Calyceal diverticula are outpouchings of a renal calyx. Often found incidentally on radiological imaging, they are generally benign and usually asymptomatic, although complications include infection and stone formation. More importantly, calyceal diverticula may mimic other potentially more serious pathology on imaging, such as renal tumour or abscess on ultrasound or computed tomography and even rib metastasis on bone scintigraphy. We present a case of a patient with a calyceal diverticulum found incidentally on imaging, in which the diverticulum is demonstrated on ultrasound, computed tomography, intravenous urogram and bone scintigraphy, and discuss the potential differential diagnoses that need to be excluded in this condition.
Calyceal; diverticulum; renal calyx; IVU; intravenous urogram
The purpose of this report is to assess the safety and efficacy of single lower pole access for multiple and branched renal calculi. A prospective non randomized clinical study included 26 patients with complex renal stones (9 patients had branched renal stones and the other 17 had multiple renal stones) in the period from May 2003 to May 2004. Mean patient age was 42 years ± 13.2 (range 18 to 67 years). All patients underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) via a single lower calyceal puncture. Small stones were intactly extracted by a range of stone graspers while large stones (smallest diameter more than 1 cm) were disintegrated using either the pneumatic EMS Swiss lithoclast or Holmium YAG laser. Flexible nephroscope was used for stones inaccessible by the rigid instruments.
Overall stone-free rate was 74.8%. Patients with residual stones were managed by one session of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). Mean operative time was (80 minutes ± 27.4) for branched stones and (49.1 minutes ± 15.9) for multiple stones. No significant blood loss reported. Perforation of pelvicalyceal system occurred in 2 patients (11.5%) with no serious sequelae. Only 1 patient developed secondary hemorrhage which necessitated blood transfusion and selective angio-embolization.
In our hands, the efficacy and safety of single lower calyceal puncture PCNL in management of complex renal stones are comparable to those of the general procedure stated in literature.
The presence of diverticula arising from the calyceal system is a relatively uncommon urological problem, occurring with an incidence of 2.1-4.5 per 1000 intravenous urogram (IVU) examinations. While the incidence of calyceal diverticula is low, the frequency of stone formation within them is high. We describe the aetiology and clinical presentation and describe the role of imaging with ultrasound, intravenous and retrograde pyelography and CT in diagnosis and planning treatment. We also describe the potential of fluid-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging techniques as a radiation-free alternative to the use of more conventional modalities, such as intravenous urography and retrograde pyelography, in delineating the anatomy of calyceal diverticula before surgical and radiological intervention especially in young patients and pregnant women.
An 18 year old girl presented with acute abdominal pain and a calcified opacity in the pelvis. She proved to have a Meckel's diverticulum which had a secondary diverticulum at its apex, containing a stone. Meckel's stones are uncommon and diverticula of a Meckel's diverticulum exceedingly rare. This is only the second recorded case of such a diverticulum containing a stone, and the first to describe a calcified stone in this location.
The most appropriate management of patients with lower-pole calyceal (LC) stones remains controversial. In this review we discuss the role of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the management of LC stones 1–2 cm in maximum dimension.
Materials and Methods:
A detailed literature review was performed to summarize the recent technical developments and controversies in PCNL. The results of PCNL for 1-2 cm LC calculi were reviewed.
PCNL is increasingly employed as a primary modality in the treatment of LC calculi. It has a high success rate and acceptably low percentage of major complications in experienced hands. Supine position is found to be as safe and effective as prone position. Urologist-acquired access is associated with fewer access-related complications and better stone-free rates. Ultrasound is increasingly employed as an imaging modality for obtaining access. There have been increasing reports of tubeless PCNL in the literature. Most patients undergoing tubeless PCNL do not need hemostatic agents as an adjuvant for hemostasis. Non-contrast computed tomography does not yield statistically valuable increase in the diagnosis of significant residual stones compared with that of plain X-ray and linear tomography. Comprehensive metabolic evaluation and aggressive medical management can control new stone recurrences and growth of residual fragments following PCNL.
