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1.  Spectral Studies and Bactericidal, Fungicidal, Insecticidal and Parasitological Activities of Organotin(IV) Complexes of Thio Schiff Bases Having no Donor Atoms 
Metal-Based Drugs  1995;2(6):297-309.
Twelve new organotin(IV) complexes of the type RnSnLm [where n = 3, m = 1, R = CH3 or C6H5; n = 2, m = 2, R = C6H5 or C4H9 ; L = anion of Schiff bases derived from the condensation of 2-amino-5-(o-anisyl)-l,3,4-thiadiazole with salicylaldehyde (HL-1), 2- hydroxynaphthaldehyde (HL-2) and 2-hydroxyacetophenone (HL-3)] have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductances, electronic, infrared, far-infrared, 1H NMR and 119Sn Mössbauer spectral studies. Thermal studies of two complexes, viz., Ph3Sn (L-1) and Ph2Sn(L-2)2 have been carried out in the temperature range 25-1000∘C using TG, DTG and DTA techniques. All these complexes decompose gradually with the formation of SnO2 as an end product. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the Schiff bases and their complexes has also been determined against Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus Penicillin resistance (2500 units), Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Sporotrichum schenckii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Aspergillus fumigatus. The Schiff bases (HL-1), (HL-2) and the organotin(IV) compounds have also been tested against various important herbicidal, fungicidal, insecticidal species and also for parasitological activity against freeliving nematode.
doi:10.1155/MBD.1995.297
PMCID: PMC2364992  PMID: 18472781
2.  Biological and Spectral Studies of Newly Synthesized Triazole Schiff Bases and Their Si(IV), Sn(IV) Complexes 
The Schiff bases HL1-3 have been prepared by the reaction of 5-bromothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde with 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-methyl/propyl/isopropyl-s-triazole, respectively. Organosilicon(IV) and organotin(IV) complexes of formulae (CH3)2MCl(L1-3), (CH3)2M(L1-3)2 were synthesized from the reaction of (CH3)2MCl2 and the Schiff bases in 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 molar ratio, where M = Si and Sn. The synthesized Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been characterized with the aid of various physicochemical techniques like elemental analyses, molar conductance, UV, IR, 1H, 13C, 29Si, and 119Sn NMR spectroscopy. Based on these studies, the trigonal bipyramidal and octahedral geometries have been proposed for these complexes. The ligands and their metal complexes have been screened in vitro against some bacteria and fungi.
doi:10.1155/2011/654250
PMCID: PMC3150780  PMID: 21826133
3.  Synthetic, Structural, and Biochemical Studies of Organotin(IV) With Schiff Bases Having Nitrogen and Sulphur Donor Ligands 
Three bidentate Schiff bases having nitrogen and sulphur donor sequences were prepared by condensing S-benzyldithiocarbazate (NH2NHCS2CH2C6H5) with heterocyclic aldehydes. The reaction of diphenyltin dichloride with Schiff bases leads to the formation of a new series of organotin(IV) complexes. An attempt has been made to prove their structures on the basis of elemental analyses, conductance measurements, molecular weights determinations, UV, infrared, and multinuclear magnetic resonance (1H, 13C, and 119Sn) spectral studies. Organotin(IV) complexes were five- and six-coordinate. Schiff bases and their corresponding organotin complexes have also been screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities and found to be quite active in this respect.
doi:10.1155/BCA/2006/23245
PMCID: PMC1686295  PMID: 17497003
4.  Preparation, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activities of Bimetallic Complexes of Sarcosine with Zn(II) and Sn(IV) 
Heterobimetallic complexes of Zn(II) and Sn(IV) with sarcosine have been synthesized at room temperature under stirring conditions by the reaction of sarcosine and zinc acetate in 2 : 1 molar ratio followed by the stepwise addition of CS2 and organotin(IV) halides, where R = Me, n-Bu, and Ph. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and NMR (1H, 13C) spectroscopy. IR data showed that the ligand acts in a bidentate manner. NMR data revealed the four coordinate geometry in solution state. In vitro antimicrobial activities data showed that complexes (3) and (4) were effective against bacterial and fungal strains with few exceptions.
