The magnitude of benefit is variable for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. The purpose of this study is to determine whether genetic variations in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) pathway are associated with clinical outcomes in NSCLC patients receiving first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Five hundred and ninety-eight advanced-stage NSCLC patients who received first-line platinum-based chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy were recruited at the MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1995 and 2007. DNA from blood was genotyped for 227 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 23 TGF-β pathway-related genes to evaluate their associations with overall survival. In individual SNP analysis, 22 variants were significantly associated with overall survival, of which the strongest associations were found for BMP2:rs235756 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11–1.90] and SMAD3:rs4776342 (HR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06–1.47). Fifteen and 18 genetic loci displayed treatment-specific associations for chemotherapy and chemoradiation, respectively, identifying a majority of the cases who would be predicted to respond favorably to a specific treatment regimen. BMP2:rs235753 and a haplotype in SMAD3 were associated with overall survival for both treatment modalities. Cumulative effect analysis showed that multiple risk genotypes had a significant dose-dependent effect on overall survival (Ptrend = 2.44 x 10−15). Survival tree analysis identified subgroups of patients with dramatically different median survival times of 45.39 versus 13.55 months and 18.02 versus 5.89 months for high- and low- risk populations when treated with chemoradiation and chemotherapy, respectively. These results suggest that genetic variations in the TGF-β pathway are potential predictors of overall survival in NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy with or without radiation.
Aberrant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling have been shown to play a role in non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) pathogenesis and are associated with decreased survival. We evaluated the clinical activity and tolerability of sunitinib malate (SU11248), an oral, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that blocks the activity of receptors for VEGF and PDGF, as well as related tyrosine kinases in patients with previously treated, advanced NSCLC.
Patients and Methods
Patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC for whom platinum-based chemotherapy had failed received 50 mg/d of sunitinib for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks of no treatment in 6-week treatment cycles. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR); secondary end points included progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety.
Of the 63 patients treated with sunitinib, seven patients had confirmed partial responses, yielding an ORR of 11.1% (95% CI, 4.6% to 21.6%). An additional 18 patients (28.6%) experienced stable disease of at least 8 weeks in duration. Median progression-free survival was 12.0 weeks (95% CI, 10.0 to 16.1 weeks), and median overall survival was 23.4 weeks (95% CI, 17.0 to 28.3 weeks). Therapy was generally well tolerated.
Sunitinib has promising single-agent activity in patients with recurrent NSCLC, with an ORR similar to that of currently approved agents and an acceptable safety profile. Further evaluation in combination with other targeted agents and chemotherapy in patients with NSCLC is warranted.
Non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) remains the leading cause of cancer-related death globally, with most patients presenting with non-curable disease. Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy has been the cornerstone of treatment for patients with advanced-stage disease and has resulted in a modest increase in overall survival (on the order of an incremental 2 months increased survival per decade) and quality of life. Improved knowledge of the molecular signalling pathways found in nsclc has led to the development of biomarkers with associated targeted therapeutics, thus changing the treatment paradigm for many nsclc patients. In this review, we present a summary of many of the currently investigated nsclc targets, discuss their current clinical trial status, and provide commentary as to the likelihood of their success making a positive impact for nsclc patients.
Lung cancer; clinical trials; novel targets; novel therapeutics
Background: This prospective observational study estimated the effect of prognostic factors, particularly continued smoking during therapy, on survival in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving gemcitabine-platinum. Further, prognostic factors were used to build a survival model to improve prognosis prediction in naturalistic clinical settings.
Methods: Eligibility criteria included: Stage IIIB/IV NSCLC, no prior chemotherapy, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0 or 1. A Cox regression model was constructed and validated by randomizing patients into two datasets (Construction [C]:Validation [V]; 3:1 ratio). Country, disease stage, hypercalcemia, “N” factor, weight reduction, performance status, and superior vena cava obstruction were pre-defined variables forced into the model. Continued smoking was tested with adjustment for these variables.
Results: One thousand two hundred and fourteen patients (C=891 and V=323) were enrolled. The final predictive model, established in the Construction dataset, identified four significant (p≤0.05) and independent predictors of survival, which were disease stage, performance status, gemcitabine-platinum regimen, and T-stage. Smoking during therapy was not significantly associated with survival (Hazard Ratio [95% CI]: 0.955 [0.572, 1.596], p=0.8618; versus never smokers).
