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1.  Reasons given by general practitioners for non-treatment decisions in younger and older patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus in the United Kingdom: a survey study 
Background
Older patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus are less likely to receive antihyperglycaemic therapy compared to their younger counterparts. The purpose of this study was to assess the reasons of general practitioners (GPs) for not treating younger and older patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus with antihyperglycaemic agents.
Methods
In a survey conducted between November 2009 and January 2010, 358 GPs from the United Kingdom selected reasons for not initiating antihyperglycaemic therapy in younger (< 65 years) and older (≥65 years) patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus and untreated with any antihyperglycaemic agent for at least six months following diagnosis. Thirty-six potential reasons were classified into four major categories: Mild hyperglycaemia, Factors related to antihyperglycaemic agents, Comorbidities and polypharmacy, and Patient-related reasons. Reasons for non-treatment were compared between younger (n = 1, 023) and older (n = 1, 005) patients.
Results
Non-treatment reasons related to Mild hyperglycaemia were selected more often by GPs for both younger (88%) and older (86%) patients than those in other categories. For older patients, Factors related to antihyperglycaemic agents (46% vs. 38%) and Comorbidities and polypharmacy (33% vs. 19%), both including safety-related issues, were selected significantly (p < 0.001) more often by GPs. No between-group difference was observed for the Patient-related reasons category. The GP-reported HbA1c threshold for initiating antihyperglycaemic therapy was significantly (p < 0.001) lower for younger patients (mean ± standard deviation: 7.3% ± 0.7) compared to older patients (7.5% ± 0.9).
Conclusions
GPs selected reasons related to Mild hyperglycaemia for non-treatment of their untreated patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus, despite nearly one-third of these patients having their most recent HbA1c value ≥7%. The findings further suggest that safety-related issues may influence the non-treatment of older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-11-17
PMCID: PMC3219572  PMID: 22035104
2.  The impact of new insights and revised practice guidelines on prescribing drugs in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus 
Aims
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of new insights and revised guidelines on initial and follow-up treatment with antihyperglycaemic drugs over the period 1998–2003.
Methods
The InterAction Database (IADB), which contains pharmacy dispensing data from 53 community pharmacies in the Northern and Eastern part of the Netherlands, was used in this study. Prevalence and incidence rates of oral antihyperglycaemic drug use were calculated for each year. Follow-up treatment was compared for two cohorts of initial users of oral antihyperglycaemic drugs, starting treatment either 1 year before or 1 year after guideline revision.
Results
The prevalence and incidence rate of oral antihyperglycaemic drug use increased over the study period from 1.8% to 2.4% (P < 0.001) and 0.3% to 0.4% (P= 0.04). The proportion of metformin as initial treatment increased rapidly in the observation period from 14% to 50% (P < 0.001). Initial users of metformin in 2000 received additional treatment with a sulphonylurea in the follow-up period less often compared with those who started metformin in 1998 (46%vs. 60%, P < 0.004). In contrast, initial users of sulphonylurea in 2000 received additional treatment with metformin more often compared with those who started a sulphonylurea in 1998 (42%vs. 36%, P < 0.008). The new drugs, thiazolidinediones and meglitinides, were seldom used as initial treatment
Conclusions
New insights and the revision of the practice guideline were followed by a significant increase in both initial and follow-up treatment with metformin among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2006.02711.x
PMCID: PMC1885194  PMID: 16796700
diabetes; guidelines; metformin
3.  Antihyperglycaemic treatment patterns, observed glycaemic control and determinants of treatment change among patients with type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom primary care: a retrospective cohort study 
Background
The initial treatment strategy for patients with type 2 diabetes includes lifestyle change recommendations. When patients are not successful in controlling their blood glucose levels through healthier lifestyle pharmaceutical agents are recommended. The objective of this study is to identify determinants of initial treatment change following initiation of non-insulin antihyperglycaemic treatment (OAD) for UK patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods
A retrospective cohort study using primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink between January 2006 and February 2011. Each patient had an OAD prescription. The main treatment pattern outcomes were discontinuation, switching, augmentation and initiation of insulin. Glycaemic control was assessed using HbA1c.
Results
63,060 patients initiated OAD therapy 2006–2010 and 3.4% were prescribed insulin during follow-up. 26% with at least four years of follow-up remained on the initial treatment. Metformin dominated (90%) in UK primary care. Around 75% had a record of HbA1c testing prior to initiating therapy. On initiating OAD, half the patients had HbA1c values >65 mmol/mol and one quarter >80 mmol/mol. The initial values of HbA1c were reduced after 12 months and remained stable. There were 15%-18% of patients whose values increased since initiating OAD. Increased baseline HbA1c is associated with increased chance of augmentation and decreased chance of discontinuation. HbA1c values at 1 year were associated with a three-fold increase in the chance of augmentation, 130% increase in the chance of switching and 14% increase in the chance of discontinuation with each 10 mmol/mol increase. Following initiation of OAD, HbA1c was reduced by an average of 16 mmol/mol during the first year.
Conclusion
There are patients for whom glycaemic control worsens and a majority remained above the recommended level, suggesting an unmet need despite the availability of many OAD.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-14-73
PMCID: PMC4161267  PMID: 25163796
Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Oral antidiabetics; Non-insulin antihyperglycaemic therapy; Treatment patterns; Population based; Cohort
4.  Annual Medical Costs of Swedish Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Before and After Insulin Initiation 
Diabetes Therapy  2013;4(2):363-374.
Introduction
Although insulin is one of the most effective interventions for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, its disadvantages incur substantial medical cost. This study was designed to evaluate the medical costs of Swedish type 2 diabetic patients initiating insulin on top of metformin and/or sulfonylurea (SU), and to evaluate if costs before and after insulin initiation differ for patients where insulin is initiated above or below the recommended glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level (7.5%).
Methods
This was a register-based retrospective cohort study in which patients were identified from the Sörmland county council diabetes register. Patients being prescribed at least one prescription of metformin and/or SU from 2003 to 2010, and later prescribed insulin, were included.
Results
One hundred patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and had at least 1 year of follow-up. The mean age was 61 years and 59% of patients were male. Mean time since diagnosis was 4.1 years, and since initiation of insulin was 2.2 years. The mean HbA1c level at index date was 8.0%. Total mean costs for the whole cohort were SEK 17,230 [standard deviation (SD) 17,228] the year before insulin initiation, and SEK 31,656 (SD 24,331) the year after insulin initiation (p < 0.0001). When stratifying by HbA1c level, patients with HbA1c <7.5% had total healthcare costs of SEK 17,678 (SD 12,946) the year before the index date and SEK 35,747 (SD 30,411) the year after (p < 0.0001). Patients with HbA1c levels ≥7.5% had total healthcare costs of SEK 16,918 (SD 19,769) the year before the index date and SEK 28,813 (SD 18,779) the year after (p < 0.0001).
Conclusion
Despite the small sample size, this study demonstrates that mean annual medical costs almost double the year after patients are initiated on insulin. The costs increased the year after insulin initiation, regardless of the HbA1c level at initiation of insulin, and the largest increase in costs were due to increased filled prescriptions.
doi:10.1007/s13300-013-0035-x
PMCID: PMC3889328  PMID: 23959539
Cohort study; Cost; Insulin; Sweden; Type 2 diabetes
5.  Motor Vehicle Crashes in Diabetic Patients with Tight Glycemic Control: A Population-based Case Control Analysis 
PLoS Medicine  2009;6(12):e1000192.
Using a population-based case control analysis, Donald Redelmeier and colleagues found that tighter glycemic control, as measured by the HbA1c, is associated with an increased risk of a motor vehicle crash.
Background
Complications from diabetes mellitus can compromise a driver's ability to safely operate a motor vehicle, yet little is known about whether euglycemia predicts normal driving risks among adults with diabetes. We studied the association between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and the risk of a motor vehicle crash using a population-based case control analysis.
Methods and Findings
We identified consecutive drivers reported to vehicle licensing authorities between January 1, 2005 to January 1, 2007 who had a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and a HbA1c documented. The risk of a crash was calculated taking into account potential confounders including blood glucose monitoring, complications, and treatments. A total of 57 patients were involved in a crash and 738 were not involved in a crash. The mean HbA1c was lower for those in a crash than controls (7.4% versus 7.9%, unpaired t-test, p = 0.019), equal to a 26% increase in the relative risk of a crash for each 1% reduction in HbA1c (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.54). The trend was evident across the range of HbA1c values and persisted after adjustment for measured confounders (odds ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.02–1.55). The two other significant risk factors for a crash were a history of severe hypoglycemia requiring outside assistance (odds ratio = 4.07, 95% confidence interval 2.35–7.04) and later age at diabetes diagnosis (odds ratio per decade = 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.07–1.57).
Conclusions
In this selected population, tighter glycemic control, as measured by the HbA1c, is associated with an increased risk of a motor vehicle crash.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Around 8% of the US population has diabetes, a group of diseases in which the body cannot control levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. It can lead to serious complications and premature death, but suitable treatment can control the disease and lower the risk of complications.
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body's immune system prevents the production of insulin, the hormone that controls blood glucose. It accounts for 5%–10% of diabetes cases in adults and the vast majority of cases in childhood. Patients with type 1 diabetes need to inject insulin to survive. Type 2 diabetes is associated with older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, lack of physical activity, and race/ethnicity. As obesity rates rise worldwide, it is expected that the prevalence of type 2 diabetes will increase.
Why Was This Study Done?
Some complications of diabetes affect the ability to drive safely. Prolonged periods of high blood sugar levels can damage eyesight and nerves throughout the body, resulting in pain, tingling, and reduction of feeling or muscle control. Over time, some diabetics may become unaware of the early symptoms of an abnormally low blood sugar level (hypoglycemia) that can cause confusion, clumsiness, or fainting. Severe hypoglycemia can result in seizures or a coma.
It is common for driver licensing authorities to require evidence that a diabetic person's condition is well controlled before they issue a driving license. One measure of this is the percentage of hemoglobin in their blood that has joined up with glucose, known as HbA1c. This provides a measure of average blood glucose levels over the previous 8–12 weeks. A lower reading is considered an indicator of good diabetic control, but conversely, a blood glucose level that is too low can cause hypoglycemia. Normal nondiabetic HbA1c is between 3.5% and 5.5%, but 6.5% is considered good for people with diabetes.
In this study the researchers tested whether blood glucose levels, as measured by levels of HbA1c, were statistically associated with the risk of a motor vehicle crash.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The authors studied 795 diabetic adults who had been in contact with the driver licensing authority in Ontario, Canada between January 1, 2005 and January 1, 2007 and for whom HbA1c levels were recorded. HbA1c levels varied between 4.4% and 14.7%.
Of the drivers considered, 57 were involved in a car crash and 738 were not. The authors found that lower HbA1c levels were associated with an increased risk of a motor vehicle crash, even when they took into account other factors such as time since diagnosis, treatment, age, age when diagnosed, and, if taking insulin, age insulin started.
