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1.  Investigating the role of rare coding variability in Mendelian dementia genes (APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, GRN, MAPT, and PRNP) in late-onset Alzheimer's disease 
Neurobiology of Aging  2014;35(12):2881.e1-2881.e6.
The overlapping clinical and neuropathologic features between late-onset apparently sporadic Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), and other neurodegenerative dementias (frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) raise the question of whether shared genetic risk factors may explain the similar phenotype among these disparate disorders. To investigate this intriguing hypothesis, we analyzed rare coding variability in 6 Mendelian dementia genes (APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, GRN, MAPT, and PRNP), in 141 LOAD patients and 179 elderly controls, neuropathologically proven, from the UK. In our cohort, 14 LOAD cases (10%) and 11 controls (6%) carry at least 1 rare variant in the genes studied. We report a novel variant in PSEN1 (p.I168T) and a rare variant in PSEN2 (p.A237V), absent in controls and both likely pathogenic. Our findings support previous studies, suggesting that (1) rare coding variability in PSEN1 and PSEN2 may influence the susceptibility for LOAD and (2) GRN, MAPT, and PRNP are not major contributors to LOAD. Thus, genetic screening is pivotal for the clinical differential diagnosis of these neurodegenerative dementias.
Highlights
•We have used exome sequencing to investigate rare coding variability in Mendelian dementia genes (APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, GRN, MAPT, and PRNP) in a cohort composed of 141 late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease cases and 179 elderly controls, autopsy proven from the UK.•We report a novel mutation in PSEN1 (p.I168T) and a rare variant in PSEN2 (p.A237V), both likely pathogenic.•We conclude that PSEN1 and PSEN2 harbor susceptibility factors for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. By contrast, GRN, MAPT, and PRNP do not play a major role for the development of late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease.•Genetic screening is therefore pivotal for a clinical differential diagnosis of sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative dementias (frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease).
doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.06.002
PMCID: PMC4236585  PMID: 25104557
Alzheimer's disease; Neurodegenerative dementia; APP; PSEN1; PSEN2; MAPT; GRN; PRNP; Exome sequencing
2.  Pooled-DNA sequencing identifies novel causative variants in PSEN1, GRN and MAPT in a clinical early-onset and familial Alzheimer's disease Ibero-American cohort 
Introduction
Some familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are caused by rare and highly-penetrant mutations in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2. Mutations in GRN and MAPT, two genes associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), have been found in clinically diagnosed AD cases. Due to the dramatic developments in next-generation sequencing (NGS), high-throughput sequencing of targeted genomic regions of the human genome in many individuals in a single run is now cheap and feasible. Recent findings favor the rare variant-common disease hypothesis by which the combination effects of rare variants could explain a large proportion of the heritability. We utilized NGS to identify rare and pathogenic variants in APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, GRN, and MAPT in an Ibero-American cohort.
Methods
We performed pooled-DNA sequencing of each exon and flanking sequences in APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, MAPT and GRN in 167 clinical and 5 autopsy-confirmed AD cases (15 familial early-onset, 136 sporadic early-onset and 16 familial late-onset) from Spain and Uruguay using NGS. Follow-up genotyping was used to validate variants. After genotyping additional controls, we performed segregation and functional analyses to determine the pathogenicity of validated variants.
Results
We identified a novel G to T transition (g.38816G>T) in exon 6 of PSEN1 in a sporadic early-onset AD case, resulting in a previously described pathogenic p.L173F mutation. A pathogenic p.L392V mutation in exon 11 was found in one familial early-onset AD case. We also identified a novel CC insertion (g.10974_10975insCC) in exon 8 of GRN, which introduced a premature stop codon, resulting in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. This GRN mutation was associated with lower GRN plasma levels, as previously reported for other GRN pathogenic mutations. We found two variants in MAPT (p.A152T, p.S318L) present only in three AD cases but not controls, suggesting that these variants could be risk factors for the disease.
Conclusions
We found pathogenic mutations in PSEN1, GRN and MAPT in 2.33% of the screened cases. This study suggests that pathogenic mutations or risk variants in MAPT and in GRN are as frequent in clinical AD cases as mutations in APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2, highlighting that pleiotropy of MAPT or GRN mutations can influence both FTD and AD phenotypic traits.
doi:10.1186/alzrt137
PMCID: PMC3506948  PMID: 22906081
3.  The PSEN1, p.E318G Variant Increases the Risk of Alzheimer's Disease in APOE-ε4 Carriers 
PLoS Genetics  2013;9(8):e1003685.
