A total of 108 raw water samples was collected from 36 wells at nine shanty settlements around Port Harcourt, Nigeria, over a period of 7 months. Samples were analysed for their bacteriological quality. Selected bacterial strains isolated from the samples were tested for their susceptibility to ten commonly used antibiotics. The organisms isolated include Pseudomonas spp., Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Proteus spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Aeromonas spp., Escherichia coli, Chromobacterium spp., Flavobacterium spp., and Serratia spp. Out of 300 strains tested, 23 (6.9%) were susceptible to all the antibiotics, 277 (92.3%) were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 232 (77.3%) were resistant to two or more antibiotics. The epidemiological significance of these results is discussed.
Sepsis is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in the newborn. Early diagnosis and treatment is vital to improve outcome. The present study was therefore carried out to determine the usefulness of C-reactive protein (CRP) for evaluation of neonatal sepsis in Port Harcourt, Nigeria in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Four hundred and twenty neonates with clinical suspicion of sepsis were prospectively studied over a 6 month period. Blood was obtained from each subject recruited for the qualitative estimation of CRP. Blood culture was used as gold standard for diagnosis of NNS.
Of 420 neonates studied, 196 (46.7%) had positive CRP while 181 (43.1%) had positive blood culture. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of CRP were 74.0%, 74.1%, 68.4% and 79.0% respectively.
The qualitative method of estimating CRP which is cheap and rapid has moderate sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value.
Neonatal sepsis; C-reactive protein; Sub-Saharan Africa
The threat to human health posed by antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens is of growing concern to medical practice. This study investigated the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Salmonella typhi isolated from blood specimen. One hundred blood samples were collected from suspected typhoid fever patients in 31 Artillery Brigade Medical Centre, Minna, and were analyzed for S. typhi while antibiotic sensitivity testing was done Kirby-Bauer method. Sixty (60.0%) samples out of the total 100 were positive for bacterial growth. The organisms isolated 2 include Salmonella typhi; 45 (75.0%), Shigella; 6 (10.0%), E. coli; 3 (5.0%), Klebsiella; 3 (5.0%), Enterobacter; 2 (3.3%), and Citrobacter; 1 (1.7%). Result of the sensitivity test showed that the isolates were resistant to all the antibiotics; ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, amoxicillin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and augmentin, which are the drug of choice routinely used in the study area for the treatment of typhoid fever. They were however sensitive to chloramphenicol and ofloxacin, which, unfortunately, are not used in this study area for the treatment of typhoid fever. There appear to be multiple drug resistant (MDR) strain of S. typhi in the study area. These may be as a result of overdependence or uncontrolled use of the few available antibiotics and/or inaccurate or inconclusive diagnosis resulting in the development and spread of resistant strains of S. typhi. The study, therefore, highlights the need for a strong collaboration between the physicians and the laboratory in the choice of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial diseases in order to discourage the development of resistant strain of bacterial pathogen.
Background: An early treatment and the appropriate and the rational use of antibiotics would minimize the risk of severe morbidity and mortality in neonatal sepsis, and reduce the emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms in intensive care units. For the success of an early empiric treatment, a periodic review of the cases to assess any changing trends in the infecting organisms and their antimicrobial susceptibility is important.
AIM: To study the most commonly encountered bacterial pathogens which caused neonatal sepsis and their sensitivity patterns, so that guidelines could be prepared for a rational antibiotic therapy.
Setting and Design: This was a retrospective study which was conducted in the Department of Microbiology and the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at SGRDIMSAR, Amritsar, during June 2011 to June 2012.
Methods and Materials: Blood specimens for culture were drawn from 311 newborns who were admitted in an NICU with sepsis. The specimens were inoculated into brain heart infusion broth. Subcultures were performed on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10. The isolates were identified by doing standard biochemical tests. The antibiotic resistance patterns of the isolates were studied by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique.
