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1.  HIV Infection Abrogates the Functional Advantage of Natural Killer Cells Educated through KIR3DL1/HLA-Bw4 Interactions To Mediate Anti-HIV Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(8):4488-4495.
Combinations of KIR3DL1 and HLA-Bw4 alleles protect against HIV infection and/or disease progression. These combinations enhance NK cell responsiveness through the ontological process of education. However, educated KIR3DL1+ NK cells do not have enhanced degranulation upon direct recognition of autologous HIV-infected cells. Since antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is associated with improved HIV infection outcomes and NK cells overcome inhibition through killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) to mediate ADCC, we hypothesized that KIR3DL1-educated NK cells mediate anti-HIV ADCC against autologous cells. A whole-blood flow cytometry assay was used to evaluate ADCC-induced activation of NK cells. This assay assessed activation (gamma interferon [IFN-γ] production and/or CD107a expression) of KIR3DL1+ and KIR3DL1− NK cells, from HLA-Bw4+ and HLA-Bw4− HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals, in response to autologous HIV-specific ADCC targets. KIR3DL1+ NK cells were more functional than KIR3DL1− NK cells from HLA-Bw4+, but not HLA-Bw4−, healthy controls. In HIV-infected individuals, no differences in NK cell functionality were observed between KIR3DL1+ and KIR3DL1− NK cells in HLA-Bw4+ individuals, consistent with dysfunction of NK cells in the setting of HIV infection. Reflecting the partial normalization of NK cell responsiveness following initiation of antiretroviral therapy, a significant correlation was observed between the peripheral CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts in antiretroviral therapy-treated subjects and the functionality of NK cells. However, peripheral CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts were not correlated with an anti-HIV ADCC functional advantage in educated KIR3DL1+ NK cells. The abrogation of the functional advantage of educated NK cells may enhance HIV disease progression. Strategies to enhance the potency of NK cell-mediated ADCC may improve HIV therapies and vaccines.
doi:10.1128/JVI.06112-11
PMCID: PMC3318670  PMID: 22345455
2.  Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells Is Directly Associated with the Magnitude of Surface IgG Binding 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(16):8672-8680.
Antibody (Ab)-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is thought to potentially play a role in vaccine-induced protection from HIV-1. The characteristics of such antibodies remain incompletely understood. Furthermore, correlates between ADCC and HIV-1 immune status are not clearly defined. We screened the sera of 20 HIV-1-positive (HIV-1+) patients for ADCC. Normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to derive HIV-infected CD4+ T cell targets and autologous, freshly isolated, natural killer (NK) cells in a novel assay that measures granzyme B (GrB) and HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cell elimination (ICE) by flow cytometry. We observed that complex sera mediated greater levels of ADCC than anti-HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env)-specific monoclonal antibodies and serum-mediated ADCC correlated with the amount of IgG and IgG1 bound to HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells. No correlation between ADCC and viral load, CD4+ T cell count, or neutralization of HIV-1SF162 or other primary viral isolates was detected. Sera pooled from clade B HIV-1+ individuals exhibited breadth in killing targets infected with HIV-1 from clades A/E, B, and C. Taken together, these data suggest that the total amount of IgG bound to an HIV-1-infected cell is an important determinant of ADCC and that polyvalent antigen-specific Abs are required for a robust ADCC response. In addition, Abs elicited by a vaccine formulated with immunogens from a single clade may generate a protective ADCC response in vivo against a variety of HIV-1 species. Increased understanding of the parameters that dictate ADCC against HIV-1-infected cells will inform efforts to stimulate ADCC activity and improve its potency in vaccinees.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00287-12
PMCID: PMC3421757  PMID: 22674985
3.  ADCC Develops Over Time during Persistent Infection with Live-Attenuated SIV and Is Associated with Complete Protection against SIVmac251 Challenge 
PLoS Pathogens  2012;8(8):e1002890.
Live-attenuated strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) routinely confer apparent sterilizing immunity against pathogenic SIV challenge in rhesus macaques. Understanding the mechanisms of protection by live-attenuated SIV may provide important insights into the immune responses needed for protection against HIV-1. Here we investigated the development of antibodies that are functional against neutralization-resistant SIV challenge strains, and tested the hypothesis that these antibodies are associated with protection. In the absence of detectable neutralizing antibodies, Env-specific antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) emerged by three weeks after inoculation with SIVΔnef, increased progressively over time, and was proportional to SIVΔnef replication. Persistent infection with SIVΔnef elicited significantly higher ADCC titers than immunization with a non-persistent SIV strain that is limited to a single cycle of infection. ADCC titers were higher against viruses matched to the vaccine strain in Env, but were measurable against viruses expressing heterologous Env proteins. In two separate experiments, which took advantage of either the strain-specificity or the time-dependent maturation of immunity to overcome complete protection against SIVmac251 challenge, measures of ADCC activity were higher among the SIVΔnef-inoculated macaques that remained uninfected than among those that became infected. These observations show that features of the antibody response elicited by SIVΔnef are consistent with hallmarks of protection by live-attenuated SIV, and reveal an association between Env-specific antibodies that direct ADCC and apparent sterilizing protection by SIVΔnef.
Author Summary
Live-attenuated vaccines can prevent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection upon experimental challenge of rhesus macaques. Although safety considerations preclude vaccinating humans with live-attenuated HIV-1, it may be possible to replicate the types of immunity induced by live-attenuated SIV through an alternative approach. Thus, identifying the immune responses underlying protection by live-attenuated SIV and understanding their induction would provide guidance for HIV-1 vaccine design. An important role for the maturation of virus-specific antibody responses could explain the time-dependent development of protection by live-attenuated SIV. However, antibodies that block the entry of the challenge virus into cells are usually undetectable. Antibodies can also direct the killing of virus-infected cells by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Here we show that live-attenuated SIV induces progressive increases in ADCC over time, and that the development of these antibodies is dependent upon the persistent replication of the vaccine strain. In two different experiments, the animals immunized with live-attenuated SIV that remained uninfected after pathogenic SIV challenge had higher measures of ADCC than those that became infected. Our results suggest that antibodies contribute to protection by live-attenuated SIV, and that persistent stimulation of antibody responses may be essential for HIV-1 vaccines to induce high ADCC activity.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002890
PMCID: PMC3426556  PMID: 22927823
4.  Influence of Cytokines on HIV-Specific Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Activation Profile of Natural Killer Cells 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e38580.