The primary constituents of plaques (Aβ42/Aβ40) and neurofibrillary tangles (tau and phosphorylated forms of tau [ptau]) are the current leading diagnostic and prognostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for AD. In this study, we performed deep sequencing of APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, GRN, APOE and MAPT genes in individuals with extreme CSF Aβ42, tau, or ptau levels. One known pathogenic mutation (PSEN1 p.A426P), four high-risk variants for AD (APOE p.L46P, MAPT p.A152T, PSEN2 p.R62H and p.R71W) and nine novel variants were identified. Surprisingly, a coding variant in PSEN1, p.E318G (rs17125721-G) exhibited a significant association with high CSF tau (p = 9.2×10−4) and ptau (p = 1.8×10−3) levels. The association of the p.E318G variant with Aβ deposition was observed in APOE-ε4 allele carriers. Furthermore, we found that in a large case-control series (n = 5,161) individuals who are APOE-ε4 carriers and carry the p.E318G variant are at a risk of developing AD (OR = 10.7, 95% CI = 4.7–24.6) that is similar to APOE-ε4 homozygous (OR = 9.9, 95% CI = 7.2.9–13.6), and double the risk for APOE-ε4 carriers that do not carry p.E318G (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 3.4–4.4). The p.E318G variant is present in 5.3% (n = 30) of the families from a large clinical series of LOAD families (n = 565) and exhibited a higher frequency in familial LOAD (MAF = 2.5%) than in sporadic LOAD (MAF = 1.6%) (p = 0.02). Additionally, we found that in the presence of at least one APOE-ε4 allele, p.E318G is associated with more Aβ plaques and faster cognitive decline. We demonstrate that the effect of PSEN1, p.E318G on AD susceptibility is largely dependent on an interaction with APOE-ε4 and mediated by an increased burden of Aβ deposition.
Author Summary
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease affecting more than 5.3 million people in the US. AD-causing mutations have been identified in APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 genes. Heterozygous carriers of APOE-ε4 allele exhibit a 3-fold increased risk for developing AD, while homozygous carriers show a 10-fold greater risk than non-carriers. Here, we sequenced individuals with extreme levels of well-established AD cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in order to identify variants in APOE, APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, GRN and MAPT genes associated with AD risk. This approach allowed us to identify known pathogenic variants, additional AD risk genetic factors and identify a low frequency variant in PSEN1, p.E318G (rs17125721-G) that increases risk for AD in a gene-gene interaction with APOE. These findings were replicated in three large (>4,000 individuals) and independent datasets. This finding is particularly important because we demonstrated that a currently considered non-pathogenic variant is associated with higher levels of neuronal degeneration, and with Aβ deposition, more Aβ plaques and faster cognitive decline in an APOE-ε4-dependent fashion. APOE-ε4 heterozygous individuals who carry this variant are at similar AD risk as APOE-ε4 homozygous individuals.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003685
PMCID: PMC3750021  PMID: 23990795
4.  Rare Variants in APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 Increase Risk for AD in Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Families 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(2):e31039.
Pathogenic mutations in APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, MAPT and GRN have previously been linked to familial early onset forms of dementia. Mutation screening in these genes has been performed in either very small series or in single families with late onset AD (LOAD). Similarly, studies in single families have reported mutations in MAPT and GRN associated with clinical AD but no systematic screen of a large dataset has been performed to determine how frequently this occurs. We report sequence data for 439 probands from late-onset AD families with a history of four or more affected individuals. Sixty sequenced individuals (13.7%) carried a novel or pathogenic mutation. Eight pathogenic variants, (one each in APP and MAPT, two in PSEN1 and four in GRN) three of which are novel, were found in 14 samples. Thirteen additional variants, present in 23 families, did not segregate with disease, but the frequency of these variants is higher in AD cases than controls, indicating that these variants may also modify risk for disease. The frequency of rare variants in these genes in this series is significantly higher than in the 1,000 genome project (p = 5.09×10−5; OR = 2.21; 95%CI = 1.49–3.28) or an unselected population of 12,481 samples (p = 6.82×10−5; OR = 2.19; 95%CI = 1.347–3.26). Rare coding variants in APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2, increase risk for or cause late onset AD. The presence of variants in these genes in LOAD and early-onset AD demonstrates that factors other than the mutation can impact the age at onset and penetrance of at least some variants associated with AD. MAPT and GRN mutations can be found in clinical series of AD most likely due to misdiagnosis. This study clearly demonstrates that rare variants in these genes could explain an important proportion of genetic heritability of AD, which is not detected by GWAS.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031039
PMCID: PMC3270040  PMID: 22312439
5.  The Genetics of Alzheimer Disease 
Family history is the second strongest risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD) following advanced age. Twin and family studies indicate that genetic factors are estimated to play a role in at least 80% of AD cases. The inheritance of AD exhibits a dichotomous pattern. On one hand, rare mutations in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 virtually guarantee early-onset (<60 years) familial AD, which represents ∼5% of AD. On the other hand, common gene polymorphisms, such as the ε4 and ε2 variants of the APOE gene, can influence susceptibility for ∼50% of the common late-onset AD. These four genes account for 30%–50% of the inheritability of AD. Genome-wide association studies have recently led to the identification of 11 additional AD candidate genes. This paper reviews the past, present, and future attempts to elucidate the complex and heterogeneous genetic underpinnings of AD.