doi:10.1155/2013/351262
PMCID: PMC3819876  PMID: 24235910
5.  Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Studies of Organotin(IV) Derivatives with o- or p-hydroxybenzoic Acids 
Organotin(IV) complexes with o- or p-hydroxybenzoic acids (o-H2BZA or p-H2BZA) of formulae [R2Sn(HL)2] (where H2L = o-H2BZA and R = Me- (1), n-Bu- (2)); [R3Sn(HL)] (where H2L = o-H2BZA and R = n-Bu- (3), Ph- (4) or H2L = p-H2BZA and R = n-Bu- (5), Ph- (6)) were synthesized by reacting a methanolic solution of di- and triorganotin(IV) compounds with an aqueous solution of the ligand (o-H2BZA or p-H2BZA) containing equimolar amounts of potassium hydroxide. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, Far-IR, TGA-DTA, FT-Raman, Mössbauer spectroscopy, 1H, 119Sn-NMR, UV/Vis spectroscopy, and Mass spectroscopy. The X-ray crystal structures of complexes 1 and 2 have also been determined. Finally, the influence of these complexes 1–6 upon the catalytic peroxidation of linoleic acid to hydroperoxylinoleic acid by the enzyme lipoxygenase (LOX) was kinetically studied and the results showed that triorganotin(IV) complex 6 has the lowest IC50 value. Also complexes 1–6 were studied for their in vitro cytotoxicity against sarcoma cancer cells (mesenchymal tissue) from the Wistar rat, and the results showed that the complexes have high activity against these cell lines with triphenyltin((IV) complex 4 to be the most active one.
doi:10.1155/2009/542979
PMCID: PMC2669538  PMID: 19390627
6.  Interaction of 5′-Guanosine Monophosphate with Organotin(IV) Moieties: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Anti-Inflammatory Activity 
ISRN organic chemistry  2012;2012:873035.
Reaction(s) of 5′-guanosine monophosphate (5′GMP) with di- and triorganotin(IV) chloride(s) led to formation of organotin(IV) derivatives of general formulae, [R2Sn(5′-GMP)·H2O]n and [(R′3Sn)2(5′-GMP)·H2O]n, where R = Me, n-Bu, and Ph; R′ = Me, i-Pr, n-Bu, and Ph; (5′-GMP)2− = 5′-guanosine monophosphate. An attempt has been made to prove the structures of the resulting derivatives on the basis of FT-IR, multinuclear 1H, 13C, and 119Sn NMR and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopic studies. These investigations suggest that both di- and triorganotin(IV)-5′-guanosine monophosphates are polymeric in which (5′-GMP)2− is bonded through phosphate group resulting in a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry around tin. The ribose conformation in all of the derivatives is C3′-endo, except diphenyltin(IV) and tri-i-propyltin(IV) derivatives where it is C2′-endo. All of the studied derivatives exhibited mild-to-moderate anti-inflammatory activity (~15.64–20.63% inhibition) at 40 mg kg−1 dose and LD50 values > 400 mg kg−1 in albino rats.
doi:10.5402/2012/873035
PMCID: PMC3767334  PMID: 24052853
7.  Nanoparticles of novel organotin(IV) complexes bearing phosphoric triamide ligands 
Summary
Four novel organotin(IV) complexes containing phosphoric triamide ligands were synthesized and characterized by multinuclear (1H, 31P, 13C) NMR, infrared, ultraviolet and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as elemental analysis. The 1H NMR spectra of complexes 1–4 proved that the Sn atoms adopt octahedral configurations. The nanoparticles of the complexes were also prepared by ultrasonication, and their SEM micrographs indicated identical spherical morphologies with particles sizes about 20–25 nm. The fluorescence spectra exhibited blue shifts for the maximum wavelength of emission upon complexation.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.4.11
PMCID: PMC3596101  PMID: 23504649
luminescence; nanoparticles; organotin(IV) complexes; phosphoric triamide; ultrasonic
8.  Novel Organotin(IV)-Schiff Base Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity, and DNA Interaction Studies 
Four organotin(IV) complexes with 2-(2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)isoindoline-1,3-dione (L1), and 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino-N-(pyrimidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (L2) were synthesized and well characterized by analytical and spectral studies. The synthesized compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. The DNA binding of the complexes 1 and 3 with CT-DNA has been performed with absorption spectroscopy, which showed that both the complexes are avid binders of CT-DNA. Also the nuclease activity of complexes 1 and 3 with plasmid DNA (pUC19) was studied using agarose gel electrophoresis. The complex 1 can act as effective DNA cleaving agent when compared to complex 3 resulting in the nicked form of DNA under physiological conditions. The gel was run both in the absence and presence of the oxidizing agent.