Results: A total of 131 organisms were isolated from the 311 blood cultures. These included Staphylococcus aureus (n=68), Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) (n=30), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=10), Acinetobacter baumannii (n=9), Escherichia coli (n=05), Enterobacter cloacae (n=04), Citrobacter diversus (n=02), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=02) and Candida (n=01). Staphylococcus aureus was the main pathogen in both early and late-onset sepsis. On antibiotic sensitivity testing, 57.35% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found to be methicillin resistant. More than 90% gram negative rods were resistant to amikacin. The resistance to the third generation cephalosporins varied between 50-55%. The resistance to ciprofloxacin was quite high; however, most of the isolates were susceptible to levofloxacin. A majority of the isolates were susceptible to piperacillin- tazobactum and imipenem.
Conclusion: The present study emphasized the importance of periodic surveys on the microbial flora which was encountered in particular neonatal settings to recognize the trend.
Septicaemia; Drug resistance; Antimicrobial sensitivity tests; S.aureus neonate; India
Microbial biofilms pose a public health problem for persons requiring indwelling medical devices, as micro-organisms in biofilms are difficult to treat with antimicrobial agents. Thus the present study includes biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance pattern of uropathogens in hospitalised patients with catheter associated urinary tract infections (UTI).
This prospective analysis included 100 urine samples from catheterised patients with symptoms of UTI over a period of six months. Following identification, all isolates were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity using modified Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method. Detection of biofilms was done by tube adherence method and Congo red agar method.
E.coli was found to be the most frequently isolated uropathogen 70%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 16%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4%, Acinetobacter spp 2%, coagulase negative Staphylococci 6% and Enterococci Spp 2%. In the current study 60% of strains were in vitro positive for biofilm production. Biofilm positive isolates showed 93.3%, 83.3%, 73.3% and 80% resistance to nalidixic acid, ampicillin, cephotaxime and cotrimoxazole, respectively, compared to 70%, 60%, 35%, 60% resistance showed by biofilm non-producers for the respective antibiotics. Approximately 80% of the biofilm producing strains showed multidrug resistant phenotype
To conclude E.coli was the most frequent isolate, of which 63% were biofilm producers. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern in the present study showed quinolones were the least active drug against uropathogens. The uropathogens showed the highest sensitivity to carbapenems. The next best alternatives were aminoglycosides. Significant correlation between biofilm production and multi-drug resistance was observed in our study.
Biofilm; Uropathogens; Tube adherence method; Congo red agar method
Background / Aims:
Septicemia is one of the important causes of mortality and morbidity in neonates and children. Blood culture is the gold standard for the diagnosis. Emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial strains is a major problem in the management of sepsis. Present study was undertaken to identify the common bacterial pathogens associated with pediatric sepsis and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility pattern.
Materials and Methods:
Blood cultures from 185 suspected cases of sepsis were examined. The growths from the subcultures were identified by conventional biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and drug resistant strains in primary screening were further processed for extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) status by combination disk method (ESBL) and oxacillin disk diffusion method (MRSA).
Out of the 185 cultures obtained from suspected cases, 81 (44%) were culture positive. Fifty-two (35%) of the culture isolates were Gram negative bacilli. Twenty-eight (64%) of the isolates were Gram positive cocci. One case was of mixed infection. The prevalence of MRSA in 41 strains of S. aureus was found to be 29% (12 strains). The overall prevalence of ESBL producers among 28 Gram negative bacterial isolates was found to be 32% (9 strains).
This study stresses the need for the continuous screening and surveillance for antibiotic resistance in pediatric care unit.
Sepsis; methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus; extended spectrum beta lactamases; blood culture
Bacterial infections remain an important cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. It might be possible to reduce these factors by early diagnosis and proper management.
The aim of the study was to analyze the bacteriological profiles with their antibiogram, and to register the risk factors for septicemia in neonates and infants. Setting and design: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital at Gangtok, Sikkim, India, and included clinically suspected cases of septicemia in neonates and infants.
Materials and Methods:
Blood culture reports were studied in 363 cases of clinically suspected septicemia in neonates and infants, using the standard technique of Mackie and McCartney. The antibiotic sensitivity was performed by Kirby-Bauer's disc diffusion method. Risk factors for sepsis in the children were registered.