After advanced age, family history is the second greatest risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Well-described mutations in APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, and APOE account for only 30%–50% of the heritability of AD.
doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a006296
PMCID: PMC3475404  PMID: 23028126
6.  Disease-related mutations among Caribbean Hispanics with familial dementia 
Pathogenic mutations in the three known genes – the amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), presenilin 2 (PSEN2) – are known to cause familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) and tend to be associated with early-onset AD. However, the frequency and risk associated with these mutations vary widely. In addition, mutations in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) genes – the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), granulin (GRN) – have also been found to be associated with clinical AD. Here, we conducted targeted resequencing of the exons in genes encoding APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, GRN, and MAPT in 183 individuals from families with four or more affected relatives, presumed to be AD, and living in the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. We then performed linkage and family-based association analyses in carrier families, and genotyped 498 similarly aged unrelated controls from the same ethnic background. Twelve potentially pathogenic mutations were found to be associated with disease in 53 individuals in the five genes. The most frequently observed mutation was the p.Gly206Ala variant in PSEN1 present in 30 (57%) of those sequenced. In the combined linkage and association analyses several rare variants were associated with dementia. In Caribbean Hispanics with familial AD, potentially pathogenic variants were present in 29.2%, four were novel mutations, while eight had been previously observed. In addition, some family members carried variants in the GRN and MAPT genes which are associated with FTLD.
doi:10.1002/mgg3.85
PMCID: PMC4190878  PMID: 25333068
Alzheimer's disease; Caribbean Hispanics; familial dementia; mutations; next-generation sequencing
7.  Exome sequencing identifies 2 novel presenilin 1 mutations (p.L166V and p.S230R) in British early-onset Alzheimer's disease☆ 
Neurobiology of Aging  2014;35(10):2422.e13-2422.e16.
Early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) represents 1%–2% of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases, and it is generally characterized by a positive family history and a rapidly progressive symptomatology. Rare coding and fully penetrant variants in amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) are the only causative mutations reported for autosomal dominant AD. Thus, in this study we used exome sequencing data to rapidly screen rare coding variability in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2, in a British cohort composed of 47 unrelated EOAD cases and 179 elderly controls, neuropathologically proven. We report 2 novel and likely pathogenic variants in PSEN1 (p.L166V and p.S230R). A comprehensive catalog of rare pathogenic variants in the AD Mendelian genes is pivotal for a premortem diagnosis of autosomal dominant EOAD and for the differential diagnosis with other early onset dementias such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD).
doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.04.026
PMCID: PMC4099516  PMID: 24880964
Early-onset Alzheimer's disease; APP; PSEN1; PSEN2; British cohort
8.  Evidence that the beta-catenin nuclear translocation assay allows for measuring presenilin 1 dysfunction. 
Molecular Medicine  2000;6(7):570-580.
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the presenilin (PSEN) genes are responsible for the majority of early-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) cases. PSEN1 is a component of a high molecular weight, endoplasmic reticulum, membrane-bound protein complex, including beta-catenin. Pathogenic PSEN1 mutations were demonstrated to have an effect on beta-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta(GSK-3beta), two members of the wingless Wnt pathway. The nuclear translocation and the stability of beta-catenin, and the interaction between GSK3beta and PSEN1 were influenced. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stably transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells overexpressing wild-type (wt) and mutant (mt) PSEN1, treated with and without LiCl, were used to isolate cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions. By Western blot analysis, endogenous beta-catenin levels were examined. By analyzing cytosolic fractions of PSEN1, transfected and nontransfected HEK 293 cells, and total brain extracts of AD patients and controls, we evaluated the effect of PSEN1 overexpression on beta-catenin stability. Finally, we analyzed the effect of pathogenic PSEN1 mutations on the interaction between PSEN1 and GSK3beta by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. RESULTS: We report reduced nuclear translocation of beta-catenin in cells stably expressing I143T, G384A, and T113-114ins PSEN1. The G384A PSEN1 mutation showed a similar pronounced effect on nuclear translocation of beta-catenin, as reported for processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into amyloid beta(Abeta). Overexpression of PSEN1 and the presence of pathogenic mutations in PSEN1 had no significant effect on the stability of beta-catenin. Nonspecific binding of overexpressed PSEN1 to endogenous GSK3beta was observed when GSK3beta was immunoprecipitated. Immunoprecipitation of PSEN1 in cells overexpressing PSEN1 and in native cells, however, did not result in co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous GSK3beta. CONCLUSION: Our results further establish the nuclear translocation assay of beta-catenin as an adequate alternative for traditional Abeta measurement to evaluate the effect of PSEN1 mutations on biochemical processes. We detected no significant effect of overexpressed wt or mt PSEN1 on the stability of beta-catenin. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation between PSEN1 and GSK3beta was not observed in our experimental setup.
PMCID: PMC1949967  PMID: 10997338
9.  Characterization and Molecular Profiling of PSEN1 Familial Alzheimer's Disease iPSC-Derived Neural Progenitors 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e84547.
