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1.  Occurrence of drug-resistant bacteria in communal well water around Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 
Epidemiology and Infection  1989;103(1):193-202.
A total of 108 raw water samples was collected from 36 wells at nine shanty settlements around Port Harcourt, Nigeria, over a period of 7 months. Samples were analysed for their bacteriological quality. Selected bacterial strains isolated from the samples were tested for their susceptibility to ten commonly used antibiotics. The organisms isolated include Pseudomonas spp., Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Proteus spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Aeromonas spp., Escherichia coli, Chromobacterium spp., Flavobacterium spp., and Serratia spp. Out of 300 strains tested, 23 (6.9%) were susceptible to all the antibiotics, 277 (92.3%) were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 232 (77.3%) were resistant to two or more antibiotics. The epidemiological significance of these results is discussed.
PMCID: PMC2249474  PMID: 2776852
2.  Neonatal Sepsis: High Antibiotic Resistance of the Bacterial Pathogens in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Care Hospital 
Objective:
To study the bacterial pathogens causing neonatal sepsis and their sensitivity pattern so that guidelines can be prepared for empirical antibiotic therapy.
Materials and Methods:
We conducted a prospective analysis of all the cases admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary care hospital and studied the culture and sensitivity pattern of organisms isolated. The neonates who presented with signs and symptoms of septicemia, with/without pneumonia and/or meningitis were studied and a detailed record of the maturity, age at onset, sex, birth weight (weight on admission for home deliveries), symptoms and signs along with the maternal risk factors was made. The cases with suspect sepsis were screened using various screening markers. Blood culture was done in all the cases, while cerebrospinal fluid was analysed only in those indicated. Sensitivity of the isolated organism was tested by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion techniques and various drug resistance mechanisms were studied.
Result:
Out of the 190 neonates (M:F=1.22:1) admitted to the NICU, 60 (31.57%) shows blood culture positive. Ninety-five percent cases were due to early onset septicemia. Thirty one neonates had Gram negative, twenty seven had Gram positive septicemia and two had candidial infection. Seventy percent Gram-positive isolates were resistant to penicillin. Ninety percent Gram negative isolates were resistant to gentamycin and ampicillin. Carbapenem resistance mechanisms such as ESBL.
Conclusion:
There is an increasing trend of antibiotic resistance to the commonly used and available drugs. Continuous surveillance for antibiotic susceptibility should be done to look for resistance pattern.
doi:10.4103/2249-4847.96753
PMCID: PMC3743139  PMID: 24027694
Early onset septicemia; Kirby Bauer disc diffusion; neonatal sepsis; resistance mechanisms; surveillance
3.  Early-onset sepsis in a neonatal intensive care unit in Beni Suef, Egypt: bacterial isolates and antibiotic resistance pattern 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2013;56(8):332-337.
Purpose
To identify the frequency of bacterial isolates in early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) and their antimicrobial resistance pattern.
Methods
A retrospective study of EONS was conducted at the Beni Suef University Hospital from September 2008 to September 2012. A case of EONS was defined as an infant who had clinical signs of infection or who was born to a mother with risk factors for infection, and in whom blood culture obtained within 72 hours of life grew a bacterial pathogen.
Results
Of 673 neonates screened, there were 138 positive blood cultures (20.5%) (confirmed EONS). Of the recovered isolates, 86.2% were gram-negative pathogens. Klebsiella pneumoniae (42.8%), Enterobacter cloacae (22.5%), and Escherichia coli (13.8%) were the commonest isolated organisms. The most common gram-positive microorganism was Staphylococcus aureus accounting for only 12 isolates (8.7%). All Klebsiella isolates and 93% of Enterobacter isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Gram-negative pathogens had the maximum overall sensitivity to imipenem, cefepime, and ciprofloxacin; whereas, gram-positive isolates were most susceptible to vancomycin, imipenem, and piperacillin.
Conclusion
K. pneumoniae was the predominant causative bacteria of EONS followed by E. cloacae and E. coli. There was a high resistance to ampicillin. Imipenem had the maximum overall activity against the causative bacteria. Continuous surveillance is needed to monitor the changing epidemiology of pathogens and antibiotic sensitivity.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2013.56.8.332
PMCID: PMC3764257  PMID: 24019843
Drug Resistance; Newborn; Sepsis
4.  Mortality Pattern in Children: A Hospital Based Study in Nigeria 
Background: Hospital based data on mortality pattern is a reflection of what is obtainable in a community at large. Therefore, data obtained from such review is usually beneficial in re-evaluating existing services and in improving facilities and patient care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mortality pattern of children admitted into the children medical wards of the University of Port-Harcourt Teaching Hospital from Jan 2007 to December 2008. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study. The case files of all patients aged one month to 16 years, admitted into the paediatric wards of University of Port-Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port-Harcourt, Nigeria over a 2 year period were reviewed. Neonatal and surgical cases were excluded. Results: There were 2,174 admissions during the study period. Sixty one of the total number of admissions died in the children medical wards giving a mortality rate of 2.8%. The youngest child was 2 months and the oldest 10 years. Fifty two (80.3%) were under 5 years. There was male preponderance. Most of the deaths occurred between April and September. The commonest causes of death were HIV/AIDS and bronchopneumonia in the under five age group; while in those above 5 years of age malignancies and HIV/AIDS were the predominant causes. Conclusion: Effective HIV/AIDS control measures will significantly reduce child mortality in our community. Also there is need to have a closer look at the potential risk for malignancies. Health intervention programmes such as integrated management of childhood illnesses and primary health care, which have been shown to reduce childhood deaths significantly, need to be intensified in order to achieve the MDG 4 by 2015.