There is growing interest in HIV-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) as an effective immune response to prevent or control HIV infection. ADCC relies on innate immune effector cells, particularly NK cells, to mediate control of virus-infected cells. The activation of NK cells (i.e., expression of cytokines and/or degranulation) by ADCC antibodies in serum is likely subject to the influence of other factors that are also present. We observed that the HIV-specific ADCC antibodies, within serum samples from a panel of HIV-infected individuals induced divergent activation profiles of NK cells from the same donor. Some serum samples primarily induced NK cell cytokine expression (i.e., IFNγ), some primarily initiated NK cell expression of a degranulation marker (CD107a) and others initiated a similar magnitude of responses across both effector functions. We therefore evaluated a number of HIV-relevant soluble factors for their influence on the activation of NK cells by HIV-specific ADCC antibodies. Key findings were that the cytokines IL-15 and IL-10 consistently enhanced the ability of NK cells to respond to HIV-specific ADCC antibodies. Furthermore, IL-15 was demonstrated to potently activate “educated” KIR3DL1+ NK cells from individuals carrying its HLA-Bw4 ligand. The cytokine was also demonstrated to activate “uneducated” KIR3DL1+ NK cells from HLA-Bw6 homozygotes, but to a lesser extent. Our results show that cytokines influence the ability of NK cells to respond to ADCC antibodies in vitro. Manipulating the immunological environment to enhance the potency of NK cell-mediated HIV-specific ADCC effector functions could be a promising immunotherapy or vaccine strategy.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038580
PMCID: PMC3372512  PMID: 22701674
5.  Evidence of Differential HLA Class I-Mediated Viral Evolution in Functional and Accessory/Regulatory Genes of HIV-1 
PLoS Pathogens  2007;3(7):e94.
Despite the formidable mutational capacity and sequence diversity of HIV-1, evidence suggests that viral evolution in response to specific selective pressures follows generally predictable mutational pathways. Population-based analyses of clinically derived HIV sequences may be used to identify immune escape mutations in viral genes; however, prior attempts to identify such mutations have been complicated by the inability to discriminate active immune selection from virus founder effects. Furthermore, the association between mutations arising under in vivo immune selection and disease progression for highly variable pathogens such as HIV-1 remains incompletely understood. We applied a viral lineage-corrected analytical method to investigate HLA class I-associated sequence imprinting in HIV protease, reverse transcriptase (RT), Vpr, and Nef in a large cohort of chronically infected, antiretrovirally naïve individuals. A total of 478 unique HLA-associated polymorphisms were observed and organized into a series of “escape maps,” which identify known and putative cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes under selection pressure in vivo. Our data indicate that pathways to immune escape are predictable based on host HLA class I profile, and that epitope anchor residues are not the preferred sites of CTL escape. Results reveal differential contributions of immune imprinting to viral gene diversity, with Nef exhibiting far greater evidence for HLA class I-mediated selection compared to other genes. Moreover, these data reveal a significant, dose-dependent inverse correlation between HLA-associated polymorphisms and HIV disease stage as estimated by CD4+ T cell count. Identification of specific sites and patterns of HLA-associated polymorphisms across HIV protease, RT, Vpr, and Nef illuminates regions of the genes encoding these products under active immune selection pressure in vivo. The high density of HLA-associated polymorphisms in Nef compared to other genes investigated indicates differential HLA class I-driven evolution in different viral genes. The relationship between HLA class I-associated polymorphisms and lower CD4+ cell count suggests that immune escape correlates with disease status, supporting an essential role of maintenance of effective CTL responses in immune control of HIV-1. The design of preventative and therapeutic CTL-based vaccine approaches could incorporate information on predictable escape pathways.
Author Summary
One of the greatest challenges facing HIV-1 vaccine design today is the formidable capacity of the virus for mutation and adaptation, a characteristic that has contributed to the extensive worldwide genetic variability of HIV-1 strains observed today. On an individual basis, evolutionary selective pressures imposed by each infected person's unique immune response results in the selection and outgrowth of viral “escape” mutants capable of evading immune recognition, while on a population basis, complex evolutionary selective pressures imposed by the highly polymorphic genes of the human immune system shape HIV-1 diversity on a global level. Making sense of the seemingly infinite complexity of HIV immune escape is of paramount importance in our goal of developing a successful HIV vaccine. The current study uses cutting-edge statistical methods to identify specific sites and patterns of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-restricted escape mutations in various HIV genes. Researchers summarize their findings in the form of “immune escape maps,” which highlight the differential contribution of immune imprinting to HIV genetic diversity, as well as identify specific sites in the viral genome under active immune selection pressure. Results from the present study contribute to our understanding of how human immune selective pressure contributes to variation in different HIV genes, and could help inform the development of HIV vaccines that take into consideration viral diversity.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0030094
PMCID: PMC1904471  PMID: 17616974
6.  107 The modern methods for HIV/AIDS vaccine evaluation 
The spread of HIV/AIDS increases worldwide, a safe and efficacious vaccine remains the cornerstone for a prevention strategy to stop HIV-1 epidemic. Both humoral (neutralizing antibodies) and cellular (CTL) responses are able to control HIV infection. Non-neutralizing HIV-specific antibodies could play an important role in preventing or controlling HIV infection. These antibodies can bind to infected cells and recruit innate immune effector cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, to lyse infected cells through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI). The measurement of immune responses directed specifically against the HIV is critical for understanding the interplay between the virus and the host immune system. By characterizing the immunological correlates of protection against HIV infection, such measurements will aid in the development of efficacious prophylactic vaccine. To improve vaccine antigens and adjuvant, it is also necessary to asses a similarity of vaccine—and virus—induced immune responses. The evaluation of antigen-specific humoral response includes measurement amount and specificity of vaccine-induced antibodies (in ELISA or WB), their neutralizing activity and ADCC or ADCVI. ELISPOT, intracellular cytokine flow cytometry assays and Luminex are the most common assays to determine CTL response. They all determine immune response by the detection of the cytokines (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL2) secreted by cells upon antigen-stimulation. MHC tetramer binding assay measures the absolute number of cells that recognize a particular epitope without providing any information regarding the functionality of the cells.
doi:10.1097/01.qai.0000446687.23739.81
PMCID: PMC4149655
7.  Dynamics of Immune Escape during HIV/SIV Infection 
PLoS Computational Biology  2008;4(7):e1000103.
Several studies have shown that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an important role in controlling HIV/SIV infection. Notably, the observation of escape mutants suggests a selective pressure induced by the CTL response. However, it remains difficult to assess the definite role of the cellular immune response. We devise a computational model of HIV/SIV infection having a broad cellular immune response targeting different viral epitopes. The CTL clones are stimulated by viral antigen and interact with the virus population through cytotoxic killing of infected cells. Consequently, the virus population reacts through the acquisition of CTL escape mutations. Our model provides realistic virus dynamics and describes several experimental observations. We postulate that inter-clonal competition and immunodominance may be critical factors determining the sequential emergence of escapes. We show that even though the total killing induced by the CTL response can be high, escape rates against a single CTL clone are often slow and difficult to estimate from infrequent sequence measurements. Finally, our simulations show that a higher degree of immunodominance leads to more frequent escape with a reduced control of viral replication but a substantially impaired replicative capacity of the virus. This result suggests two strategies for vaccine design: Vaccines inducing a broad CTL response should decrease the viral load, whereas vaccines stimulating a narrow but dominant CTL response are likely to induce escape but may dramatically reduce the replicative capacity of the virus.