Presenilin 1 (PSEN1) encodes the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase, and PSEN1 mutations are the most common cause of early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). In order to elucidate pathways downstream of PSEN1, we characterized neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from FAD mutant PSEN1 subjects. Thus, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from affected and unaffected individuals from two families carrying PSEN1 mutations. PSEN1 mutant fibroblasts, and NPCs produced greater ratios of Aβ42 to Aβ40 relative to their control counterparts, with the elevated ratio even more apparent in PSEN1 NPCs than in fibroblasts. Molecular profiling identified 14 genes differentially-regulated in PSEN1 NPCs relative to control NPCs. Five of these targets showed differential expression in late onset AD/Intermediate AD pathology brains. Therefore, in our PSEN1 iPSC model, we have reconstituted an essential feature in the molecular pathogenesis of FAD, increased generation of Aβ42/40, and have characterized novel expression changes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084547
PMCID: PMC3885572  PMID: 24416243
10.  Molecular consequences of amyloid precursor protein and presenilin mutations causing autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease 
Mutations in both the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the presenilin (PSEN) genes cause familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) with autosomal dominant inheritance and early onset of disease. The clinical course and neuropathology of FAD and sporadic Alzheimer's disease are highly similar, and patients with FAD constitute a unique population in which to conduct treatment and, in particular, prevention trials with novel pharmaceutical entities. It is critical, therefore, to exactly defi ne the molecular consequences of APP and PSEN FAD mutations. Both APP and PSEN mutations drive amyloidosis in FAD patients through changes in the brain metabolism of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides that promote the formation of pathogenic aggregates. APP mutations do not seem to impair the physiological functions of APP. In contrast, it has been proposed that PSEN mutations compromise γ-secretase-dependent and -independent functions of PSEN. However, PSEN mutations have mostly been studied in model systems that do not accurately refl ect the genetic background in FAD patients. In this review, we discuss the reported cellular phenotypes of APP and PSEN mutations, the current understanding of their molecular mechanisms, the need to generate faithful models of PSEN mutations, and the potential bias of APP and PSEN mutations on therapeutic strategies that target Aβ.
doi:10.1186/alzrt107
PMCID: PMC3334542  PMID: 22494386
11.  Familial Alzheimer’s Disease Mutations in Presenilin 1 Do Not Alter Levels of the Secreted Amyloid-β Protein Precursor Generated by β-Secretase Cleavage 
Current Alzheimer Research  2010;7(1):21-26.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an insidious and progressive disease with a genetically complex and heterogenous etiology. More than 200 fully penetrant mutations in the amyloid β-protein precursor (APP), presenilin 1 (or PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) have been linked to early-onset familial AD (FAD). 177 PSEN1 FAD mutations have been identified so far and account for more than ~80% of all FAD mutations. All PSEN1 FAD mutations can increase the Aβ42:Aβ40 ratio with seemingly different and incompletely understood mechanisms. A recent study has shown that the 286 amino acid N-terminal fragment of APP (N-APP), a proteolytic product of β-secretase-derived secreted form of APP (sAPPβ), could bind the death receptor, DR6, and lead to neurodegeneration. Here we asked whether PSEN1 FAD mutations lead to neurodegeneration by modulating sAPPβ levels. All four different PSEN1 FAD mutations tested (in three mammalian cell lines) did not alter sAPPβ levels. Therefore PS1 mutations do not appear to contribute to AD pathogenesis via altered production of sAPPβ.
PMCID: PMC3260056  PMID: 20205669
Alzheimer’s disease; FAD mutation; APP; PSEN1; N-APP; sAPPβ
12.  Molecular diagnosis of autosomal dominant early onset Alzheimer's disease: an update 
Journal of Medical Genetics  2005;42(10):793-795.
Background: Autosomal dominant early onset Alzheimer's disease (ADEOAD) is genetically heterogeneous. Mutations of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) genes have been identified.
Objective: To further clarify the respective contribution of these genes to ADEOAD.
Methods: 31 novel families were investigated. They were ascertained using stringent criteria (the occurrence of probable or definite cases of Alzheimer's disease with onset before 60 years of age in three generations). All cases fulfilled the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for probable or definite Alzheimer's disease. The entire coding regions of PSEN1 and PSEN2 genes and exons 16 and 17 of APP gene were sequenced from genomic DNA
Results: PSEN1 mutations, including eight previously unreported mutations, were detected in 24 of the 31 families, and APP mutations were found in five families. In this sample, the mean ages of disease onset in PSEN1 and APP mutation carriers were 41.7 and 51.2 years, respectively.
Conclusions: Combining these data with previously published data, yielding 65 ADEOAD families, 66% of the cases were attributable to PSEN1 mutations and 16% to APP mutations, while 18% remained unexplained.
doi:10.1136/jmg.2005.033456
PMCID: PMC1735922  PMID: 16033913
13.  Subjects harboring presenilin familial Alzheimer’s disease mutations exhibit diverse white matter biochemistry alterations 
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia impacts all facets of higher order cognitive function and is characterized by the presence of distinctive pathological lesions in the gray matter (GM). The profound alterations in GM structure and function have fostered the view that AD impacts are primarily a consequence of GM damage. However, the white matter (WM) represents about 50% of the cerebrum and this area of the brain is substantially atrophied and profoundly abnormal in both sporadic AD (SAD) and familial AD (FAD). We examined the WM biochemistry by ELISA and Western blot analyses of key proteins in 10 FAD cases harboring mutations in the presenilin genes PSEN1 and PSEN2 as well as in 4 non-demented control (NDC) individuals and 4 subjects with SAD. The molecules examined were direct substrates of PSEN1 such as Notch-1 and amyloid precursor protein (APP). In addition, apolipoproteins, axonal transport molecules, cytoskeletal and structural proteins, neurotrophic factors and synaptic proteins were examined. PSEN-FAD subjects had, on average, higher amounts of WM amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides compared to SAD, which may play a role in the devastating dysfunction of the brain. However, the PSEN-FAD mutations we examined did not produce uniform increases in the relative proportions of Aβ42 and exhibited substantial variability in total Aβ levels. These observations suggest that neurodegeneration and dementia do not depend solely on enhanced Aβ42 levels. Our data revealed additional complexities in PSEN-FAD individuals. Some direct substrates of γ-secretase, such as Notch, N-cadherin, Erb-B4 and APP, deviated substantially from the NDC group baseline for some, but not all, mutation types. Proteins that were not direct γ-secretase substrates, but play key structural and functional roles in the WM, likewise exhibited varied concentrations in the distinct PSEN mutation backgrounds. Detailing the diverse biochemical pathology spectrum of PSEN mutations may offer valuable insights into dementia progression and the design of effective therapeutic interventions for both SAD and FAD.