PMCID: PMC3614794  PMID: 23675160
mortality pattern; children; admission; HIV/AIDS; MDGs
5.  Staphylococcus Aureus- The Predominant Pathogen in the Neonatal ICU of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Amritsar, India 
Background: An early treatment and the appropriate and the rational use of antibiotics would minimize the risk of severe morbidity and mortality in neonatal sepsis, and reduce the emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms in intensive care units. For the success of an early empiric treatment, a periodic review of the cases to assess any changing trends in the infecting organisms and their antimicrobial susceptibility is important.
AIM: To study the most commonly encountered bacterial pathogens which caused neonatal sepsis and their sensitivity patterns, so that guidelines could be prepared for a rational antibiotic therapy.
Setting and Design: This was a retrospective study which was conducted in the Department of Microbiology and the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at SGRDIMSAR, Amritsar, during June 2011 to June 2012.
Methods and Materials: Blood specimens for culture were drawn from 311 newborns who were admitted in an NICU with sepsis. The specimens were inoculated into brain heart infusion broth. Subcultures were performed on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10. The isolates were identified by doing standard biochemical tests. The antibiotic resistance patterns of the isolates were studied by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique.
Results: A total of 131 organisms were isolated from the 311 blood cultures. These included Staphylococcus aureus (n=68), Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) (n=30), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=10), Acinetobacter baumannii (n=9), Escherichia coli (n=05), Enterobacter cloacae (n=04), Citrobacter diversus (n=02), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=02) and Candida (n=01). Staphylococcus aureus was the main pathogen in both early and late-onset sepsis. On antibiotic sensitivity testing, 57.35% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found to be methicillin resistant. More than 90% gram negative rods were resistant to amikacin. The resistance to the third generation cephalosporins varied between 50-55%. The resistance to ciprofloxacin was quite high; however, most of the isolates were susceptible to levofloxacin. A majority of the isolates were susceptible to piperacillin- tazobactum and imipenem.
Conclusion: The present study emphasized the importance of periodic surveys on the microbial flora which was encountered in particular neonatal settings to recognize the trend.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2012/4913.2672
PMCID: PMC3576753  PMID: 23450439
Septicaemia; Drug resistance; Antimicrobial sensitivity tests; S.aureus neonate; India
6.  The Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Salmonella typhi among Patients Attending a Military Hospital in Minna, Nigeria 
The threat to human health posed by antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens is of growing concern to medical practice. This study investigated the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Salmonella typhi isolated from blood specimen. One hundred blood samples were collected from suspected typhoid fever patients in 31 Artillery Brigade Medical Centre, Minna, and were analyzed for S. typhi while antibiotic sensitivity testing was done Kirby-Bauer method. Sixty (60.0%) samples out of the total 100 were positive for bacterial growth. The organisms isolated 2 include Salmonella typhi; 45 (75.0%), Shigella; 6 (10.0%), E. coli; 3 (5.0%), Klebsiella; 3 (5.0%), Enterobacter; 2 (3.3%), and Citrobacter; 1 (1.7%). Result of the sensitivity test showed that the isolates were resistant to all the antibiotics; ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, amoxicillin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and augmentin, which are the drug of choice routinely used in the study area for the treatment of typhoid fever. They were however sensitive to chloramphenicol and ofloxacin, which, unfortunately, are not used in this study area for the treatment of typhoid fever. There appear to be multiple drug resistant (MDR) strain of S. typhi in the study area. These may be as a result of overdependence or uncontrolled use of the few available antibiotics and/or inaccurate or inconclusive diagnosis resulting in the development and spread of resistant strains of S. typhi. The study, therefore, highlights the need for a strong collaboration between the physicians and the laboratory in the choice of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial diseases in order to discourage the development of resistant strain of bacterial pathogen.
doi:10.1155/2012/875419
PMCID: PMC3465869  PMID: 23056954
7.  Prospective evaluation of the usefulness of C-reactive protein in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a sub-Saharan African region 
Background
Sepsis is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in the newborn. Early diagnosis and treatment is vital to improve outcome. The present study was therefore carried out to determine the usefulness of C-reactive protein (CRP) for evaluation of neonatal sepsis in Port Harcourt, Nigeria in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Method
Four hundred and twenty neonates with clinical suspicion of sepsis were prospectively studied over a 6 month period. Blood was obtained from each subject recruited for the qualitative estimation of CRP. Blood culture was used as gold standard for diagnosis of NNS.