The authors also found that the risk of a crash quadrupled when a driver had a history of severe hypoglycemia that required outside help and that there was an increase in risk when diabetes had first been diagnosed at an older age.
What Do These Findings Mean?
The authors conclude by emphasizing the difficulty in knowing whether someone with diabetes is fit to drive. They suggest that a patient's HbA1c level is neither necessary nor sufficient to determine whether a diabetic person is fit to drive and these results, which agree with some other studies, call into question the current legal framework of the US, UK, Canada, Germany, Holland, and Australia, which single out diabetic drivers for medical review.
The finding that lower HbA1c levels are associated with an increased risk of a crash is surprising, as it suggests that a driver is less safe if they control their diabetes well. However, a statistical link does not prove that one event causes another. Unknown social or medical factors might explain the results. In this case, the authors point out that a major drawback of their study is that it is not randomized and drivers have free will in choosing how tightly to control their diabetes and also how carefully they drive. The authors considered whether time spent driving might explain the results, but discounted this for several reasons. One more plausible explanation is that intensive treatment to attain a lower HbA1c level for better general health raises the risk of hypoglycemic episodes.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000192.
Wikipedia includes an article on diabetes (note that Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
The American Diabetes Association publishes information on diabetes in English and Spanish
The American Diabetes Association also publishes information on US states regulation of drivers with diabetes
The World Health Organization of the United Nations Diabetes Programme works to prevent diabetes, minimize complications, and maximize quality of life
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000192
PMCID: PMC2780354  PMID: 19997624
6.  Utility of Hemoglobin A1c in Predicting Diabetes Risk 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2004;19(12):1175-1180.
BACKGROUND
There is controversy surrounding the issue of whether, and how, to screen adults for type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to measure the incidence of new diabetes among outpatients enrolled in a health care system, and to determine whether hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values would allow risk stratification for Patients' likelihood of developing diabetes over 3 years.
METHODS
We conducted a prospective cohort study with 3-year follow-up at a single large, tertiary care, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC). A convenience sample of 1,253 outpatients without diabetes, age 45 to 64, with a scheduled visit at the VAMC, were screened for diabetes using an initial HbA1c measurement. All subjects with HbA1c ≥ 6.0% (normal, 4.0% to 6.0%) were invited for follow-up fasting plasma glucose (FPG). We then surveyed patients annually for 3 years to ascertain interval diagnosis of diabetes by a physician. The baseline screening process was repeated 3 years after initial screening. After the baseline screening, new cases of diabetes were defined as either the self-report of a physician's diagnosis of diabetes, or by HbA1c ≥ 7.0% or FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L at 3-year follow-up. The incidence of diabetes was calculated as the number of new cases per person-year of follow-up.
RESULTS
One thousand two hundred fifty-three patients were screened initially, and 56 (4.5%) were found to have prevalent unrecognized diabetes at baseline. The 1,197 patients without diabetes at baseline accrued 3,257 person-years of follow-up. There were 73 new cases of diabetes over 3 years of follow-up, with an annual incidence of 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7% to 2.7%). In a multivariable logistic regression model, baseline HbA1c and baseline body mass index (BMI) were the only significant predictors of new onset diabetes, with HbA1c having a greater effect than BMI. The annual incidence of diabetes for patients with baseline HbA1c ≤ 5.5 was 0.8% (CI, 0.4% to 1.2%); for HbA1c 5.6 to 6.0, 2.5% (CI, 1.6% to 3.5%); and for HbA1c 6.1 to 6.9, 7.8% (CI, 5.2% to 10.4%). Obese patients with HbA1c 5.6 to 6.0 had an annual incidence of diabetes of 4.1% (CI, 2.2% to 6.0%).
CONCLUSIONS
HbA1c testing helps predict the likelihood that patients will develop diabetes in the future. Patients with normal HbA1c have a low incidence of diabetes and may not require rescreening in 3 years. However, patients with elevated HbA1c who do not have diabetes may need more careful follow-up and possibly aggressive treatment to reduce the risk of diabetes. Patients with high-normal HbA1c may require follow-up sooner than 3 years, especially if they are significantly overweight or obese. This predictive value suggests that HbA1c may be a useful test for periodic diabetes screening.
doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.40178.x
PMCID: PMC1492588  PMID: 15610327
diabetes; screening; hemoglobin A1c
7.  Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) Pumps for Type 1 and Type 2 Adult Diabetic Populations 
Executive Summary
In June 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Diabetes Strategy Evidence Project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding strategies for successful management and treatment of diabetes. This project came about when the Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the Ministry’s newly released Diabetes Strategy.
After an initial review of the strategy and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified five key areas in which evidence was needed. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these five areas: insulin pumps, behavioural interventions, bariatric surgery, home telemonitoring, and community based care. For each area, an economic analysis was completed where appropriate and is described in a separate report.
To review these titles within the Diabetes Strategy Evidence series, please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html,
Diabetes Strategy Evidence Platform: Summary of Evidence-Based Analyses
Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Pumps for Type 1 and Type 2 Adult Diabetics: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Behavioural Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Bariatric Surgery for People with Diabetes and Morbid Obesity: An Evidence-Based Summary
Community-Based Care for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Home Telemonitoring for Type 2 Diabetes: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Application of the Ontario Diabetes Economic Model (ODEM) to Determine the Cost-effectiveness and Budget Impact of Selected Type 2 Diabetes Interventions in Ontario
Objective
The objective of this analysis is to review the efficacy of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) pumps as compared to multiple daily injections (MDI) for the type 1 and type 2 adult diabetics.
Clinical Need and Target Population
Insulin therapy is an integral component of the treatment of many individuals with diabetes. Type 1, or juvenile-onset diabetes, is a life-long disorder that commonly manifests in children and adolescents, but onset can occur at any age. It represents about 10% of the total diabetes population and involves immune-mediated destruction of insulin producing cells in the pancreas. The loss of these cells results in a decrease in insulin production, which in turn necessitates exogenous insulin therapy.
Type 2, or ‘maturity-onset’ diabetes represents about 90% of the total diabetes population and is marked by a resistance to insulin or insufficient insulin secretion. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases with age, obesity, and lack of physical activity. The condition tends to develop gradually and may remain undiagnosed for many years. Approximately 30% of patients with type 2 diabetes eventually require insulin therapy.
CSII Pumps
In conventional therapy programs for diabetes, insulin is injected once or twice a day in some combination of short- and long-acting insulin preparations. Some patients require intensive therapy regimes known as multiple daily injection (MDI) programs, in which insulin is injected three or more times a day. It’s a time consuming process and usually requires an injection of slow acting basal insulin in the morning or evening and frequent doses of short-acting insulin prior to eating. The most common form of slower acting insulin used is neutral protamine gagedorn (NPH), which reaches peak activity 3 to 5 hours after injection. There are some concerns surrounding the use of NPH at night-time as, if injected immediately before bed, nocturnal hypoglycemia may occur. To combat nocturnal hypoglycemia and other issues related to absorption, alternative insulins have been developed, such as the slow-acting insulin glargine. Glargine has no peak action time and instead acts consistently over a twenty-four hour period, helping reduce the frequency of hypoglycemic episodes.
Alternatively, intensive therapy regimes can be administered by continuous insulin infusion (CSII) pumps. These devices attempt to closely mimic the behaviour of the pancreas, continuously providing a basal level insulin to the body with additional boluses at meal times. Modern CSII pumps are comprised of a small battery-driven pump that is designed to administer insulin subcutaneously through the abdominal wall via butterfly needle. The insulin dose is adjusted in response to measured capillary glucose values in a fashion similar to MDI and is thus often seen as a preferred method to multiple injection therapy. There are, however, still risks associated with the use of CSII pumps. Despite the increased use of CSII pumps, there is uncertainty around their effectiveness as compared to MDI for improving glycemic control.
Part A: Type 1 Diabetic Adults (≥19 years)
An evidence-based analysis on the efficacy of CSII pumps compared to MDI was carried out on both type 1 and type 2 adult diabetic populations.
Research Questions
Are CSII pumps more effective than MDI for improving glycemic control in adults (≥19 years) with type 1 diabetes?
Are CSII pumps more effective than MDI for improving additional outcomes related to diabetes such as quality of life (QoL)?
Literature Search
Inclusion Criteria
Randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and/or health technology assessments from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL
Adults (≥ 19 years)
Type 1 diabetes
Study evaluates CSII vs. MDI
Published between January 1, 2002 – March 24, 2009
Patient currently on intensive insulin therapy
Exclusion Criteria
Studies with <20 patients
Studies <5 weeks in duration
CSII applied only at night time and not 24 hours/day
Mixed group of diabetes patients (children, adults, type 1, type 2)
Pregnancy studies
Outcomes of Interest
The primary outcomes of interest were glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, mean daily blood glucose, glucose variability, and frequency of hypoglycaemic events. Other outcomes of interest were insulin requirements, adverse events, and quality of life.
Search Strategy
The literature search strategy employed keywords and subject headings to capture the concepts of:
1) insulin pumps, and
2) type 1 diabetes.
The search was run on July 6, 2008 in the following databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1996 to June Week 4 2008), OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE (1980 to 2008 Week 26), OVID CINAHL (1982 to June Week 4 2008) the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination/International Agency for Health Technology Assessment. A search update was run on March 24, 2009 and studies published prior to 2002 were also examined for inclusion into the review. Parallel search strategies were developed for the remaining databases. Search results were limited to human and English-language published between January 2002 and March 24, 2009. Abstracts were reviewed, and studies meeting the inclusion criteria outlined above were obtained. Reference lists were also checked for relevant studies.
Summary of Findings
The database search identified 519 relevant citations published between 1996 and March 24, 2009. Of the 519 abstracts reviewed, four RCTs and one abstract met the inclusion criteria outlined above. While efficacy outcomes were reported in each of the trials, a meta-analysis was not possible due to missing data around standard deviations of change values as well as missing data for the first period of the crossover arm of the trial. Meta-analysis was not possible on other outcomes (quality of life, insulin requirements, frequency of hypoglycemia) due to differences in reporting.
HbA1c
In studies where no baseline data was reported, the final values were used. Two studies (Hanaire-Broutin et al. 2000, Hoogma et al. 2005) reported a slight reduction in HbA1c of 0.35% and 0.22% respectively for CSII pumps in comparison to MDI. A slightly larger reduction in HbA1c of 0.84% was reported by DeVries et al.; however, this study was the only study to include patients with poor glycemic control marked by higher baseline HbA1c levels. One study (Bruttomesso et al. 2008) showed no difference between CSII pumps and MDI on Hba1c levels and was the only study using insulin glargine (consistent with results of parallel RCT in abstract by Bolli 2004). While there is statistically significant reduction in HbA1c in three of four trials, there is no evidence to suggest these results are clinically significant.