Author Summary
As a result of their high mutation rate, HIV and its counterpart SIV in non-human primates can evade recognition by the host immune response through the generation of viral variants, the so-called escape mutants. This avoidance of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) mediated killing seems to be one of the major reasons why virus replication is not controlled effectively. However, it remains difficult to investigate the critical properties of the dynamics of immune escape. To this end, we developed a new computational model of HIV/SIV infection consisting of several CTL clones that can recognize specific parts of viral proteins, i.e., epitopes. The simulations allow us to follow the dynamics of immune escape in detail and help to interpret longitudinal data of HIV/SIV infections. Interestingly, changing the relative sizes of the CTL clones leads to a different evolution of the virus. Instead of reducing the number of infected cells, an alternative strategy of vaccine design could be to reduce the replicative capacity of the virus that might have implications for disease progression.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000103
PMCID: PMC2423483  PMID: 18636096
8.  HIV-1 Vaccine-Induced C1 and V2 Env-Specific Antibodies Synergize for Increased Antiviral Activities 
Journal of Virology  2014;88(14):7715-7726.
ABSTRACT
The RV144 ALVAC/AIDSVax HIV-1 vaccine clinical trial showed an estimated vaccine efficacy of 31.2%. Viral genetic analysis identified a vaccine-induced site of immune pressure in the HIV-1 envelope (Env) variable region 2 (V2) focused on residue 169, which is included in the epitope recognized by vaccinee-derived V2 monoclonal antibodies. The ALVAC/AIDSVax vaccine induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against the Env V2 and constant 1 (C1) regions. In the presence of low IgA Env antibody levels, plasma levels of ADCC activity correlated with lower risk of infection. In this study, we demonstrate that C1 and V2 monoclonal antibodies isolated from RV144 vaccinees synergized for neutralization, infectious virus capture, and ADCC. Importantly, synergy increased the HIV-1 ADCC activity of V2 monoclonal antibody CH58 at concentrations similar to that observed in plasma of RV144 vaccinees. These findings raise the hypothesis that synergy among vaccine-induced antibodies with different epitope specificities contributes to HIV-1 antiviral antibody responses and is important to induce for reduction in the risk of HIV-1 transmission.
IMPORTANCE The Thai RV144 ALVAC/AIDSVax prime-boost vaccine efficacy trial represents the only example of HIV-1 vaccine efficacy in humans to date. Studies aimed at identifying immune correlates involved in the modest vaccine-mediated protection identified HIV-1 envelope (Env) variable region 2-binding antibodies as inversely correlated with infection risk, and genetic analysis identified a site of immune pressure within the region recognized by these antibodies. Despite this evidence, the antiviral mechanisms by which variable region 2-specific antibodies may have contributed to lower rates of infection remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that vaccine-induced HIV-1 envelope variable region 2 and constant region 1 antibodies synergize for recognition of virus-infected cells, infectious virion capture, virus neutralization, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. This is a major step in understanding how these types of antibodies may have cooperatively contributed to reducing infection risk and should be considered in the context of prospective vaccine design.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00156-14
PMCID: PMC4097802  PMID: 24807721
9.  Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity-Mediating Antibodies from an HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trial Target Multiple Epitopes and Preferentially Use the VH1 Gene Family 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(21):11521-11532.
The ALVAC-HIV/AIDSVAX-B/E RV144 vaccine trial showed an estimated efficacy of 31%. RV144 secondary immune correlate analysis demonstrated that the combination of low plasma anti-HIV-1 Env IgA antibodies and high levels of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) inversely correlate with infection risk. One hypothesis is that the observed protection in RV144 is partially due to ADCC-mediating antibodies. We found that the majority (73 to 90%) of a representative group of vaccinees displayed plasma ADCC activity, usually (96.2%) blocked by competition with the C1 region-specific A32 Fab fragment. Using memory B-cell cultures and antigen-specific B-cell sorting, we isolated 23 ADCC-mediating nonclonally related antibodies from 6 vaccine recipients. These antibodies targeted A32-blockable conformational epitopes (n = 19), a non-A32-blockable conformational epitope (n = 1), and the gp120 Env variable loops (n = 3). Fourteen antibodies mediated cross-clade target cell killing. ADCC-mediating antibodies displayed modest levels of V-heavy (VH) chain somatic mutation (0.5 to 1.5%) and also displayed a disproportionate usage of VH1 family genes (74%), a phenomenon recently described for CD4-binding site broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Maximal ADCC activity of VH1 antibodies correlated with mutation frequency. The polyclonality and low mutation frequency of these VH1 antibodies reveal fundamental differences in the regulation and maturation of these ADCC-mediating responses compared to VH1 bNAbs.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01023-12
PMCID: PMC3486290  PMID: 22896626
10.  Antigenic specificity of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against human immunodeficiency virus in antibody-positive sera. 
Journal of Virology  1989;63(2):584-590.
Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) specific for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been described for HIV-infected individuals. To determine the antigenic specificity of this immune response and to define its relationship to the disease state, an ADCC assay was developed using Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line targets infected with vaccinia virus vectors expressing HIV proteins. The vaccinia virus vectors induced appropriate HIV proteins (envelope glycoproteins gp160, gp120, and gp41 or gag proteins p55, p40, p24, and p17) in infected lymphoblastoid cell lines as demonstrated by radioimmunoprecipitation and syncytia formation with c8166 cells. Killer cell-mediated, HIV-specific ADCC was found in sera from HIV-seropositive but not HIV-seronegative hemophiliacs. This HIV-specific response was directed against envelope glycoprotein but was completely absent against target cells expressing the HIV gag proteins. The ADCC directed against gp160 was present at serum dilutions up to 1/316,000. There was no correlation between serum ADCC titer and the stage of HIV-related illness as determined by T-helper-cell numbers. These experiments clearly implicated gp160 as the target antigen of HIV-specific ADCC activity following natural infection. Vaccines which stimulate antibodies directed against gp160, which are capable of mediating ADCC against infected cells, could be important for protection against infection by cell-associated virus.
PMCID: PMC247727  PMID: 2536094
11.  Activation of NK cells by HIV-specific ADCC antibodies 
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics  2013;9(5):1011-1018.
HIV-specific ADCC antibodies could play a role in providing protective immunity. We have developed a whole blood ADCC assay that measures NK cell activation in response to HIV peptide epitopes. These HIV peptide-specific ADCC responses are associated with escape from immune recognition and slower progression of HIV infection and represent interesting HIV vaccine antigens. However, the mechanism by which these epitopes are expressed and whether or not they induce NK-mediated killing of cells expressing such peptide-antigens is not understood. Herein, we show that fluorescent-tagged ADCC peptide epitopes associate with blood granulocytes. The peptide-associated granulocytes become a specific target for antibody-mediated killing, as shown by enhanced expression of apoptosis marker Annexin and reduction in cell numbers. When HIV Envelope gp140 protein is utilized in the ADCC assay, we detected binding to its ligand, CD4. During the incubation, cells co-expressing gp140 and CD4 reduce in number. We also detected increasing Annexin expression in these cells. These data indicate that blood cells expressing HIV-specific ADCC epitopes are targeted for killing by NK cells in the presence of ADCC antibodies in HIV+ plasma and provide a clearer framework to evaluate these antigens as vaccine candidates.
doi:10.4161/hv.23446
PMCID: PMC3899135  PMID: 23324623
HIV; ADCC; NK cells; granulocytes; apoptosis
12.  Phylogenetic Dependency Networks: Inferring Patterns of CTL Escape and Codon Covariation in HIV-1 Gag 
PLoS Computational Biology  2008;4(11):e1000225.