Results
Of 420 neonates studied, 196 (46.7%) had positive CRP while 181 (43.1%) had positive blood culture. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of CRP were 74.0%, 74.1%, 68.4% and 79.0% respectively.
Conclusion
The qualitative method of estimating CRP which is cheap and rapid has moderate sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value.
doi:10.1186/2047-2994-1-22
PMCID: PMC3436619  PMID: 22958461
Neonatal sepsis; C-reactive protein; Sub-Saharan Africa
8.  Antiobiotic resistance pattern of biofilm-forming uropathogens isolated from catheterised patients in Pondicherry, India 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2012;5(7):344-348.
Background
Microbial biofilms pose a public health problem for persons requiring indwelling medical devices, as micro-organisms in biofilms are difficult to treat with antimicrobial agents. Thus the present study includes biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance pattern of uropathogens in hospitalised patients with catheter associated urinary tract infections (UTI).
Method
This prospective analysis included 100 urine samples from catheterised patients with symptoms of UTI over a period of six months. Following identification, all isolates were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity using modified Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method. Detection of biofilms was done by tube adherence method and Congo red agar method.
Results
E.coli was found to be the most frequently isolated uropathogen 70%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 16%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4%, Acinetobacter spp 2%, coagulase negative Staphylococci 6% and Enterococci Spp 2%. In the current study 60% of strains were in vitro positive for biofilm production. Biofilm positive isolates showed 93.3%, 83.3%, 73.3% and 80% resistance to nalidixic acid, ampicillin, cephotaxime and cotrimoxazole, respectively, compared to 70%, 60%, 35%, 60% resistance showed by biofilm non-producers for the respective antibiotics. Approximately 80% of the biofilm producing strains showed multidrug resistant phenotype
Conclusion
To conclude E.coli was the most frequent isolate, of which 63% were biofilm producers. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern in the present study showed quinolones were the least active drug against uropathogens. The uropathogens showed the highest sensitivity to carbapenems. The next best alternatives were aminoglycosides. Significant correlation between biofilm production and multi-drug resistance was observed in our study.
doi:10.4066/AMJ.2012.1193
PMCID: PMC3412999  PMID: 22905060
Biofilm; Uropathogens; Tube adherence method; Congo red agar method
9.  Bacteriologic Profile and Antibiogram of Blood Culture Isolates in a Pediatric Care Unit 
Background / Aims:
Septicemia is one of the important causes of mortality and morbidity in neonates and children. Blood culture is the gold standard for the diagnosis. Emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial strains is a major problem in the management of sepsis. Present study was undertaken to identify the common bacterial pathogens associated with pediatric sepsis and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility pattern.
Materials and Methods:
Blood cultures from 185 suspected cases of sepsis were examined. The growths from the subcultures were identified by conventional biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and drug resistant strains in primary screening were further processed for extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) status by combination disk method (ESBL) and oxacillin disk diffusion method (MRSA).
Results:
Out of the 185 cultures obtained from suspected cases, 81 (44%) were culture positive. Fifty-two (35%) of the culture isolates were Gram negative bacilli. Twenty-eight (64%) of the isolates were Gram positive cocci. One case was of mixed infection. The prevalence of MRSA in 41 strains of S. aureus was found to be 29% (12 strains). The overall prevalence of ESBL producers among 28 Gram negative bacterial isolates was found to be 32% (9 strains).
Conclusion:
This study stresses the need for the continuous screening and surveillance for antibiotic resistance in pediatric care unit.
doi:10.4103/0974-2727.72156
PMCID: PMC3040091  PMID: 21346903
Sepsis; methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus; extended spectrum beta lactamases; blood culture
10.  Bacteriological Profile of Septicemia and the Risk Factors in Neonates and Infants in Sikkim 
Background:
Bacterial infections remain an important cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. It might be possible to reduce these factors by early diagnosis and proper management.
Aim:
The aim of the study was to analyze the bacteriological profiles with their antibiogram, and to register the risk factors for septicemia in neonates and infants. Setting and design: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital at Gangtok, Sikkim, India, and included clinically suspected cases of septicemia in neonates and infants.
Materials and Methods:
Blood culture reports were studied in 363 cases of clinically suspected septicemia in neonates and infants, using the standard technique of Mackie and McCartney. The antibiotic sensitivity was performed by Kirby-Bauer's disc diffusion method. Risk factors for sepsis in the children were registered.
