and metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumor involving the wall of the inferior vena cava.
Following post-chemotherapy retroperitonal lymph node dissection, the inferior vena cava was replaced with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft.
At 2-years follow-up, the patient was in good health and the graft was patent. No clinical or diagnostic signs of renal impairment or recurrence of neoplastic disease were noted.
Conclusion
Radical surgery is warranted in patients with non-seminomatous germ cell tumor metastasizing to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes. When vena cava replacement is required, and the situation is further complicated by horseshoe kidney, as in this case, surgical technique will rely on multidisciplinary surgical treatment planning by a team composed of urologists, vascular surgeons and oncologists.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-14-40
PMCID: PMC4039323  PMID: 24885698
Testis; Neoplasm GCT; PTFE
5.  Sequential bilateral testicular tumours presenting with intervals of 20 years and more 
BMC Urology  2013;13:71.
Background
About 3 – 5% of all patients with testicular germ cell tumour (GCT) develop a contralateral cancer, the majority of which arise within 10–15 years. Little is known about the risk of second GCTs after more than two decades. Here we present 3 cases with very late presenting contralateral GCT and provide a summary of similar cases reported previously.
Case presentations
(1) This white Caucasian man underwent right-sided orchiectomy for a nonseminomatous GCT at the age of 22 years. Additional treatment consisted of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) and chemotherapy with 4 cycles of vinblastin / bleomycin. 36 years later, contralateral seminoma clinical stage 1 developed. Cure was achieved by orchiectomy. Histologically, testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN; intratubular germ cell neoplasia) was detected in the tumour-surrounding tissue.
(2) This white Caucasian male had right-sided orchiectomy for nonseminomatous GCT at the age of 29 years. Pathological stage 1 was confirmed by RPLND. 25 years later, he received left sided orchiectomy for seminoma stage 1. Histologically, TIN was found in the tissue adjacent to seminoma. Two brothers had testicular GCT, too, one with bilateral GCT. (3) This 21 year old white Caucasian man underwent left-sided orchiectomy for nonseminomatous GCT. Pathological stage 1 was confirmed by RPLND. 21 years later, he received organ-preserving excision of a right-sided seminoma, followed by BEP chemotherapy for stage 3 disease. Histologically, TIN was found in the surrounding testicular tissue.
22 cases of bilateral GCT with intervals of 20 or more years have previously been reported, thereof three with intervals of more than 30 years, the longest interval being 40 years.
Conclusion
Apart from increased risks of cardiovascular diseases and non-testicular malignancies, patients with GCT face the specific probability of a second GCT in the long run. This risk persists life-long and is not eliminated by chemotherapy. Contralateral testicular biopsy can identify patients at risk by revealing precursor cells of GCT though false-negative biopsies may occur sporadically. However, in view of the multi-facetted late hazards of GCT patients, this minor surgical procedure might somewhat simplify the long-time care of these patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-13-71
PMCID: PMC4028980  PMID: 24321309
Testicular germ cell neoplasms; Bilateral tumours; Testicular biopsy; Seminoma; Familial germ cell tumours
6.  Giant cell tumor of the uterus: case report and response to chemotherapy 
BMC Cancer  2007;7:46.
Background
Giant cell tumor (GCT) is usually a benign but locally aggressive primary bone neoplasm in which monocytic macrophage/osteoclast precursor cells and multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells infiltrate the tumor. The etiology of GCT is unknown, however the tumor cells of GCT have been reported to produce chemoattractants that can attract osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors. Rarely, GCT can originate at extraosseous sites. More rarely, GCT may exhibit a much more aggressive phenotype. The role of chemotherapy in metastatic GCT is not well defined.
Case presentation
We report a case of an aggressive GCT of the uterus with rapidly growing lung metastases, and its response to chemotherapy with pegylated-liposomal doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and bevacizumab, along with a review of the literature.
Conclusion
Aggressive metastasizing GCT may arise in the uterus, and may respond to combination chemotherapy.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-7-46
PMCID: PMC1832205  PMID: 17359524
7.  TI-CE High-Dose Chemotherapy for Patients With Previously Treated Germ Cell Tumors: Results and Prognostic Factor Analysis 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2010;28(10):1706-1713.
Purpose
We previously reported a dose-finding and phase II trial of the TI-CE regimen (paclitaxel [T] plus ifosfamide [I] followed by high-dose carboplatin [C] plus etoposide [E] with stem-cell support) in germ cell tumor (GCT) patients predicted to have a poor prognosis with conventional-dose salvage therapy. We now report the efficacy of TI-CE with prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in our full data set of 107 patients.