PCNL is a highly effective procedure with consistently high stone-free rates when compared with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy or retrograde intrarenal surgery. The results also do not depend on anatomic factors and stone size. It is associated with low morbidity in experienced hands.
Complications; lower calyx; management; percutaneous nephrolithotomy; renal calculi; technique
Diverticular disease of the colon is a common benign condition. The majority of patients with diverticular disease are asymptomatic and are managed non-operatively, however complications such as perforation, bleeding, fistulation and stricture formation can necessitate surgical intervention. A giant colonic diverticulum is defined as a diverticulum larger than 4 cm in diameter. Despite the increasing incidence of colonic diverticular disease, giant colonic diverticula remain a rare clinical entity.
This is the first reported case of laparoscopic-assisted resection of a giant colonic diverticulum. We discuss the symptoms and signs of this rare complication of diverticular disease and suggest investigations and management. Reflecting on this case and those reported in the literature to date, we highlight potential diagnostic difficulties and consider the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal gas-filled cysts.
The presence of a giant colonic diverticulum carries substantial risk of complications. Diagnosis is based on history and examination supported by abdominal X-ray and computed tomography findings. In view of the chronic course of symptoms and potential for complications, elective surgical removal is recommended. Colonic resection is the treatment of choice for this condition and, where possible, should be performed laparoscopically.
With the development of techniques for percutaneous access and equipment to disintegrate calculi, percutaneous nephroscopic surgery is currently used by many urologists and is the procedure of choice for the removal of large renal calculi and the management of diverticula, intrarenal strictures, and urothelial cancer. Although it is more invasive than shock wave lithotripsy and retrograde ureteroscopic surgery, percutaneous nephroscopic surgery has been successfully performed with high efficiency and low morbidity in difficult renal anatomies and patient conditions. These advantages of minimal invasiveness were rapidly perceived and applied to the management of ureteropelvic junction obstruction, calyceal diverticulum, infundibular stenosis, and urothelial cancer. The basic principle of endopyelotomy is a full-thickness incision of the narrow segment followed by prolonged stenting and drainage to allow regeneration of an adequate caliber ureter. The preferred technique for a calyceal diverticulum continues to be debated. Excellent long-term success has been reported with percutaneous, ureteroscopic, and laparoscopic techniques. Each approach is based on the location and size of the diverticulum. So far, percutaneous ablation of the calyceal diverticulum is the most established minimally invasive technique. Infundibular stenosis is an acquired condition usually associated with inflammation or stones. Reported series of percutaneously treated infundibular stenosis are few. In contrast with a calyceal diverticulum, infundibular stenosis is a more difficult entity to treat with only a 50-76% success rate by percutaneous techniques. Currently, percutaneous nephroscopic resection of transitional cell carcinoma in the renal calyx can be applied in indicated cases.
Diverticulum; Hydrocalycosis; Percutaneous nephrostomy; Transitional cell carcinoma; Urinary calculi
Background and Objectives:
Advances in endoscopic techniques have transformed the management of urolithiasis. We sought to evaluate the role of such urological interventions for the treatment of complex biliary calculi.
We conducted a retrospective review of all patients (n=9) undergoing percutaneous holmium laser lithotripsy for complicated biliary calculi over a 4-year period (12/2003 to 12/2007). All previously failed standard techniques include ERCP with sphincterotomy (n=6), PTHC (n=7), or both of these. Access to the biliary system was obtained via an existing percutaneous transhepatic catheter or T-tube tracts. Endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy was performed via a flexible cystoscope or ureteroscope. Stone clearance was confirmed intra- and postoperatively. A percutaneous transhepatic drain was left indwelling for follow-up imaging.
Mean patient age was 65.6 years (range, 38 to 92). Total stone burden ranged from 1.7 cm to 5 cm. All 9 patients had stones located in the CBD, with 2 patients also having additional stones within the hepatic ducts. All 9 patients (100%) were visually stone-free after one endoscopic procedure. No major perioperative complications occurred. Mean length of stay was 2.4 days. At a mean radiological follow-up of 5.4 months (range, 0.5 to 21), no stone recurrence was noted.