HIV avoids elimination by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) through the evolution of escape mutations. Although there is mounting evidence that these escape pathways are broadly consistent among individuals with similar human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles, previous population-based studies have been limited by the inability to simultaneously account for HIV codon covariation, linkage disequilibrium among HLA alleles, and the confounding effects of HIV phylogeny when attempting to identify HLA-associated viral evolution. We have developed a statistical model of evolution, called a phylogenetic dependency network, that accounts for these three sources of confounding and identifies the primary sources of selection pressure acting on each HIV codon. Using synthetic data, we demonstrate the utility of this approach for identifying sites of HLA-mediated selection pressure and codon evolution as well as the deleterious effects of failing to account for all three sources of confounding. We then apply our approach to a large, clinically-derived dataset of Gag p17 and p24 sequences from a multicenter cohort of 1144 HIV-infected individuals from British Columbia, Canada (predominantly HIV-1 clade B) and Durban, South Africa (predominantly HIV-1 clade C). The resulting phylogenetic dependency network is dense, containing 149 associations between HLA alleles and HIV codons and 1386 associations among HIV codons. These associations include the complete reconstruction of several recently defined escape and compensatory mutation pathways and agree with emerging data on patterns of epitope targeting. The phylogenetic dependency network adds to the growing body of literature suggesting that sites of escape, order of escape, and compensatory mutations are largely consistent even across different clades, although we also identify several differences between clades. As recent case studies have demonstrated, understanding both the complexity and the consistency of immune escape has important implications for CTL-based vaccine design. Phylogenetic dependency networks represent a major step toward systematically expanding our understanding of CTL escape to diverse populations and whole viral genes.
Author Summary
One of the enduring challenges facing HIV vaccine design is the remarkable rate of viral mutation and adaptation that limits the ability of the immune system to mount a lasting effective response. This rapid rate of mutation leads to extensive within- and between-host viral diversity that makes creation of a broadly reactive vaccine difficult. A first step in overcoming this challenge is to identify consistent patterns in viral adaptation. Recently, several studies have analyzed large groups of HIV-infected individuals and looked for correlations between HIV polymorphisms and the HLA class I alleles that restrict the cellular immune response. Here, we point out a limitation of previous approaches: correlations among HLA alleles and HIV codons lead to statistical confounding if not taken into consideration. In response, we develop two statistical models of evolution that explicitly represent stochastic selection pressure from multiple sources. After validating these models on synthetic data, we analyze the patterns of immune escape in a multicenter cohort of over 1000 individuals. Our results identify a dense network of interactions between HLA alleles and HIV codons, as well as among HIV codons, reflecting both a complexity and a promising consistency in the way that HIV adapts to the human immune response.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000225
PMCID: PMC2579584  PMID: 19023406
13.  Escape from Autologous Neutralizing Antibodies in Acute/Early Subtype C HIV-1 Infection Requires Multiple Pathways 
PLoS Pathogens  2009;5(9):e1000594.
One aim for an HIV vaccine is to elicit neutralizing antibodies (Nab) that can limit replication of genetically diverse viruses and prevent establishment of a new infection. Thus, identifying the strengths and weaknesses of Nab during the early stages of natural infection could prove useful in achieving this goal. Here we demonstrate that viral escape readily occurred despite the development of high titer autologous Nab in two subjects with acute/early subtype C infection. To provide a detailed portrayal of the escape pathways, Nab resistant variants identified at multiple time points were used to create a series of envelope (Env) glycoprotein chimeras and mutants within the background of a corresponding newly transmitted Env. In one subject, Nab escape was driven predominantly by changes in the region of gp120 that extends from the beginning of the V3 domain to the end of the V5 domain (V3V5). However, Nab escape pathways in this subject oscillated and at times required cooperation between V1V2 and the gp41 ectodomain. In the second subject, escape was driven by changes in V1V2. This V1V2-dependent escape pathway was retained over time, and its utility was reflected in the virus's ability to escape from two distinct monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) derived from this same patient via introduction of a single potential N-linked glycosylation site in V2. Spatial representation of the sequence changes in gp120 suggested that selective pressure acted upon the same regions of Env in these two subjects, even though the Env domains that drove escape were different. Together the findings argue that a single mutational pathway is not sufficient to confer escape in early subtype C HIV-1 infection, and support a model in which multiple strategies, including potential glycan shifts, direct alteration of an epitope sequence, and cooperative Env domain conformational masking, are used to evade neutralization.
Author Summary
A significant obstacle to developing an HIV vaccine is the potential for the virus to escape from the immune response induced by immunization. We previously showed that subjects in a Zambian cohort developed potent neutralizing antibody responses shortly after becoming infected by subtype C HIV-1, and here we have extended those findings to demonstrate that cycles of viral escape occurred in two of these subjects despite a potent immune response. We investigated the determinants of immune escape, and found that a single common mutational pathway was not sufficient to facilitate viral escape. Instead, we demonstrate that multiple strategies, including potential changes in glycosylation pattern, direct alteration of an epitope sequence, and cooperative envelope interactions, were used independently or together to evade neutralization. We also recovered individual monoclonal antibodies from one of the subjects and found that a single mutation can confer escape from different neutralizing antibody specificities. The studies demonstrate the remarkable flexibility of subtype C HIV-1, and suggest that the envelope glycoproteins are uniquely equipped to adjust to the specific properties of the immune response in each newly infected host.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000594
PMCID: PMC2741593  PMID: 19763269
14.  Comparison of Antibodies That Mediate HIV Type 1 gp120 Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity in Asymptomatic HIV Type 1-Positive Men and Women 
Abstract
Recent studies suggest that HIV-specific antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) antibodies contribute to protective immunity against HIV. An important characteristic of future HIV vaccines will, therefore, be the ability to stimulate production of these antibodies in both men and women. Early studies suggest that men may have a better ADCC antibody response against HIV than women. Our objective was to determine whether men and women differ with respect to their ADCC response to HIV-1 gp120. HIV-positive, asymptomatic untreated men and women were matched for race, age, CD4+ T cell number, HIV-1 viral load, and treatment and HIV-1 gp120 ADCC antibody titers were compared. A standard 51Cr-release assay was used to determine HIV-1 gp120 ADCC antibody titers in HIV-1-seropositive individuals from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS; n=32) and the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS; n=32). Both sexes had high ADCC titers against HIV-1 gp120: 34.4% (n=11) and 40.6% (n=13) of men and women, respectively, had titers of 10,000; 62.5% (n=20) and 56.3% (n=18) had titers of 100,000. Groups did not differ in percent specific release (% SR), lytic units (LU), correlations of titer to viral load, or titer to CD4+ T cells in men or women. Both groups also had similar cross-clade ADCC antibody responses (p>0.5 for % SR and LU). Comparable groups of asymptomatic HIV-1-infected men and women had comparable HIV-1 gp120 ADCC antibodies. Both sexes had significant cross-clade reactivity. Differences between men and women may become evident as disease progresses; this should be evaluated at later stages of HIV-1 infection.