Mean Blood Glucose
Three of four studies reported a statistically significant reduction in the mean daily blood glucose for patients using CSII pump, though these results were not clinically significant. One study (DeVries et al. 2002) did not report study data on mean blood glucose but noted that the differences were not statistically significant. There is difficulty with interpreting study findings as blood glucose was measured differently across studies. Three of four studies used a glucose diary, while one study used a memory meter. In addition, frequency of self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) varied from four to nine times per day. Measurements used to determine differences in mean daily blood glucose between the CSII pump group and MDI group at clinic visits were collected at varying time points. Two studies use measurements from the last day prior to the final visit (Hoogma et al. 2005, DeVries et al. 2002), while one study used measurements taken during the last 30 days and another study used measurements taken during the 14 days prior to the final visit of each treatment period.
Glucose Variability
All four studies showed a statistically significant reduction in glucose variability for patients using CSII pumps compared to those using MDI, though one, Bruttomesso et al. 2008, only showed a significant reduction at the morning time point. Brutomesso et al. also used alternate measures of glucose variability and found that both the Lability index and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) were in concordance with the findings using the standard deviation (SD) values of mean blood glucose, but the average daily risk range (ADRR) showed no difference between the CSII pump and MDI groups.
Hypoglycemic Events
There is conflicting evidence concerning the efficacy of CSII pumps in decreasing both mild and severe hypoglycemic events. For mild hypoglycemic events, DeVries et al. observed a higher number of events per patient week in the CSII pump group than the MDI group, while Hoogma et al. observed a higher number of events per patient year in the MDI group. The remaining two studies found no differences between the two groups in the frequency of mild hypoglycemic events. For severe hypoglycemic events, Hoogma et al. found an increase in events per patient year among MDI patients, however, all of the other RCTs showed no difference between the patient groups in this aspect.
Insulin Requirements and Adverse Events
In all four studies, insulin requirements were significantly lower in patients receiving CSII pump treatment in comparison to MDI. This difference was statistically significant in all studies. Adverse events were reported in three studies. Devries et al. found no difference in ketoacidotic episodes between CSII pump and MDI users. Bruttomesso et al. reported no adverse events during the study. Hanaire-Broutin et al. found that 30 patients experienced 58 serious adverse events (SAEs) during MDI and 23 patients had 33 SAEs during treatment out of a total of 256 patients. Most events were related to severe hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis.
Quality of Life and Patient Preference
QoL was measured in three studies and patient preference was measured in one. All three studies found an improvement in QoL for CSII users compared to those using MDI, although various instruments were used among the studies and possible reporting bias was evident as non-positive outcomes were not consistently reported. Moreover, there was also conflicting results in two of the studies using the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ). DeVries et al. reported no difference in treatment satisfaction between CSII pump users and MDI users while Brutomesso et al. reported that treatment satisfaction improved among CSII pump users.
Patient preference for CSII pumps was demonstrated in just one study (Hanaire-Broutin et al. 2000) and there are considerable limitations with interpreting this data as it was gathered through interview and 72% of patients that preferred CSII pumps were previously on CSII pump therapy prior to the study. As all studies were industry sponsored, findings on QoL and patient preference must be interpreted with caution.
Quality of Evidence
Overall, the body of evidence was downgraded from high to low due to study quality and issues with directness as identified using the GRADE quality assessment tool (see Table 1) While blinding of patient to intervention/control was not feasible in these studies, blinding of study personnel during outcome assessment and allocation concealment were generally lacking. Trials reported consistent results for the outcomes HbA1c, mean blood glucose and glucose variability, but the directness or generalizability of studies, particularly with respect to the generalizability of the diabetic population, was questionable as most trials used highly motivated populations with fairly good glycemic control. In addition, the populations in each of the studies varied with respect to prior treatment regimens, which may not be generalizable to the population eligible for pumps in Ontario. For the outcome of hypoglycaemic events the evidence was further downgraded to very low since there was conflicting evidence between studies with respect to the frequency of mild and severe hypoglycaemic events in patients using CSII pumps as compared to CSII (see Table 2). The GRADE quality of evidence for the use of CSII in adults with type 1 diabetes is therefore low to very low and any estimate of effect is, therefore, uncertain.
GRADE Quality Assessment for CSII pumps vs. MDI on HbA1c, Mean Blood Glucose, and Glucose Variability for Adults with Type 1 Diabetes
Inadequate or unknown allocation concealment (3/4 studies); Unblinded assessment (all studies) however lack of blinding due to the nature of the study; No ITT analysis (2/4 studies); possible bias SMBG (all studies)
HbA1c: 3/4 studies show consistency however magnitude of effect varies greatly; Single study uses insulin glargine instead of NPH; Mean Blood Glucose: 3/4 studies show consistency however magnitude of effect varies between studies; Glucose Variability: All studies show consistency but 1 study only showed a significant effect in the morning
Generalizability in question due to varying populations: highly motivated populations, educational component of interventions/ run-in phases, insulin pen use in 2/4 studies and varying levels of baseline glycemic control and experience with intensified insulin therapy, pumps and MDI.
GRADE Quality Assessment for CSII pumps vs. MDI on Frequency of Hypoglycemic
Inadequate or unknown allocation concealment (3/4 studies); Unblinded assessment (all studies) however lack of blinding due to the nature of the study; No ITT analysis (2/4 studies); possible bias SMBG (all studies)
Conflicting evidence with respect to mild and severe hypoglycemic events reported in studies
Generalizability in question due to varying populations: highly motivated populations, educational component of interventions/ run-in phases, insulin pen use in 2/4 studies and varying levels of baseline glycemic control and experience with intensified insulin therapy, pumps and MDI.
Economic Analysis
One article was included in the analysis from the economic literature scan. Four other economic evaluations were identified but did not meet our inclusion criteria. Two of these articles did not compare CSII with MDI and the other two articles used summary estimates from a mixed population with Type 1 and 2 diabetes in their economic microsimulation to estimate costs and effects over time. Included were English articles that conducted comparisons between CSII and MDI with the outcome of Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) in an adult population with type 1 diabetes.
From one study, a subset of the population with type 1 diabetes was identified that may be suitable and benefit from using insulin pumps. There is, however, limited data in the literature addressing the cost-effectiveness of insulin pumps versus MDI in type 1 diabetes. Longer term models are required to estimate the long term costs and effects of pumps compared to MDI in this population.
Conclusions
CSII pumps for the treatment of adults with type 1 diabetes
Based on low-quality evidence, CSII pumps confer a statistically significant but not clinically significant reduction in HbA1c and mean daily blood glucose as compared to MDI in adults with type 1 diabetes (>19 years).
CSII pumps also confer a statistically significant reduction in glucose variability as compared to MDI in adults with type 1 diabetes (>19 years) however the clinical significance is unknown.
There is indirect evidence that the use of newer long-acting insulins (e.g. insulin glargine) in MDI regimens result in less of a difference between MDI and CSII compared to differences between MDI and CSII in which older insulins are used.
There is conflicting evidence regarding both mild and severe hypoglycemic events in this population when using CSII pumps as compared to MDI. These findings are based on very low-quality evidence.
There is an improved quality of life for patients using CSII pumps as compared to MDI however, limitations exist with this evidence.
Significant limitations of the literature exist specifically:
All studies sponsored by insulin pump manufacturers
All studies used crossover design
Prior treatment regimens varied
Types of insulins used in study varied (NPH vs. glargine)
Generalizability of studies in question as populations were highly motivated and half of studies used insulin pens as the mode of delivery for MDI
One short-term study concluded that pumps are cost-effective, although this was based on limited data and longer term models are required to estimate the long-term costs and effects of pumps compared to MDI in adults with type 1 diabetes.
Part B: Type 2 Diabetic Adults
Research Questions
Are CSII pumps more effective than MDI for improving glycemic control in adults (≥19 years) with type 2 diabetes?
Are CSII pumps more effective than MDI for improving other outcomes related to diabetes such as quality of life?
Literature Search
Inclusion Criteria
Randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and/or health technology assessments from MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL)
Any person with type 2 diabetes requiring insulin treatment intensive
Published between January 1, 2000 – August 2008
Exclusion Criteria
Studies with <10 patients
Studies <5 weeks in duration
CSII applied only at night time and not 24 hours/day
Mixed group of diabetes patients (children, adults, type 1, type 2)
Pregnancy studies
Outcomes of Interest
The primary outcome of interest was a reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Other outcomes of interest were mean blood glucose level, glucose variability, insulin requirements, frequency of hypoglycemic events, adverse events, and quality of life.
Search Strategy
A comprehensive literature search was performed in OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) for studies published between January 1, 2000 and August 15, 2008. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were selected from the search results. Data on the study characteristics, patient characteristics, primary and secondary treatment outcomes, and adverse events were abstracted. Reference lists of selected articles were also checked for relevant studies. The quality of the evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to the GRADE methodology.
Summary of Findings
The database search identified 286 relevant citations published between 1996 and August 2008. Of the 286 abstracts reviewed, four RCTs met the inclusion criteria outlined above. Upon examination, two studies were subsequently excluded from the meta-analysis due to small sample size and missing data (Berthe et al.), as well as outlier status and high drop out rate (Wainstein et al) which is consistent with previously reported meta-analyses on this topic (Jeitler et al 2008, and Fatourechi M et al. 2009).
HbA1c
The primary outcome in this analysis was reduction in HbA1c. Both studies demonstrated that both CSII pumps and MDI reduce HbA1c, but neither treatment modality was found to be superior to the other. The results of a random effects model meta-analysis showed a mean difference in HbA1c of -0.14 (-0.40, 0.13) between the two groups, which was found not to be statistically or clinically significant. There was no statistical heterogeneity observed between the two studies (I2=0%).
Forrest plot of two parallel, RCTs comparing CSII to MDI in type 2 diabetes
Secondary Outcomes
Mean Blood Glucose and Glucose Variability
Mean blood glucose was only used as an efficacy outcome in one study (Raskin et al. 2003). The authors found that the only time point in which there were consistently lower blood glucose values for the CSII group compared to the MDI group was 90 minutes after breakfast. Glucose variability was not examined in either study and the authors reported no difference in weight gain between the CSII pump group and MDI groups at the end of study. Conflicting results were reported regarding injection site reactions between the two studies. Herman et al. reported no difference in the number of subjects experiencing site problems between the two groups, while Raskin et al. reported that there were no injection site reactions in the MDI group but 15 such episodes among 8 participants in the CSII pump group.
Frequency of Hypoglycemic Events and Insulin Requirements
All studies reported that there were no differences in the number of mild hypoglycemic events in patients on CSII pumps versus MDI. Herman et al. also reported no differences in the number of severe hypoglycemic events in patients using CSII pumps compared to those on MDI. Raskin et al. reported that there were no severe hypoglycemic events in either group throughout the study duration. Insulin requirements were only examined in Herman et al., who found that daily insulin requirements were equal between the CSII pump and MDI treatment groups.