Conclusions: Although continued smoking during therapy was not significantly associated with shorter survival, the model developed in this study forms an evidence-based approach to assessing prognosis in advanced stage NSCLC.
smoking; observational; NSCLC; prognostic factors; predictive modeling.
Sunitinib malate (SUTENT) has promising single-agent activity given on Schedule 4/2 (4 weeks on treatment followed by 2 weeks off treatment) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
We examined the activity of sunitinib on a continuous daily dosing (CDD) schedule in an open-label, multicentre phase II study in patients with previously treated, advanced NSCLC. Patients ⩾18 years with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC after failure with platinum-based chemotherapy, received sunitinib 37.5 mg per day. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), 1-year survival rate, and safety.
Of 47 patients receiving sunitinib, one patient achieved a confirmed partial response (ORR 2.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1, 11.3)) and 11 (23.4%) had stable disease (SD) ⩾8 weeks. Five patients had SD>6 months. Median PFS was 11.9 weeks (95% CI 8.6, 14.1) and median OS was 37.1 weeks (95% CI 31.1, 69.7). The 1-year survival probability was 38.4% (95% CI 24.2, 52.5). Treatment was generally well tolerated.
The safety profile and time-to-event analyses, albeit relatively low response rate of 2%, suggest single-agent sunitinib on a CDD schedule may be a potential therapeutic agent for patients with advanced, refractory NSCLC.
non-small cell lung cancer; phase II; sunitinib; tyrosine kinase inhibitor
The current study was conducted in order to evaluate the clinical outcome of radical radiotherapy (RT) with or without chemotherapy for elderly patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Materials and Methods
Between 1990 and 2010, 125 patients, aged 70 years or more, received radical RT with or without chemotherapy for treatment of stage III NSCLC. We reviewed the patients' prognostic factors, including comorbidities. Comorbidity status was evaluated using a simplified comorbidity score (SCS). Of the patients reviewed, 82 received radical RT alone, whereas the other 43 patients underwent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). A platinum-based chemotherapy regimen was most commonly used (42/43).
The two-year overall-survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 32.2% and 21.8%, respectively. SCS was the independent prognostic factor for OS. In the frail elderly subgroup with a SCS of ≥10, CRT demonstrated a significant difference in PFS, but not in OS. In contrast, OS and PFS following CRT were significantly superior to RT in the fit elderly subgroup with a SCS of <10. The incidence of severe pulmonary toxicities in the frail elderly subgroup was significantly higher than that in the fit elderly subgroup.
Multiple comorbidities evaluated according to the SCS are related to poor OS in elderly patients with stage III NSCLC. CRT improved clinical outcome when compared to RT in the fit elderly subgroup, however, the gain from this treatment was negated in the frail elderly subgroup with multiple comorbidities. Therefore, evaluation of comorbidity is necessary in order to determine whether chemotherapy should be combined with RT in elderly patients with stage III NSCLC.
Non-small cell lung carcinoma; Elderly; Chemoradiotherapy; Comorbidity; Radical radiotherapy
Cell cycle progression contributes to the cellular response to DNA-damaging factors, such as chemotherapy and radiation. We hypothesized that the genetic variations in cell cycle pathway genes may modulate treatment responses and affect survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We genotyped 374 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 49 cell cycle-related genes in 598 patients with stages III–IV NSCLC treated with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy with/without radiation. We analyzed the individual and combined associations of these SNPs with survival and evaluated their gene–gene interactions using survival tree analysis. In the analysis of survival in all the patients, 39 SNPs reached nominal significance (P < 0.05) and 4 SNPs were significant at P <0.01. However, none of these SNPs remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons at a false discovery rate of 10%. In stratified analysis by treatment modality, after adjusting for multiple comparisons, nine SNPs in chemotherapy alone and one SNP in chemoradiation remained significant. The most significant SNP in chemotherapy group was CCNB2:rs1486878 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25–2.30, P = 0.001]. TP73: rs3765701 was the only significant SNP in chemoradiation group (HR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.35–2.59, P = 1.8 × 10−4). In cumulative analysis, we found a significant gene-dosage effect in patients receiving chemotherapy alone. Survival tree analysis demonstrated potential higher order gene–gene and gene–treatment interactions, which could be used to predict survival status based on distinct genetic signatures. These results suggest that genetic variations in cell cycle pathway genes may affect the survival of patients with stages III–IV NSCLC individually and jointly.