Results:
Blood culture was positive in 22% of cases. Gram-negative septicemia was encountered in 61% of the culture-positive cases. Pseudomonas and Enterobacter species were the predominant pathogens amongst gram-negative organisms. Most gram-negative organisms were sensitive to Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin, and Co-trimoxazole. The most common gram-positive organism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus (97%). More than 70% of Staphylococci isolated were resistant to Penicillin, but were sensitive to Clindamycin (70%) and Vancomycin (40%). The most important risk factors of septicemia in our study population were preterm birth (31%), followed by respiratory distress (5%) and low birth weight (4%).
Conclusion:
As the cultures showed variable antibiogram with complicated patterns of resistance, culture and sensitivity test should be performed in all cases of septicemia.
doi:10.4103/0974-777X.77295
PMCID: PMC3068578  PMID: 21572608
Developing countries; Infant; Neonate; Septicemia
11.  Predictors of positive blood culture and deaths among neonates with suspected neonatal sepsis in a tertiary hospital, Mwanza- Tanzania 
BMC Pediatrics  2010;10:39.
Background
Neonatal sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Appropriate clinical diagnosis and empirical treatment in a given setting is crucial as pathogens of bacterial sepsis and antibiotic sensitivity pattern can considerably vary in different settings. This study was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC), Tanzania to determine the prevalence of neonatal sepsis, predictors of positive blood culture, deaths and antimicrobial susceptibility, thus providing essential information to formulate a policy for management of neonatal sepsis.
Methods
This was a prospective cross sectional study involving 300 neonates admitted at BMC neonatal unit between March and November 2009. Standard data collection form was used to collect all demographic data and clinical characteristics of neonates. Blood culture was done on Brain Heart Infusion broth followed by identification of isolates using conventional methods and testing for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents using the disc diffusion method.
Results
Among 770 neonates admitted during the study period; 300 (38.9%) neonates were diagnosed to have neonatal sepsis by WHO criteria. Of 300 neonates with clinical neonatal sepsis 121(40%) and 179(60%) had early and late onset sepsis respectively. Positive blood culture was found in 57 (47.1%) and 92 (51.4%) among neonates with early and late onset neonatal sepsis respectively (p = 0.466). Predictors of positive blood culture in both early and late onset neonatal sepsis were inability to feed, lethargy, cyanosis, meconium stained liquor, premature rupture of the membrane and convulsion. About 49% of gram negatives isolates were resistant to third generation cephalosporins and 28% of Staphylococcus aureus were found to be Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Deaths occurred in 57 (19%) of neonates. Factors that predicted deaths were positive blood culture (p = 0.0001), gram negative sepsis (p = 0.0001) and infection with ESBL (p = 0.008) or MRSA (p = 0.008) isolates.
Conclusion
Our findings suggest that lethargy, convulsion, inability to feed, cyanosis, PROM and meconium stained liquor are significantly associated with positive blood culture in both early and late onset disease. Mortality and morbidity on neonatal sepsis is high at our setting and is significantly contributed by positive blood culture with multi-resistant gram negative bacteria.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-10-39
PMCID: PMC2889942  PMID: 20525358
12.  Entrobacter, the Most Common Pathogen of Neonatal Septicemia in Rasht, Iran 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2011;21(1):83-87.
Objective
Bacterial sepsis continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in newborns. Bacterial pathogens of neonatal septicemia may vary from one country to another and within a country from one hospital or region to another. Both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are responsible in neonatal sepsis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalent bacterial agents of neonatal sepsis and their antimicrobial susceptibility in a teaching hospital, Rasht, from February 2008 to February 2010.
Methods
This prospective study includes 611 newborns admitted with the probable diagnosis of septicemia. We studied the cases with positive blood culture, the pathogens and antibiotic resistance to different antibiotics.
Findings
Among 611 hospitalized newborns, 64 (10.6%) cases had positive blood culture. The commonest pathogens were Entrobacter (78.1%) and Klebsiella (6.2%).
Conclusion
According to the results, low birth weight and prematurity were associated with higher risk of sepsis significantly. The most common pathogen was Enterobacter. Treatment with effective antibiotics (e.g. gentamicin, cost effective and easily available) and hygienic care in the neonatal unit are recommended to eliminate the infectious factors especially Entrobacter.
PMCID: PMC3446115  PMID: 23056769
Neonate; Sepsis; Antibiotics; Drug Resistance; Entrobacter; Bacterial Infection
13.  In Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of 21 Indian Timber-Yielding Plants Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection 
Objectives
To screen methanolic leaf extracts of 21 timber-yielding plants for antibacterial activity against nine species of uropathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical samples of a hospital (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa).
Methods
Bacterial strains were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests by the Kirby–Bauer's disc diffusion method. The antibacterial potentiality of leaf extracts was monitored by the agar-well diffusion method with multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of nine uropathogens.