Quality of Life
QoL was measured by Herman et al. using the Diabetes Quality of Life Clinical Trial Questionnaire (DQOLCTQ). There were no differences reported between CSII users and MDI users for treatment satisfaction, diabetes impact, and worry-related scores. Patient satisfaction was measured in Raskin et al. using a patient satisfaction questionnaire, whose results indicated that patients in the CSII pump group had significantly greater improvement in overall treatment satisfaction at the end of the study compared to the MDI group. Although patient preference was also reported, it was only examined in the CSII pump group, thus results indicating a greater preference for CSII pumps in this groups (as compared to prior injectable insulin regimens) are biased and must be interpreted with caution.
Quality of Evidence
Overall, the body of evidence was downgraded from high to low according to study quality and issues with directness as identified using the GRADE quality assessment tool (see Table 3). While blinding of patient to intervention/control is not feasible in these studies, blinding of study personnel during outcome assessment and allocation concealment were generally lacking. ITT was not clearly explained in one study and heterogeneity between study populations was evident from participants’ treatment regimens prior to study initiation. Although trials reported consistent results for HbA1c outcomes, the directness or generalizability of studies, particularly with respect to the generalizability of the diabetic population, was questionable as trials required patients to adhere to an intense SMBG regimen. This suggests that patients were highly motivated. In addition, since prior treatment regimens varied between participants (no requirement for patients to be on MDI), study findings may not be generalizable to the population eligible for a pump in Ontario. The GRADE quality of evidence for the use of CSII in adults with type 2 diabetes is, therefore, low and any estimate of effect is uncertain.
GRADE Quality Assessment for CSII pumps vs. MDI on HbA1c Adults with Type 2 Diabetes
Inadequate or unknown allocation concealment (all studies); Unblinded assessment (all studies) however lack of blinding due to the nature of the study; ITT not well explained in 1 of 2 studies
Indirect due to lack of generalizability of findings since participants varied with respect to prior treatment regimens and intensive SMBG suggests highly motivated populations used in trials.
Economic Analysis
An economic analysis of CSII pumps was carried out using the Ontario Diabetes Economic Model (ODEM) and has been previously described in the report entitled “Application of the Ontario Diabetes Economic Model (ODEM) to Determine the Cost-effectiveness and Budget Impact of Selected Type 2 Diabetes Interventions in Ontario”, part of the diabetes strategy evidence series. Based on the analysis, CSII pumps are not cost-effective for adults with type 2 diabetes, either for the age 65+ sub-group or for all patients in general. Details of the analysis can be found in the full report.
Conclusions
CSII pumps for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes
There is low quality evidence demonstrating that the efficacy of CSII pumps is not superior to MDI for adult type 2 diabetics.
There were no differences in the number of mild and severe hypoglycemic events in patients on CSII pumps versus MDI.
There are conflicting findings with respect to an improved quality of life for patients using CSII pumps as compared to MDI.
Significant limitations of the literature exist specifically:
All studies sponsored by insulin pump manufacturers
Prior treatment regimens varied
Types of insulins used in study varied (NPH vs. glargine)
Generalizability of studies in question as populations may not reflect eligible patient population in Ontario (participants not necessarily on MDI prior to study initiation, pen used in one study and frequency of SMBG required during study was high suggesting highly motivated participants)
Based on ODEM, insulin pumps are not cost-effective for adults with type 2 diabetes either for the age 65+ sub-group or for all patients in general.
PMCID: PMC3377523  PMID: 23074525
8.  Comparison of insulin lispro protamine suspension versus insulin glargine once daily added to oral antihyperglycaemic medications and exenatide in type 2 diabetes: a prospective randomized open-label trial 
Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism  2013;16(6):510-518.
Aims
To compare efficacy and safety of two, once-daily basal insulin formulations [insulin lispro protamine suspension (ILPS) vs. insulin glargine (glargine)] added to oral antihyperglycaemic medications (OAMs) and exenatide BID in suboptimally controlled type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients.
Methods
This 24-week, open-label, multicentre trial randomized patients to bedtime ILPS (n = 171) or glargine (n = 168). Non-inferiority of ILPS versus glargine was assessed by comparing the upper limit of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for change in haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from baseline to week 24 (adjusted for baseline HbA1c) with non-inferiority margin 0.4%.
Results
Non-inferiority of ILPS versus glargine was demonstrated: least-squares mean between-treatment difference (ILPS minus glargine) (95% CI) was 0.22% (0.06, 0.38). Mean HbA1c reduction was less for ILPS- versus glargine-treated patients (−1.16 ± 0.84 vs. −1.40 ± 0.97%, p = 0.008). Endpoint HbA1c < 7.0% was achieved by 53.7% (ILPS) and 61.7% (glargine) (p = NS). Overall hypoglycaemia rates (p = NS) and severe hypoglycaemia incidence (p = NS) were similar. Nocturnal hypoglycaemia rate was higher in patients treated with ILPS versus glargine (p = 0.004). Weight gain was similar between groups (ILPS: 0.27 ± 3.38 kg; glargine: 0.66 ± 3.93 kg, p = NS). Endpoint total insulin doses were lower in patients treated with ILPS versus glargine (0.30 ± 0.17 vs. 0.37 ± 0.17 IU/kg/day, p < 0.001).
Conclusions
ILPS was non-inferior to glargine for HbA1c change over 24 weeks, but was associated with less HbA1c reduction and more nocturnal hypoglycaemia. Treat-to-target basal insulin therapy improves glycaemic control and is associated with minimal weight gain when added to OAMs and exenatide BID for suboptimally controlled T2D.
doi:10.1111/dom.12242
PMCID: PMC4237556  PMID: 24298995
exenatide; glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapy; glycaemic control; HbA1c; hypoglycaemia; insulin glargine; insulin lispro protamine suspension; type 2 diabetes
9.  Report of the Committee on the Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Diabetes Mellitus 
Abstract
Concept of Diabetes Mellitus:
Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases associated with various metabolic disorders, the main feature of which is chronic hyperglycemia due to insufficient insulin action. Its pathogenesis involves both genetic and environmental factors. The long‐term persistence of metabolic disorders can cause susceptibility to specific complications and also foster arteriosclerosis. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a broad range of clinical presentations, from being asymptomatic to ketoacidosis or coma, depending on the degree of metabolic disorder.
Classification (Tables 1 and 2, and Figure 1):
 Etiological classification of diabetes mellitus and glucose metabolism disorders
Note: Those that cannot at present be classified as any of the above are called unclassifiable.
The occurrence of diabetes‐specific complications has not been confirmed in some of these conditions.
 Diabetes mellitus and glucose metabolism disorders due to other specific mechanisms and diseases
The occurrence of diabetes‐specific complications has not been confirmed in some of these conditions.
 A scheme of the relationship between etiology (mechanism) and patho‐physiological stages (states) of diabetes mellitus. Arrows pointing right represent worsening of glucose metabolism disorders (including onset of diabetes mellitus). Among the arrow lines, indicates the condition classified as ‘diabetes mellitus’. Arrows pointing left represent improvement in the glucose metabolism disorder. The broken lines indicate events of low frequency. For example, in type 2 diabetes mellitus, infection can lead to ketoacidosis and require temporary insulin treatment for survival. Also, once diabetes mellitus has developed, it is treated as diabetes mellitus regardless of improvement in glucose metabolism, therefore, the arrow lines pointing left are filled in black. In such cases, a broken line is used, because complete normalization of glucose metabolism is rare.
The classification of glucose metabolism disorders is principally derived from etiology, and includes staging of pathophysiology based on the degree of deficiency of insulin action. These disorders are classified into four groups: (i) type 1 diabetes mellitus; (ii) type 2 diabetes mellitus; (iii) diabetes mellitus due to other specific mechanisms or diseases; and (iv) gestational diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by destruction of pancreatic β‐cells. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by combinations of decreased insulin secretion and decreased insulin sensitivity (insulin resistance). Glucose metabolism disorders in category (iii) are divided into two subgroups; subgroup A is diabetes in which a genetic abnormality has been identified, and subgroup B is diabetes associated with other pathologic disorders or clinical conditions. The staging of glucose metabolism includes normal, borderline and diabetic stages depending on the degree of hyperglycemia occurring as a result of the lack of insulin action or clinical condition. The diabetic stage is then subdivided into three substages: non‐insulin‐ requiring, insulin‐requiring for glycemic control, and insulin‐dependent for survival. The two former conditions are called non‐insulin‐dependent diabetes and the latter is known as insulin‐dependent diabetes. In each individual, these stages may vary according to the deterioration or the improvement of the metabolic state, either spontaneously or by treatment.
Diagnosis (Tables 3–7 and Figure 2):
 Criteria of fasting plasma glucose levels and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test 2‐h value
*Casual plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL (≥11.1 mmol/L) and HbA1c≥6.5% are also regarded as to indicate diabetic type.
Even for normal type, if 1‐h value is 180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L), the risk of progression to diabetes mellitus is greater than for <180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L) and should be treated as with borderline type (follow‐up observation, etc.). Fasting plasma glucose level of 100–109 mg/dL (5.5–6.0 mmol/L) is called ‘high‐normal’: within the range of normal fasting plasma glucose.
Plasma glucose level after glucose load in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is not included in casual plasma glucose levels. The value for HbA1c (%) is indicated with 0.4% added to HbA1c (JDS) (%).
 Procedures for diagnosing diabetes mellitus
*The value for HbA1c (%) is indicated with 0.4% added to HbA1c (JDS) (%). **Hyperglycemia must be confirmed in a non‐stressful condition. OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.
 Disorders and conditions associated with low HbA1c values
 Situations where a 75‐g oral glucose tolerance test is recommended
*The value for HbA1c (%) is indicated with 0.4% added to HbA1c (JDS) (%).
 Definition and diagnostic criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus
(IADPSG Consensus Panel, Reference 42, partly modified with permission of Diabetes Care).
 Flow chart outlining steps in the clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. *The value for HbA1c (%) is indicated with 0.4% added to HbA1c (JDS) (%).
Categories of the State of Glycemia:  Confirmation of chronic hyperglycemia is essential for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. When plasma glucose levels are used to determine the categories of glycemia, patients are classified as having a diabetic type if they meet one of the following criteria: (i) fasting plasma glucose level of ≥126 mg/dL (≥7.0 mmol/L); (ii) 2‐h value of ≥200 mg/dL (≥11.1 mmol/L) in 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); or (iii) casual plasma glucose level of ≥200 mg/dL (≥11.1 mmol/L). Normal type is defined as fasting plasma glucose level of <110 mg/dL (<6.1 mmol/L) and 2‐h value of <140 mg/dL (<7.8 mmol/L) in OGTT. Borderline type (neither diabetic nor normal type) is defined as falling between the diabetic and normal values. According to the current revision, in addition to the earlier listed plasma glucose values, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been given a more prominent position as one of the diagnostic criteria. That is, (iv) HbA1c≥6.5% is now also considered to indicate diabetic type. The value of HbA1c, which is equivalent to the internationally used HbA1c (%) (HbA1c [NGSP]) defined by the NGSP (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program), is expressed by adding 0.4% to the HbA1c (JDS) (%) defined by the Japan Diabetes Society (JDS).