doi:10.1155/2010/854514
PMCID: PMC3021846  PMID: 21253533
9.  Organotin(IV) Derivatives of L-Cysteine and their in vitro Anti-Tumor Properties 
The synthesis and characterization of the organotin compounds [(n-C4H9)2Sn(cys)] (1), [(C6H5)2Sn(cys)] (2), [(C6H5)3Sn(Hcys).(H2o)] (3), {[(CH3)2Sn(Kcys)2].2(H20)} (4), {[(n-C4H9)2Sn(Kcys)2].2(H20)} (5) and {[(C6H5)2Sn(Kcys)2].2(H20)} (6) (where H2cys = L-cysteine) are reported. The compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis and 1H-NMR, Uv-Vis, FT-IR and MOssbauer spectroscopic techniques. Attempted recrystallization of (2) in DMSO/methanol 2:1 solution yielded after several days unexpectedly the dimeric compound bis(tri-phenyltin)sulphide {[(C6H5)3Sn]2S} (7) which has been characterized by x-ray analysis. The structure of the parent complex (2) as well as the mechanism of the decomposition of cysteine are being further investigated. The in vitro anticancer activity of complexes (I)- (6), against human leukemia (HL60), human liver (Bel7402), human stomach (BGC823) and human cervix epithelial human carcinoma (Hela), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (KB) and lung cancer (PG) tumor cells, were evaluated.
doi:10.1155/S1565363304000044
PMCID: PMC2267074  PMID: 18365068
10.  Dibutyltin Disrupts Glucocorticoid Receptor Function and Impairs Glucocorticoid-Induced Suppression of Cytokine Production 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(10):e3545.
Background
Organotins are highly toxic and widely distributed environmental chemicals. Dibutyltin (DBT) is used as stabilizer in the production of polyvinyl chloride plastics, and it is also the major metabolite formed from tributyltin (TBT) in vivo. DBT is immunotoxic, however, the responsible targets remain to be defined. Due to the importance of glucocorticoids in immune-modulation, we investigated whether DBT could interfere with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function.
Methodology
We used HEK-293 cells transiently transfected with human GR as well as rat H4IIE hepatoma cells and native human macrophages and human THP-1 macrophages expressing endogenous receptor to study organotin effects on GR function. Docking of organotins was used to investigate the binding mechanism.
Principal Findings
We found that nanomolar concentrations of DBT, but not other organotins tested, inhibit ligand binding to GR and its transcriptional activity. Docking analysis indicated that DBT inhibits GR activation allosterically by inserting into a site close to the steroid-binding pocket, which disrupts a key interaction between the A-ring of the glucocorticoid and the GR. DBT inhibited glucocorticoid-induced expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and tyrosine-aminotransferase (TAT) and abolished the glucocorticoid-mediated transrepression of TNF-α-induced NF-κB activity. Moreover, DBT abrogated the glucocorticoid-mediated suppression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TNF-α production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated native human macrophages and human THP-1 macrophages.
Conclusions
DBT inhibits ligand binding to GR and subsequent activation of the receptor. By blocking GR activation, DBT may disturb metabolic functions and modulation of the immune system, providing an explanation for some of the toxic effects of this organotin.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003545
PMCID: PMC2568824  PMID: 18958157
11.  Synthesis, Characterization and In vitro Antitumour Activity of Novel Organotin Derivatives of 1,2- and 1,7-Dicarba-Closo-dodecaboranes 
Metal-Based Drugs  1995;2(1):37-42.
Several organotin derivatives of 1,2- and 1,7-dicarba-closo-dodecaboranes were synthesized and characterized by 119Sn Mössbauer, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR spectroscopy. Their antitumour activities in vitro against cancerous cell lines of human origin are reported.
doi:10.1155/MBD.1995.37
PMCID: PMC2364947  PMID: 18472744
12.  Synthesis and radioiodination of a stannyl oligodeoxyribonucleotide. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1997;25(14):2897-2901.