Blood culture was positive in 22% of cases. Gram-negative septicemia was encountered in 61% of the culture-positive cases. Pseudomonas and Enterobacter species were the predominant pathogens amongst gram-negative organisms. Most gram-negative organisms were sensitive to Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin, and Co-trimoxazole. The most common gram-positive organism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus (97%). More than 70% of Staphylococci isolated were resistant to Penicillin, but were sensitive to Clindamycin (70%) and Vancomycin (40%). The most important risk factors of septicemia in our study population were preterm birth (31%), followed by respiratory distress (5%) and low birth weight (4%).
As the cultures showed variable antibiogram with complicated patterns of resistance, culture and sensitivity test should be performed in all cases of septicemia.
Developing countries; Infant; Neonate; Septicemia
Neonatal sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Appropriate clinical diagnosis and empirical treatment in a given setting is crucial as pathogens of bacterial sepsis and antibiotic sensitivity pattern can considerably vary in different settings. This study was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC), Tanzania to determine the prevalence of neonatal sepsis, predictors of positive blood culture, deaths and antimicrobial susceptibility, thus providing essential information to formulate a policy for management of neonatal sepsis.
This was a prospective cross sectional study involving 300 neonates admitted at BMC neonatal unit between March and November 2009. Standard data collection form was used to collect all demographic data and clinical characteristics of neonates. Blood culture was done on Brain Heart Infusion broth followed by identification of isolates using conventional methods and testing for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents using the disc diffusion method.
Among 770 neonates admitted during the study period; 300 (38.9%) neonates were diagnosed to have neonatal sepsis by WHO criteria. Of 300 neonates with clinical neonatal sepsis 121(40%) and 179(60%) had early and late onset sepsis respectively. Positive blood culture was found in 57 (47.1%) and 92 (51.4%) among neonates with early and late onset neonatal sepsis respectively (p = 0.466). Predictors of positive blood culture in both early and late onset neonatal sepsis were inability to feed, lethargy, cyanosis, meconium stained liquor, premature rupture of the membrane and convulsion. About 49% of gram negatives isolates were resistant to third generation cephalosporins and 28% of Staphylococcus aureus were found to be Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Deaths occurred in 57 (19%) of neonates. Factors that predicted deaths were positive blood culture (p = 0.0001), gram negative sepsis (p = 0.0001) and infection with ESBL (p = 0.008) or MRSA (p = 0.008) isolates.
Our findings suggest that lethargy, convulsion, inability to feed, cyanosis, PROM and meconium stained liquor are significantly associated with positive blood culture in both early and late onset disease. Mortality and morbidity on neonatal sepsis is high at our setting and is significantly contributed by positive blood culture with multi-resistant gram negative bacteria.
Bacterial sepsis continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in newborns. Bacterial pathogens of neonatal septicemia may vary from one country to another and within a country from one hospital or region to another. Both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are responsible in neonatal sepsis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalent bacterial agents of neonatal sepsis and their antimicrobial susceptibility in a teaching hospital, Rasht, from February 2008 to February 2010.
This prospective study includes 611 newborns admitted with the probable diagnosis of septicemia. We studied the cases with positive blood culture, the pathogens and antibiotic resistance to different antibiotics.
Among 611 hospitalized newborns, 64 (10.6%) cases had positive blood culture. The commonest pathogens were Entrobacter (78.1%) and Klebsiella (6.2%).
According to the results, low birth weight and prematurity were associated with higher risk of sepsis significantly. The most common pathogen was Enterobacter. Treatment with effective antibiotics (e.g. gentamicin, cost effective and easily available) and hygienic care in the neonatal unit are recommended to eliminate the infectious factors especially Entrobacter.
Neonate; Sepsis; Antibiotics; Drug Resistance; Entrobacter; Bacterial Infection
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular injuries among industrial welders and rate the use of protective eyewear at work among industrial welders in Port Harcourt. Information from this study will provide a database for effective policy formation on prevention of occupational eye injuries in Port Harcourt Rivers State.