Subjects with borderline type have a high rate of developing diabetes mellitus, and correspond to the combination of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) noted by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and WHO. Although borderline cases show few of the specific complications of diabetes mellitus, the risk of arteriosclerosis is higher than those of normal type. When HbA1c is 6.0–6.4%, suspected diabetes mellitus cannot be excluded, and when HbA1c of 5.6–5.9% is included, it forms a group with a high risk for developing diabetes mellitus in the future, even if they do not have it currently.
Clinical Diagnosis:  1 If any of the criteria for diabetic type (i) through to (iv) is observed at the initial examination, the patient is judged to be ‘diabetic type’. Re‐examination is conducted on another day, and if ‘diabetic type’ is reconfirmed, diabetes mellitus is diagnosed. However, a diagnosis cannot be made only by the re‐examination of HbA1c alone. Moreover, if the plasma glucose values (any of criteria [i], [ii], or [iii]) and the HbA1c (criterion [iv]) in the same blood sample both indicate diabetic type, diabetes mellitus is diagnosed based on the initial examination alone. If HbA1c is used, it is essential that the plasma glucose level (criteria [i], [ii] or [iii]) also indicates diabetic type for a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. When diabetes mellitus is suspected, HbA1c should be measured at the same time as examination for plasma glucose.2 If the plasma glucose level indicates diabetic type (any of [i], [ii], or [iii]) and either of the following conditions exists, diabetes mellitus can be diagnosed immediately at the initial examination.• The presence of typical symptoms of diabetes mellitus (thirst, polydipsia, polyuria, weight loss)• The presence of definite diabetic retinopathy3 If it can be confirmed that the above conditions 1 or 2 existed in the past, diabetes mellitus can be diagnosed or suspected regardless of the current test results.4 If the diagnosis of diabetes cannot be established by these procedures, the patient is followed up and re‐examined after an appropriate interval.5 The physician should assess not only the presence or absence of diabetes, but also its etiology and glycemic stage, and the presence and absence of diabetic complications or associated conditions.
Epidemiological Study:  For the purpose of estimating the frequency of diabetes mellitus, ‘diabetes mellitus’ can be substituted for the determination of ‘diabetic type’ from a single examination. In this case, HbA1c≥6.5% alone can be defined as ‘diabetes mellitus’.
Health Screening:  It is important not to misdiagnose diabetes mellitus, and thus clinical information such as family history and obesity should be referred to at the time of screening in addition to an index for plasma glucose level.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus:  There are two hyperglycemic disorders in pregnancy: (i) gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); and (ii) diabetes mellitus. GDM is diagnosed if one or more of the following criteria is met in a 75 g OGTT during pregnancy:
1 Fasting plasma glucose level of ≥92 mg/dL (5.1 mmol/L)2 1‐h value of ≥180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L)3 2‐h value of ≥153 mg/dL (8.5 mmol/L)
However, diabetes mellitus that is diagnosed by the clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus defined earlier is excluded from GDM. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040‐1124.2010.00074.x, 2010)
doi:10.1111/j.2040-1124.2010.00074.x
PMCID: PMC4020724  PMID: 24843435
Diabetes mellitus; Clinical diagnosis; HbA1c
10.  Hemoglobin A1c Levels and Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia in Children and Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes from Germany and Austria: A Trend Analysis in a Cohort of 37,539 Patients between 1995 and 2012 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(10):e1001742.
In a cohort study, Beate Karges and colleagues find that the association between low hemoglobin A1C and severe hypoglycemia in children and young adults with type 1 diabetes has decreased over the period between 1995 and 2012.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
Severe hypoglycemia is a major complication of insulin treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes, limiting full realization of glycemic control. It has been shown in the past that low levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), a marker of average plasma glucose, predict a high risk of severe hypoglycemia, but it is uncertain whether this association still exists. Based on advances in diabetes technology and pharmacotherapy, we hypothesized that the inverse association between severe hypoglycemia and HbA1c has decreased in recent years.
Methods and Findings
We analyzed data of 37,539 patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age ± standard deviation 14.4±3.8 y, range 1–20 y) from the DPV (Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation) Initiative diabetes cohort prospectively documented between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2012. The DPV cohort covers an estimated proportion of >80% of all pediatric diabetes patients in Germany and Austria. Associations of severe hypoglycemia, hypoglycemic coma, and HbA1c levels were assessed by multivariable regression analysis. From 1995 to 2012, the relative risk (RR) for severe hypoglycemia and coma per 1% HbA1c decrease declined from 1.28 (95% CI 1.19–1.37) to 1.05 (1.00–1.09) and from 1.39 (1.23–1.56) to 1.01 (0.93–1.10), respectively, corresponding to a risk reduction of 1.2% (95% CI 0.6–1.7, p<0.001) and 1.9% (0.8–2.9, p<0.001) each year, respectively. Risk reduction of severe hypoglycemia and coma was strongest in patients with HbA1c levels of 6.0%–6.9% (RR 0.96 and 0.90 each year) and 7.0%–7.9% (RR 0.96 and 0.89 each year). From 1995 to 2012, glucose monitoring frequency and the use of insulin analogs and insulin pumps increased (p<0.001). Our study was not designed to investigate the effects of different treatment modalities on hypoglycemia risk. Limitations are that associations between diabetes education and physical activity and severe hypoglycemia were not addressed in this study.
Conclusions
The previously strong association of low HbA1c with severe hypoglycemia and coma in young individuals with type 1 diabetes has substantially decreased in the last decade, allowing achievement of near-normal glycemic control in these patients.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Worldwide, more than 380 million people have diabetes, a chronic disorder characterized by high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Blood sugar levels are usually controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. In people with diabetes, blood sugar control fails because they make no insulin (type 1 diabetes) or because the cells that normally respond to insulin by removing sugar from the blood have become insulin-resistant (type 2 diabetes). Type 1 diabetes, which tends to develop in childhood or early adulthood, is responsible for about 10% of cases of diabetes in adults and is treated with injections of insulin. Type 2 diabetes can usually be treated with diet, exercise, and antidiabetic drugs. With both types of diabetes, it is important to keep blood sugar levels within the normal range (good glycemic control) to reduce the long-term complications of diabetes, which include kidney failure, blindness, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Why Was This Study Done?
Patients with type 1 diabetes can achieve strict glycemic control using intensive insulin therapy, but such treatment is associated with a risk of severe or fatal hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Past studies have found an association between low levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, a marker of average blood sugar levels over the past 2–3 months; a low HbA1c percentage indicates good glycemic control) and a high risk of severe hypoglycemia. Because of this inverse association, people at risk of severe hypoglycemia are advised to aim for an HbA1c of 7.5% or less, which puts them at risk of diabetic complications (most adults with diabetes aim for an HbA1c of 6.5% or less; people without diabetes have Hb1Ac readings below 6.05%). With recent improvements in insulin therapy, it is not clear whether the inverse association between the incidence of severe hypoglycemia and HbA1c levels still exists. In this trend analysis, the researchers investigate the association over time between HbA1C levels and the risk of severe hypoglycemia in a large cohort (group) of Austrian and German children and young adults with type 1 diabetes.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers analyzed data on Hb1Ac levels and on incidents of severe hypoglycemia and hypoglycemic coma collected from 37,539 children and young adults with type 1 diabetes between 1995 and 2012 by the DPV (Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation) Initiative for diabetes care. The DPV cohort includes around 80% of all children and young adults with type 1 diabetes in Germany and Austria. Over the study period, the use of insulin analogs (compounds related to insulin that keep blood sugar levels steadier than regular insulin injections) and of insulin pumps (which deliver constant amounts of short-acting insulin analogs to the body) increased, and there was an increase in how often patients monitored their blood sugar level. Notably, between 1995 and 2012, the relative risk for severe hypoglycemia per 1% decrease in Hb1Ac declined from 1.28 to 1.05, and the relative risk for hypoglycemic coma per 1% decrease in Hb1Ac declined from 1.39 to 1.01. That is, the strength of the inverse association between severe hypoglycemia or coma and HbA1c decreased during the study period. Expressed another way, between 1995 and 2012, the relative risk for severe hypoglycemia and coma per 1% HbA1c decrease dropped by 1.2% and 1.9%, respectively, each year.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings reveal a substantial decrease since 1995 in the previously strong inverse association between low HbA1c levels and severe hypoglycemia and hypoglycemic coma in this cohort of young Germans and Austrians with type 1 diabetes. This decrease mainly occurred because of substantial reductions in the risk of hypoglycemia in patients with HbA1c levels between 6.0% and 7.9%, but the study provides no information about the drivers of this reduction. Moreover, these findings may apply only to young type 1 diabetes patients of European descent, and their accuracy may be limited by other aspects of the study design. However, by showing that HbA1c has become a minor predictor for severe hypoglycemia in this group of patients, these findings suggest that strict glycemic control in young patients with type 1 diabetes has become safer in recent years. Thus, it should now be possible to reduce the risk of long-term diabetic complications in such patients through achievement of near-normal glycemic control without increasing patients' risk of severe hypoglycemia.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001742.
The US National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse provides information about diabetes for patients, health care professionals, and the general public (in English and Spanish), including information on the HbA1c test and a description of a trial that compared the effects of intensive versus conventional treatment of blood glucose levels on the development of diabetic complications in patients with type 1 diabetes
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides information for patients and carers about type 1 diabetes, including a video that describes parents' experiences caring for a child with type 1 diabetes, and information about treating type 1 diabetes that includes a short video about HbA1c
The charity Diabetes UK provides detailed information about type 1 diabetes for patients and carers
The UK-based non-profit organization Healthtalkonline provides information about type 1 diabetes and young people, including interviews with young people about their experiences of the condition
MedlinePlus provides links to further resources and advice about type 1 diabetes (in English and Spanish)
Information about the DPV Initiative is available (mainly in German)
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001742
PMCID: PMC4188517  PMID: 25289645
11.  Home Telemonitoring for Type 2 Diabetes 
Executive Summary
In June 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Diabetes Strategy Evidence Project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding strategies for successful management and treatment of diabetes. This project came about when the Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the Ministry’s newly released Diabetes Strategy.
After an initial review of the strategy and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified five key areas in which evidence was needed. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these five areas: insulin pumps, behavioural interventions, bariatric surgery, home telemonitoring, and community based care. For each area, an economic analysis was completed where appropriate and is described in a separate report.