Patients and Methods
Eligible patients had advanced GCTs with progressive disease following chemotherapy and unfavorable prognostic features (extragonadal primary site, incomplete response [IR] to first-line therapy, or relapse/IR to ifosfamide-cisplatin–based conventional-dose salvage). Univariate and multivariate analyses (MVAs) of prognostic factors were performed. The predictive ability of the Einhorn and Beyer prognostic models was assessed.
Results
Most patients were platinum refractory and had an IR to first-line chemotherapy. There were 54 (5%) complete and eight (8%) partial responses with negative markers; 5-year DFS was 47% and OS was 52% (median follow-up, 61 months). No relapses occurred after 2 years. Five (24%) of 21 primary mediastinal nonseminomatous GCTs are continuously disease free. On MVA, primary mediastinal site (P < .001), two or more lines of prior therapy (P < .001), baseline human chorionic gonadotropin ≥ 1,000 U/L (P = .01), and lung metastases (P = .02) significantly predicted adverse DFS. Poor-risk patients did worse than good- or intermediate-risk patients according to both Beyer (P < .002) and Einhorn (P < .05) models.
Conclusion
TI-CE is effective salvage therapy for GCT patients with poor prognostic features. Mediastinal primary site and two or more lines of prior therapy were most predictive of adverse DFS. Beyer and Einhorn models can assist in predicting outcome.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2009.25.1561
PMCID: PMC3651604  PMID: 20194867
8.  Atypical extragonadal germ cell tumors 
Aim:
To review the experience with the diagnosis and management of extragonadal germ cell tumors (GCT) with a subset analysis of those with atypical features.
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective chart review of patients of extragonadal germ cell tumors between 2000 and 2010 was carried out.
Results:
Fifteen children aged 7 days to 15 years (median, 1.5 years) were included. Three had an antenatal diagnosis (one sacrococcygeal, one retrobulbar, one retroperitoneal tumor) and were operated in the neonatal period. The locations were distributed between the retrobulbar area (1), anterior neck-thyroid gland (1), mediastinum (4), abdominothoracic extending through the esophageal hiatus (1), retroperitoneal (4) and sacrococcygeal (4). On histological examination, five harbored immature elements while two were malignant; the latter children received postexcision adjuvant chemotherapy. There was no mortality. At a median follow-up of 4.5 years (6 months to 8 years), 14/15 have had an event-free survival. One immature mediastinal teratoma that recurred locally 7.5 years after the initial operation was excised and adjuvant chemotherapy instituted.
Conclusions:
Extragonadal GCTs in children are uncommon and occasionally present with atypical clinical, radiological and histological features resulting in diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.
doi:10.4103/0971-9261.91079
PMCID: PMC3263044  PMID: 22279357
Extragonadal; germ cell tumor; atypical
9.  Late Recurrence and Second Primary Malignancy among 139 Patients with Germ Cell Tumors: Long-term Outcome of the Disease in a Single-center Experience 
Objective
We retrospectively evaluated long-term oncological outcomes in patients with germ cell tumors (GCTs) primarily treated at our institution and assessed late recurrence and second primary malignancies.
Methods
This study included a total of 139 males with newly diagnosed GCTs of the testis or extragonadal origin who received treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, at our hospital between 1980 and 2005. We reviewed late recurrence that occurred at least 2 years after the initial disease-free status and secondary malignancies as well as oncological outcomes.
Results
In patients with seminoma, 5-year progression-free survival and cause-specific survival rates were 87.2% and 100% for Stage I, 88.9% and 100% for Stage II, and 50.0% and 50.0% for Stage III, respectively, whereas in those with non-seminomatous GCTs, they were 79.1% and 96.3% for Stage I, 89.5% and 89.4% for Stage II, and 85.7% and 78.4% for Stage III, respectively. Late recurrence was found in five (3.6%) patients and all of them responded to salvage treatment and achieved disease-free status. Second primary hematological neoplasms occurred in three (2.2%), although they had a long-term free of the primary disease. All died of the second primary disease.