A cross-sectional survey of ocular injuries and use of protective eyewear among industrial welders in the Port Harcourt local government area of Rivers State, Nigeria, was carried out over a three-month period. Five hundred welders were selected by simple random sampling. Information was obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. All welders were examined in their workshops.
Flying metal chips were the chief source of ocular injury, as reported by 199 (68.15%) of those who gave a history of work-related eye injury, while arc rays accounted for the remaining 93 (31.85%). There was a high level of awareness of the risk of sustaining an eye injury from welding (n = 490, 98%), but only 46 (15.3%) of the welders were using protective eyewear at the time of injury.
To minimize ocular injury and promote eye health amongst industrial welders, safety intervention programs, such as awareness campaigns, setting up of targeted programs by the relevant government agencies, and encouragement of locally produced eye protectors is recommended. The involvement of occupational medical practitioners is also strongly recommended.
industrial welders; ocular injury; Port Harcourt; preventable blindness; protective eye devices
Epidemiology and surveillance of neonatal sepsis helps in implementation of rational empirical antibiotic strategy.
To study the frequency of bacterial isolates of early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) and their sensitivity pattern.
In this retrospective study, a case of EONS was defined as an infant who had clinical signs or born to mothers with potential risk factors for infection, in whom blood culture obtained within 72 hours of life, grew a bacterial pathogen. Blood culture sample included a single sample from peripheral vein or artery. Relevant data was obtained from the unit register or neonatal case records.
Of 2182 neonates screened, there were 389 (17.8%) positive blood cultures. After excluding coagulase-negative Staphylococci (160), we identified 229 EONS cases. Preterm neonates were 40.6% and small for gestational age, 18.3%. Mean birth weight and male to female ratio were 2344.5 (696.9) g and 1.16:1 respectively. Gram negative species represented 90.8% of culture isolates. Pseudomonas (33.2%) and Klebsiella (31.4%) were common among them. Other pathogens included Acinetobacter (14.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (9.2%), E.coli (4.4%), Enterobacter (2.2%), Citrobacter (3.1%) and Enterococci (2.2%). In Gram negative group, best susceptibility was to Amikacin (74.5%), followed by other aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. The susceptibility was remarkably low to ampicillin (8.4%). Gram positive group had susceptibility of 42.9% to erythromycin, 47.6% to ciprofloxacin and above 50% to aminoglycosides. Of all isolates, 83.8% were susceptible to either cefotaxime or amikacin
Gram-negative species especially Pseudomonas and Klebsiella were the predominant causative organisms. Initial empirical choice of cefotaxime in combination with amikacin appeared to be rational choice for a given cohort.
Early onset sepsis; neonates; blood culture isolates; antibiotic susceptibility
To describe the epidemiological, clinical, microbiological characteristics and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Bloodstream infections in Dhahira region, Oman.
Clinical data was collected from all patients with positive blood cultures for two years period. Standard laboratory methods were used for blood culture. Antibiotic sensitivity was tested using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.
Of the 360 bacterial pathogens isolated from 348 patients, 57.8% were gram-positive and 42.2% were gram-negative. The common isolates were: Streptococcus species 76 (21.1%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci 75 (20.8%), Escherichia coli 43 (11.9%), Staphylococcus aureus 41 (11.4%). Overall, mortality was 21.3% (74/348). Staphylococcus species (Staphylococcus aureus and CoNS) were more commonly resistant to Trimethoprim/ Sulphamethoxazole (35.3%) and Penicillin (25.9%). Streptococcus species were resistant to Trimethoprim/Sulphamethoxazole (39.1%) and Erythromycin (19.6%).
Bloodstream infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in our patients, especially among chronically ill elderly adult males. Prescription of proven resistant antibiotics to suspected bacteremic patients needs attention in Dhahira region.
Bloodstream infections; Antibiotic resistance; Bacterial pathogen; Epidemiology; Oman
To devise treatment strategies for neonatal infections, the population-level incidence and antibiotic susceptibility of pathogens must be defined.