The active mutation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and clinical characteristics are significant biomarkers for chemotherapy selection in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although docetaxel is a key agent in second-line therapy for NSCLC, predictive biomarkers for assessing its efficacy have yet to be determined. To assess the clinical efficacy of docetaxel in second-line therapy for NSCLC according to NSCLC histology and the therapeutic effect of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), we retrospectively reviewed 454 NSCLC patients treated with docetaxel between April 2002 and April 2009. In total, 239 patients with advanced NSCLC treated with docetaxel as second-line therapy following failure of platinum-based chemotherapy were analyzed in this study. A total of 59 (25%) patients had squamous cell carcinoma. The overall response rate and median progression-free survival time in the squamous cell group were significantly inferior to those in the non-squamous cell group (p=0.031 and p=0.005, respectively). Following the failure of docetaxel, 91 non-squamous patients were treated with EGFR-TKIs. The patients that achieved clinical benefit from EGFR-TKIs (n=32) demonstrated a significantly better response rate and longer progression-free survival compared to the other group (p<0.001 and p=0.027, respectively). In the univariate and multivariate analysis, the favorable therapeutic effect of EGFR-TKIs had an independent effect on progression- free survival (HR 1.484, p=0.0464). In conclusion, this retrospective study suggests that non-squamous histology and favorable therapeutic effect from EGFR-TKIs are useful markers for predicting the efficacy of docetaxel in second-line therapy for NSCLC.
non-small cell lung cancer; docetaxel; second-line therapy; EGFR-TKI; predictive biomarker; histology
Recent studies have shown that human copper transporter 1 (hCtr1), the major copper influx transporter, is involved in the transport of platinum-based antitumor agents. We investigated the predictive and prognostic values of hCtr1, and cooper efflux transporters ATP7A and ATP7B, in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.
From 2004 to 2009, we identified 54 consecutive stage III NSCLC patients who underwent first-line platinum-based doublet chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical studies of hCtr1, ATP7A and ATP7B on the paraffin-embedded pre-treatment tumor samples were performed and correlated with chemotherapy response and survival.
Overexpression of hCtr1, ATP7A and ATP7B were observed in 68%, 48% and 74% of the participants, respectively. hCtr1 overexpression was associated with better chemotherapy responses (P < 0.01); whereas ATP7A and ATP7B were not. Patients with hCtr1 overexpressing tumors had better progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0.01 and 0.047, respectively). In multivariate analyses for chemotherapy response and PFS, only hCtr1 overexpression emerged as a favorable independent predictive and prognostic factor (all P < 0.01).
This is the first report to state that hCtr1 is not only an independent predictor of platinum-based chemotherapy response but also a prognostic factor in stage III NSCLC.
Human copper transporter 1; Cisplatin; ATP7A; ATP7B; Non-small cell lung cancer; Prognosis
Chemotherapy prolongs survival without substantially impairing quality of life for medically fit patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but population-based studies have shown that only 20 to 30% of these patients receive chemotherapy. These earlier studies have relied on Medicare-linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data, thus excluding the 30 to 35% of lung cancer patients younger than 65 years. Therefore, we determined the use of chemotherapy in a contemporary, diverse NSCLC population encompassing all patient ages.
We performed a retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with stage IV NSCLC from 2000 to 2007 at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. Demographic, treatment, and outcome data were obtained from hospital tumor registries. The association between these variables was assessed using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression.
In all, 718 patients met criteria for analysis. Mean age was 60 years, 58% were men, and 45% were white. Three hundred fifty-three patients (49%) received chemotherapy. In univariate analysis, receipt of chemotherapy was associated with age (53% of patients younger than 65 years versus 41% of patients aged 65 years and older; p = 0.003) and insurance type (p < 0.001). In a multivariate model, age and insurance type remained associated with receipt of chemotherapy. For individuals receiving chemotherapy, median survival was 9.2 months, compared with 2.3 months for untreated patients (p < 0.001).
In a contemporary population representing the full age range of patients with advanced NSCLC, chemotherapy was administered to approximately half of all patients—more than twice the rate reported in some earlier studies. Patient age and insurance type are associated with receipt of chemotherapy.
Non small-cell lung cancer; Chemotherapy; Metastatic; Practice patterns; Insurance
Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) codes for a DNA helicase involved in nucleotide excision repair that removes platinum-induced DNA damage. Genetic polymorphisms of XPD may affect DNA repair capacity and lead to individual differences in the outcome of patients after chemotherapy. This study aims to identify whether XPD polymorphisms affect clinical efficacy among advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.