Conclusions
Late recurrence was successfully managed with appropriate treatments, although its incidence was not negligible. Periodic follow-up may be necessary for >5 years in patients with GCTs for early detection of late recurrence. In addition, care should be taken to watch for the development of life-threatening second primary malignant disease during long-term follow-up.
doi:10.1093/jjco/hyp142
PMCID: PMC2813544  PMID: 19906660
urology; urologic-med; urologic-radOncol
10.  Bone disease in testicular and extragonadal germ cell tumours. 
British Journal of Cancer  1988;58(6):793-796.
Of 297 patients with metastatic testicular and extragonadal germ cell tumours (GCT), bone involvement was detected clinically in 3% (7/251) of those at first presentation and in 9% (4/46) of relapsed cases. This difference was not statistically significant (95% confidence limits -2%; +14%). Concurrent systemic metastases, commonly involving lung (7/11 cases) and para-aortic lymph nodes (6/11), were present in all patients with bone disease. All affected patients had localized bone pain and lumbar spine was the most frequent site involved (9/11). Spinal cord compression occurred in two patients while a third developed progressive vertebral collapse after chemotherapy and required extensive surgical reconstruction. At median follow-up of 4 years, survival among patients presenting with bone disease (6/7) was similar to overall survival in the whole group (84%) and appeared better than in those with liver (18/26, 69%) or central nervous system (6/9) metastases at presentation. Back pain in metastatic germ cell tumours is often due to retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy but lumbar spine osseus metastases must be recognized early if severe potential complications, such as spinal cord compression, are to be avoided. In this series, bone metastases were not seen in the absence of widespread systemic disease suggesting all solitary bony lesions in GCT patients should be biopsied.
Images
PMCID: PMC2246879  PMID: 3224081
11.  Salvage high-dose chemotherapy for children with extragonadal germ-cell tumours 
British Journal of Cancer  2005;93(4):412-417.
We reviewed the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) experience with salvage high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) in paediatric patients with extragonadal germ-cell tumour (GCT). A total of 23 children with extragonadal GCT, median age 12 years (range 1–20), were treated with salvage HDC with haematopoietic progenitor cell support. The GCT primary location was intracranial site in nine cases, sacrococcyx in eight, retroperitoneum in four, and mediastinum in two. In all, 22 patients had a nongerminomatous GCT and one germinoma. Nine patients received HDC in first- and 14 in second- or third-relapse situation. No toxic deaths occurred. Overall, 16 of 23 patients (70%) achieved a complete remission. With a median follow-up of 66 months (range 31–173 months), 10 (43%) are continuously disease-free. Of six patients who had a disease recurrence after HDC, one achieved a disease-free status with surgical resection followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In total, 11 patients (48%) are currently disease-free. Eight of 14 patients (57%) with extracranial primary and three of nine patients (33%) with intracranial primary GCT are currently disease-free. HDC induced impressive long-term remissions as salvage treatment in children with extragonadal extracranial GCTs. Salvage HDC should be investigated in prospective trials in these patients.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602724
PMCID: PMC2361583  PMID: 16106248
extragonadal germ cell tumour; high-dose chemotherapy; salvage therapy; children
12.  Testicular seminomatous mixed germ cell tumor with choriocarcinoma and teratoma with secondary somatic malignancy: a case report 
Introduction
Testicular tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms exhibiting diverse histopathology and can be classified as seminomatous and non-seminomatous germ cell tumor types. Mixed germ cell tumors contain more than one germ cell component and various combinations have been reported. Here, we present a rare case of a mixed germ cell tumor composed of seminoma, choriocarcinoma and teratoma with a secondary somatic malignancy.
Case presentation
A 31-year-old Caucasian man presented with splenic rupture to our hospital. A right-sided testicular swelling had been present for 6 months and his alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, and lactose dehydrogenase were increased. An ultrasound of his scrotum revealed an enlarged right testis with heterogeneous echogenicity. Multiple hypervascular lesions were noted in his liver and spleen. He underwent transcatheter embolization therapy of his splenic artery followed by splenectomy and right-sided orchiectomy. A computed tomography scan also showed metastasis to both lungs. During his last follow up after four cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, the level of tumor markers had decreased, decreases in the size of his liver and pulmonary lesions were noted but new sclerotic lesions were evident in his thoracolumbar region raising concern for bony metastasis.
Conclusions
Prognosis of testicular tumor depends mainly on the clinical stage, but emergence of a sarcomatous component presents a challenge in the treatment of germ cell tumors and the histological subtype of this component can be used as a guide to specific chemotherapy in these patients.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-8-1
PMCID: PMC3917416  PMID: 24380446
Mixed germ cell tumors; Rhabdomyosarcoma; Sarcomatous component
13.  Treatment and outcome of patients with extragonadal germ cell tumours--the Norwegian Radium Hospital's experience 1979-94. 