PMCID: PMC3783832  PMID: 24093083
Sporadic Alzheimer’s disease; familial Alzheimer’s disease; presenilin; γ-secretase; white matter; gray matter; amyloid precursor protein; amyloid-beta
14.  Novel Presenilin 1 Variant (P117A) Causing Alzheimer’s Disease in the Fourth Decade of Life 
Neuroscience letters  2008;438(2):257-259.
Over 160 rare genetic variants in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) are known to cause Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this study we screened a family with early-onset AD for mutations in PSEN1 using direct DNA sequencing. We identified a novel PSEN1 genetic variant which results in the substitution of a Proline with an Alanine at codon 117 (P117A). The P117A variant was present in all demented individuals and fifty percent of at risk individuals. This variant occurs at a site where three other disease-causing variants have been previously observed. In vitro functional studies demonstrate that the P117A variant results in an altered Aβ42/total Aβ ratio consistent with an AD causing mutation. The P117A variant is a novel mutation in PSEN1, which causes early-onset AD in an autosomal dominant manner.
doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2008.04.029
PMCID: PMC2838423  PMID: 18479822
Alzheimer’s disease; presenilin 1; mutation; amyloid
15.  The Role of Variation at AβPP, PSEN1, PSEN2, and MAPT in Late Onset Alzheimer’s Disease 
Gerrish, Amy | Russo, Giancarlo | Richards, Alexander | Moskvina, Valentina | Ivanov, Dobril | Harold, Denise | Sims, Rebecca | Abraham, Richard | Hollingworth, Paul | Chapman, Jade | Hamshere, Marian | Pahwa, Jaspreet Singh | Dowzell, Kimberley | Williams, Amy | Jones, Nicola | Thomas, Charlene | Stretton, Alexandra | Morgan, Angharad R. | Lovestone, Simon | Powell, John | Proitsi, Petroula | Lupton, Michelle K. | Brayne, Carol | Rubinsztein, David C. | Gill, Michael | Lawlor, Brian | Lynch, Aoibhinn | Morgan, Kevin | Brown, Kristelle S. | Passmore, Peter A. | Craig, David | McGuinness, Bernadette | Todd, Stephen | Johnston, Janet A. | Holmes, Clive | Mann, David | Smith, A. David | Love, Seth | Kehoe, Patrick G. | Hardy, John | Mead, Simon | Fox, Nick | Rossor, Martin | Collinge, John | Maier, Wolfgang | Jessen, Frank | Kölsch, Heike | Heun, Reinhard | Schürmann, Britta | van den Bussche, Hendrik | Heuser, Isabella | Kornhuber, Johannes | Wiltfang, Jens | Dichgans, Martin | Frölich, Lutz | Hampel, Harald | Hüll, Michael | Rujescu, Dan | Goate, Alison M. | Kauwe, John S. K. | Cruchaga, Carlos | Nowotny, Petra | Morris, John C. | Mayo, Kevin | Livingston, Gill | Bass, Nicholas J. | Gurling, Hugh | McQuillin, Andrew | Gwilliam, Rhian | Deloukas, Panagiotis | Davies, Gail | Harris, Sarah E. | Starr, John M. | Deary, Ian J. | Al-Chalabi, Ammar | Shaw, Christopher E. | Tsolaki, Magda | Singleton, Andrew B. | Guerreiro, Rita | Mühleisen, Thomas W. | Nöthen, Markus M. | Moebus, Susanne | Jöckel, Karl-Heinz | Klopp, Norman | Wichmann, H-Erich | Carrasquillo, Minerva M | Pankratz, V Shane | Younkin, Steven G. | Jones, Lesley | Holmans, Peter A. | O’Donovan, Michael C. | Owen, Michael J. | Williams, Julie
Rare mutations in AβPP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 cause uncommon early onset forms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and common variants in MAPT are associated with risk of other neurodegenerative disorders. We sought to establish whether common genetic variation in these genes confer risk to the common form of AD which occurs later in life (>65 years). We therefore tested single-nucleotide polymorphisms at these loci for association with late-onset AD (LOAD) in a large case-control sample consisting of 3,940 cases and 13,373 controls. Single-marker analysis did not identify any variants that reached genome-wide significance, a result which is supported by other recent genome-wide association studies. However, we did observe a significant association at the MAPT locus using a gene-wide approach (p = 0.009). We also observed suggestive association between AD and the marker rs9468, which defines the H1 haplotype, an extended haplotype that spans the MAPT gene and has previously been implicated in other neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration. In summary common variants at AβPP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 and MAPT are unlikely to make strong contributions to susceptibility for LOAD. However, the gene-wide effect observed at MAPT indicates a possible contribution to disease risk which requires further study.
doi:10.3233/JAD-2011-110824
PMCID: PMC4118466  PMID: 22027014
Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid-β protein precursor; genetics; human; MAPT protein; PSEN1 protein; PSEN2 protein
16.  ENDOPHENOTYPES IN NORMAL BRAIN MORPHOLOGY AND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: A REVIEW 
Neuroscience  2009;164(1):174-190.