353 stage III-IV NSCLC patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy as the first-line treatment were enrolled in this study. Four potentially functional XPD polymorphisms (Arg156Arg, Asp312Asn, Asp711Asp and Lys751Gln) were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or PCR-based sequencing.
Variant genotypes of XPD Asp312Asn, Asp711Asp and Lys751Gln were significantly associated with poorer NSCLC survival (P = 0.006, 0.006, 0.014, respectively, by log-rank test). The most common haplotype GCA (in order of Asp312Asn, Asp711Asp and Lys751Gln) also exhibited significant risk effect on NSCLC survival (log-rank P = 0.001). This effect was more predominant for patients with stage IIIB disease (P = 2.21×10−4, log-rank test). Increased risks for variant haplotypes of XPD were also observed among patients with performance status of 0–1 and patients with adenocarcinoma. However, no significant associations were found between these polymorphisms, chemotherapy response and PFS.
Our study provides evidence for the predictive role of XPD Asp312Asn, Asp711Asp and Lys751Gln polymorphisms/haplotype on NSCLC prognosis in inoperable advanced NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.
The first-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) generally consists of a maximum of six cycles of platinum-based doublet chemotherapy followed by surveillance for disease progression. Recently, the strategy of starting second-line treatment immediately following the completion of chemotherapy, known as ‘maintenance’ chemotherapy, has been investigated. The use of maintenance pemetrexed improves both progression-free and overall survival, while the use of maintenance docetaxel did not significantly improve overall survival. The Sequential Tarceva in Unresectable NSCLC (SATURN) study investigated the use of maintenance erlotinib following the completion of first-line chemotherapy. It demonstrated a significant improvement in overall survival from 11.1 months in the placebo group to 12.3 months in patients receiving maintenance erlotinib, with the important caveat that only 21% of patients in the placebo group ever received erlotinib. A subset of patients whose tumors had EGF receptor mutations had a higher magnitude of benefit from maintenance treatment. Therefore, maintenance erlotinib should be considered in the treatment of patients with NSCLC.
EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor; erlotinib; gefitinib; maintenance chemotherapy; non-small-cell lung cancer
Although platinum based chemotherapy is known to improve the survival duration for the patients with non-small cell lung cancer, the role of platinum for elderly patient is not yet clear. We administered gemcitabine and carboplatin combination therapy to elderly patients with NSCLC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of this regimen for elderly patients.
Materials and Methods
The eligibility criteria were as follows: pathologically confirmed NSCLC, an age ≥65 years, advanced disease with stage IIIB or IV and the patients were chemotherapy-naive. The treatment regimen was as follows; gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 was administered on days 1 and 8 and carboplatin AUC=5 was administered on day 1. This regimen was repeated every 3 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated in terms of the response rate, the time to progression and the overall survival duration.
From Dec 2001 to Feb 2005, a total of 20 patients were entered into this study. The median patient age was 68 years (range: 65~75). 19 patients were evaluable for their treatment response. A partial response was obtained in 8 patients (response rate: 42.1%, 95% CI: 19.4~64.8%). The median time to progression and the survival duration were 136 days and 453 days, respectively. Among a total of 65 cycles of treatment, grade 3 or 4 leukopenia and thrombocytopenia were observed in 7.7% and 13.9% of the cycles, respectively. Grade 3 or 4 vomiting was observed in 7.7% of the cycles. Grade 3 skin rash developed in 1.5% of the cycles. 1 patient died of septic shock after chemotherapy.
Gemcitabine and carboplatin combination chemotherapy was relatively safe and effective for treating elderly patients with NSCLC.
Gemcitabine; Carboplatin; Non-small cell lung cancer; Aged
The evidence supporting adjuvant therapy in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients is reviewed and key mitigating factors in providing treatment, such as stage of disease and the impact of the new seventh edition of the tumor–node–metastasis classification system, are discussed.