Percutaneous endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy is a minimally invasive alternative to open salvage surgery for complex biliary calculi refractory to standard approaches. This treatment is both safe and efficacious. Success depends on a multidisciplinary approach.
Biliary calculi; Holmium laser; Endoscopic; Lithotripsy
Periampullary duodenal diverticula are not uncommon and are usually asymptomatic although complications may occasionally occur. Here, we report the case of a 72-year-old woman who presented with painless obstructive jaundice. Laboratory tests showed abnormally elevated serum concentrations of total and direct bilirubin, of alkaline phosphatase, of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases. Serum concentrations of the tumor markers carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen were normal. Abdominal ultrasonography showed dilatation of the common bile duct (CBD), but no gallstones were found either in the gallbladder or in the CBD. The gallbladder wall was normal. Computed tomography failed to detect the cause of CBD obstruction. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a periampullary diverticulum measuring 2 cm in diameter and compressing the CBD. The pancreatic duct was normal. Hypotonic duodenography demonstrated a periampullary diverticulum with a filling defect corresponding to the papilla. CBD compression by the diverticulum was considered as the cause of jaundice. The patient was successfully treated by surgical excision of the diverticulum. In conclusion, the presence of a periampullary diverticulum should be considered in elderly patients presenting with obstructive jaundice in the absence of CBD gallstones or of a tumor mass. Non-interventional imaging studies should be preferred for diagnosis of this condition, and surgical or endoscopic interventions should be used judiciously for the effective and safe treatment of these patients.
Ampulla of Vater; Diverticulum; Duodenum; Complications; Jaundice; Periampullary
Recently there has been an increasing interest in the application of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for managing renal calculi. In this review we discuss its application for the management of lower calyceal (LC) stones less than 10 mm in maximum dimension.
Materials and Methods:
Literature was reviewed to summarize the technical development in flexible ureterorenoscopy and its accessories. Further, the indications, outcome and limitations of RIRS for LC calculi < 1 cm were reviewed.
Use of access sheath and displacement of LC stone to a more favorable location is increasingly employed during RIRS. Patients who are anticoagulated or obese; those with adverse stone composition and those with concomitant ureteral calculi are ideally suited for RIRS. It is used as a salvage therapy for shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) refractory calculi but with a lower success rate (46-62%). It is also increasingly being used as a primary modality for treating LC calculi, with a stone-free rate ranging from 50-90.9%. However, the criteria for defining stone-free status are not uniform in the literature. The impact of intrarenal anatomy on stone-free rates after RIRS is unclear; however, unfavorable lower calyceal anatomy may hamper the efficacy of the procedure. The durability of flexible ureteroscopes remains an important issue.
RIRS continues to undergo significant advancements and is emerging as a first-line procedure for challenging stone cases. The treatment of choice for LC calculi < 1 cm depends on patient's preference and the individual surgeon's preference and level of expertise.
Flexible ureteroscopy; holmium laser lithotripsy; lower calyx; management; renal calculi; retrograde intrarenal surgery
Urothelial carcinoma may occur anywhere in the urinary tract including the pendulous urethra. To prevent urethral stricture after resection and monopolor fulguration we describe the use of the holmium laser to fulgurate recurrent pTa UC from the urethra. The surgical approach was staged and provided excellent long term results for management of superficial UC.
Holmium laser; urethra; urothelial cancer
Urolithiasis is a very common problem, especially in industrialized societies. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and transureteral lithotripsy are effective less invasive treatments of renal and ureteral stones. Open stone surgery is used less commonly due to its invasiveness and availability of above mentioned techniques. We introduce a case, that due to heavy and complex stone burden and increased chance of failure of percutaneous nephrolithotomy, Open stone surgery is performed for stone removal.
The patient is a 55-years-old Iranian patient that referred to urology department due to a large left Staghorn kidney. After full evaluation and due to extensive spread of stone horns to the even peripheral calyces, open stone surgery performed successfully, that postoperative dynamic renal studies revealed, near normal functional left kidney.