Surveillance for suspected neonatal sepsis was conducted in Mirzapur, Bangladesh, from February 2004 through November 2006. Community health workers assessed neonates on postnatal days 0, 2, 5, and 8 and referred sick neonates to a hospital, where blood was collected for culture from neonates with suspected sepsis. We estimated the incidence and pattern of community-acquired neonatal bacteremia and determined the antibiotic susceptibility profile of pathogens.
The incidence rate of community-acquired neonatal bacteremia was 3.0 per 1000 person–neonatal periods. Among the 30 pathogens identified, the most common was Staphylococcus aureus (n = 10); half of all isolates were gram positive. Nine were resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin or to ceftiaxone, and 13 were resistant to cotrimoxazole.
S. aureus was the most common pathogen to cause community-acquired neonatal bacteremia. Nearly 40% of infections were identified on days 0–3, emphasizing the need to address maternal and environmental sources of infection. The combination of parenteral procaine benzyl penicillin and an aminoglycoside is recommended for the first-line treatment of serious community-acquired neonatal infections in rural Bangladesh, which has a moderate level of neonatal mortality. Additional population-based data are needed to further guide national and global strategies.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00198627.
Infants born to diabetic women have certain distinctive characteristics, including large size and high morbidity risks. The neonatal mortality rate is over five times that of infants of non diabetic mothers and is higher at all gestational ages and birth weight for gestational age (GA) categories.
The study aimed to determine morbidity and mortality pattern amongst infants of diabetic mothers (IDMS) admitted into the Special Care Baby Unit of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital.
This was a study of prevalence of morbidity and mortality among IDMs carried out prospectively over a two year period. All IDMs (pregestational and gestational) admitted into the Unit within the period were recruited into the study.
Data on delivery mode, GA, birth weight, other associated morbidities, investigation results, treatment, duration of hospital stay and outcome were collated and compared with those of infants of non diabetic mothers matched for GA and birth weight admitted within the same period. Maternal data were reviewed retrospectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0.
Sixty percent of the IDMs were born to mothers with gestational diabetes, while 40% were born to mothers with pregestational DM. 38 (74.3%) were born by Caesarian section (CS), of which 20 (52.6%) were by emergency CS. There was no significant difference in emergency CS rates, when compared with controls, but non-IDMs were more likely to be delivered vaginally. The mean GA of IDMs was 37.84 weeks ± 1.88. 29 (61.7%) of them were macrosomic. The commonest morbidities were Hypoglycemia (significantly higher in IDMs than non-IDMs) and hyperbilirubinaemia in 30 (63.8%) and 26 (57.4%) respectively.
There was no difference in morbidity pattern between infants of pre- gestational and gestational diabetic mothers. Mortality rate was not significantly higher in IDMs
The incidence of macrosomia in IDMs was high but high rates of emergency CS was not peculiar to them. Hypoglycaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia were the commonest morbidities in IDMs.
Referring women with unstable metabolic control to specialized centers improves pre- and post- natal outcomes. Maternal-Infant centers for management of diabetes in pregnancy are advocated on a national scale to reduce associated morbidity and mortality
Fifty seven children with thoracic empyema (37 boys and 20 girls) aged less than 12 years were seen at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 1989 and December 1991. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism isolated from the pus of these patients (36 (63%) patients). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the next most common organism, was isolated in 10 (18%) patients. The most common symptoms at presentation were acute illness with fever and cough (51 (89%) patients). All the patients were treated with closed intercostal tube drainage and appropriate antibiotics. Decortication was resorted to in only one patient. There were two deaths and the overall survival rate was 97%.
Sever acute malnutrition severely suppresses every component of the immune system leading to increased susceptibility and severity to infection. However, symptoms and signs of infections are often unapparent making prompt clinical diagnosis and early treatment very difficult. The aim of the study was to determine the magnitude of bacteraemia and antimicrobial sensitivity among severely malnourished children.