The cornerstone of treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has long been surgical resection. Over the past few years, there has been a paradigm shift to provide adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy for patients with completely resected stage II–IIIA NSCLC founded on large randomized clinical trials demonstrating longer overall survival with this treatment. Reassuringly, the National Cancer Institute of Canada Cancer Therapeutics Group JBR.10 trial recently reported a continued survival advantage for patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy after >9 years of median follow-up. In contrast, the gains from using this approach for stage IB disease are less clear, although data from an unplanned subgroup analysis suggest benefit for patients with tumors ≥4 cm. Herein, we review the evidence supporting adjuvant therapy in early-stage NSCLC patients before discussing key mitigating factors in providing treatment, such as stage of disease and the impact of the new seventh edition of the tumor–node–metastasis classification system. Criteria such as patient age and performance status, as well as the value of appropriate chemotherapy selection, are highlighted as measures to help guide management. The role of postoperative radiotherapy and the future landscape of early-stage NSCLC research are also explored; namely, therapeutic strategies exploiting pharmacogenomic and gene-expression profiling, in an attempt to personalize care, and the integration of novel targeted therapies into adjuvant clinical trials.
Non-small cell lung cancer; Adjuvant chemotherapy; Early-stage non-small cell lung cancer; Personalized medicine; Postoperative radiotherapy
Inherited variability in the prognosis of lung cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy has been widely investigated. However, the overall contribution of genetic variation to platinum response is not well established. To identify novel candidate SNPs/genes, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for cisplatin cytotoxicity using lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), followed by an association study of selected SNPs from the GWAS with overall survival (OS) in lung cancer patients.
GWAS for cisplatin were performed with 283 ethnically diverse LCLs. 168 top SNPs were genotyped in 222 small cell and 961 non-small cell lung cancer (SCLC, NSCLC) patients treated with platinum-based therapy. Association of the SNPs with OS was determined using the Cox regression model. Selected candidate genes were functionally validated by siRNA knockdown in human lung cancer cells.
Among 157 successfully genotyped SNPs, 9 and 10 SNPs were top SNPs associated with OS for patients with NSCLC and SCLC, respectively, although they were not significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Fifteen genes, including 7 located within 200 kb up or downstream of the four top SNPs and 8 genes for which expression was correlated with three SNPs in LCLs were selected for siRNA screening. Knockdown of DAPK3 and METTL6, for which expression levels were correlated with the rs11169748 and rs2440915 SNPs, significantly decreased cisplatin sensitivity in lung cancer cells.
This series of clinical and complementary laboratory-based functional studies identified several candidate genes/SNPs that might help predict treatment outcomes for platinum-based therapy of lung cancer.
Lung cancer; cisplatin; pharmacogenomics; lymphoblastoid cell lines; GWAS
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Platinum-based chemotherapy is the usual first-line treatment for advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although an efficacy plateau has been reached with this approach. Bevacizumab is a recombinant, humanized, monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor, which inhibits tumor angiogenesis and is being evaluated as a different mechanism to improve outcomes in patients with stage IIIB/stage IV (metastatic) NSCLC.
To review the emerging evidence for the potential use of bevacizumab in stage IIIB/IV NSCLC.
Adding bevacizumab to carboplatin plus paclitaxel improves response rates and significantly prolongs time to disease progression, which translates into a significant extension of overall survival (median 2.3 months in one key study). Low levels of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 are associated with better response. Preliminary evidence suggests that combining bevacizumab with erlotinib could improve outcomes in patients relapsing following platinum-based chemotherapy. Episodes of bleeding (particularly pulmonary hemorrhage) are the predominant adverse events associated with bevacizumab, probably a result of tumor disintegration.
There is limited evidence that the high acquisition cost of bevacizumab unfavorably affects assessment of its cost effectiveness, although there are few other treatment options in these patients with poor prognosis.
Place in therapy:
The encouraging results obtained with bevacizumab in patients with NSCLC are leading to its adoption in some treatment guidelines. Emerging evidence indicates improved outcomes when bevacizumab is added to carboplatin/paclitaxel in previously untreated patients with NSCLC, and when used with erlotinib in patients who have relapsed following platinum-based chemotherapy.
bevacizumab; evidence; nonsmall cell lung cancer
Although notable progress has been made in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in recent years, this disease is still associated with a poor prognosis. Despite early-stage NSCLC is considered a potentially curable disease following complete resection, the majority of patients relapse and eventually die after surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy prolongs survival, altough the absolute improvement in 5-year overall survival is only approximately 5%.