To review these titles within the Diabetes Strategy Evidence series, please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html,
Diabetes Strategy Evidence Platform: Summary of Evidence-Based Analyses
Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Pumps for Type 1 and Type 2 Adult Diabetics: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Behavioural Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Bariatric Surgery for People with Diabetes and Morbid Obesity: An Evidence-Based Summary
Community-Based Care for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Home Telemonitoring for Type 2 Diabetes: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Application of the Ontario Diabetes Economic Model (ODEM) to Determine the Cost-effectiveness and Budget Impact of Selected Type 2 Diabetes Interventions in Ontario
Objective
The objective of this report is to determine whether home telemonitoring and management of blood glucose is effective for improving glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.
Background
An aging population coupled with a shortage of nurses and physicians in Ontario is increasing the demand for home care services for chronic diseases, including diabetes. In recent years, there has also been a concurrent rise in the number of blood glucose home telemonitoring technologies available for diabetes management. The Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) currently recommends self-monitoring of blood glucose for patients with type 2 diabetes, particularly for individuals using insulin. With the emergence of home telemonitoring, there is potential for improving the impact of self-monitoring by linking patients with health care professionals who can monitor blood glucose values and then provide guided recommendations remotely. The MAS has, therefore, conducted a review of the available evidence on blood glucose home telemonitoring and management technologies for type 2 diabetes.
Evidence-Based Analysis of Effectiveness
Research Question
Is home telemonitoring of blood glucose for adults with type 2 diabetes more efficacious in improving glycemic control (i.e. can it reduce HbA1c levels) in comparison to usual care?
Literature Search
Inclusion Criteria
Intervention: Must involve the frequent transmission of remotely-collected blood glucose measurements by patients to health care professionals for routine monitoring through the use of home telemonitoring technology.
Intervention: Monitoring must be combined with a coordinated management and feedback system based on transmitted data.
Control: Usual diabetes care as provided by the usual care provider (usual care largely varies by jurisdiction and study).
Population: Adults ≥18 years of age with type 2 diabetes.
Follow-up: ≥6 months.
Sample size: ≥30 patients total.
Publication type: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews, and/or meta-analyses.
Publication date range: January 1, 1998 to January 31, 2009.
Exclusion Criteria
Studies with a control group other than usual care.
Studies published in a language other than English.
Studies in which there is indication that the monitoring of patients’ diabetic measurements by a health care professional(s) was not occurring more frequently in intervention patients than in control patients receiving usual care.
Outcomes of Interest
The primary outcome of interest was a reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels.
Search Strategy
A comprehensive literature search was performed in OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, and INAHTA for studies published between January 1, 2007 and January 31, 2009. The search was designed as a continuation of a search undertaken for a systematic review by the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, originally encompassing studies published from 1950 up until July of 2008 and which reviewed home telemonitoring in comparison to usual care for the management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Summary of Findings
A total of eight studies identified by the literature search were eligible for inclusion (one was excluded post-hoc from analysis). Studies varied considerably on characteristics of design, population, and intervention/control. Of note, few trials limited populations to type 2 diabetics only, thus trials with mixed populations (type 1 and type 2) were included, though in such cases, the majority of patients (>60%) had type 2 diabetes. No studies restricted inclusion or analyses by diabetes treatment type (i.e. populations were mixed with respect to those on insulin therapy vs. not) and studies further varied on whether intervention was provided in addition to usual care or as a replacement. Lastly, trials often included blood glucose home telemonitoring as an adjunct to other telemedicine components and thus the incremental value of adding home telemonitoring remains unclear. The overall grading of the quality of evidence was low, indicating that there is uncertainty in the findings.
Meta-analysis of the seven trials identified a moderate but significant reduction in HbA1c levels (~0.5% reduction) in favour blood glucose home telemonitoring compared to usual care for adults with type 2 diabetes). Subgroup analyses suggested differences in effect size depending on the type of intervention, however, these findings should be held under caution as the analyses were exploratory in nature and intervention components overlapped between subgroups.
Meta-Analyses of Reduction in HbA1c Values for Analyzed Studies
Conclusions
Based on low quality evidence, blood glucose home telemonitoring technologies confer a statistically significant reduction in HbA1c of ~0.50% in comparison to usual care when used adjunctively to a broader telemedicine initiative for adults with type 2 diabetes.
Exploratory analysis suggests differences in effect sizes for the primary outcome when analyzing by subgroup; however, this should only be viewed as exploratory or hypothesis-generating only.
Significant limitations and/or sources of clinical heterogeneity are present in the available literature, generating great uncertainty in conclusions.
More robust trials in type 2 diabetics only, utilizing more modern technologies, preferably performed in an Ontario or a similar setting (given the infrastructure demands and that the standard comparator is usual care), while separating out the effects of other telemedicine intervention components, are needed to clarify the effect of emerging remote blood glucose monitoring technologies.
PMCID: PMC3377533  PMID: 23074529
12.  Hypoglycaemic events in patients with type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom: associations with patient-reported outcomes and self-reported HbA1c 
Background
One possible barrier to effective diabetes self-management is hypoglycaemia associated with diabetes medication. The current study was conducted to characterize hypoglycaemic events among UK patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated with antihyperglycaemic medications, and assess the relationship between experience of hypoglycaemic events and health outcomes, including glycaemic control, health-related quality of life, impairment to work and non-work activities, treatment satisfaction, adherence to treatment, fear of hypoglycaemia, and healthcare resource use.
Methods
An online survey of 1,329 T2D patients in UK drawn from an opt-in survey panel was conducted in February of 2012 with monthly follow-up questionnaires for five months. Measures included self-reported HbA1c, EQ-5D, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire, Diabetes Medication Satisfaction Tool, Morisky medication adherence scale, the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey (revised), and self-reported healthcare resource use. Comparisons were conducted using t-tests and chi-square tests for continuous and categorical variables, respectively.
Results
Baseline comparisons showed that worse HbA1c, greater diabetes-related healthcare resource use, greater fear of hypoglycaemia, and impaired health outcomes were associated with experience of hypoglycaemia in the four weeks prior to baseline. Longitudinal results were similar in direction but differences on few measures were significant.
Conclusions
In real-world UK T2D patients, hypoglycaemia is associated with worse self-reported glycaemic control, behaviours that contribute to worse glycaemic control, and impairment in patient-reported outcomes.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-13-59
PMCID: PMC3878264  PMID: 24351086
Hypoglycaemia; Hypoglycaemic events; Health related quality of life; Hypoglycaemia fear; Treatment satisfaction
13.  Patterns of Obesity Development before the Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes: The Whitehall II Cohort Study 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(2):e1001602.
Examining patterns of change in body mass index (BMI) and other cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals during the years before they were diagnosed with diabetes, Kristine Færch and colleagues report that few of them experienced dramatic BMI changes.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
Patients with type 2 diabetes vary greatly with respect to degree of obesity at time of diagnosis. To address the heterogeneity of type 2 diabetes, we characterised patterns of change in body mass index (BMI) and other cardiometabolic risk factors before type 2 diabetes diagnosis.
Methods and Findings
We studied 6,705 participants from the Whitehall II study, an observational prospective cohort study of civil servants based in London. White men and women, initially free of diabetes, were followed with 5-yearly clinical examinations from 1991–2009 for a median of 14.1 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 8.7–16.2 years). Type 2 diabetes developed in 645 (1,209 person-examinations) and 6,060 remained free of diabetes during follow-up (14,060 person-examinations). Latent class trajectory analysis of incident diabetes cases was used to identify patterns of pre-disease BMI. Associated trajectories of cardiometabolic risk factors were studied using adjusted mixed-effects models. Three patterns of BMI changes were identified. Most participants belonged to the “stable overweight” group (n = 604, 94%) with a relatively constant BMI level within the overweight category throughout follow-up. They experienced slightly worsening of beta cell function and insulin sensitivity from 5 years prior to diagnosis. A small group of “progressive weight gainers” (n = 15) exhibited a pattern of consistent weight gain before diagnosis. Linear increases in blood pressure and an exponential increase in insulin resistance a few years before diagnosis accompanied the weight gain. The “persistently obese” (n = 26) were severely obese throughout the whole 18 years before diabetes diagnosis. They experienced an initial beta cell compensation followed by loss of beta cell function, whereas insulin sensitivity was relatively stable. Since the generalizability of these findings is limited, the results need confirmation in other study populations.
Conclusions
Three patterns of obesity changes prior to diabetes diagnosis were accompanied by distinct trajectories of insulin resistance and other cardiometabolic risk factors in a white, British population. While these results should be verified independently, the great majority of patients had modest weight gain prior to diagnosis. These results suggest that strategies focusing on small weight reductions for the entire population may be more beneficial than predominantly focusing on weight loss for high-risk individuals.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Worldwide, more than 350 million people have diabetes, a metabolic disorder characterized by high amounts of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Blood sugar levels are normally controlled by insulin, a hormone released by the pancreas after meals (digestion of food produces glucose). In people with type 2 diabetes (the commonest form of diabetes) blood sugar control fails because the fat and muscle cells that normally respond to insulin by removing sugar from the blood become insulin resistant. Type 2 diabetes, which was previously called adult-onset diabetes, can be controlled with diet and exercise, and with drugs that help the pancreas make more insulin or that make cells more sensitive to insulin. Long-term complications, which include an increased risk of heart disease and stroke, reduce the life expectancy of people with diabetes by about 10 years compared to people without diabetes. The number of people with diabetes is expected to increase dramatically over the next decades, coinciding with rising obesity rates in many countries. To better understand diabetes development, to identify people at risk, and to find ways to prevent the disease are urgent public health goals.
Why Was This Study Done?
It is known that people who are overweight or obese have a higher risk of developing diabetes. Because of this association, a common assumption is that people who experienced recent weight gain are more likely to be diagnosed with diabetes. In this prospective cohort study (an investigation that records the baseline characteristics of a group of people and then follows them to see who develops specific conditions), the researchers tested the hypothesis that substantial weight gain precedes a diagnosis of diabetes and explored more generally the patterns of body weight and composition in the years before people develop diabetes. They then examined whether changes in body weight corresponded with changes in other risk factors for diabetes (such as insulin resistance), lipid profiles and blood pressure.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers studied participants from the Whitehall II study, a prospective cohort study initiated in 1985 to investigate the socioeconomic inequalities in disease. Whitehall II enrolled more than 10,000 London-based government employees. Participants underwent regular health checks during which their weight and height were measured, blood tests were done, and they filled out questionnaires for other relevant information. From 1991 onwards, participants were tested every five years for diabetes. The 6,705 participants included in this study were initially free of diabetes, and most of them were followed for at least 14 years. During the follow-up, 645 participants developed diabetes, while 6,060 remained free of the disease.
The researchers used a statistical tool called “latent class trajectory analysis” to study patterns of changes in body mass index (BMI) in the years before people developed diabetes. BMI is a measure of human obesity based on a person's weight and height. Latent class trajectory analysis is an unbiased way to subdivide a number of people into groups that differ based on specified parameters. In this case, the researchers wanted to identify several groups among all the people who eventually developed diabetes each with a distinct pattern of BMI development. Having identified such groups, they also examined how a variety of tests associated with diabetes risk, and risks for heart disease and stroke changed in the identified groups over time.