Results
Two Gram-positive isolates, E. faecalis and S. aureus, were resistant to 14 of the 18 antibiotics used. Gram-negative isolates A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were resistant to 10, 12, 9, 11, 11, 10, and 11 antibiotics, respectively, of the 14 antibiotics used. Methanolic leaf extracts of Anogeissus acuminata had the maximum zone of inhibition size—29 mm against S. aureus and 28 mm against E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa. Cassia tora had 29 mm as the zone of inhibition size for E. faecalis, E. aerogenes, and P. aeruginosa. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values, the most effective 10 plants against uropathogens could be arranged in decreasing order as follows: C. tora > A. acuminata > Schleichera oleosa > Pterocarpus santalinus > Eugenia jambolana > Bridelia retusa > Mimusops elengi > Stereospermum kunthianum > Tectona grandis > Anthocephalus cadamba. The following eight plants had moderate control capacity: Artocarpus heterophyllus, Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia latifolia, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gmelina arborea, Pongamia pinnata, Pterocarpus marsupium, and Shorea robusta. E. coli, followed by A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were controlled by higher amounts/levels of leaf extracts. Phytochemicals of all plants were qualitatively estimated.
Conclusions
A majority of timber-yielding plants studied had in vitro control capacity against MDR uropathogenic bacteria.
doi:10.1016/j.phrp.2013.10.007
PMCID: PMC3922103  PMID: 24524024
antibiograms; Gram-negative bacteria; Gram-positive bacteria; multidrug resistance; timber-yielding plants; uropathogens
14.  Ocular injuries among industrial welders in Port Harcourt, Nigeria 
Background
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular injuries among industrial welders and rate the use of protective eyewear at work among industrial welders in Port Harcourt. Information from this study will provide a database for effective policy formation on prevention of occupational eye injuries in Port Harcourt Rivers State.
Methods
A cross-sectional survey of ocular injuries and use of protective eyewear among industrial welders in the Port Harcourt local government area of Rivers State, Nigeria, was carried out over a three-month period. Five hundred welders were selected by simple random sampling. Information was obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. All welders were examined in their workshops.
Results
Flying metal chips were the chief source of ocular injury, as reported by 199 (68.15%) of those who gave a history of work-related eye injury, while arc rays accounted for the remaining 93 (31.85%). There was a high level of awareness of the risk of sustaining an eye injury from welding (n = 490, 98%), but only 46 (15.3%) of the welders were using protective eyewear at the time of injury.
Conclusion
To minimize ocular injury and promote eye health amongst industrial welders, safety intervention programs, such as awareness campaigns, setting up of targeted programs by the relevant government agencies, and encouragement of locally produced eye protectors is recommended. The involvement of occupational medical practitioners is also strongly recommended.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S20297
PMCID: PMC3180494  PMID: 21966197
industrial welders; ocular injury; Port Harcourt; preventable blindness; protective eye devices
15.  Trends in Incidence of Neonatal Sepsis and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Causative Agents in Two Neonatal Intensive Care Units in Tehran, I.R Iran 
Journal of Clinical Neonatology  2012;1(3):124-130.
Background:
Neonatal sepsis is a worldwide problem that presents a management challenge to care groups for neonates and infants. Early diagnosis and management can considerably decrease the risk of sepsis, and improve the outcome.
Aim:
The aim of the present study was to determine the incidence, causative pathogens, and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern for neonatal sepsis in Iran.
Materials and Methods:
A historical cohort study was conducted on 84 patients with neonatal sepsis who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) wards of Baqiyatallah and Najmieh University hospitals in Tehran, between 2003 and 2006. Clinical, demographic and laboratory data was collected from medical records.
Results:
Among all the comprised neonates, 44 patients were diagnosed with early-onset sepsis, 23 cases with late-onset sepsis and others with nosocomial sepsis. The most common isolated pathogen in all groups was Enterobacter, and was responsible for 31.4%, 47.8% and 41.2% of the episodes of sepsis, according to the sepsis type mentioned above, respectively. Susceptibility of common sepsis related pathogens to imipenem and gentamycin gradually reduced over the years between 2003 and 2006. Total mortality and morbidity rates due to neonatal sepsis were estimated at 27.4% and 89.3%, respectively. Mortality following sepsis was found more in boys (Odds Ratio (OR)=4.897, Conifdence Interval (CI)=95%, P=0.031), and those with low birth weight (OR=4.406, CI: 95%, P=0.011). Higher sepsis related co-morbidity was found in neonates following cesarean delivery (OR=6.280, CI: 95%, P=0.025).
Conclusion:
It seems that the mortality rate in this study was lower than similar studies in Iran and other developing countries. This difference between the mortality rates of the centers in our study and others could be due to the high occurrence of Enterobacter infections in the latter and also high resistance of these pathogens to commonly used antibiotics such as β-lactams and aminoglycosides reported in other studies.
doi:10.4103/2249-4847.101692
PMCID: PMC3762027  PMID: 24027707
Antibiotics; neonatal sepsis; neonatal intensive care unit; resistance; susceptibility
16.  Bacterial isolates of early-onset neonatal sepsis and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern between 1998 and 2004: an audit from a center in India 
Background
Epidemiology and surveillance of neonatal sepsis helps in implementation of rational empirical antibiotic strategy.