Synthesis and radioiodination of a stannyl oligodeoxyribonucleotide were undertaken to evaluate a gamma ray emitting ODN ligand for thrombus imaging in vivo . Synthesis of the ODN was based on modified automatedbeta-cyanoethyl phosphoramidite chemistry with an organotin nucleoside (dU*) coupled to a thrombin binding aptamer sequence to give d(U*GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG). The synthesis accommodated dU*, which is destannylated by iodine or acids. Fourteen standard synthesis cycles were followed by one 'stannyl synthesis cycle', distinguished by Fmoc protection, omission of capping, oxidation by an organic peroxide and cleavage by ammonium hydroxide. The organotin nucleoside phosphoramidite ¿5'-[fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl]-5-(E)-[2-tri-n -butylstannylvinyl]-2'-deoxyuridine-3'-(2-cyanoethyl N,N-diisopropyl phosphoramidite)¿ was prepared from 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. A customized mild rapid workup included deprotection with methylamine, and reverse phase HPLC with CH3CN/triethylammonium bicarbonate. Pure stannyl ODN was highly retained by reverse phase HPLC. Radioiodination of stannyl ODN (100 microg) provided 123I-labeling yields up to 97%. Five alternative oxidants were effective. High specific activity [123I]- ODN (15 000 Ci/mmol) was recovered, separated from unlabeled isomers. Excellent reverse phase HPLC resolution of ODN isomers (alternatively I, Cl, H or Br in vinyl deoxyuridine) was essential. The affinity of the iodovinyl aptamer analog (Kd = 36 nM) for human alpha-thrombin was similar to the native aptamer (Kd = 45 nM).
PMCID: PMC146821  PMID: 9207040
13.  Intramolecular chalcogen-tin interactions in [(o-MeE-C6H4)CH2]2SnPh2-nCln; E = S, O, CH2, n = 0, 1, 2 and intermolecular chlorine-tin interactions in the meta and para-methoxy isomers 
Inorganic chemistry  2010;49(3):960-968.
Organotin(IV) compounds of the type [(o-MeE-C6H4)CH2]2SnPh2-nCln were synthesized, E = O, n = 0 (1), n = 1 (2), n = 2 (3), E = S, n = 0 (4), n = 1 (5), n = 2 (6) and E = CH2, n = 0 (7), n = 1 (8), n = 2 (9). The dichloro compounds 3 and 6 have been investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction and exhibit bi-capped tetrahedral geometry at the tin atom as a consequence of significant intramolecular Sn⋯O (3) and Sn⋯S (6) secondary bonding, in monomolecular units. Compound 3 when crystallized from a hexane/thf solvent mixture shows two different conformers, 3′ and 3″, in the crystal structure, 3′ has two equivalent Sn⋯O interactions, while 3″ has two non-equivalent Sn⋯O interactions. Upon recrystallization of 3 from hexane only a single structural form is observed, 3′. The Sn⋯E distances in 3′, 3″, and 6 are 71.3; 73.5, 72.9; and 76.3% of the ΣvdW radii, respectively. The meta and para-substituted isomers of 3 (10, 11) exhibit a distortion at the tin atom due to self-association via intermolecular Sn⋯Cl interactions resulting in polymeric structures. 119Sn NMR spectroscopy suggests that the intramolecular Sn⋯E interactions persist in solution for the dichloride compounds 3 and 6.
doi:10.1021/ic901800c
PMCID: PMC2847510  PMID: 20047301
19Sn NMR; tin-oxygen coordination; tin-sulfur coordination; chloride-tin coordination; intramolecular contacts; intermolecular contacts
14.  Synthesis, Spectral and Antimicrobial Studies of Bis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium(IV) Derivatives with Schiff Bases Derived from 2-Amino-5-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole 
The reactions of bis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium(IV) dichloride with Schiff bases derived by condensing 2- amino-5-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole with benzaldehyde (SPT), 4-nitrobenzaldehyde (SNT), 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (SMT), 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde (SSTH) or 2-hydroxyacetophenone (SATH) have been studied in refluxing tetrahydrofuran and complexes of types [Cp2TiCl(SB)]Cl (SB= SPT, SNT or SMT) and [Cp2Ti(SB')]Cl (SB'H= SSTH or SATH) have been isolated. Tentative structural conclusions are drawn for these reaction products based upon elemental analyses, electrical conductance, magnetic moment and spectral (UV-vis, IR and 1H NMR) data. Studies were conducted to assess the growth-inhibiting potential of the complexes synthesized, and the ligands, against various fungal and bacterial strains.
doi:10.1155/BCA.2005.289
PMCID: PMC2267105  PMID: 18365105
15.  Organotin-mediated exchange diffusion of anions in human red cells 
The Journal of General Physiology  1979;73(6):765-788.