Severely malnourished children admitted in Jimma University Specialized Hospital were enrolled between October, 2009 to May, 2010. Blood samples were collected, processed and bacterial isolates were identified using standard bacteriological procedures. Then, antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates was determined by using Kirby-Bauer technique.
Bacteraemia was seen in 35 (20.6%) of the 170 study subjects. There were a total of 35 bacterial isolates, Gram positive bacteria constitute 24(68.6%) of the isolates, where Staphylococcus aureus was the leading Gram positive isolate while Klebsiella species were the dominant Gram negative isolates. Twelve (7.1%) children died and 4 (33.3%) of them had bacteraemia. While susceptibility was more than 80% to Gentamicin, Ciprofloxacin and Ceftriaxone, increased level of resistance was documented to commonly used antibiotics, such as Amoxycillin, Co-trimoxazole and Chloramphenicol.
High prevalence of bacteraemia with predominating Gram positive isolates and increased level of resistance to commonly used antibiotics was shown among severely malnourished children in Jimma. Further studies are required to revise the current guideline for antibiotic choice.
Bacteraemia; severe acute malnutrition; Antimicrobial susceptibility; Jimma
Bacterial and fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among neutropenic patients. The choice of empiric antimicrobial regimen is based on susceptibility pattern of locally prevalent pathogens. From 64 febrile neutropenic patients with clinical sepsis, blood and other appropriate clinical specimens were processed to determine bacterial and fungal spectrum and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Risk factors for developing sepsis were determined by case–control study. 68 organisms were recovered. Fifteen (22.05%) were Gram-positive cocci with predominance of methicillin Sensitive S. aureus (10.29%), 47 (69.11%) were Gram-negative rods with predominance of Klebsiella pneumoniae (30.88%) and four were Non albicans Candida. 81% and 60% of Klebsiella and E. coli were ESBL producers. All species of Candida were sensitive to amphoterecin B and voriconazole. Duration and extent of neutropenia, chemotherapy, immunosuppressive therapy, altered mucosal barriers and presence of central venous lines were statistically significant risk factors for developing sepsis. Gram-negative bacteria were the predominant isolates. The choice of therapy in neutropenic patients should be formulated based on local spectrum of microbes and local and regional resistance patterns.
Febrile neutropenia; Infection; Aetiology; Risk factors
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by clinicians in developing countries. Area-specific monitoring studies aimed to gain knowledge about the type of pathogens responsible for urinary tract infections and their resistance patterns may help the clinician to choose the correct empirical treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the type and antibiotic resistance pattern of the urinary pathogens isolated from patients attending Jimma University Specialized Hospital from April to June 2010.
A hospital based cross sectional stud was conducted and urine samples were collected using the mid-stream “clean catch” method from 228 clinically-suspected cases of urinary tract infections and tested bacteriologically using standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.
Significant bacteria were detected from 9.2% of the total patients. The most common pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli (33.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (19%) and S. saprophyticus (14.3%). E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed the highest percentage of resistance to ampicillin and amoxacillin (100%) however, all isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. S. saprophyticus and S. aureus were resistant to ampicillin (100%) and amoxicillin (66.7%). For all UTI isolates, least resistance was observed against drugs such as ceftriaxone, gentamycin and chloramphenicol.
This study finding showed that E. coli isolates were the predominant pathogens and the presence of bacterial isolates with very high resistance to the commonly prescribed drugs that in turn leaves the clinicians with very few alternative options of drugs for the treatment of UTIs. As drug resistance among bacterial pathogens is an evolving process, routine surveillance and monitoring studies should be conducted to provide physicians knowledge on the updated and most effective empirical treatment of UTIs.