doi:10.1089/aid.2012.0377
PMCID: PMC3887406  PMID: 23972002
15.  HLA-Cw*0102-Restricted HIV-1 p24 Epitope Variants Can Modulate the Binding of the Inhibitory KIR2DL2 Receptor and Primary NK Cell Function 
PLoS Pathogens  2012;8(7):e1002805.
Accumulating evidence suggests an important role for Natural Killer (NK) cells in the control of HIV-1 infection. Recently, it was shown that NK cell-mediated immune pressure can result in the selection of HIV-1 escape mutations. A potential mechanism for this NK cell escape is the selection of HLA class I-presented HIV-1 epitopes that allow for the engagement of inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), notably KIR2DL2. We therefore investigated the consequences of sequence variations within HLA-Cw*0102-restricted epitopes on the interaction of HLA-Cw*0102 with KIR2DL2 using a large panel of overlapping HIV-1 p24 Gag peptides. 217 decameric peptides spanning the HIV-1 p24 Gag consensus sequence were screened for HLA-Cw*0102 stabilization by co-incubation with Cw*0102(+)/TAP-deficient T2 cells using a flow cytometry-based assay. KIR2DL2 binding was assessed using a KIR2DL2-IgG fusion construct. Function of KIR2DL2(+) NK cells was flow cytometrically analyzed by measuring degranulation of primary NK cells after co-incubation with peptide-pulsed T2 cells. We identified 11 peptides stabilizing HLA-Cw*0102 on the surface of T2 cells. However, only one peptide (p24 Gag209–218 AAEWDRLHPV) allowed for binding of KIR2DL2. Notably, functional analysis showed a significant inhibition of KIR2DL2(+) NK cells in the presence of p24 Gag209–218-pulsed T2 cells, while degranulation of KIR2DL2(−) NK cells was not affected. Moreover, we demonstrated that sequence variations in position 7 of this epitope observed frequently in naturally occurring HIV-1 sequences can modulate binding to KIR2DL2. Our results show that the majority of HIV-1 p24 Gag peptides stabilizing HLA-Cw*0102 do not allow for binding of KIR2DL2, but identified one HLA-Cw*0102-presented peptide (p24 Gag209–218) that was recognized by the inhibitory NK cell receptor KIR2DL2 leading to functional inhibition of KIR2DL2-expressing NK cells. Engagement of KIR2DL2 might protect virus-infected cells from NK cell-mediated lysis and selections of sequence polymorphisms that increase avidity to KIR2DL2 might provide a mechanism for HIV-1 to escape NK cell-mediated immune pressure.
Author Summary
Distinguishing between “self” and “non-self” is one of the fundamental principles of immune responses against viral infections. Upon viral infection the peptide repertoire presented by HLA class I molecules changes, potentially providing signals that result in recognition and elimination of the infected cell by the host immune system. Viruses, in particular HIV-1, developed multiple strategies to escape T cell and Natural Killer (NK) cell-mediated immune pressure, including sequence variations that lead to the engagement of inhibitory receptors expressed on T cells and NK cells. The systematic approach used in this study led to the identification of an HLA-presented HIV-1 peptide that allows engagement of the inhibitory NK cell receptor KIR2DL2 and inhibition of NK function. Our findings help to elucidate the complex interaction between KIR molecules, such as KIR2DL2, and HLA/peptide complexes and provide a foundation for further studies investigating the role of sequence variations within HIV-1 epitopes on HLA/KIR interactions, and the ability of viruses to evade NK cell-mediated recognition.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002805
PMCID: PMC3395618  PMID: 22807681
16.  Escape of HIV-1-Infected Dendritic Cells from TRAIL-Mediated NK Cell Cytotoxicity during NK-DC Cross-Talk—A Pivotal Role of HMGB1 
PLoS Pathogens  2010;6(4):e1000862.
Early stages of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) infection are associated with local recruitment and activation of important effectors of innate immunity, i.e. natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells (DCs). Immature DCs (iDCs) capture HIV-1 through specific receptors and can disseminate the infection to lymphoid tissues following their migration, which is associated to a maturation process. This process is dependent on NK cells, whose role is to keep in check the quality and the quantity of DCs undergoing maturation. If DC maturation is inappropriate, NK cells will kill them (“editing process”) at sites of tissue inflammation, thus optimizing the adaptive immunity. In the context of a viral infection, NK-dependent killing of infected-DCs is a crucial event required for early elimination of infected target cells. Here, we report that NK-mediated editing of iDCs is impaired if DCs are infected with HIV-1. We first addressed the question of the mechanisms involved in iDC editing, and we show that cognate NK-iDC interaction triggers apoptosis via the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-Death Receptor 4 (DR4) pathway and not via the perforin pathway. Nevertheless, once infected with HIV-1, DCHIV become resistant to NK-induced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. This resistance occurs despite normal amounts of TRAIL released by NK cells and comparable DR4 expression on DCHIV. The escape of DCHIV from NK killing is due to the upregulation of two anti-apoptotic molecules, the cellular-Flice like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) and the cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (c-IAP2), induced by NK-DCHIV cognate interaction. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), an alarmin and a key mediator of NK-DC cross-talk, was found to play a pivotal role in NK-dependent upregulation of c-FLIP and c-IAP2 in DCHIV. Finally, we demonstrate that restoration of DCHIV susceptibility to NK-induced TRAIL killing can be obtained either by silencing c-FLIP and c-IAP2 by specific siRNA, or by inhibiting HMGB1 with blocking antibodies or glycyrrhizin, arguing for a key role of HMGB1 in TRAIL resistance and DCHIV survival. These findings provide evidence for a new strategy developed by HIV to escape immune attack, they challenge the question of the involvement of HMGB1 in the establishment of viral reservoirs in DCs, and they identify potential therapeutic targets to eliminate infected DCs.