Late-onset Alzheimer’s disease is a common complex disorder of old age. Though these types of disorders can be highly heritable, they differ from single-gene (Mendelian) diseases in that their causes are often multifactorial with both genetic and environmental components. Genetic risk factors that have been firmly implicated in the cause are mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1) and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) genes, which are found in large multi-generational families with an autosomal dominant pattern of disease inheritance, the apolipoprotein E (APOE)ε4 allele and the sortilin-related receptor (SORL1) gene. Environmental factors that have been associated with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease include depressive illness, various vascular risk factors, level of education, head trauma and estrogen replacement therapy. This complexity may help explain their high prevalence from an evolutionary perspective, but the etiologic complexity makes identification of disease-related genes much more difficult. The “endophenotype” approach is an alternative method for measuring phenotypic variation that may facilitate the identification of susceptibility genes for complexly inherited traits. The usefulness of endophenotypes in genetic analyses of normal brain morphology and, in particular for Alzheimer’s disease will be reviewed as will the implications of these findings for models of disease causation. Given that the pathways from genotypes to end-stage phenotypes are circuitous at best, identifying endophenotypes more proximal to the effects of genetic variation may expedite the attempts to link genetic variants to disorders.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.04.006
PMCID: PMC2812814  PMID: 19362127
17.  Diffusion Tensor Imaging in PSEN1-Related Spastic Paraparesis Reveals Widespread White Matter Abnormalities 
Objective:
To investigate white matter changes in familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) patients with spastic paraparesis (SP) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).
Background:
Though FAD due to PSEN1 mutations typically recapitulates late onset AD, it can have unusual clinical features including SP. SP is seen with specific PSEN1 mutations and is frequently associated with “cotton wool” amyloid plaques. The pathophysiology underlying SP in FAD is not well understood, though disproportionate degeneration of the corticospinal tracts has been implicated.
Design/Methods:
We compared white matter integrity in two persons with the A431E PSEN1 mutation with early and severe SP to that of 8 symptomatic PSEN1 mutation carriers without SP from DTI images obtained on a 3T Siemens Trio scanner using 64 direction EPI sequence. Fractional Anisotropy (FA) images were generated using FSL Diffusion Toolbox. FA images were then processed using FSL Tract Based Spatial Statistics toolbox to obtain group level voxel-based statistical maps.
Results:
The patients with SP were men, mean age of 48, duration of illness of 5.5 years, and CDR SOB scores of 8.5. The 8 subjects without SP (5 men) had various PSEN1 mutations, mean age of 54 years, illness duration of 4.6 years, and CDR SOB scores of 6.1 (all P-values > .05). Using the false discovery rate to correct for multiple comparisons, significantly lower FA were seen in subjects with SP in widespread areas including in the orbitofrontal region, corpus callosum, bilateral precentral gyri, and the anterior limb of the right internal capsule. The reverse contrast revealed no areas in which persons without SP had lower FA relative to those with SP.
Conclusions:
SP is the most evident clinical manifestation of widespread FA decreases in persons with the A431E PSEN1 mutation, suggesting it may be mediated by a generalized effect of this mutation on white matter.
PMCID: PMC4175937
18.  Familial frontotemporal dementia-associated presenilin-1 c.548G>T mutation causes decreased mRNA expression and reduced presenilin function in knockin mice 
The Journal of Neuroscience  2012;32(15):5085-5096.
Mutations in the presenilin-1 (PSEN1) gene are associated with familial Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Interestingly, neuropathological analysis of a Belgian FTD family carrying a PSEN1 c.548G>T mutation confirmed neurodegeneration in the absence of amyloid plaques. To investigate the impact of the c.548G>T mutation on presenilin-1 (PS1) function in vivo, we introduced this mutation into the genomic Psen1 locus. The resulting c.548G>T knockin (KI) mice are viable but express markedly lower levels of Psen1 mRNA and protein in the brain. This reduction is due to production of aberrantly spliced transcripts lacking either exon 6 or exons 6 and 7 and their subsequent degradation via nonsense-mediated decay (NMD); inhibition of NMD by cycloheximide treatment stabilized these transcripts and restored the level of Psen1 mRNA in KI/KI brains. Interestingly, the reduction of Psen1 mRNA expression and the degradation of aberrant Psen1 splice products occur exclusively in the brain but not in other tissues. Consistent with decreased Psen1 expression, γ-secretase activity was strongly reduced in the cerebral cortex of KI mice, as measured by de novo γ-secretase-mediated cleavage of APP and Notch. Moreover, PS1 expressed from Psen1 cDNA carrying the c.548G>T mutation displayed normal γ-secretase activity in cultured cells, indicating that the corresponding p.183G>V amino acid substitution does not affect γ-secretase activity. Finally, Psen1 c.548G>T KI/KI; Psen2−/− mice exhibited mild spatial memory deficits in the Morris water maze task. Together, our findings demonstrate that the c.548G>T mutation results in a brain-specific loss of presenilin function due to decreased Psen1 mRNA expression.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0317-12.2012
PMCID: PMC3340902  PMID: 22496554
19.  A genome-wide study reveals rare CNVs exclusive to extreme phenotypes of Alzheimer disease 
Studying rare extreme forms of Alzheimer disease (AD) may prove to be a useful strategy in identifying new genes involved in monogenic determinism of AD. Amyloid precursor protein (APP), PSEN1, and PSEN2 mutations account for only 85% of autosomal dominant early-onset AD (ADEOAD) families. We hypothesised that rare copy number variants (CNVs) could be involved in ADEOAD families without mutations in known genes, as well as in rare sporadic young-onset AD cases. Using high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridisation, we assessed the presence of rare CNVs in 21 unrelated ADEOAD cases, having no alteration on known genes, and 12 sporadic AD cases, with an age of onset younger than 55 years. The analysis revealed the presence of 7 singleton CNVs (4 in ADEOAD and 3 in sporadic cases) absent in 1078 controls and 912 late-onset AD cases. Strikingly, 4 out of 7 rearrangements target genes (KLK6, SLC30A3, MEOX2, and FPR2) encoding proteins that are tightly related to amyloid-β peptide metabolism or signalling. Although these variants are individually rare and restricted to particular subgroups of patients, these findings support the causal role, in human pathology, of a set of genes coding for molecules suspected for a long time to modify Aβ metabolism or signalling, and for which animal or cellular models have already been developed.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.225
PMCID: PMC3355247  PMID: 22166940
Alzheimer disease; copy number variations; KLK6; MEOX2; SLC30A3; FPR2
20.  Modeling Alzheimer’s Disease in Mouse without Mutant Protein Overexpression: Cooperative and Independent Effects of Aβ and Tau 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e80706.