Urinary tract infection; antimicrobial resistance; Jimma; Ethiopia
Due to the emergence of cephalothin- and gentamicin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae at this institution, we investigated the in vitro activity of two new cephalosporin compounds—cefoxitin and cefamandole. Whereas both drugs were active against cephalothin- and gentamicin-susceptible isolates of Klebsiella, only cefoxitin exhibited significant activity against cephalothin- and gentamicin-resistant isolates. Seventeen of 20 (85%) of the cephalothin- and gentamicin-resistant isolates were inhibited by ≤12.5 μg of cefoxitin per ml. The minimum bactericidal concentration in broth of representative isolates equaled the agar dilution minimum inhibitory concentration. Kirby-Bauer disk susceptibility testing correlated well with the agar dilution minimum inhibitory concentration. Cephalothin and cefamandole resistance of isolates could be correlated with antibiotic degradation by β-lactamase. Cephalothin and cefamandole evoked only a transient decrease in viable bacterial cell count with rapid inactivation of antibiotics, and full regrowth of the organisms. Cefoxitin, on the other hand, was quite effective in vitro against multiply resistant Klebsiella. No β-lactamase degradation of cefoxitin was detected. Growth curves with antibiotics indicated rapid killing of cephalothin- and gentamicin-resistant isolates by cefoxitin.
An outbreak of extended spectrum β lactamase producing
Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBLKp) in a neonatal unit was
controlled using simple measures. Normally, the control of such
infections can be time consuming and expensive. Seven cases of
septicaemia resulted in two deaths. ESBLKp isolates were subtyped by
pulsed field gel electrophoresis, and four of the five isolates typed
were identical. Control of the outbreak was achieved by altered empiric
antibiotic treatment for late onset sepsis and prevention of cross
infection by strict attention to hand washing. Widespread colonisation
of babies in the unit was presumed, so initial surveillance cultures were not performed. No further episodes of sepsis occurred.
Background & objectives:
The resistance of bacteria causing urinary tract infection (UTI) to commonly prescribed antibiotics is increasing both in developing as well as in developed countries. Resistance has emerged even to more potent antimicrobial agents. The present study was undertaken to report the current antibiotic resistance pattern among common bacterial uropathogens isolated in a tertiary care hospital in south India, with a special reference to ciprofloxacin.
A total of 19,050 consecutive urine samples were cultured and pathogens isolated were identified by standard methods. Antibiotic susceptibility was done by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. The clinical and demographic profile of the patients was noted.
Of the 19,050 samples, 62 per cent were sterile, 26.01 per cent showed significant growth, 2.3 per cent showed insignificant growth and 9.6 per cent were found contaminated. Significant association (P<0.001) of prior use of antibiotics in males, UTI in adults, gynaecological surgery in females, obstructive uropathy in males and complicated UTI in females with the occurrence of UTI with ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli was noted. Significant association was noted in females with prior antibiotics, with prior urological surgery and in males with prior complicated UTI. There was no significant association with diabetes mellitus with the occurrence of UTI with ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli. Fluoroquinolone resistance was found to increase with age.
Interpretations & conclusions:
Ciprofloxacin resistance has emerged due to its frequent use. This resistance was seen more in the in-patients, elderly males and females. Also the resistance to other antibiotics was also high. Increasing antibiotic resistance trends indicate that it is imperative to rationalize the use of antimicrobials in the community and also use these conservatively.
Ciprofloxacin; Escherichia coli; minimum inhibitory concentration; urinary tract infection
AIM—To document changes in the profile of bacterial isolates from cases of keratitis and changes in their susceptibility to first line antibiotic therapies.
METHODS—A retrospective review was performed of all bacterial isolates from cases of keratitis seen between 1984 and 1999. In vitro laboratory susceptibilities to antibiotics were determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The number of isolates, changes in the proportion of bacterial types, and the number that were fully resistant to monotherapy (ofloxacin), dual therapy (gentamicin and cefuroxime), and prophylactic treatment (chloramphenicol) were calculated.
RESULTS—There were 1312 bacterial isolates over 16 years. Gram positive bacteria accounted for 54.7% of isolates and Staphylococcus species (33.4%) were the most frequently isolated organisms. During the study period there has been an increase in the proportion of Pseudomonas species isolates but no overall increase in the proportion of Gram negative isolates. There has not been an increase in the proportion of isolates resistant to ofloxacin since 1995 or an increase in resistance to the combination of gentamicin and cefuroxime. However, since 1984 there has been a significant increase in proportion of Gram negative organisms resistant to chloramphenicol (p=0.0019).