Objective
To study the frequency of bacterial isolates of early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) and their sensitivity pattern.
Methods
In this retrospective study, a case of EONS was defined as an infant who had clinical signs or born to mothers with potential risk factors for infection, in whom blood culture obtained within 72 hours of life, grew a bacterial pathogen. Blood culture sample included a single sample from peripheral vein or artery. Relevant data was obtained from the unit register or neonatal case records.
Results
Of 2182 neonates screened, there were 389 (17.8%) positive blood cultures. After excluding coagulase-negative Staphylococci (160), we identified 229 EONS cases. Preterm neonates were 40.6% and small for gestational age, 18.3%. Mean birth weight and male to female ratio were 2344.5 (696.9) g and 1.16:1 respectively. Gram negative species represented 90.8% of culture isolates. Pseudomonas (33.2%) and Klebsiella (31.4%) were common among them. Other pathogens included Acinetobacter (14.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (9.2%), E.coli (4.4%), Enterobacter (2.2%), Citrobacter (3.1%) and Enterococci (2.2%). In Gram negative group, best susceptibility was to Amikacin (74.5%), followed by other aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. The susceptibility was remarkably low to ampicillin (8.4%). Gram positive group had susceptibility of 42.9% to erythromycin, 47.6% to ciprofloxacin and above 50% to aminoglycosides. Of all isolates, 83.8% were susceptible to either cefotaxime or amikacin
Conclusion
Gram-negative species especially Pseudomonas and Klebsiella were the predominant causative organisms. Initial empirical choice of cefotaxime in combination with amikacin appeared to be rational choice for a given cohort.
doi:10.1186/1824-7288-37-32
PMCID: PMC3444145  PMID: 21745376
Early onset sepsis; neonates; blood culture isolates; antibiotic susceptibility
17.  Population-Based Incidence and Etiology of Community-Acquired Neonatal Bacteremia in Mirzapur, Bangladesh: An Observational Study 
The Journal of infectious diseases  2009;200(6):906-915.
Background
To devise treatment strategies for neonatal infections, the population-level incidence and antibiotic susceptibility of pathogens must be defined.
Methods
Surveillance for suspected neonatal sepsis was conducted in Mirzapur, Bangladesh, from February 2004 through November 2006. Community health workers assessed neonates on postnatal days 0, 2, 5, and 8 and referred sick neonates to a hospital, where blood was collected for culture from neonates with suspected sepsis. We estimated the incidence and pattern of community-acquired neonatal bacteremia and determined the antibiotic susceptibility profile of pathogens.
Results
The incidence rate of community-acquired neonatal bacteremia was 3.0 per 1000 person–neonatal periods. Among the 30 pathogens identified, the most common was Staphylococcus aureus (n = 10); half of all isolates were gram positive. Nine were resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin or to ceftiaxone, and 13 were resistant to cotrimoxazole.
Conclusion
S. aureus was the most common pathogen to cause community-acquired neonatal bacteremia. Nearly 40% of infections were identified on days 0–3, emphasizing the need to address maternal and environmental sources of infection. The combination of parenteral procaine benzyl penicillin and an aminoglycoside is recommended for the first-line treatment of serious community-acquired neonatal infections in rural Bangladesh, which has a moderate level of neonatal mortality. Additional population-based data are needed to further guide national and global strategies.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00198627.
doi:10.1086/605473
PMCID: PMC2841956  PMID: 19671016
18.  Bloodstream Bacterial Pathogens and their Antibiotic Resistance Pattern in Dhahira Region, Oman 
Oman Medical Journal  2011;26(4):240-279.
Objectives
To describe the epidemiological, clinical, microbiological characteristics and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Bloodstream infections in Dhahira region, Oman.
Methods
Clinical data was collected from all patients with positive blood cultures for two years period. Standard laboratory methods were used for blood culture. Antibiotic sensitivity was tested using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.
Results
Of the 360 bacterial pathogens isolated from 348 patients, 57.8% were gram-positive and 42.2% were gram-negative. The common isolates were: Streptococcus species 76 (21.1%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci 75 (20.8%), Escherichia coli 43 (11.9%), Staphylococcus aureus 41 (11.4%). Overall, mortality was 21.3% (74/348). Staphylococcus species (Staphylococcus aureus and CoNS) were more commonly resistant to Trimethoprim/ Sulphamethoxazole (35.3%) and Penicillin (25.9%). Streptococcus species were resistant to Trimethoprim/Sulphamethoxazole (39.1%) and Erythromycin (19.6%).