They identified three different patterns of BMI changes in the 645 participants who developed diabetes. The vast majority (606 individuals, or 94%) belonged to a group they called “stable-overweight.” These people showed no dramatic change in their BMI in the years before they were diagnosed. They were overweight when they first entered the study and gained or lost little weight during the follow-up years. They showed only minor signs of insulin-resistance, starting five years before they developed diabetes. A second, much smaller group of 15 people gained weight consistently in the years before diagnosis. As they were gaining weight, these people also had raises in blood pressure and substantial gains in insulin resistance. The 26 remaining participants who formed the third group were persistently obese for the entire time they participated in the study, in some cases up to 18 years before they were diagnosed with diabetes. They had some signs of insulin resistance in the years before diagnosis, but not the substantial gain often seen as the hallmark of “pre-diabetes.”
What Do These Findings Mean?
These results suggest that diabetes development is a complicated process, and one that differs between individuals who end up with the disease. They call into question the common notion that most people who develop diabetes have recently gained a lot of weight or are obese. A substantial rise in insulin resistance, another established risk factor for diabetes, was only seen in the smallest of the groups, namely the people who gained weight consistently for years before they were diagnosed. When the scientists applied a commonly used predictor of diabetes called the “Framingham diabetes risk score” to their largest “stably overweight” group, they found that these people were not classified as having a particularly high risk, and that their risk scores actually declined in the last five years before their diabetes diagnosis. This suggests that predicting diabetes in this group might be difficult.
The researchers applied their methodology only to this one cohort of white civil servants in England. Before drawing more firm conclusions on the process of diabetes development, it will be important to test whether similar results are seen in other cohorts and among more diverse individuals. If the three groups identified here are found in other cohorts, another question is whether they are as unequal in size as in this example. And if they are, can the large group of stably overweight people be further subdivided in ways that suggest specific mechanisms of disease development? Even without knowing how generalizable the provocative findings of this study are, they should stimulate debate on how to identify people at risk for diabetes and how to prevent the disease or delay its onset.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001602.
The US National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse provides information about diabetes for patients, health-care professionals, and the general public, including information on diabetes prevention (in English and Spanish)
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides information for patients and carers about type 2 diabetes; it includes people's stories about diabetes
The charity Diabetes UK also provides detailed information about diabetes for patients and carers, including information on healthy lifestyles for people with diabetes, and has a further selection of stories from people with diabetes; the charity Healthtalkonline has interviews with people about their experiences of diabetes
MedlinePlus provides links to further resources and advice about diabetes (in English and Spanish)
More information about the Whitehall II study is available
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001602
PMCID: PMC3921118  PMID: 24523667
14.  Achieving good glycemic control: initiation of new antihyperglycemic therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry 
Objective
We sought to compare the effectiveness of antihyperglycemic therapies for lowering blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control (HbA1c>8%).
Study Design
Longitudinal (cohort) study of 4,775 type 2 diabetic patients with baseline HbA1c>8% who initiated (1999-2000) new antihyperglycemic therapies and maintained them for up to one year. The study setting was Kaiser Permanente Northern California Medical Group, an integrated, prepaid health care delivery organization. Treatment regimens consisted of any one or a combination of the following prescribed classes of anti-hyperglycemic therapy: insulin, thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas, biguanides (metformin) or “other” less frequently used options (including meglitinides or alpha-glucosidase inhibitors).
Methods
We assessed the proportion of patients who successfully achieved good glycemic control (HbA1c ≤7%) during the follow-up period 3-12 months after initiating and maintaining a new regimen, stratified by therapy and adjusted for pre-initiation HbA1c, prior therapy, and demographic, behavioral, clinical, quality of care and provider characteristics.
Results
In this new user cohort with poorly-controlled diabetes, the mean HbA1c was 9.9% at the time of initiation of therapy. Within one year, there was a 1.3 point drop in the mean HbA1c (to 8.6%), and 18% of new initiators achieved HbA1c ≤7%. After adjusting for baseline clinical differences, the proportion of patients who were treated to glycemic target was greatest among those receiving thiazolidinediones in combination (24.6-25.7%) or a regimen of metformin and insulin (24.9%), while the least success was experienced by those receiving sulfonylureas alone (12.5%) or insulin-sulfonylureas regimens (10.9%). The probability of achieving target was most strongly predicted by level of glycemic control prior to initiation, but patient behaviors, such as frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose and lower rates of missed appointments were also strongly associated with greater levels of control.
Conclusions
Findings suggest the importance of combination therapies including insulin-sensitizing agents and self-management behaviors in helping poorly controlled patients achieve good glycemic control. Overall, therapy initiation resulted in an impressive population-level benefit. However, since most new initiators had still not achieved good control within 12 months, careful follow-up monitoring and prompt therapy intensification remain important.
PMCID: PMC3557945  PMID: 15839186
treatment effectiveness; treating to target; glycemic control; antihyperglycemic agents
15.  Clinical characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at the time of insulin initiation: INSTIGATE observational study in Spain 
Acta Diabetologica  2009;47(Suppl 1):169-175.
Little information is available on the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in regular clinical practice, prior to and at the point of initiating treatment with insulin. The INSTIGATE study provides a description of the clinical profile of the patient with DM2 who begins treatment with insulin in both primary and secondary care. A total of 224 patients who had been diagnosed with DM2, were not responding to oral treatment, and began receiving insulin were included in the INSTIGATE study in Spain. Demographic data were collected, as well as data on macro- and microvascular complications of diabetes and comorbidities, past medical history of diabetes and oral treatment administered, the clinical severity of diabetes (HbA1c concentration) and insulin treatment initiated. Mean age of the sample was 65.4 years and 56.7% were men. There were 87% of patients who had a diagnosis of at least one significant comorbidity, notably hypertension and hyperlipidemia. The patient profile for metabolic syndrome was met by 75.1% of the patients. There was a higher incidence of macrovascular complications (38.4%) than microvascular complications (16.1%). Prior to insulin initiation, the most recent mean HbA1c was 9.2%. The majority of patients had been treated in the last 12 months with sulfonylureas and/or metformin (69.6 and 57.6%). The most common treatment prior to insulinization was the co-administration of two oral antidiabetics (OADs) (37.5%). Patients with DM2 observed in the study presented with elevated mean HbA1c and body mass index levels, comorbidities and complications related to diabetes at the time of insulin initiation. Changes and adjustments in treatment from diagnosis of diabetes occur when HbA1c levels are far above those recommended by the IDF (International Diabetes Federation), a factor which could be contributing to the development of both macrovascular and microvascular complications in the patient profile described in the study.
doi:10.1007/s00592-009-0158-8
PMCID: PMC3003149  PMID: 19855919
Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Epidemiology; Treatment; Spain
16.  Glitazone Treatment and Incidence of Parkinson’s Disease among People with Diabetes: A Retrospective Cohort Study 
PLoS Medicine  2015;12(7):e1001854.
Background
Recent in vitro and animal experiments suggest that peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma (PPARɣ) agonist medications, such as antidiabetic glitazone (GTZ) drugs, are neuroprotective in models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). These findings have not been tested in humans. We hypothesized that individuals prescribed GTZ drugs would have a lower incidence of PD compared to individuals prescribed other treatments for diabetes.
Methods and Findings
Using primary care data from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), we conducted a retrospective cohort study in which individuals with diabetes who were newly prescribed GTZ (GTZ-exposed group) were matched by age, sex, practice, and diabetes treatment stage with up to five individuals prescribed other diabetes treatments (other antidiabetic drug-exposed group). Patients were followed up from 1999 until the first recording of a PD diagnosis, end of observation in the database, or end of the study (1 August 2013). An incidence rate ratio (IRR) was calculated using conditional Poisson regression, adjusted for possible confounders. 44,597 GTZ exposed individuals were matched to 120,373 other antidiabetic users. 175 GTZ-exposed individuals were diagnosed with PD compared to 517 individuals in the other antidiabetic drug-exposed group. The incidence rate (IR) of PD in the GTZ-exposed group was 6.4 per 10,000 patient years compared with 8.8 per 10,000 patient years in those prescribed other antidiabetic treatments (IRR 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60–0.87). Adjustments for potential confounding variables, including smoking, other medications, head injury, and disease severity, had no material impact (fully adjusted IRR 0.75, 0.59–0.94). The risk was reduced in those with current GTZ prescriptions (current GTZ-exposed IRR 0.59, 0.46–0.77) but not reduced among those with past prescriptions (past GTZ-exposed IRR 0.85, 0.65–1.10). Our study only included patients with diabetes who did not have a PD diagnosis when they were first prescribed GTZ, and thus, it cannot establish whether GTZ use prevents or slows the progression of PD.
Conclusions
In patients with diabetes, a current prescription for GTZ is associated with a reduction in incidence of PD. This suggests PPAR gamma pathways may be a fruitful drug target in PD.
In a retrospective cohort study, Ruth Brauer and colleagues examine the association between treatment with glitazone and incidence of Parkinson's disease.
Editors' Summary
Background
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common, progressive neurological disease. The condition is caused by the gradual loss of nerve cells that normally produce dopamine, a neurotransmitter that regulates the body’s movements. PD does not usually begin to develop until people are around 60 years old, although it can sometimes affect younger people. Its symptoms, which develop slowly, include tremor (trembling of the hands, legs, arm, jaw, and face), slow movement, and rigidity (muscle stiffness). As these symptoms worsen, affected individuals may have trouble walking, speaking, swallowing, and sleeping, and they may become depressed. No one has found a way to halt the loss of dopamine-producing nerve cells yet, but medications that replace or mimic the lost dopamine can reduce the severity of these symptoms. PD does not directly kill people, but it puts a great strain on the body that can make affected individuals vulnerable to life-threatening infections. Nevertheless, these days, many people with PD have a normal or near-normal life expectancy.
Why Was This Study Done?