British Journal of Cancer  1998;77(2):329-335.
This report reviews 48 patients who from 1979 to 1994 were treated at the Norwegian Radium Hospital for newly diagnosed noncerebral extragonadal malignant germ cell tumour (EGGCT). Based on histology and/or serum tumour markers, 12 patients had a seminoma and 36 a non-seminoma. At diagnosis, 33 and 15 patients were classified as having abdominal and mediastinal EGGCT respectively. At the time of diagnosis 13 patients, all with non-seminomatous tumours, had metastases to bone, liver or brain. One patient with abdominal seminoma was cured by radiotherapy alone, whereas cisplatin-based chemotherapy (with or without surgery) was planned in the 47 remaining patients. Twenty-seven out of 42 patients receiving four or more chemotherapy cycles were rendered tumour free by induction chemotherapy, including 5 of the 13 patients with extralymphatic non-pulmonal disease. An additional tumour-free patient died of septicaemia after only two cycles of chemotherapy. Late relapses (after > 2 years) were observed in three patients, and a testicular primary was diagnosed during follow-up in three cases. Seven patients died of treatment-related complications, five of these because of neutropenic septicaemia. The median age of these patients was 52 years compared with 35 years in the remaining 41 patients (P < 0.05). The 5-year overall survival for all 48 patients was 60% (95% CI 46-74%) [cancer-specific 5-year survival 71% (95% CI 50-92%)]. EGGCT is a potentially curable disease, even in patients with very advanced disease. Special attention should, however, be devoted to patients above the age of 40 years because of an increased risk of treatment-related side-effects. Late relapses and the subsequent development of testicular tumours indicate the need for long-term follow-up.
PMCID: PMC2151244  PMID: 9461006
14.  Gonadal and extragonadal germ cell tumors in the United States, 1973–2007 
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) most often arise in the gonads but some develop extragonadally. The aim of this study was to examine sex- and race-specific trends in incidence and survival of gonadal (GGCTs) and extragonadal GCTs (EGCTs) in the US from 1973 to 2007. We also examined the topographic distribution of EGCTs by race and sex.
We estimated age-specific and age-standardized incidence rates and 5-year relative survival rates (RSR) of GCTs using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program (SEER 9 registries). GCTs and their topographic sites were identified using ICD-O morphology and topography codes.
Of 21,170 GCTs among males, 5.7% were extragonadal (whites 5.5%; blacks 16.3%). Of 2,093 GCTs among females, 39.3% were extragonadal (whites, 36.9%; blacks 51.0%). The incidence of GGCT was much higher among white (56.3/1,000,000) than black males (10.0/1,000,000) while there was no difference in incidence between white and black females (3.2/1,000,000). The rates of EGCT among men and women of both races were similar (range:1.9 – 3.4/1,000,000). The most frequent extragonadal sites were mediastinum among males and placenta among females. The 5-year RSR of testicular GCT was higher among whites (97%) than blacks (90%), as was the 5-year RSR of ovarian GCT (whites, 92%; blacks 85%). In general, the 5-year RSRs of EGCTs were lower than the 5-year RSRs of GGCTs.
The different incidence trends of GGCTs and EGCTs and distinct age-specific incidence patterns by anatomic site of EGCTs suggests that GGCTs and EGCTs may have different etiologies.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01245.x
PMCID: PMC3631107  PMID: 22320869
testicular neoplasms; ovarian neoplasms; incidence; time trends; germ cell tumors; extragonadal germ cell tumors
15.  The epidemiology of malignant giant cell tumors of bone: an analysis of data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (1975–2004) 
Rare Tumors  2009;1(2):e52.