Background
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, has two pathological hallmarks: Aβ plaques and aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau). Aβ is a cleavage product of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP). Presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 (PS2) are the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase, which cleaves APP and mediates Aβ production. Genetic mutations in APP, PSEN1 or PSEN2 can lead to early onset of familial AD (FAD). Although mutations in the tau encoding gene MAPT leads to a subtype of frontotemporal dementia and these mutations have been used to model AD tauopathy, no MAPT mutations have been found to be associated with AD.
Results
To model AD pathophysiology in mice without the gross overexpression of mutant transgenes, we created a humanized AD mouse model by crossing the APP and PSEN1 FAD knock-in mice with the htau mice which express wildtype human MAPT genomic DNA on mouse MAPT null background (APP/PS1/htau). The APP/PS1/htau mice displayed mild, age-dependent, Aβ plaques and tau hyperphosphorylation, thus successfully recapitulating the late-onset AD pathological hallmarks. Selected biochemical analyses, including p-tau western blot, γ-secretase activity assay, and Aβ ELISA, were performed to study the interaction between Aβ and p-tau. Subsequent behavioral studies revealed that the APP/PS1/htau mice showed reduced mobility in old ages and exaggerated fear response. Genetic analysis suggested that the fear phenotype is due to a synergic interaction between Aβ and p-tau, and it can be completely abolished by tau deletion.
Conclusion
The APP/PS1/htau model represents a valuable and disease-relevant late-onset pre-clinical AD animal model because it incorporates human AD genetics without mutant protein overexpression. Analysis of the mice revealed both cooperative and independent effects of Aβ and p-tau.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080706
PMCID: PMC3835479  PMID: 24278307
21.  Presenilin-1 regulates induction of hypoxia inducible factor-1α: altered activation by a mutation associated with familial Alzheimer's disease 
Background
Mutations in presenilin-1 (Psen1) cause familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). Both hypoxia and ischemia have been implicated in the pathological cascade that leads to amyloid deposition in AD. Here we investigated whether Psen1 might regulate hypoxic responses by modulating induction of the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α).
Results
In fibroblasts that lack Psen1 induction of HIF-1α was impaired in response to the hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride, as well as was induction by insulin and calcium chelation. Reintroduction of human Psen1 using a lentiviral vector partially rescued the responsiveness of Psen1-/- fibroblasts to cobalt chloride induction. HIF-1α induction did not require Psen1's associated γ-secretase activity. In addition, the failure of insulin to induce HIF-1α was not explicable on the basis of failed activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt) pathway which activated normally in Psen1-/- fibroblasts. Rather we found that basal levels of HIF-1α were lower in Psen1-/- fibroblasts and that the basis for lower constitutive levels of HIF-1α was best explained by accelerated HIF-1α degradation. We further found that Psen1 and HIF-1α physically interact suggesting that Psen1 may protect HIF-1α from degradation through the proteasome. In fibroblasts harboring the M146V Psen1 FAD mutation on a mouse Psen1 null background, metabolic induction of HIF-1α by insulin was impaired but not hypoxic induction by cobalt chloride. Unlike Psen1-/- fibroblasts, basal levels of HIF-1α were normal in FAD mutant fibroblasts but activation of the insulin-receptor pathway was impaired. Interestingly, in Psen1-/- primary neuronal cultures HIF-1α was induced normally in response to cobalt chloride but insulin induction of HIF-1α was impaired even though activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway by insulin proceeded normally in Psen1-/- neuronal cultures. Basal levels of HIF-1α were not significantly different in Psen1-/- neurons and HIF-1α levels were normal in Psen1-/- embryos.