In spite of wonderful advances in endourologic stone surgery, open stone surgery still has its role, but it must be done in experienced centers with good surgical expertise to retain good and acceptable functional kidney, postoperatively.
A systematic review of the 2.1 mu holmium-YAG laser for gall stone lithotripsy was undertaken. This infrared laser, which can be used endoscopically and percutaneously, has safety advantages over other lasers and has potential as a general purpose vascular and surgical tool. Twenty nine gall stones (mean mass 1.3 g) were fragmented in vitro using pulse energies of 114 to 159 mJ/pulse at 5 Hz with a 0.6 mm fibre, while being held in an endoscopy basket. All stones were successfully fragmented, requiring an average of 566 pulses with a 5 Hz pulse repetition frequency. The number of pulses required increased with gall stone size and mass (p < 0.01), and decreased with both pulse energy (p < 0.01) and operator experience (p < 0.05). The biochemical content of the stone did not significantly affect the number of pulses needed. The potential hazard of the laser to the biliary endothelium was investigated. At the pulse energies used, five pulses at close contact penetrated into the serosa of fresh gall bladder wall. No damage was seen when two pulses were fired. This laser shows considerable promise in gall stone lithotripsy. Until further safety data are available, however, its use with endoscopic vision is advised.
To assess the feasibility of retrograde ureteroscopic intrarenal surgery (RIRS) as a viable alternate to percutaneous nephrostolithotripsy (PCNL) in treating patients with renal and upper ureteric calculus of 1.6 cm to 3.5 cm stone burden.
Materials and Methods:
From October 2007 to November 2008, a total of 30 cases of upper ureteric and renal stone of 1.6 cm to 3.5 cm (Average size 2.5 cm) stone burden, for which PCNL would be done otherwise, were treated by RIRS with combined flexible and semi rigid ureteroscope and stones fragmented with holmium laser. The patients were discharged after 24 hours of the procedure and allowed to resume normal work after two days. X ray KUB for radio opaque stones and ultrasound for all the cases were done after three weeks and if any residual fragments of any size were present the patient was taken up for re-look flexible ureteroscopy under anesthesia. Stent and residual fragments were removed. If there was no residue the stent was removed under local anesthesia.
Complete clearance was considered if there were no fragments on USG screening after three weeks. Twenty six (86.6%) patients out of 30 had complete clearance in the first sitting and 4 (13.3%) patients needed re-look flexible ureteroscopy. The stone free rate in RIRS is 86.6% in the first sitting and 100% at second sitting.
RIRS is superior in terms of less complication, less morbidity and good stone free rate and has an advantage of one day of hospital stay and resuming duties after two days. RIRS is the best option for managing extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy failed and post PCNL residual calculus. RIRS is definitely a viable alternate for PCNL for upper tract stones up to 3.5 cm.
Kidney stone treatment; laser ureteroscopy; RIRS
Duodenal diverticula are a relatively common condition. They are asymptomatic, unless they become complicated, with perforation being the rarest but most severe complication. Surgical treatment is the most frequently performed approach. We report the case of a patient with a perforated duodenal diverticulum, which was diagnosed early and treated conservatively with antibiotics and percutaneous drainage of secondary retroperitoneal abscesses. We suggest this method could be an acceptable option for the management of similar cases, provided that the patient is in good general condition and without septic signs.
Duodenal diverticula; Perforation; Conservative management
Gastric diverticula are the least common diverticula of the gastrointestinal tract. The two main categories identified are congenital and acquired ones. Diverticula of the antrum, prepyloric or pyloric, are extremely rare and usually asymptomatic. We report a diverticulum of the prepyloric region in a patient with a background of peptic ulcer disease and antiplatelet treatment who became symptomatic and was treated successfully with proton pump inhibitors.