Malignant giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a rare tumor with debilitating consequences. Patients with GCT of bone typically present with mechanical difficulty and pain as a result of bone destruction and are at an increased risk for fracture. Because of its unusual occurrence, little is known about the epidemiology of malignant GCT of bone. This report offers the first reliable population-based estimates of incidence, patient demographics, treatment course and survival for malignancy in GCT of bone in the United States. Using data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, we estimated the overall incidence and determinants of survival among patients diagnosed with malignant GCT of bone from 1975–2004. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate demographic and clinical determinants of survival among malignant GCT cases. Based on analyses of 117 malignant GCT cases, the estimated annual incidence in the United States was 1.6 per 10,000,000 persons per year. Incidence was highest among adults aged 20 to 44 years (2.4 per 10,000,000 per year) and most patients were diagnosed with localized (31.6%) or regional (29.9%) disease compared to distant disease (16.2%). Approximately 85% of patients survived at least 5 years, with survival poorest among older patients and those with evidence of distant metastases at time of diagnosis. The current study represents the largest systematic investigation examining the occurrence and distribution of malignancy in GCT of bone in the general U.S. population. We confirm its rare occurrence and suggest that age and stage at diagnosis are strongly associated with long-term survival.
doi:10.4081/rt.2009.e52
PMCID: PMC2994468  PMID: 21139931
giant cell tumor of bone; surveillance; epidemiology and end results; descriptive epidemiology; incidence; survival; osteosarcoma.
16.  The clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of 57 children and adolescents with primary central nervous system germ cell tumors 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2014;33(8):395-401.
Primary central nervous system germ cell tumors (CNS-GCTs) in children and adolescents have unique clinical features and methods of treatment compared with those in adults. There is little information about Chinese children and adolescents with CNS-GCTs. Therefore, in this study we retrospectively analyzed the clinical features and treatment outcome of Chinese children and adolescents with primary CNS-GCTs. Between January 2002 and December 2012, 57 untreated patients from a single institution were enrolled. They were diagnosed with CNS-GCTs after pathologic or clinical assessment. Of the 57 patients, 41 were males and 16 were females, with a median age of 12.8 years (range, 2.7 to 18.0 years) at diagnosis; 43 (75.4%) had non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs) and 14 (24.6%) had germinomas; 44 (77.2%) had localized disease and 13 (22.8%) had extensive lesions. Fifty-three patients completed the prescribed treatment, of which 18 underwent monotherapy of surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy, and 35 underwent multimodality therapies that included radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy or surgery combined with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. PEB (cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin) protocol was the major chemotherapy regimen. The median follow-up time was 32.3 months (range, 1.2 to 139 months). Fourteen patients died of relapse or disease progression. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival rates for all patients were 72.2% and 73.8%, respectively. The 3-year EFS was 92.9% for germinomas and 64.8% for NGGCTs (P = 0.064). The 3-year EFS rates for patients with NGGCTs who underwent monotherapy and multimodality therapies were 50.6% and 73.5%, respectively (P = 0.042). Our results indicate that multimodality therapies including chemotherapy plus radiotherapy were better treatment option for children and adolescents with CNS-GCTs.
doi:10.5732/cjc.013.10112
PMCID: PMC4135369  PMID: 25011460
Primary central nervous system germ cell tumors; chemotherapy; radiotherapy; survival rate; children
17.  Complete histologic response to chemotherapy in a patient with a mediastinal yolk sac tumor: a case report 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7(1):803.
Background
Malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors are a rare disease and represent only 1% to 4% of all mediastinal tumors. Gonadal germ cell tumors are generally the most common type and constitute 90% of germ cell tumors. The mediastinum is the second most frequently affected area ahead of other extragonadal areas, which include the retroperitoneum, the sacrococcygeal area, and the central nervous system. We report on the case of a mediastinal yolk sac tumor with a complete histological response to chemotherapy.
Case presentation
A 26-year-old Moroccan man, without a medical or surgical history, presented with a four-month history of chest distress, dyspnea, and a frequent dry cough for the previous month. A computed tomographic scan of the chest revealed a bulky mediastinal mass, which was biopsied. Histologically, the tumoral mass proved to be a yolk sac tumor. The serum level of alpha-fetoprotein of this patient was elevated to 19052 ng/ml.
After 4 courses of preoperative chemotherapy, the patient underwent a surgical resection of the tumor, with a complete pathologic response.
At the time of writing, the patient is alive with complete remission without any evidence of recurrence.