Conclusion
Bloodstream infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in our patients, especially among chronically ill elderly adult males. Prescription of proven resistant antibiotics to suspected bacteremic patients needs attention in Dhahira region.
doi:10.5001/omj.2011.59
PMCID: PMC3191706  PMID: 22043427
Bloodstream infections; Antibiotic resistance; Bacterial pathogen; Epidemiology; Oman
19.  Microbial Etiology of Febrile Neutropenia 
Bacterial and fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among neutropenic patients. The choice of empiric antimicrobial regimen is based on susceptibility pattern of locally prevalent pathogens. From 64 febrile neutropenic patients with clinical sepsis, blood and other appropriate clinical specimens were processed to determine bacterial and fungal spectrum and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Risk factors for developing sepsis were determined by case–control study. 68 organisms were recovered. Fifteen (22.05%) were Gram-positive cocci with predominance of methicillin Sensitive S. aureus (10.29%), 47 (69.11%) were Gram-negative rods with predominance of Klebsiella pneumoniae (30.88%) and four were Non albicans Candida. 81% and 60% of Klebsiella and E. coli were ESBL producers. All species of Candida were sensitive to amphoterecin B and voriconazole. Duration and extent of neutropenia, chemotherapy, immunosuppressive therapy, altered mucosal barriers and presence of central venous lines were statistically significant risk factors for developing sepsis. Gram-negative bacteria were the predominant isolates. The choice of therapy in neutropenic patients should be formulated based on local spectrum of microbes and local and regional resistance patterns.
doi:10.1007/s12288-010-0029-z
PMCID: PMC3002059  PMID: 21629636
Febrile neutropenia; Infection; Aetiology; Risk factors
20.  Bacteraemia Among Severely Malnourished Children in Jimma University Hospital, Ethiopia 
Background
Sever acute malnutrition severely suppresses every component of the immune system leading to increased susceptibility and severity to infection. However, symptoms and signs of infections are often unapparent making prompt clinical diagnosis and early treatment very difficult. The aim of the study was to determine the magnitude of bacteraemia and antimicrobial sensitivity among severely malnourished children.
Methods
Severely malnourished children admitted in Jimma University Specialized Hospital were enrolled between October, 2009 to May, 2010. Blood samples were collected, processed and bacterial isolates were identified using standard bacteriological procedures. Then, antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates was determined by using Kirby-Bauer technique.
Results
Bacteraemia was seen in 35 (20.6%) of the 170 study subjects. There were a total of 35 bacterial isolates, Gram positive bacteria constitute 24(68.6%) of the isolates, where Staphylococcus aureus was the leading Gram positive isolate while Klebsiella species were the dominant Gram negative isolates. Twelve (7.1%) children died and 4 (33.3%) of them had bacteraemia. While susceptibility was more than 80% to Gentamicin, Ciprofloxacin and Ceftriaxone, increased level of resistance was documented to commonly used antibiotics, such as Amoxycillin, Co-trimoxazole and Chloramphenicol.
Conclusion
High prevalence of bacteraemia with predominating Gram positive isolates and increased level of resistance to commonly used antibiotics was shown among severely malnourished children in Jimma. Further studies are required to revise the current guideline for antibiotic choice.
PMCID: PMC3275866  PMID: 22434997
Bacteraemia; severe acute malnutrition; Antimicrobial susceptibility; Jimma
21.  Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (LTRIs): An Insight into the Prevalence and the Antibiogram of the Gram Negative, Respiratory, Bacterial Agents 
Background: Community acquired respiratory tract infections are one of the commonest health issues globally, which demand frequent visits to the family practitioners. The emergence of antibiotic resistance in the frequently isolated pathogens has complicated the use of the empiric therapy with traditional agents.
Aim: This study was focused on obtaining a comprehensive insight into the microbial profile, its prevalence and the susceptibility patterns of the gram negative bacilli isolates in lower respiratory tract infections.
Methods and Materials: Respiratory samples which were received from the patients at a Medical College Hospital in North Kerala, India were processed according to the standard protocol over a period of one year, from April 2011 to March 2012. The antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method as per the CLSI guidelines. The data was interpreted by using the WHO Net antibiotic susceptibility surveillance soft ware
Results: Out of 1750 respiratory samples, 298(17.03%) were culture positive for gram negative bacilli. The highest isolation rate was observed in the 61-80 years age group with a male preponderance and Klebsiella pneumoniae (41.95%) was found to be the predominant organism. The resistance pattern varied for different organisms. Among the different groups of antibacterial agents which were tested, levofloxacin was found to be an effective oral antibacterial against the pathogens which were isolated. The carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem), the betalactum/betalactamase inhibitors (piperacillin/tazobactum) and the aminoglycosides (amikacin) were effective among the parenteral antibacterials. The selection of the appropriate antibacterial therapy should be based on the organisms which are isolated and on the emerging resistance to the conventional therapies.