Trying to understand the role of genes which could affect drug activity and response to treatment is a major challenge for establishing an individualised chemotherapy according to the specific genetic profile of each patient. Among genes involved in the DNA repair system, the excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1) is a useful markers of clinical resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. In the International Lung Cancer Trial (IALT) adjuvant chemotherapy significantly prolonged survival among patients with ERCC1 negative tumors but not among ERCC1-positive patients. BRCA1 and ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1), two other key enzymes in DNA synthesis and repair, appear to be modulators of drug sensitivity and may provide additional information for customizing adjuvant chemotherapy.
Several clinical trials suggest that overexpression of class III β-tubulin is an adverse prognostic factor in cancer since it could be responsible for resistance to anti-tubulin agents. A retrospective analysis of NCIC JBR.10 trial showed that high tubulin III expression is associated with a higher risk of relapse following surgery alone but also with a higher probability of benefit from adjuvant cisplatin plus vinorelbine chemotherapy.
Finally, the use of gene expression patterns such as the lung metagene model could provide a potential mechanism to refine the estimation of a patient’s risk of disease recurrence and could affect treatment decision in the management of early stage of NSCLC.
In this review we will discuss the potential role of pharmacogenomic approaches to guide the medical treatment of early stage NSCLC.
NSCLC; adjuvant treatment; molecular markers; ERCC1; RRM1; β-tubulin; EGFR.
In the last 6 years, since the first reports of an association between somatic mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exons 19 and 21 and response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has changed dramatically. Based on laboratory and clinical observations, investigators have anticipated that these mutations could be predictive of response to EGFR TKIs and numerous studies have confirmed that the presence of mutation was associated with longer survival in patients receiving targeted therapy. Prospective trials comparing standard platinum-based chemotherapy with EGFR TKIs in patients with and without activating EGFR mutations validated the predictive value of molecular selection of patients for first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC. Recently, preclinical and first-in-human studies have demonstrated impressive activity of ALK TKI in tumors harboring ALK rearrangement. In this article, we review current data on molecular biology of lung cancer and evidence-based patient selection for targeted therapy.
ALK; EGFR; KRAS; lung cancer; targeted therapy
Prognosis of stage IIIA N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains poor despite the changes in therapeutic strategies.
To assess long term results of neo adjuvant therapy followed by surgery for patients with stage IIIA N2 NSCLC and to analyze factors influencing survival.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The methods adopted include: Retrospective review of medical records of 91 patients with stage IIIA N2 NSCLC, who received neo adjuvant therapy followed by surgery; collection of information on demographic information, staging procedure, preoperative therapy, clinical response, type of resection, pathologic response of tumor, status of lymph nodes and adjuvant chemotherapy; survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier and calculation of prognostic factors using log-rank and Cox regression model.
All patients received a platinum-based chemotherapy and 23 (29.1%) had an associated radiotherapy. Eighty four patients underwent thoracotomy. Median survival was 26 months (95%CI, 22.6-30.8 months) with three and five year survival rates of 31.6 and 20.9%, respectively. Prognostic factors for survival on univariate analysis was clinical response (P= 0.032), complete resection (P= 0.002), pathologic tumor response (P< 0.001), and lymph nodal down staging (P = 0.001). Multivariate analyses identified complete resection, pathologic tumor response and lymph nodal down staging as independent prognostic factors.
Survival of patients with stage IIIA N2 NSCLC who received neo adjuvant therapy is significantly influenced by clinical response, complete resection, pathologic tumor response, and lymph nodal down staging. These results can be helpful in guiding standard clinical practice and evaluating the outcome of neo adjuvant therapy followed by surgery in patients with stage IIIA N2 NSCLC.
Neo adjuvant therapy; non-small cell lung cancer; prognostic factor; stage IIIA; surgery; survival
To compare the efficacy and toxicities of pemetrexed plus platinum with other platinum regimens in patients with previously untreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A meta-analysis was performed using trials identified through PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Two investigators independently assessed the quality of the trials and extracted data. The outcomes included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), response rate (RR), and different types of toxicity. Hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using RevMan software. Results: Four trials involving 2,518 patients with previously untreated advanced NSCLC met the inclusion criteria. Pemetrexed plus platinum chemotherapy (PPC) improved survival compared with other platinum-based regimens (PBR) in patients with advanced NSCLC (HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83–1.00, p = 0.04), especially in those with non-squamous histology (HR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.77–0.98, p = 0.02). No statistically significant improvement in either PFS or RR was found in PPC group as compared with PBR group (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.94–1.13, p = 0.57; OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.95–1.39, p = 0.15, respectively). Compared with PBR, PPC led to less grade 3–4 neutropenia and leukopenia but more grade 3–4 nausea. However, hematological toxicity analysis revealed significant heterogeneities. Conclusion: Our results suggest that PPC in the first-line setting leads to a significant survival advantage with acceptable toxicities for advanced NSCLC patients, especially those with non-squamous histology, as compared with other PRB. PPC could be considered as the first-line treatment option for advanced NSCLC patients, especially those with non-squamous histology.