Author Summary
Dendritic cells (DCs), the professional antigen presenting cells, are critical for host immunity by inducing specific immune responses against a broad variety of pathogens. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) has evolved ways to exploit DCs, thereby facilitating viral dissemination and allowing evasion of antiviral immunity. In particular, infected DCs may function as cellular reservoirs for HIV-1, thus contributing to viral persistence in lymphoid tissues. The mechanisms involved in the constitution of HIV reservoirs in DCs are poorly understood. In this study, we reveal that DCs infected with HIV-1 (DCHIV) become resistant to killing by natural killer (NK) cells, early effectors of innate immunity involved in the destruction of virus infected cells or cancer cells. This protection of DCHIV from NK cytotoxicity is induced through a cross-talk between NK cells and DCHIV, which induces the upregulation in DCHIV of two inhibitors of cell death, i.e. cellular-Flice like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (c-IAP2). The molecule responsible for the induction of these inhibitors is High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), an alarmin involved in the functional maturation of DCs. Blocking HMGB1 restores DCHIV susceptibility to NK cell killing, arguing for a key role of HMGB1 in the persistence of DCHIV. These findings provide evidence of the crucial role of NK-DC cross-talk in promoting viral persistence, and they identify potential therapeutic targets to eliminate infected DCs.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000862
PMCID: PMC2855334  PMID: 20419158
17.  Antigen Load and Viral Sequence Diversification Determine the Functional Profile of HIV-1–Specific CD8+ T Cells 
PLoS Medicine  2008;5(5):e100.
Background
Virus-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes play a key role in the initial reduction of peak viremia during acute viral infections, but display signs of increasing dysfunction and exhaustion under conditions of chronic antigen persistence. It has been suggested that virus-specific CD8+ T cells with a “polyfunctional” profile, defined by the capacity to secrete multiple cytokines or chemokines, are most competent in controlling viral replication in chronic HIV-1 infection. We used HIV-1 infection as a model of chronic persistent viral infection to investigate the process of exhaustion and dysfunction of virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses on the single-epitope level over time, starting in primary HIV-1 infection.
Methods and Findings
We longitudinally analyzed the polyfunctional epitope-specific CD8+ T cell responses of 18 patients during primary HIV-1 infection before and after therapy initiation or sequence variation in the targeted epitope. Epitope-specific CD8+ T cells responded with multiple effector functions to antigenic stimulation during primary HIV-1 infection, but lost their polyfunctional capacity in response to antigen and up-regulated programmed death 1 (PD-1) expression with persistent viremic infection. This exhausted phenotype significantly decreased upon removal of stimulation by antigen, either in response to antiretroviral therapy or by reduction of epitope-specific antigen load in the presence of ongoing viral replication, as a consequence of in vivo selection of cytotoxic T lymphocyte escape mutations in the respective epitopes. Monofunctionality increased in CD8+ T cell responses directed against conserved epitopes from 49% (95% confidence interval 27%–72%) to 76% (56%–95%) (standard deviation [SD] of the effect size 0.71), while monofunctionality remained stable or slightly decreased for responses directed against escaped epitopes from 61% (47%–75%) to 56% (42%–70%) (SD of the effect size 0.18) (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
These data suggest that persistence of antigen can be the cause, rather than the consequence, of the functional impairment of virus-specific T cell responses observed during chronic HIV-1 infection, and underscore the importance of evaluating autologous viral sequences in studies aimed at investigating the relationship between virus-specific immunity and associated pathogenesis.
Marcus Altfeld and colleagues suggest that the exhaustion of virus-specific CD8+ T cells during chronic HIV infection likely results from the persistence of antigen.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Viruses are small infectious agents responsible for many human diseases, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Like other viruses, the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1; the cause of AIDS) enters human cells and uses the cellular machinery to replicate before bursting out of its temporary home. During the initial stage of HIV infection, a particular group of cells in the human immune system, CD8+ T cells, are thought to be important in controlling the level of the virus. These immune system cells recognize pieces of viral protein called antigens displayed on the surface of infected cells; different subsets of CD8+ T cells recognize different antigens. When a CD8+ T cell recognizes its specific antigen (or more accurately, a small part of the antigen called an “epitope”), it releases cytotoxins (which kill the infected cells) and cytokines, proteins that stimulate CD8+ T cell proliferation and activate other parts of the immune system. With many viruses, when a person first becomes infected (an acute viral infection), antigen-specific CD8+ T cells completely clear the infection. But with HIV-1 and some other viruses, these cells do not manage to remove all the viruses from the body and a chronic (long-term) infection develops, during which the immune system is constantly exposed to viral antigen.
Why Was This Study Done?
In HIV-1 infections (and other chronic viral infections), virus-specific CD8+ T cells lose their ability to proliferate, to make cytokines, and to kill infected cells as patients progress to the long-term stages of infection. That is, the virus-specific CD8+ T cells gradually lose their “effector” functions and become functionally impaired or “exhausted.” “Polyfunctional” CD8+ T cells (those that release multiple cytokines in response to antigen) are believed to be essential for an effective CD8+ T cell response, so scientists trying to develop HIV-1 vaccines would like to stimulate the production of this type of cell. To do this they need to understand why these polyfunctional cells are lost during chronic infections. Is their loss the cause or the result of viral persistence? In other words, does the constant presence of viral antigen lead to the exhaustion of CD8+ T cells during chronic HIV infection? In this study, the researchers investigate this question by looking at the polyfunctionality of CD8+ cells responding to several different viral epitopes at various times during HIV-1 infection, starting very early after infection with HIV-1 had occurred.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers enrolled 18 patients recently infected with HIV-1 and analyzed their CD8+ T cell responses to specific epitopes at various times after enrollment using a technique called flow cytometry. They found that the epitope-specific CD8+ cells produced several effector proteins after antigen stimulation during the initial stage of HIV-1 infection, but lost their polyfunctionality in the face of persistent viral infection. The CD8+ T cells also increased their production of programmed death 1 (PD-1), a protein that has been shown to be associated with the functional impairment of CD8+ T cells. Some of the patients began antiretroviral therapy during the study, and the researchers found that this treatment, which reduced the viral load, reversed CD8+ T cell exhaustion. Finally, the appearance in the patients' blood of viruses that had made changes in the specific epitopes recognized by the CD8+ T cells to avoid being killed by these cells, also reversed the exhaustion of the T cells recognizing these particular epitopes.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that the constant presence of HIV-1 antigen causes the functional impairment of virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses during chronic HIV-1 infections. Treatment with antiretroviral drugs reversed this functional impairment by reducing the amount of antigen in the patients. Similarly, the appearance of viruses with altered epitopes, which effectively reduced the amount of antigen recognized by those epitope-specific CD8+ T cells without reducing the viral load, also reversed T cell exhaustion. These results would not have been seen if the functional impairment of CD8+ cells were the cause rather than the result of antigen persistence. By providing new insights into how the T cell response to viruses evolves during persistent viral infections, these findings should help in the design of vaccines against HIV and other viruses that cause chronic viral infections.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050100.