Organotin cations (R3Sn+) form electrically neutral ion pairs with monovalent anions. It is demonstrated that the tin derivatives induce exchange diffusion of chloride in red cells and resealed ghosts, without any detectable increase of membrane permeability to net movements of chloride ions. The obligatory anion exchange is believed to be due to the permeation of electroneural ion pairs, whereas the organic cation (R3Sn+) has an extremely low membrane permeability. Exchange fluxes of chloride increased with the lipophilicity of the substituting group (R3). At the same molar concentration of organotin, the relative potencies of the tin derivatives as anion carriers (with trimethyltin as a reference) were: methyl 1, ethyl 30, propyl = phenyl 1,00, and butyl 10,000. Tributyltin-mediated anion exchange was studied in detail. The organotin-induced anion transport increased through the sequence: F- less than Cl- less than Br- less than I- = SCN- less than OH-. Partitioning of tributyltin into red cell membranes was greater in iodide than in chloride media (partition coefficients 6.6 and 1.7 x 10(- 3) cm, respectively). Bicarbonate, fluoride, nitrate, phosphate, and sulphate did not exchange with chloride in the presence of tributyltin. Chloride exchange fluxes increased linearly with tributylin concentrations up to 10(-5) M, and with chloride concentrations up to at least 0.9 M. The apparent turnover number for tributyltin-mediated chloride exchange increased from 15 to 1,350 s-1 between 0 and 38 degrees C. These figures are minimum turnover numbers, because it is not known what fraction of the organotin in the membrane exists as chloride ion pairs.
PMCID: PMC2215208  PMID: 479814
16.  Synthesis, Characterization, Crystal Structure, and Biological Studies of a Cadmium(II) Complex with a Tridentate Ligand 4′-Chloro-2,2′:6′,2′′-Terpyridine 
A new Cd(II) complex with the ligand 4′-chloro-2,2′6′,2′′-terpyridine (Cltpy), [Cd(Cltpy)(I)2], has been synthesized and characterized by CHN elemental analysis, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and IR spectroscopy and structurally analyzed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The single-crystal X-ray analyses show that the coordination number in complex is five with three terpyridine (Cltpy) N-donor atoms and two iodine atoms. The antibacterial activities of Cltpy and its Cd(II) complex are tested against different bacteria.
doi:10.1155/2011/803292
PMCID: PMC3119424  PMID: 21738495
17.  Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Triphenyltinbenzoate 
Triphenyltinbenzoate was synthesized using triphenyltinchloride and silver benzoate prepared from sodium benzoate. The structure of the synthetic compound was elucidated by spectral and C, H analysis. The antibacterial activities of the organotin compound were determined against four bacteria namely Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Streptococcus pyogenes (clinical isolate) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) in vitro experiment. All the bacteria were inhibited at a concentration of 200 μg/ml and 20 μg/ml in dimethylsulphoxide solution and the minimum inhibitory concentration was found to be same, 7.5 μg/ml for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and 10 μg/ml for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.73923
PMCID: PMC3013556  PMID: 21218074
Antibacterial activity; MIC; synthesis; triphenyltinbenzoate; zone of inhibition
18.  Aqua­chlorido{2-[2-(cyclo­hexyl­carbamo­thioyl-κS)hydrazinyl­idene-κN 1]propano­ato(2−)}phenyl­tin(IV) 
In the title organotin compound, [Sn(C6H5)(C10H15N3O2S)Cl(H2O)], the Sn atom is coordinated by the S, O, and imine N atoms of the dinegative tridentate ligand, a chloride ligand, the ipso-C atom of a phenyl ligand and by a water mol­ecule in a distorted octa­hedral coordination environment. Coordin­ated water mol­ecules link the organotin mol­ecules by forming O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds with both carbonyl and carboxyl­ate O atoms, leading to 12-membered {⋯OCO⋯HOH⋯}2 synthons. This results in the formation of supra­molecular chains along the c axis. The chains pack in the ac plane and stack along the b axis with links between layers afforded by N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds.
doi:10.1107/S1600536810031715
PMCID: PMC3007908  PMID: 21588519
19.  The Proteasome Is a Molecular Target of Environmental Toxic Organotins 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2008;117(3):379-386.