Recent clinical trials incorporating maintenance chemotherapy into the initial treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have highlighted the benefits of exposing patients to second-line therapies. We therefore determined the predictors and impact of second-line chemotherapy administration in a contemporary, diverse NSCLC population.
We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients diagnosed with stage IV NSCLC from 2000 to 2007 at clinical facilities associated with the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. Demographic, disease, treatment, and outcome data were obtained from hospital tumor registries. The association between these variables was assessed using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression.
A total of 406 patients in this cohort received first-line chemotherapy and were included in the analysis. Mean age was 59 years, 28% were women, and 59% were white. Among these patients, 197 (49%) received second-line chemotherapy. Among those patients who had not progressed after 4–6 cycles of first-line chemotherapy, 67% received second-line chemotherapy. Receipt of second-line chemotherapy was significantly associated with patient insurance type (P=0.007), number of cycles of first-line chemotherapy (P<0.001), and receipt of pre-chemotherapy palliative radiation therapy (P=0.005), but was not associated with patient age, gender, race, histology, or year of diagnosis. In a multivariate model, second-line chemotherapy administration remained associated with insurance type (P=0.003), number of cycles of first-line chemotherapy (P<0.001), and receipt of pre-chemotherapy palliative radiation therapy (P=0.008). The number of cycles of first-line chemotherapy and administration of second-line chemotherapy were associated with overall survival in both univariate and multivariate analyses.
In this unselected, contemporary and diverse cohort of patients with advanced NSCLC, 67% of individuals whose disease had not progressed after 4–6 cycles of first-line chemotherapy eventually received second-line chemotherapy. Markers of socioeconomic status, symptom burden, and response to and tolerance of first-line chemotherapy were associated with receipt of second-line chemotherapy. These factors may assist in the selection of patients most likely to benefit from maintenance chemotherapy.
Single-agent therapy with Docetaxel or Pemetrexed is the current therapy of choice for second-line treatment in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The role of older agents was underattended over the last years. This study presents the combination of Mitomycin C and Vinorelbine in pretreated patients. Forty-two patients (stage IIIB and IV, pretreated with platinum-based chemotherapy) received 8 mg m−2 Mitomycin C on day 1 and 25 mg m−2 Vinorelbine on days 1 and 8 of a 28-day cycle. End points were objective tumour response, survival, and toxicity. Additionally, quality of life (QoL) was assessed. Five patients (11.9 %) achieved partial responses and 13 patients (31.9%) stable disease. Progression-free survival was 16 weeks. The median overall survival was 8.5 month. Eleven patients (26.2 %) suffered from grade 3 or 4 neutropenia and four patients (9.52%) from grade 3 or 4 anaemia. Evaluation of QoL showed that some items ameliorated during therapy. The therapeutic concept including Mitomycin C and Vinorelbine offers an efficacious and well-tolerated regimen, with relatively low toxicity. Objective response and survival data correlate with other second-line studies using different medication. As costs of Mitomycin C and Vinorelbine are lower compared with current drugs of choice, this regimen is likely to be cost-saving.