Gastric diverticulum; Prepyloric region; Proton pump inhibitors
Diverticular disease of the colon may be responsible for abdominal symptoms requiring colonoscopy, which may reveal the presence of concomitant polyps. A polyp found during colonoscopy in patients with colonic diverticular disease may be removed by endoscopic polypectomy with electrosurgical snare, a procedure associated with an incidence of perforation of less than 0.05%. The risk of such a complication may be higher in the event of an inverted colonic diverticulum, which may be misinterpreted as a polypoid lesion at colonoscopy. To date, fewer than 20 cases of inverted colonic diverticula, diagnosed at colonoscopy or following air contrast barium enema, have been reported in the literature. The present report describes a 68-year-old woman who underwent a screening colonoscopy, which revealed a voluminous pedunculated polyp that was recognized to be an inverted giant colonic diverticulum before endoscopic polypectomy.
Colonic diverticulum; Colonic polyp; Colonoscopy; Polypectomy
Jejunoileal diverticulae, also referred to as non-Meckelian diverticulae, are very uncommon. These diverticulae are considered to be acquired pulsion diverticulae and they mostly occur in older people. Their prevalence increases with age. About 80% of these diverticulae occur in jejunum and are usually multiple. Patients with jejunoileal diverticulae present with nonspecific symptoms. The clinical picture of a complicated jejunoileal diverticulae can be confused with other intra-abdominal acute conditions such as appendicitis, cholecystitis, perforated ulcer, etc. Nonmechanical or pseudoobstruction is related to the dyskinesia associated with this condition. The diagnosis is made by a small bowel contrast study, enteroclysis, endoscopy or computed tomography. A surgical approach is the best form of treatment for complicated jejunoileal diverticulae. Laparoscopy is very useful in diagnosing and treating this condition. The current report is about a patient who presented with recurrent subacute intestinal obstruction and was managed by laparoscopy.
Diagnostic laparoscopy; diverticulum; resection anastomosis
In the past several decades there has been a remarkable development of small-caliber, flexible ureteroscopes and various ancillary instruments for stone manipulation and retrieval. Percutaneous antegrade ureteroscopy can be substituted in select cases for retrograde ureteroscopy. We report a case of a 60-year-old man with severe ankylosis in both hip joints who was diagnosed with bilateral ureteral stones. The patient underwent antegrade flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy. This case illustrates the role of antegrade flexible ureteroscopy combined with the holmium:YAG laser as a minimally invasive, safe, and effective technique for the management of stones in a patient who cannot undergo a retrograde approach.
Lasers; Ureteroscopy; Urinary calculi
Jejunal diverticulosis is an uncommon disease and usually asymptomatic. It can be complicated not only by diverticulitis, but by hemorrhage, perforation, intussusception, volvulus, malabsorption and even small bowel obstruction due to enteroliths formed and expelled from these diverticula.
We describe a case of an occult bleeding jejunal diverticulum, casually discovered in a patient that was taken to surgery for a Dieulafoy’s lesion after unsuccessful endoscopic treatment. We performed a gastric resection together with an ileocecal resection.
Macroscopic and microscopic examinations confirmed the gastric Dieulafoy’s lesion and demonstrated the presence of another source of occult bleeding in asymptomatic jejunal diverticulum.
The current case emphasizes that some gastrointestinal bleeding lesions, although rare, can be multiple and result in potentially life-threatening bleeding. The clinician must be mindful to the possibility of multisite lesions and to the correlation between results of the investigations and clinical condition of the bleeding patient.
In recent years, the surgical treatment of kidney stone disease has undergone tremendous advances, many of which were possible only as a result of improvements in surgical technology. Rigid intracorporeal lithotrites, the mainstay of percutaneous nephrolithotomy, are now available as combination ultrasonic and ballistic devices. These combination devices have been reported to clear a stone burden with much greater efficiency than devices that operate by either ultrasonic or ballistic energy alone. The laser is the most commonly used flexible lithotrite; advances in laser lithotripsy have led to improvements in the currently utilized Holmium laser platform, as well as the development of novel laser platforms such as Thulium and Erbium devices. Our understanding of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL)has been improved over recent years as a consequence of basic science investigations. It is now recognized that there are certain maneuvers with SWL that the treating physician can do that will increase the likelihood of a successful outcome while minimizing the likelihood of adverse treatment-related events.