Background
Because of the vital importance of the proteasome pathway, chemicals affecting proteasome activity could disrupt essential cellular processes. Although the toxicity of organotins to both invertebrates and vertebrates is well known, the essential cellular target of organotins has not been well identified. We hypothesize that the proteasome is a molecular target of environmental toxic organotins.
Objectives
Our goal was to test the above hypothesis by investigating whether organotins could inhibit the activity of purified and cellular proteasomes and, if so, the involved molecular mechanisms and downstream events.
Results
We found that some toxic organotins [e.g., triphenyltin (TPT)] can potently and preferentially inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of purified 20S proteasomes and human breast cancer cellular 26S proteasomes. Direct binding of tin atoms to cellular proteasomes is responsible for the observed irreversible inhibition. Inhibition of cellular proteasomes by TPT in several human cell lines results in the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and natural proteasome target proteins, accompanied by induction of cell death.
Conclusions
The proteasome is one of the molecular targets of environmental toxic organotins in human cells, and proteasome inhibition by organotins contributes to their cellular toxicity.
doi:10.1289/ehp.11865
PMCID: PMC2661907  PMID: 19337512
cell death; molecular target; organotins; proteasome; proteasome inhibitors; TPT
20.  Activation of RXR-PPAR heterodimers by organotin environmental endocrine disruptors 
EMBO Reports  2009;10(4):367-373.
The nuclear receptor RXRα/PPARγ heterodimer was recently reported to play a major role in mediating the deleterious effects of organotin compounds which are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. However, because organotins are unrelated to known RXRα and PPARγ ligands, the mechanism by which these compounds bind and activate the RXRα/PPARγ heterodimer at nanomolar concentrations has remained elusive. Here, we show that tributyltin (TBT) activates all three RXR/PPARα, γ, δ heterodimers primarily through its interaction with RXR. Moreover, the 1.9 Å resolution structure of the RXRα ligand-binding domain in complex with TBT reveals a covalent bond between the tin atom and residue C432 of helix H11. This interaction largely accounts for the high binding affinity of TBT which occupies the RXRα ligand-binding pocket only partially. Our data allow understanding of the binding and activation properties of the various organotins and suggest a mechanism by which these tin compounds could affect other nuclear receptor signaling pathways.
doi:10.1038/embor.2009.8
PMCID: PMC2672886  PMID: 19270714
Cell Line; Chromatography, Liquid; Crystallography, X-Ray; Endocrine Disruptors; chemistry; pharmacology; Fluorescence Polarization; Humans; Mass Spectrometry; Models, Biological; Molecular Structure; Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors; chemistry; metabolism; Protein Multimerization; drug effects; Protein Structure, Secondary; Retinoid X Receptors; chemistry; metabolism; Trialkyltin Compounds; chemistry; pharmacology; nuclear receptor; 3D structure; organotins; environment
21.  Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Some Organotin(IV) Carboxylates 
Metal-Based Drugs  1998;5(4):233-236.
Six diorganotin(IV) carboxylates prepared by reacting diorganotin(IV) dichlorides with the respective silver carboxylate have been tested for antifungal activity against Aspergillus. niger, Aspergilluus flavus and Pencillium. citrinum in Sabourand dextrose broth. The compounds generally exhibit greater fungitoxicity than the diorganotin(IV) dichlorides and the carboxylic acids from which they were synthesized. In keeping with the generally accepted notion that the organotin moiety plays an important role in deciding the antifungal activity of an organotin compound, the diphenyltin(IV) compounds were more active than their di-n-butyltin(IV) analogues. However, the order of increasing fungitoxicity of the compounds parallels that of the uncomplexed carboxylic acids. The implications of the results are discussed.