lung cancer; NSCLC; chemotherapy; second-line therapy; mitomycin; Vinorelbine
We investigated the correlation between BAG-1 expression and sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapeutics in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). mRNA and protein expression of BAG-1 in lung tissue of NSCLC postoperative patients (I–IIIA stage) or healthy subjects were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Cox regression analysis was used to quantify the association of prognostic factors with survival in NSCLC patients. Venous blood samples from patients newly diagnosed with advanced NSCLC (IIIB–IV stage) were collected before chemotherapy to analyze allelic frequency and gene polymorphisms. Compared to healthy controls (11.67%, 14 cases), levels of mRNA and protein of BAG-1 in lung tissues was significantly higher in NSCLC patients (61.67%, 74 cases) (χ2=5.601, P<0.05). Moreover, BAG-1 expression was identified as an independent prognostic factor for survival in NSCLC patients. As time to progression and survival rate was dramatically increased, patients with a positive expression of BAG-1 exhibited a prolonged survival period (TTP, 49.3 months; 5-year survival rat, 16.21%) compared with those without BAG-1 expression (χ2=7.243, P<0.05). Two BAG-1 digestion patterns (CC and CT) were identified and confirmed. Patients (77.46%) had a C/C genotype at BAG-1 codon 324, while 22.54% had the C/T genotype. The T/T genotype was not present in these patients. The progression risk of patients carrying the C/C genotype at Bag-1 codon 324 was 1.87 times higher than that of patients carrying the C/T genotype (P<0.001). Follow-up examination showed that the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of patients carrying the C/C genotype was 2.852 times higher than that of patients carrying the C/T genotype (95% CI, 1.133–7.182; P=0.026). Significant differences were found in the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of these two cohorts of patients. Compared to patients carrying the C/T genotype of BAG-1, patients carrying the C/C genotype at Bag-1 codon 324 exhibited better responses to platinum-based chemotherapy. Hence, the expression of BAG-1 was closely associated with the sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapeutics in NSCLC patients.
BAG-1; non-small cell lung cancer; platinum-based chemotherapeutics; sensitivity; genotype; RT-PCR
There is a lack of clinical data on the validity of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of the adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens on the clinical outcomes in patients with advanced ovarian cancer.
We performed a retrospective analysis of 574 patients with advanced ovarian cancer admitted to four Lithuanian oncogynaecology departments during 1993–2000. The conventional combined treatment of cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy was applied to both the group that underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n = 213) and to the control group (n = 361). The selection criterion for neoadjuvant chemotherapy was large extent of the disease. Overall and progression-free survival rates and survival medians were calculated using life tables and the Kaplan-Meier method.
There was no difference in median overall survival between stage III patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (25.9 months vs. 29.3 months, p = 0.2508) and stage IV patients (15.4 months vs. 14.9 months, p = 0.6108). Similarly, there was no difference in median progression-free survival between stage III patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (15.7 months vs. 17.5 months, p = 0.1299) and stage IV patients (8.7 months vs. 8.2 months, p = 0.1817). There was no difference in the rate of the optimal cytoreductive surgery between patients who underwent the neoadjuvant chemotherapy and patients primarily treated with surgery (n = 134, 63% vs. n = 242, 67%, respectively).
There was no difference in progression-free or overall survival and in the rate of optimal cytoreductive surgery between the neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy groups despite the fact that patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy had a more extensive disease. Multivariate analysis failed to prove that neoadjuvant chemotherapy could be considered as an independent prognostic factor for survival, and the findings need to be investigated in the future prospective randomised studies.
Although surgery is the only potentially curative treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 5-year survival rates range from 77% for stage IA tumors to 23% in stage IIIA disease. Adjuvant chemotherapy has recently been established as a standard of care for resected stage II-III NSCLC, on the basis of large-scale clinical trials employing third-generation platinum-based regimens. As the overall absolute 5-year survival benefit from this approach does not exceed 5% and potential long-term complications are an issue of concern, the aim of customized adjuvant systemic treatment is to optimize the toxicity/benefit ratio, so that low-risk individuals are spared from unnecessary intervention, while avoiding undertreatment of high-risk patients, including those with stage I disease. Therefore, the application of reliable prognostic and predictive biomarkers would enable to identify appropriate patients for the most effective treatment.
This is an overview of the data available on the most promising clinicopathological and molecular biomarkers that could affect adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy decisions for operable NSCLC in routine practice. Among the numerous candidate molecular biomarkers, only few gene-expression profiling signatures provide clinically relevant information warranting further validation. On the other hand, real-time quantitative polymerase-chain reaction strategy involving relatively small number of genes offers a practical alternative, with high cross-platform performance. Although data extrapolation from the metastatic setting should be cautious, the concept of personalized, pharmacogenomics-guided chemotherapy for early NSCLC seems feasible, and is currently being evaluated in randomized phase 2 and 3 trials. The mRNA and/or protein expression levels of excision repair cross-complementation group 1, ribonucleotide reductase M1 and breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 are among the most potential biomarkers for early disease, with stage-independent prognostic and predictive values, the clinical utility of which is being validated prospectively. Inter-assay discordance in determining the biomarker status and association with clinical outcomes is noteworthing.
non-small cell lung cancer; adjuvant therapy; neoadjuvant therapy; biomarkers; individualized therapy