Read a related PLoS Medicine Research in Translation article
Learn more from the researchers' Web site, the Partners AIDS Research Center
Wikipedia has a page on cytotoxic T cells (note that Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
Information is available from the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases on HIV infection and AIDS
HIV InSite has comprehensive information on all aspects of HIV/AIDS, including a detailed article on the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection
NAM, a UK registered charity, provides information about all aspects of HIV and AIDS, including a fact sheet on the stages of HIV infection and on the immune response to HIV
Information is available from Avert, an international AIDS charity, on all aspects of HIV/AIDS, including information on the stages of HIV infection
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050100
PMCID: PMC2365971  PMID: 18462013
18.  Robust NK Cell-Mediated Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Specific Antibody-Dependent Responses in HIV-Infected Subjects▿  
Journal of Virology  2008;82(11):5450-5459.
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a potentially effective adaptive immune response to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The study of ADCC responses has been hampered by the lack of simple methods to quantify these responses and map effective epitopes. We serendipitously observed that standard intracellular cytokine assays on fresh whole blood from a cohort of 26 HIV-infected subjects identified non-T lymphocytes expressing gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in response to overlapping linear peptides spanning HIV-1 proteins. The effector cells were CD3− CD4− CD8− CD14− CD2+ CD56+/− NK lymphocytes and degranulated granzyme B and perforin in response to antigen stimulation. Serum transfer assays demonstrated that the specific response was mediated by immunoglobulin G. Fresh blood samples from half of the HIV-infected cohort demonstrated robust HIV peptide-specific IFN-γ expression by NK cells, predominately to Env, Pol, and Vpu HIV-1 proteins. Responses were readily mapped to define minimal epitopes utilizing this assay. Antibody-dependent, HIV-specific NK cell recognition, involving components of both innate and adaptive immune systems, represents a potentially effective immune response to induce by vaccination.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01952-07
PMCID: PMC2395196  PMID: 18353957
19.  A Novel Assay for Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity against HIV-1- or SIV-Infected Cells Reveals Incomplete Overlap with Antibodies Measured by Neutralization and Binding Assays 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(22):12039-12052.
The resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to antibody-mediated immunity often prevents the detection of antibodies that neutralize primary isolates of HIV-1. However, conventional assays for antibody functions other than neutralization are suboptimal. Current methods for measuring the killing of virus-infected cells by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) are limited by the number of natural killer (NK) cells obtainable from individual donors, donor-to-donor variation, and the use of nonphysiological targets. We therefore developed an ADCC assay based on NK cell lines that express human or macaque CD16 and a CD4+ T-cell line that expresses luciferase from a Tat-inducible promoter upon HIV-1 or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. NK cells and virus-infected targets are mixed in the presence of serial plasma dilutions, and ADCC is measured as the dose-dependent loss of luciferase activity. Using this approach, ADCC titers were measured in plasma samples from HIV-infected human donors and SIV-infected macaques. For the same plasma samples paired with the same test viruses, this assay was approximately 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive than optimized assays for neutralizing antibodies—frequently allowing the measurement of ADCC in the absence of detectable neutralization. Although ADCC correlated with other measures of Env-specific antibodies, neutralizing and gp120 binding titers did not consistently predict ADCC activity. Hence, this assay affords a sensitive method for measuring antibodies capable of directing ADCC against HIV- or SIV-infected cells expressing native conformations of the viral envelope glycoprotein and reveals incomplete overlap of the antibodies that direct ADCC and those measured in neutralization and binding assays.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01650-12
PMCID: PMC3486484  PMID: 22933282
20.  Activation of NK cells by ADCC antibodies and HIV disease progression 
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is of considerable interest as an immune response that may facilitate control of HIV infection. We studied ADCC responses prospectively in a cohort of 79 HIV+ subjects followed for a mean of 2.3 years without antiretroviral therapy. We used a novel assay of the ability of ADCC to activate NK cells, either from the same HIV+ subject or a healthy blood donor. We found ADCC responses to either gp140 Env protein or HIV peptide pools were common in HIV+ subjects when NK cells from the HIV+ subject were used, but did not correlate with markers of HIV disease progression. In contrast, ADCC responses to whole gp140 Env protein were strongly associated with a slower decline in CD4 T cell loss when healthy donor NK cells were used as effectors. Our data had implications for induction of the most effective ADCC responses by HIV vaccines.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e31822c62b9
PMCID: PMC3175260  PMID: 21792067
HIV; ADCC; NK Cells; CD4 T cells; viral load
21.  Fc receptor-mediated antiviral antibodies 
Current opinion in HIV and AIDS  2009;4(5):388-393.
Purpose of review
We summarize current information on Fc receptor-mediated anti-viral activities of antibodies. These activites include FcγR-mediated inhibtion and neutralization of HIV on antigen presenting cells (APCs), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI).
Recent findings
An FcγR-mediated mechanism that results in augmented neutralization and may render non-neutralizing antibodies inhibitory has been demonstrated in APC. ADCC antibody activity correlates inversely with HIV disease progression in humans, and higher vaccine-induced ADCC antibody responses are associated with lower acute SIV viremia levels in macaques. Following vaccination with rgp120, ADCVI antibody levels are higher among those with a lower rate of sexually acquired HIV infection. Non-neutralizing SIV immune serum that prevents infection of newborn macaques after oral challenge has potent ADCVI antibody activity. Abrogating the ability of the Fc segment of the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody IgG1b12 to bind to FcγRs and to mediate ADCVI substantially reduces IgG1b12’s protective effect in a SHIV vaginal challenge model.
Summary
Fc-FcγR interactions play a critical role in the biological function of antibody and are likely to be instrumental in preventing or modulating lentiviral infection. Exploiting antibody responses that depend on Fc-FcγR interactions may help widen the breadth and increase the potency of vaccine-induced antibody. Although the importance of generating optimal Fab-antigen interactions cannot be overestimated, improving Fc-FcγR interactions through adjuvants or other strategies provides another option for improving HIV vaccines and immunotherapies.
doi:10.1097/COH.0b013e32832f0a89
PMCID: PMC2882066  PMID: 20048702
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC); antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI); neutralization; Fcγ receptor (FcγR); HIV
22.  Matrix Metalloprotease Inhibitors Restore Impaired NK Cell-Mediated Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection ▿  
Journal of Virology  2009;83(17):8705-8712.
Increasing evidence suggests that NK cells not only are critical in the initial host defense against pathogens but also may contribute to continued protection from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease progression. NK cell cytolysis can be induced directly through diverse receptor families or can be induced indirectly through Fc receptors by antibodies mediating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). ADCC has been implicated in both protection from simian immunodeficiency virus infection and slower progression of HIV-1 disease. ADCC activity declines with advancing infection, and yet the underlying mechanism for this dysfunction has not been defined, nor has it been determined whether the activity can be reconstituted. Here we demonstrate that NK cell-mediated ADCC is severely compromised in chronic HIV infection. The potency of ADCC function was directly correlated with baseline FcγRIIIa receptor (CD16) expression on NK cells. CD16 expression was negatively influenced by elevated expression of a group of enzymes, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), normally involved in tissue/receptor remodeling. Inhibition of MMPs resulted in increased CD16 expression and augmented ADCC activity in response to antibody-coated target cells. These data suggest that MMP inhibitors may improve NK cell-mediated ADCC, which may provide subjects with an opportunity to harness the cytolytic power of NK cells through naturally occurring nonneutralizing HIV-specific antibodies.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02666-08
PMCID: PMC2738177  PMID: 19553339
23.  Monocytes and the 38kDa-antigen of mycobacterium tuberculosis modulate natural killer cell activity and their cytolysis directed against ovarian cancer cell lines 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:451.