CONCLUSIONS—An increase in the in vitro resistance of organisms to first line therapies for bacterial keratitis has not been observed. An increased resistance to chloramphenicol indicates that this drug is unlikely to provide prophylactic cover when Gram negative infection is a risk. Continued monitoring for the emergence of antibiotic resistance is recommended.
To review the types of nonglaucomatous optic neuropathies seen in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Materials and methods
Medical case records of all cases of nonglaucomatous optic neuropathy seen in the Eye Clinic of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria over a 5-year period were reviewed. Relevant data including patient demography, presenting visual acuity and intraocular pressure, and fundus findings were extracted. Other details included central visual field analysis and color vision results. Cases of glaucomatous optic neuropathy were excluded.
Ninety-nine cases of optic neuropathy were seen over this time period. There were 52 (52.5%) males and 47 females. The mean age of those with optic neuropathy was 40 ± 18.774 years. Twenty-two patients (22.2%) had bilateral involvement, while the rest were unilateral. About 40% of the patients with optic neuropathies had optic atrophy. Nutritional causes accounted for 31.3% and optic neuritis 27.3%. Over 60% of the patients presented with visual acuities ≤6/60. Most patients (40%) had cecocentral scotoma.
Nonglaucomatous optic neuropathies resulting in optic atrophy is not uncommon in our environment and several factors may be implicated but the actual cause is difficult to determine because of late presentation of most patients.
nonglaucomatous; optic neuropathies; Port Harcourt
In this study, we determine the vector competence of Musca domestica with reference to the transmission of susceptible and resistance bacterial strains in hospitals and slaughter house in Sanandaj City, west Iran.
Totally 908 houseflies were collected to isolate bacteria from their external body based on standard procedures.Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar based on recommendations of CLSI (formerly the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards).
From collected houseflies, 366 bacteria species were isolated. The most common isolated bacterium at hospitals was Klebsiella pneumoniae 43.3% (n= 90) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 37% (n= 77), while that of slaughterhouse was Proteus mirabilis. 29.1% (n= 46) followed by Citrobacter freundii 28.4% (n= 45). Among all the isolates from hospitals, cephalexin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and tetracycline, resistance rates were above 32.5% and gentamicin expressed the highest susceptibility among all the isolates from hospitals. It is worth to note that K. pneumoniae showed 61% and 44.5% resistance to cephalexin and chloramphenicol respectively. Similarly, all isolates from slaughterhouse were more than 28% and 30% resistant to cephalexin and chloramphenicol respectively. Surprisingly, among all the isolates, Citrobacter freundii were highly resistant to gentamicin.
Houseflies collected from hospitals and slaughterhouse may be involved in the spread of drug resistant bacteria and may increase the potential of human exposure to drug resistant bacteria.
House fly; bacterium; antibacterial resistance; hospitals; slaughterhouse
Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic widely prescribed in clinical and hospital settings. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance against effective antibiotics is a global issue. The objective of study is the surveillance of ciprofloxacin against common pathogens.
To investigate the present status of antimicrobial resistance against ciprofloxacin, five hundred and twenty four clinical isolates of Escherichia coli (30%), Staphylococcus aureus (33%), Salmonella typhi (9%), Klebsiella pneumonia (14%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14%) were collected during study from January, 2008 to February, 2009 from different pathological laboratories running in and out side hospitals located in Karachi, Pakistan. These pathogens were isolated from specimens of both in and out patients. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity of ciprofloxacin was carried out by Disc Diffusion Method (Kirby-Bauer test).
Showed that ciprofloxacin is 27.02%, 21.95%, 16.66%, 72.22% and 44.44% resistant to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively.
It is concluded that these clinical isolates have started developing resistance against ciprofloxacin due to its irrational and inappropriate use. Continuous surveillance is crucial to monitor the antimicrobial resistance among pathogens.