Conclusion
Primary mediastinal Yolk sac neoplasm represent a unique entity, and as such require specialized management. The diagnosis should be made not only by morphological studies but the patient’s age and the elevation of serum alpha-fetoprotein should also be considered. The utilization of cisplatin-based chemotherapy is associated with the best chance of a cure for this disease. This should be followed by surgical resection of the residual tumor in the nonseminomatous germ cell tumor.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-803
PMCID: PMC4239375  PMID: 25399910
Mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors; Complete pathologic response; Cisplatin-based chemotherapy
18.  Next generation sequencing analysis of platinum refractory advanced germ cell tumor sensitive to Sunitinib (Sutent®) a VEGFR2/PDGFRβ/c-kit/ FLT3/RET/CSF1R inhibitor in a phase II trial 
Background
Germ cell tumors (GCT) are the most common solid tumors in adolescent and young adult males (age 15 and 35 years) and remain one of the most curable of all solid malignancies. However a subset of patients will have tumors that are refractory to standard chemotherapy agents. The management of this refractory population remains challenging and approximately 400 patients continue to die every year of this refractory disease in the United States.
Methods
Given the preclinical evidence implicating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in the biology of germ cell tumors, we hypothesized that the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitor sunitinib (Sutent) may possess important clinical activity in the treatment of this refractory disease. We proposed a Phase II efficacy study of sunitinib in seminomatous and non-seminomatous metastatic GCT’s refractory to first line chemotherapy treatment (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00912912). Next generation targeted exome sequencing using HiSeq 2000 (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) was performed on the tumor sample of the unusual responder.
Results
Five patients are enrolled into this Phase II study. Among them we report here the clinical course of a patient (Patient # 5) who had an exceptional response to sunitinib. Next generation sequencing to understand this patient’s response to sunitinib revealed RET amplification, EGFR and KRAS amplification as relevant aberrations. Oncoscan MIP array were employed to validate the copy number analysis that confirmed RET gene amplification.
Conclusion
Sunitinib conferred clinical benefit to this heavily pre-treated patient. Next generation sequencing of this ‘exceptional responder’ identified the first reported case of a RET amplification as a potential basis of sensitivity to sunitinib (VEGFR2/PDGFRβ/c-kit/ FLT3/RET/CSF1R inhibitor) in a patient with refractory germ cell tumor. Further characterization of GCT patients using biomarkers for clinical response and patient selection is warranted.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00912912
doi:10.1186/s13045-014-0052-x
PMCID: PMC4237879  PMID: 25085632
Sunitinib; Germ cell tumor; Phase II trials; Targeted therapy; RET; EGFR; Next generation sequencing; Adolescent and young adult; Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor; VEGF; Unusual responder; Exceptional responder; Outlier responder
19.  Giant cell tumor of the clivus: A case report and review of the literature 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(6):2782-2786.
Giant cell tumors (GCTs) mainly occur in metaphyses of long bones and are generally considered histologically benign; however, GCTs may be locally aggressive with a high rate of local recurrence and exhibit the potential for distant metastasis. Primary GCT of the clivus is extremely rare and is easily misdiagnosed and, thus, treatment remains controversial. The present report describes the case of a 22-year-old male with GCT located in the skull base originating from the clivus, with the involvement of multiple cranial nerves, which was successfully treated with transnasal transsphenoidal surgery following adjuvant radiotherapy and intravenous bisphosphonate administration. The patient remains symptom free at two years of follow-up. This report contributes to the limited literature regarding GCTs of the skull.
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.2528
PMCID: PMC4214439  PMID: 25364465
giant cell tumor; clivus; trigeminal nerve; abducens nerve; radiotherapy; bisphosphonate
20.  Treatment and outcome of giant cell tumors of the pelvis 
Acta Orthopaedica  2009;80(5):590-596.
Background and purpose Giant cell tumors (GCTs) of bone rarely affect the pelvis. We report on 20 cases that have been treated at our institution during the last 20 years.
Methods 20 patients with histologically benign GCT of the pelvis were included in this study. 9 tumors were primarily located in the iliosacral area, 6 in the acetabular area, and 5 in the ischiopubic area. 8 patients were treated by intralesional curettage and 6 by intralesional resection with additional curettage of the margins. 3 patients with iliacal tumors were treated by wide resection. 2 patients were treated by a combination of external beam irradiation and surgery, and 1 patient solely by irradiation. In addition, 9 patients received selective arterial embolization one day before surgery. Of the 6 patients with acetabular tumors, 1 secondarily received an endoprosthesis and 1 was primarily treated by hip transposition. The patients were followed for a median time of 3 (1–11) years.
Results 1 patient with a pubic tumor developed a local recurrence 1 year after intralesional resection and additional curettage of the margins. The recurrence presented as a small soft tissue mass within the scar tissue of the gluteal muscles and was treated by resection. No secondary sarcoma was detected and none of the patients developed pulmonary metastases or multicentricity. No major complication occurred during surgery.