Background
Despite strong efforts to improve clinical outcome of ovarian cancer patients by conventional and targeted immuno-based therapies, the prognosis of advanced ovarian cancer is still poor. Natural killer (NK) cells mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), release immunostimulatory cytokines and thus function as potent anti-tumour effector cells. However, tumour cells developed mechanisms to escape from an effective immune response. So highly immunogenic substances, like the 38 kDa-preparation of M. tuberculosis, PstS-1, are explored for their potential to enhance cancer-targeted immune responses. In this study we examined the modulation of different NK cell functions by accessory monocytes and PstS-1. We focussed on NK cell activation as well as natural and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity directed against epidermal-growth-factor-receptor (EGFR)-positive ovarian cancer cell lines.
Methods
Activation, cytokine release and cytotoxicity of NK cells stimulated by monocytes and PstS-1 were determined by FACS-analysis, ELISA, Bioplex assay and quantitative polymerase-chain reaction (qPCR). Transwell assays were used to discriminate cell-cell contact-dependent from contact-independent mechanisms. Five ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, IGROV-1, OVCAR-3, OVCAR-4 and SKOV-3) with different EGFR-expression were used as target cells for natural and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity assays. Cetuximab (anti-EGFR-antibody) was used for ADCC studies.
Results
Our data show that monocytes effectively enhance activation as well natural and antibody-dependent cytolytic activity of NK cells. PstS-1 directly stimulated monocytes and further activated monocyte-NK-co-cultures. However, PstS-1 did not directly influence purified NK cells and did also not affect natural and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity directed against EGFR-positive ovarian cancer cells, even in presence of monocytes. Direct cell-cell contact between NK cells and monocytes was required for NK activation, while released cytokines seemed to play a minor role.
Conclusions
Our data suggest that monocytes enhance natural and antibody-dependent cytotoxic activity of NK cells in a cell-cell contact dependent manner. The TLR-agonist PstS-1 provides additional monocyte activation and induces NK activation markers, while NK cytotoxicity remains unaffected. We conclude that monocytes provide accessory function for ADCC exerted by NK during antibody-based cancer immunotherapy directed against EGFR-positive ovarian cancer cells.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-451
PMCID: PMC3517432  PMID: 23036052
NK cell; PstS-1; Ovarian cancer; BCG; Immunotherapy; Cetuximab
24.  Variable Fitness Impact of HIV-1 Escape Mutations to Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL) Response 
PLoS Pathogens  2009;5(4):e1000365.
Human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) target and kill HIV-infected cells expressing cognate viral epitopes. This response selects for escape mutations within CTL epitopes that can diminish viral replication fitness. Here, we assess the fitness impact of escape mutations emerging in seven CTL epitopes in the gp120 Env and p24 Gag coding regions of an individual followed longitudinally from the time of acute HIV-1 infection, as well as some of these same epitopes recognized in other HIV-1-infected individuals. Nine dominant mutations appeared in five gp120 epitopes within the first year of infection, whereas all four mutations found in two p24 epitopes emerged after nearly two years of infection. These mutations were introduced individually into the autologous gene found in acute infection and then placed into a full-length, infectious viral genome. When competed against virus expressing the parental protein, fitness loss was observed with only one of the nine gp120 mutations, whereas four had no effect and three conferred a slight increase in fitness. In contrast, mutations conferring CTL escape in the p24 epitopes significantly decreased viral fitness. One particular escape mutation within a p24 epitope was associated with reduced peptide recognition and high viral fitness costs but was replaced by a fitness-neutral mutation. This mutation appeared to alter epitope processing concomitant with a reduced CTL response. In conclusion, CTL escape mutations in HIV-1 Gag p24 were associated with significant fitness costs, whereas most escape mutations in the Env gene were fitness neutral, suggesting a balance between immunologic escape and replicative fitness costs.
Author Summary
Upon infection with a pathogen, the host mounts an immune response of specific killing by recognizing infected cells presenting the foreign entity via host cell surface proteins (aka MHC) encoded by specific HLA genes. The pathogen's proteins are chopped up into peptides (short protein sequences) by cellular enzymes. Some of these peptides are bound to MHC class I proteins and then presented on the cell surface, signifying a pathogen intrusion to the killer T cells (CTLs). In order to survive, HIV-1 evolves to mutate the specific peptides (aka epitopes) and escape recognition by MHC I and CTLs. These “forced” or selected mutations are thought to come at a cost, e.g., result in slower pathogen growth/replication. Here, we show that the escape mutations in HIV-1 genes showing slow evolution result in dramatic losses in HIV-1 replication (or fitness). In contrast, CTL escape mutations in HIV-1 genes with rapid evolution do not have a negative impact on pathogen fitness. These findings could suggest that HIV-1 (and possibly other rapidly evolving pathogens) could avoid the host's immune system with minimal detriment to its own survival and growth within the host.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000365
PMCID: PMC2659432  PMID: 19343217
25.  Fc receptor stimulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in natural killer cells is associated with protein kinase C-independent granule release and cell-mediated cytotoxicity 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1994;180(4):1427-1435.
Although diverse signaling events are initiated by stimulation of multichain immune recognition receptors on lymphocytes, it remains unclear as to which specific signal transduction pathways are functionally linked to granule exocytosis and cellular cytotoxicity. In the case of natural killer (NK) cells, it has been presumed that the rapid activation of protein kinase C (PKC) enables them to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and "natural" cytotoxicity toward tumor cells. However, using cloned human NK cells, we determined here that Fc receptor stimulation triggers granule release and ADCC through a PKC-independent pathway. Specifically, pretreatment of NK cells with the selective PKC inhibitor, GF109203X (using concentrations that fully blocked phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin-induced secretion) had no effect on FcR-initiated granule release or ADCC. In contrast, FcR ligation led to the rapid activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), and inhibition of this enzyme with the selective inhibitor, wortmannin, blocked FcR-induced granule release and ADCC. Additional experiments showed that, whereas FcR-initiated killing was wortmannin sensitive and GF109203X insensitive, natural cytotoxic activity toward the tumor cell line K562 was wortmannin insensitive and GF109203X sensitive. Taken together, these results suggest that: (a) PI 3-kinase activation induced by FcR ligation is functionally coupled to granule exocytosis and ADCC; and (b) the signaling pathways involved in ADCC vs natural cytotoxicity are distinct.
PMCID: PMC2191702  PMID: 7931075

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