Shockwave lithotripsy; Lithotrite; Laser; Holmium; Thulium; Erbium
Background and Objectives:
The holmium laser has a short absorption depth in tissue and possesses excellent properties both in ablation and hemostasis. We have performed endoscopic incision for ureteral stricture using the holmium laser through a small-caliber ureteroscope.
This method was used on five patients and seven ureters. The etiology of the stricture was stone scar in two patients, ureteroenteroanastomosis of Indiana urinary pouch in two, and primary in one. We used an 8F semi-rigid or 6.9F flexible ureteroscope. No prior procedures, such as balloon dilation, were necessary in any of the cases. The stricture was incised with the holmium laser using a 365-μm fiber through the working channel of the ureteroscope. The holmium laser operated at a wavelength of 2100 nm, with an output of 1.0J/pulse at a rate of 10 Hz. After completion of the incision, a 12F Double-J catheter was left in for six weeks.
The mean operative time was 89 minutes. The stricture resolved completely in all cases at an average follow-up of 8.6 months.
The holmium laser incision for ureteral stricture using a small-caliber ureteroscope is an easy-to-perform, safe and effective procedure.
Ureteral stricture; Holmium laser; Small-caliber ureteroscope
Of two infants with congenital cardiac diverticula one had a defect consisting of a submitral valvular diverticulum rather than the expected aneurysm. It was clearly shown by echocardiography as well as angiography and was associated with moderate mitral incompetence and a poorly functioning left ventricular wall. The second infant had an isolated apical left ventricular diverticulum with subnormal left ventricular function and severe mitral incompetence. Because of intractable congestive heart failure this infant underwent successful replacement of a dysplastic fibrotic mitral valve which on histological examination had myxomatous features. The association between congenital mitral disease and congenital apical diverticular may be related to race and sex.
Giant colonic diverticulum is an extremely rare condition in colonic diverticular disease. More than 90% of giant colonic diverticula are found in the sigmoid colon. Inflammatory and pseudodiverticula are the most frequent. Only one case of a true diverticulum of the transverse colon has been reported in the literature.
We report a case of a 22-year-old woman presenting with constipation and meteorism from childhood. A plain abdominal X-ray showed a round radiolucent air-filled cyst. Barium enema revealed a single, large diverticulum of the transverse colon. An extended right hemicolectomy with primary end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, and she was discharged in 1 week without any complications. Histopathology showed a true diverticulum containing all layers of the colon.
Giant colonic diverticulum; Transverse colon; Congenital duplication
Background: Pharyngo-esophageal diverticula are most frequently described in elderly patients, having symptoms such as dysphagia, regurgitation, chronic cough, aspiration and weight loss. The etiology remains controversial, although most of the theories are linked to structural or functional abnormalities of the crico-pharyngeal muscle. With the therapeutic attitude varying from conservative to surgical (with associated morbidity and mortality), the importance of knowing the etiopathology and clinical implications of the disease for establishing the management of the case is mandatory. The aim of the study is the reevaluation of the methods and therapeutic principles in pharyngo-esophageal diverticular disease, starting from the etio pathogeny.
Materials and Methods: Our study group is made up of 11 patients with surgical indication for Zenker diverticulum, operated between 2001 and 2011.
Results: During that period, more patients were diagnosed with this pathology, but the surgical indication was carefully established, in conformity with the actual practice guides, which involve the evaluation of the clinical manifestations determined by the diverticulum, as well as the identification and interception of the pathological mechanisms by the therapeutic gesture.
Conclusion: Although it has a “benign” pathology, the esophageal diverticulum requires complex surgical procedure that implies significant morbidity.
UES= upper esophageal sphincter; NPO= nothing by mouth
Zenker; esophageal diverticulum; diverticulectomy; diverticulopexy