Conclusions
Collectively these studies show that Psen1 regulates induction of HIF-1α although they indicate that cell type specific differences exist in the effect of Psen1 on induction. They also show that the M146V Psen1 FAD mutation impairs metabolic induction of HIF-1α, an observation that may have pathophysiological significance for AD.
doi:10.1186/1750-1326-5-38
PMCID: PMC2955646  PMID: 20863403
22.  Pathological and physiological functions of presenilins 
Mutations in PSEN1 and PSEN2 genes account for the majority of cases of early-onset familial Alzheimer disease. Since the first prediction of a genetic link between PSEN1 and PSEN2 with Alzheimer's disease, many research groups from both academia and pharmaceutical industry have sought to unravel how pathogenic mutations in PSEN cause presenile dementia. PSEN genes encode polytopic membrane proteins termed presenilins (PS1 and PS2), which function as the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase, an intramembrane protease that has a wide spectrum of type I membrane protein substrates. Sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by BACE and γ-secretase releases highly fibrillogenic β-amyloid peptides, which accumulate in the brains of aged individuals and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Familial Alzheimer's disease-associated presenilin variants are thought to exert their pathogenic function by selectively elevating the levels of highly amyloidogenic Aβ42 peptides. In addition to Alzheimer's disease, several recent studies have linked PSEN1 to familiar frontotemporal dementia. Here, we review the biology of PS1, its role in γ-secretase activity, and discuss recent developments in the cell biology of PS1 with respect to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.
doi:10.1186/1750-1326-1-4
PMCID: PMC1513131  PMID: 16930451
23.  The PSEN1 I143T mutation in a Swedish family with Alzheimer's disease: clinical report and quantification of Aβ in different brain regions 
European Journal of Human Genetics  2010;18(11):1202-1208.
Early-onset dominantly inherited forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are rare, but studies of such cases have revealed important information about the disease mechanisms. Importantly, mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1) and PSEN2, alter the APP processing and lead to an increased amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) 42/40 ratio. This, together with other studies on pathogenic mechanisms, show that Aβ42 is a major player in the etiology of AD. Here, we present a clinical and neuropathological description of a Swedish family with an I143T mutation in the PSEN1 gene, which gives rise to a severe form of AD. We also performed an extensive investigation on the concentration and distribution of Aβ species of different lengths in six brain regions from two mutation carriers. Our study showed that Aβ42 and a longer peptide, Aβ43, were present both in plaque cores and in total amyloid preparations, and were each clearly more frequent than Aβ40 in all examined regions, as shown by both mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.107
PMCID: PMC2987466  PMID: 20628413
Alzheimer's disease; PSEN1 mutations; amyloid β-peptide variants; mass spectrometry; neuropathology
24.  TOMM40 intron 6 poly-T length, age-at-onset and neuropathology of AD in individuals with APOE ε3/ε3 
Background
This study investigates the association between TOMM40 poly-T length, age-at-onset, and neuropathology in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) individuals with the APOE ε3/ε3 allele.
Methods
Thirty-two PSEN1 mutation carriers with AD, 27 PSEN2 mutation carriers with AD, 59 participants with late-onset AD (LOAD), and 168 participants with autopsies from a community-based cohort were genotyped for TOMM40 intron 6 poly-T (rs10524523) length using short tandem repeat assays.
Results
Among AD patients with PSEN2 mutations, the presence of a long poly-T was associated with an earlier age-at-onset, whereas there were no such associations for patients with PSEN1 mutations or LOAD. In community-based participants, the presence of a long poly-T was associated with increased neuritic tangles and a higher likelihood of pathologically diagnosed AD.
Conclusions
TOMM40 intron 6 poly-T length may explain some of the variation in age-at-onset in PSEN2 familial AD and may be associated with AD neuropathology in persons with APOE ε3/ε3.
doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2012.06.009
PMCID: PMC3606272  PMID: 23183136
Alzheimer’s disease; age-at-onset; genetic; APOE; TOMM40; PSEN1 mutation; PSEN2 mutation; neuropathology
25.  Commentary on “A roadmap for the prevention of dementia II. Leon Thal Symposium 2008.” Prevention Trials in Persons At-Risk for Dominantly-Inherited Alzheimer's Disease: Opportunities and Challenges 
Autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) of young onset due to alterations in the PSEN1, APP, and PSEN2 genes is a fully-penetrant and devastating condition. As the subsequent development of AD in persons inheriting such genes is essentially certain, the condition provides a unique opportunity to perform informative studies of interventions with potential for preventing the disease. Though feasible, there are many challenges to such an endeavor including the fact that most persons at-risk for FAD do not desire to know their genetic status. Other challenges include the time course over which a preventative treatment would need to be administered and potential limitations to the degree to which the knowledge gained might be validly generalized to the more common late-onset AD. In this paper we discuss issues of study design including power estimates, protocols in which subjects' genetic status is not revealed to them, and the advantage of one-time interventions such as vaccinations. Though addressed in the context of FAD, many of the issues discussed are relevant to other fully-penetrant autosomal dominant degenerative illnesses such as Huntington's disease. We also discuss important next steps including the performance of pre-clinical studies in model systems appropriate for FAD and the recently funded international Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN). The goals of the DIAN are to characterize the natural history of FAD and to establish the infrastructure that would be required to perform meaningful studies in this rare, widely dispersed, but informative population.
doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2008.12.002
PMCID: PMC2746429  PMID: 19328453

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