Interpretation We conclude that most GCTs of the pelvis can be treated by intralesional procedures. For tumors of the iliac wing, wide resection can be an alternative. Surgical treatment of tumors affecting the acetabular region often results in functional impairment. Pre-surgical selective arterial embolization appears to be a safe procedure that may reduce the risk of local recurrence.
doi:10.3109/17453670903350123
PMCID: PMC2823344  PMID: 19916695
21.  Testicular Germ Cell Tumors with Sarcomatous Components: An Analysis of 33 Cases 
The American journal of surgical pathology  2009;33(8):10.1097/PAS.0b013e3181adb9d7.
The development of sarcomatous component (SC) in testicular germ cell tumor (GCT) is an uncommon phenomenon. We searched our surgical pathology files from 1985 to 2007 and identified 33 cases of testicular GCTs with SC. The average age of patients was 31 years. All patients underwent radical orchiectomy, which demonstrated a GCT in all patients except for 3 patients who had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All testicular GCTs contained a teratomatous component. The GCTs were pure teratomas in 3 cases, and were mixed GCTs in the other cases. The SC was observed in primary testicular tumor (n = 19), in metastasis (n = 11), or in both primary testicular tumor and metastasis (n=3). The average percentage of the SC in the primary testicular GCT was 32% (range, 5% to 99%). The most common histologic type of SC was rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 24), followed by high-grade unclassified sarcoma (n = 5), rhabdomyosarcoma admixed with high-grade unclassified sarcoma (n = 2), angiosarcoma (n = 1), and low-grade myxoid sarcoma (n = 1). Clinical follow-up information was available for 27 patients. Of the 13 patients whose SC was limited to the testicular GCT, 2 died of GCT not otherwise specified (NOS) at 37 and 68 months, respectively; and 11 patients were free of disease at a mean of 46 months. Of the 14 patients with a SC in the metastasis, 7 patients died of GCT NOS at a mean of 95 months, and 7 patients were free of disease at a mean of 104 months. These results suggest that patients with a SC confined to the primary testicular GCT may not have a higher risk of mortality than those at a comparable stage without a SC. However, patients with a SC in the metastasis have an increased risk of mortality.
doi:10.1097/PAS.0b013e3181adb9d7
PMCID: PMC3812063  PMID: 19561445
testicular germ cell tumor; sarcomatous component; rhabdomyosarcoma
22.  p63 as a prognostic marker for giant cell tumor of bone 
Background and purpose
Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is sometimes difficult to distinguish from other giant-cell-rich tumors such as chondroblastoma (CHB) and aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). The usefulness of p63 as a diagnostic marker for GCT is controversial. While there have been no reports about p63 as a prognostic marker for local recurrence, various p63-positive rates in GCT have been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate retrospectively whether p63 is useful as a diagnostic marker and/or a prognostic marker for local recurrence of GCT.
Methods
This study included 36 patients diagnosed with either GCT (n = 16), CHB (n = 9), ABC (n = 7), or non-ossifying fibroma (NOF) (n = 4). p63 immunostaining was performed for all specimens. The mean p63-positive rate was compared with the four diseases and between the recurrent and non-recurrent cases of GCT.
Results
Although the mean p63-positive rate for GCT (36.3%) was statistically higher than that of all other diseases examined (CHB: 15.2%; ABC: 5.8%; NOF: 3.4%), p63 was not specific for GCT. The mean p63-positive rate for recurrent GCT cases (73.6%) was statistically higher than that for non-recurrent cases (29.1%).
Conclusion
In the diagnosis of GCT, p63 is a useful but not a conclusive marker. However, p63 did appear to indicate the biological aggressiveness of GCT. Therefore, p63 may help surgeons to estimate the risk of recurrence after surgery and help them to choose the best treatment for each GCT case.
doi:10.3109/03009734.2012.724731
PMCID: PMC3572666  PMID: 23033898
Giant cell tumor of bone; local recurrence; p63; prognostic marker
23.  A novel SRY missense mutation affecting nuclear import in a 46,XY female patient with bilateral gonadoblastoma 
European Journal of Human Genetics  2009;17(12):1642-1649.