Conclusion: Owing to the increased concern which surrounds antibiotic resistance and the changing patterns of the bacterial pathogens, the ongoing surveillance of disease and a regular review of the management guidelines are critical.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/5308.2740
PMCID: PMC3592286  PMID: 23543819
Gram negative bacilli; Multidrug resistance
22.  Thoracic empyema: a study of 56 patients. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1993;69(5):587-588.
Fifty seven children with thoracic empyema (37 boys and 20 girls) aged less than 12 years were seen at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 1989 and December 1991. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism isolated from the pus of these patients (36 (63%) patients). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the next most common organism, was isolated in 10 (18%) patients. The most common symptoms at presentation were acute illness with fever and cough (51 (89%) patients). All the patients were treated with closed intercostal tube drainage and appropriate antibiotics. Decortication was resorted to in only one patient. There were two deaths and the overall survival rate was 97%.
PMCID: PMC1029624  PMID: 8257181
23.  Outbreak of extended spectrum β lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal unit 
An outbreak of extended spectrum β lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBLKp) in a neonatal unit was controlled using simple measures. Normally, the control of such infections can be time consuming and expensive. Seven cases of septicaemia resulted in two deaths. ESBLKp isolates were subtyped by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, and four of the five isolates typed were identical. Control of the outbreak was achieved by altered empiric antibiotic treatment for late onset sepsis and prevention of cross infection by strict attention to hand washing. Widespread colonisation of babies in the unit was presumed, so initial surveillance cultures were not performed. No further episodes of sepsis occurred.


PMCID: PMC1720890  PMID: 10325816
24.  Morbidity and mortality amongst infants of diabetic mothers admitted into a special care baby unit in Port Harcourt, Nigeria 
Background
Infants born to diabetic women have certain distinctive characteristics, including large size and high morbidity risks. The neonatal mortality rate is over five times that of infants of non diabetic mothers and is higher at all gestational ages and birth weight for gestational age (GA) categories.
The study aimed to determine morbidity and mortality pattern amongst infants of diabetic mothers (IDMS) admitted into the Special Care Baby Unit of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital.
Methods
This was a study of prevalence of morbidity and mortality among IDMs carried out prospectively over a two year period. All IDMs (pregestational and gestational) admitted into the Unit within the period were recruited into the study.
Data on delivery mode, GA, birth weight, other associated morbidities, investigation results, treatment, duration of hospital stay and outcome were collated and compared with those of infants of non diabetic mothers matched for GA and birth weight admitted within the same period. Maternal data were reviewed retrospectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0.
Results
Sixty percent of the IDMs were born to mothers with gestational diabetes, while 40% were born to mothers with pregestational DM. 38 (74.3%) were born by Caesarian section (CS), of which 20 (52.6%) were by emergency CS. There was no significant difference in emergency CS rates, when compared with controls, but non-IDMs were more likely to be delivered vaginally. The mean GA of IDMs was 37.84 weeks ± 1.88. 29 (61.7%) of them were macrosomic. The commonest morbidities were Hypoglycemia (significantly higher in IDMs than non-IDMs) and hyperbilirubinaemia in 30 (63.8%) and 26 (57.4%) respectively.
There was no difference in morbidity pattern between infants of pre- gestational and gestational diabetic mothers. Mortality rate was not significantly higher in IDMs
Conclusions
The incidence of macrosomia in IDMs was high but high rates of emergency CS was not peculiar to them. Hypoglycaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia were the commonest morbidities in IDMs.
Referring women with unstable metabolic control to specialized centers improves pre- and post- natal outcomes. Maternal-Infant centers for management of diabetes in pregnancy are advocated on a national scale to reduce associated morbidity and mortality
doi:10.1186/1824-7288-36-77
PMCID: PMC3022614  PMID: 21138582
25.  Cefoxitin Activity Against Multiply Antibiotic-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae In Vitro 
Due to the emergence of cephalothin- and gentamicin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae at this institution, we investigated the in vitro activity of two new cephalosporin compounds—cefoxitin and cefamandole. Whereas both drugs were active against cephalothin- and gentamicin-susceptible isolates of Klebsiella, only cefoxitin exhibited significant activity against cephalothin- and gentamicin-resistant isolates. Seventeen of 20 (85%) of the cephalothin- and gentamicin-resistant isolates were inhibited by ≤12.5 μg of cefoxitin per ml. The minimum bactericidal concentration in broth of representative isolates equaled the agar dilution minimum inhibitory concentration. Kirby-Bauer disk susceptibility testing correlated well with the agar dilution minimum inhibitory concentration. Cephalothin and cefamandole resistance of isolates could be correlated with antibiotic degradation by β-lactamase. Cephalothin and cefamandole evoked only a transient decrease in viable bacterial cell count with rapid inactivation of antibiotics, and full regrowth of the organisms. Cefoxitin, on the other hand, was quite effective in vitro against multiply resistant Klebsiella. No β-lactamase degradation of cefoxitin was detected. Growth curves with antibiotics indicated rapid killing of cephalothin- and gentamicin-resistant isolates by cefoxitin.
PMCID: PMC351922  PMID: 319753

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