doi:10.1155/MBD.1998.233
PMCID: PMC2365116  PMID: 18475848
22.  Identification of Binding Mode of a Platinum (II) Complex, PtCl2(DIP), and Calf Thymus DNA 
The Pt(II) complex, PtCl2(DIP) (DIP = chelating dinitrogen ligand: 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis (CHN) and 1H NMR and UV-vis techniques. The binding of this complex to calf thymus DNA was investigated using various physicochemical methods such as spectrophotometric, circular dichroism, spectrofluorometric, melting temperature, and viscosimetric techniques. Upon addition of the complex, important changes were observed in the characteristic UV-Vis bands (hyperchromism) of calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA): increase in melting temperature, sharp increase in specific viscosity of DNA, and induced CD spectral changes. Also the fluorescence spectral characteristics and interaction of Pt complex with DNA have been studied. Pt bound to DNA showed a marked decrease in the fluorescence intensity. The results show that both the complex and the NR molecules can intercalate competitively into the DNA double-helix structure. The experimental results show that the mode of binding of the this complex to DNA is classical intercalation.
doi:10.1155/2011/687571
PMCID: PMC3202101  PMID: 22110411
23.  Certification of butyltins and phenyltins in marine sediment certified reference material by species-specific isotope-dilution mass spectrometric analysis using synthesized 118Sn-enriched organotin compounds 
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry  2006;387(7):2325-2334.
A new marine sediment certified reference material, NMIJ CRM 7306-a, for butyltin and phenyltin analysis has been prepared and certified by the National Metrological Institute of Japan at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST). Candidate sediment material was collected at a bay near industrial activity in Japan. After air-drying, sieving, and mixing the material was sterilized with γ-ray irradiation. The material was re-mixed and packaged into 250 glass bottles (15 g each) and these were stored in a freezer at −30 °C. Certification was performed by use of three different types of species-specific isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (SSID–MS)—SSID–GC–ICP–MS, SSID–GC–MS, and SSID–LC–ICP–MS, with 118Sn-enriched organotin compounds synthesized from 118Sn-enriched metal used as a spike. The 118Sn-enriched mono-butyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and tributyltin (TBT) were synthesized as a mixture whereas the 118Sn-enriched di-phenyltin (DPhT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) were synthesized individually. Four different extraction methods, mechanical shaking, ultrasonic, microwave-assisted, and pressurized liquid extraction, were adopted to avoid possible analytical bias caused by non-quantitative extraction and degradation or inter-conversion of analytes in sample preparations. Tropolone was used as chelating agent in all the extraction methods. Certified values are given for TBT 44±3 μg kg−1 as Sn, DBT 51 ± 2 μg kg−1 as Sn, MBT 67 ± 3 μg kg−1 as Sn, TPhT 6.9 ± 1.2 μg kg−1 as Sn, and DPhT 3.4 ± 1.2 μg kg−1 as Sn. These levels are lower than in other sediment CRMs currently available for analysis of organotin compounds.
doi:10.1007/s00216-006-0677-x
PMCID: PMC1820759  PMID: 16874473
Certification; Certified reference material; Species-specific isotope dilution; Organotin compounds; Sediment
24.  Synthetic and Spectroscopic Characterization of Organotin(IV) Complexes of Biologically Active Schiff Bases Derived from Sulpha Drugs 
A number of diorganotin(IV) complexes with Schiffbase have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurements, molecular weight determinations, infrared, electronic and multinuclear magnetic resonance (1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR) spectral data. The molar conductivity data shows non-electrolytic nature of complexes. The bidentate nature of the ligands is inferred from IR and NMR spectral studies. The antimicrobial activities of the ligands and their tin complexes have been screened in vitro against the organism Escherichia coli; Staphylococus aureus, Prouteus mirabilis, Bacillus thurengiensis, Penicillium co.,sogenum, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum.
doi:10.1155/S1565363303000244
PMCID: PMC2267065  PMID: 18365062
25.  Synthesis, Spectral, and In Vitro Antibacterial Studies of Organosilicon(IV) Complexes with Schiff Bases Derived from Amino Acids 
The present work stems from our interest in the synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial evaluation of organosilicon(IV) complexes of a class of amino-acid-based Schiff base which have been prepared by the interaction of ethoxytrimethylsilane with the Schiff bases (N OH) in 1 : 1 molar ratio. These complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, and spectroscopic studies including electronic IR and NMR (1H, 13C, and 29Si) spectroscopy. The analytical and spectral data suggest trigonal bipyramidal geometry around the silicon atom in the resulting complexes. The ligands and their organosilicon complexes have also been evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Nocardia spp., E. aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Staphylococcus spp.). The complexes were found to be more potent as compared to the ligands.
doi:10.1155/2013/425832
PMCID: PMC3745939  PMID: 23983671

Results 1-25 (620773)