Patients with disorders of sex development (DSD), especially those with gonadal dysgenesis and hypovirilization, are at risk of developing the so-called type II germ cell tumors (GCTs). Both carcinoma in situ and gonadoblastoma (GB) can be the precursor lesion, resulting in a seminomatous or non-seminomatous invasive cancer. SRY mutations residing in the HMG domain are found in 10–15% of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis cases. This domain contains two nuclear localization signals (NLSs). In this study, we report a unique case of a phenotypical normal woman, diagnosed as a patient with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, with an NLS missense mutation, on the basis of the histological diagnosis of a unilateral GB. The normal role of SRY in gonadal development is the upregulation of SOX9 expression. The premalignant lesion of the initially removed gonad was positive for OCT3/4, TSPY and stem cell factor in germ cells, and for FOXL2 in the stromal component (ie, granulosa cells), but not for SOX9. On the basis of these findings, prophylactical gonadectomy of the other gonad was performed, also showing a GB lesion positive for both FOXL2 (ovary) and SOX9 (testis). The identified W70L mutation in the SRY gene resulted in a 50% reduction in the nuclear accumulation of the mutant protein compared with wild type. This likely explains the diminished SOX9 expression, and therefore the lack of proper Sertoli cell differentiation during development. This case shows the value of the proper diagnosis of human GCTs in identification of patients with DSD, which allows subsequent early diagnosis and prevention of the development of an invasive cancer, likely to be treated by chemotherapy at young age.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.96
PMCID: PMC2987026  PMID: 19513096
disorders of sex development; germ cell tumors; gonadoblastoma; SRY
24.  Hamartomas, teratomas and teratocarcinosarcomas of the head and neck: Report of 3 new cases with clinico-pathologic correlation, cytogenetic analysis, and review of the literature 
Background
Germ-cell tumors (GCT) are a histologically and biologically diverse group of neoplasms which primarily occur in the gonads but also develop at different extragonadal sites in the midline of the body. The head and neck region including the upper respiratory tract is a very rare location for such tumors in both children and adults, which can cause diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties.
Methods
We describe here two new cases of multilineage tumors including sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma [SNTCS], and congenital oronasopharyngeal teratoma (epignathus) and compare their features with those of a new case of a rare salivary gland anlage tumor [SGAT], an entity for which the pathogenesis is unclear (i.e. hamartoma versus neoplasm). We correlate their presenting clinico-pathological features and compare histologic and cytogenetic features in an attempt to elucidate their pathogenesis and biologic potentials.
Results and discussion
Cytogenetic analysis revealed chromosomal abnormalities only in the case of SNTCS that showed trisomy 12 and 1p deletion. Both cytogenetic abnormalities are characteristically present in malignant germ cell tumors providing for the first time evidence that this rare tumor type indeed might represent a variant of a germ cell neoplasm. The SGAT and epignathus carried no such cytogenetic abnormalities, in keeping with their limited and benign biologic potential.
Conclusion
The comparison of these three cases should serve to emphasize the diversity of multilineage tumors (hamartomas and GCT) of the upper respiratory tract in regards to their biology, age of presentation and clinical outcomes. Malignant tumors of germ cell origins are more likely to affect adults with insidious symptom development, while benign tumors can nevertheless cause dramatic clinical symptoms which, under certain circumstances, can be fatal.
doi:10.1186/1472-6815-8-8
PMCID: PMC2611960  PMID: 19025657
25.  Current Management of Testicular Cancer 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(1):2-10.
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) of the testis are rare, but are the most common cancer in young men. GCTs may consist of one predominant histologic pattern or may represent a mixture of multiple histologic types. For treatment purposes, two broad categories are recognized: 1) pure seminoma and 2) others, which together are termed nonseminomatous GCTs (NSGCTs). In general, seminoma tends to be less aggressive, to be diagnosed at an earlier stage, and to spread predictably along lymphatic channels to the retroperitoneum before spreading hematogenously to the lung or other organs. Compared with NSGCTs, seminoma is exquisitely sensitive to radiation therapy and platinum-based chemotherapy. NSGCTs are usually mixed tumors and teratoma often exists at the sites of metastasis with other GCT elements; cure often requires chemotherapy to kill the chemosensitive-components and surgery to remove the teratomatous components. The main factors contributing to excellent cure rates of GCTs are careful staging at diagnosis; adequate early treatment using chemotherapeutic combinations, with or without radiotherapy and surgery; and very strict follow-up and salvage therapy. We review several clinical studies and summarize the current trends in the management of GCTs.
doi:10.4111/kju.2013.54.1.2
PMCID: PMC3556548  PMID: 23362440
Neoplasms; Testis; Therapeutics

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