Recent experiments suggest that drugs that bind to the peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ agonist medications) may be neuroprotective (prevent nerve cell loss) in animal models of PD. PPARγ regulates how the body uses fats and sugars, and PPARγ agonist medications such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone (glitazone [GTZ] drugs) are used to treat people with diabetes, a condition characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood. It is not known, however, whether GTZ drugs provide protection against PD in people. In this retrospective cohort study, the researchers investigate whether individuals with diabetes exposed to GTZ drugs have a lower incidence of PD than individuals using other antidiabetic drugs. A retrospective cohort study uses data already collected on a group (cohort) of people to look for associations between specific characteristics such as use of a drug and outcomes.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers identified 44,597 patients with diabetes who were newly exposed to GTZ drugs in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a database that contains primary care data on more than 13 million individuals. They matched each patient with up to five users of other antidiabetic drugs (120,373 controls) who were similar in terms of age, sex, attendance at the same primary care practice, and diabetes treatment stage; people with diabetes usually initially take a single drug but often switch to a different drug or to a combination of drugs as their disease progresses. Finally, the researchers followed up the entire cohort from January 1999 (when glitazones were introduced to treat diabetes) until diagnosis of PD, the end of inclusion in the database, or the end of the study (August 2013). During follow up, 175 glitazone users and 517 non-glitazone users were diagnosed with PD. The incidence rates of PD among glitazone-using individuals and among users of other antidiabetic treatments were 6.4 per 10,000 patient years and 8.8 per 10,000 patient years, respectively (an incidence rate ratio [IRR] of 0.72; an IRR compares the rate of occurrence of new cases of a disease in two groups of people). Adjustment for potential confounding variables (characteristics that might affect an individual’s likelihood of developing PD) such as smoking and head injury did not alter the IRR. Notably, the risk of PD was reduced among current users of GTZ drugs but not among past users.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that, among people with diabetes, current (but not past) GTZ use is associated with a 28% lower rate of clinical presentation of PD compared to the use of other antidiabetic drugs. Because the study only included patients with diabetes who did not have a PD diagnosis when they started GTZ treatment, these findings cannot establish whether GTZ use is associated with prevention of PD or with slower progression of the disease. Moreover, the accuracy of these findings may be affected by misdiagnosis of PD and misclassification of exposure periods to various antidiabetic drugs in the database and by residual confounding. Finally, these findings may not be applicable to people without diabetes. Importantly, the researchers do not recommend that GTZ drugs (which have been associated with some serious side effects) be used as a treatment for PD. Rather, they suggest that the pathways in which PPARγ is involved might contain potential drug targets for PD and should be investigated in future research.
Additional Information
This list of resources contains links that can be accessed when viewing the PDF on a device or via the online version of the article at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001854.
The United States National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke provides detailed information about PD (in English and Spanish), including links to US organizations that help people with PD
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides information on all aspects of PD (including personal stories)
The UK not-for-profit organization Parkinson'sUK and the US not-for-profit organization National Parkinson Foundation also provide detailed information about PD and personal stories
The UK not-for-profit organization Healthtalk.Org provides stories about all aspects of living with PD
MedlinePlus has links to further resources about PD and information about rosiglitazone and pioglitazone (in English and Spanish)
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001854
PMCID: PMC4511413  PMID: 26196151
17.  Behavioural Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes 
Executive Summary
In June 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Diabetes Strategy Evidence Project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding strategies for successful management and treatment of diabetes. This project came about when the Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the Ministry’s newly released Diabetes Strategy.
After an initial review of the strategy and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified five key areas in which evidence was needed. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these five areas: insulin pumps, behavioural interventions, bariatric surgery, home telemonitoring, and community based care. For each area, an economic analysis was completed where appropriate and is described in a separate report.
To review these titles within the Diabetes Strategy Evidence series, please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html,
Diabetes Strategy Evidence Platform: Summary of Evidence-Based Analyses
Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Pumps for Type 1 and Type 2 Adult Diabetics: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Behavioural Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Bariatric Surgery for People with Diabetes and Morbid Obesity: An Evidence-Based Summary
Community-Based Care for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Home Telemonitoring for Type 2 Diabetes: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Application of the Ontario Diabetes Economic Model (ODEM) to Determine the Cost-effectiveness and Budget Impact of Selected Type 2 Diabetes Interventions in Ontario
Objective
The objective of this report is to determine whether behavioural interventions1 are effective in improving glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.
Background
Diabetes is a serious chronic condition affecting millions of people worldwide and is the sixth leading cause of death in Canada. In 2005, an estimated 8.8% of Ontario’s population had diabetes, representing more than 816,000 Ontarians. The direct health care cost of diabetes was $1.76 billion in the year 2000 and is projected to rise to a total cost of $3.14 billion by 2016. Much of this cost arises from the serious long-term complications associated with the disease including: coronary heart disease, stroke, adult blindness, limb amputations and kidney disease.
Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90–95% of diabetes and while type 2 diabetes is more prevalent in people aged 40 years and older, prevalence in younger populations is increasing due to a rise in obesity and physical inactivity in children.
Data from the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) has shown that tight glycemic control can significantly reduce the risk of developing serious complications in type 2 diabetics. Despite physicians’ and patients’ knowledge of the importance of glycemic control, Canadian data has shown that only 38% of patients with diabetes have HbA1C levels in the optimal range of 7% or less. This statistic highlights the complexities involved in the management of diabetes, which is characterized by extensive patient involvement in addition to the support provided by physicians. An enormous demand is, therefore, placed on patients to self-manage the physical, emotional and psychological aspects of living with a chronic illness.
Despite differences in individual needs to cope with diabetes, there is general agreement for the necessity of supportive programs for patient self-management. While traditional programs were didactic models with the goal of improving patients’ knowledge of their disease, current models focus on behavioural approaches aimed at providing patients with the skills and strategies required to promote and change their behaviour.
Several meta-analyses and systematic reviews have demonstrated improved health outcomes with self-management support programs in type 2 diabetics. They have all, however, either looked at a specific component of self-management support programs (i.e. self-management education) or have been conducted in specific populations. Most reviews are also qualitative and do not clearly define the interventions of interest, making findings difficult to interpret. Moreover, heterogeneity in the interventions has led to conflicting evidence on the components of effective programs. There is thus much uncertainty regarding the optimal design and delivery of these programs by policymakers.
Evidence-Based Analysis of Effectiveness
Research Questions
Are behavioural interventions effective in improving glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes?
Is the effectiveness of the intervention impacted by intervention characteristics (e.g. delivery of intervention, length of intervention, mode of instruction, interventionist etc.)?
Inclusion Criteria
English Language
Published between January 1996 to August 2008
Type 2 diabetic adult population (>18 years)
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs)
Systematic reviews, or meta-analyses
Describing a multi-faceted self-management support intervention as defined by the 2007 Self-Management Mapping Guide (1)
Reporting outcomes of glycemic control (HbA1c) with extractable data
Studies with a minimum of 6-month follow up
Exclusion Criteria
Studies with a control group other than usual care
Studies with a sample size <30
Studies without a clearly defined intervention
Outcomes of Interest
Primary outcome: glycemic control (HbA1c)
Secondary outcomes: systolic blood pressure (SBP) control, lipid control, change in smoking status, weight change, quality of life, knowledge, self-efficacy, managing psychosocial aspects of diabetes, assessing dissatisfaction and readiness to change, and setting and achieving diabetes goals.
Search Strategy
A search was performed in OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), The Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) for studies published between January 1996 and August 2008. Abstracts were reviewed by a single author and studies meeting the inclusion criteria outlined above were obtained. Data on population characteristics, glycemic control outcomes, and study design were extracted. Reference lists were also checked for relevant studies. The quality of the evidence was assessed as being either high, moderate, low, or very low according to the GRADE methodology.
Summary of Findings
The search identified 638 citations published between 1996 and August 2008, of which 12 met the inclusion criteria and one was a meta-analysis (Gary et al. 2003). The remaining 11 studies were RCTs (9 were used in the meta-analysis) and only one was defined as small (total sample size N=47).
Summary of Participant Demographics across studies
A total of 2,549 participants were included in the 11 identified studies. The mean age of participants reported was approximately 58 years and the mean duration of diabetes was approximately 6 years. Most studies reported gender with a mean percentage of females of approximately 67%. Of the eleven studies, two focused only on women and four included only Hispanic individuals. All studies evaluated type 2 diabetes patients exclusively.
Study Characteristics
The studies were conducted between 2002 and 2008. Approximately six of 11 studies were carried out within the USA, with the remaining studies conducted in the UK, Sweden, and Israel (sample size ranged from 47 to 824 participants). The quality of the studies ranged from moderate to low with four of the studies being of moderate quality and the remaining seven of low quality (based on the Consort Checklist). Differences in quality were mainly due to methodological issues such as inadequate description of randomization, sample size calculation allocation concealment, blinding and uncertainty of the use of intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Patients were recruited from several settings: six studies from primary or general medical practices, three studies from the community (e.g. via advertisements), and two from outpatient diabetes clinics. A usual care control group was reported in nine of 11 of the studies and two studies reported some type of minimal diabetes care in addition to usual care for the control group.
Intervention Characteristics
All of the interventions examined in the studies were mapped to the 2007 Self-management Mapping Guide. The interventions most often focused on problem solving, goal setting and encouraging participants to engage in activities that protect and promote health (e.g. modifying behaviour, change in diet, and increase physical activity). All of the studies examined comprehensive interventions targeted at least two self-care topics (e.g. diet, physical activity, blood glucose monitoring, foot care, etc.). Despite the homogeneity in the aims of the interventions, there was substantial clinical heterogeneity in other intervention characteristics such as duration, intensity, setting, mode of delivery (group vs. individual), interventionist, and outcomes of interest (discussed below).
Duration, Intensity and Mode of Delivery
Intervention durations ranged from 2 days to 1 year, with many falling into the range of 6 to 10 weeks. The rest of the interventions fell into categories of ≤ 2 weeks (2 studies), 6 months (2 studies), or 1 year (3 studies). Intensity of the interventions varied widely from 6 hours over 2 days, to 52 hours over 1 year; however, the majority consisted of interventions of 6 to 15 hours. Both individual and group sessions were used to deliver interventions. Group counselling was used in five studies as a mode of instruction, three studies used both individual and group sessions, and one study used individual sessions as its sole mode of instruction. Three studies also incorporated the use of telephone support as part of the intervention.
Interventionists and Setting
The following interventionists were reported (highest to lowest percentage, categories not mutually exclusive): nurse (36%), dietician (18%), physician (9%), pharmacist (9%), peer leader/community worker (18%), and other (36%). The ‘other’ category included interventionists such as consultants and facilitators with unspecified professional backgrounds. The setting of most interventions was community-based (seven studies), followed by primary care practices (three studies). One study described an intervention conducted in a pharmacy setting.
Outcomes
Duration of follow up of the studies ranged from 6 months to 8 years with a median follow-up duration of 12 months. Nine studies followed up patients at a minimum of two time points. Despite clear reporting of outcomes at follow up time points, there was poor reporting on whether the follow up was measured from participant entry into study or from end of intervention. All studies reported measures of glycemic control, specifically HbA1c levels. BMI was measured in five studies, while body weight was reported in two studies. Cholesterol was examined in three studies and blood pressure reduction in two. Smoking status was only examined in one of the studies. Additional outcomes examined in the trials included patient satisfaction, quality of life, diabetes knowledge, diabetes medication reduction, and behaviour modification (i.e. daily consumption of fruits/vegetables, exercise etc). Meta-analysis of the studies identified a moderate but significant reduction in HbA1c levels -0.44% 95%CI: -0.60, -0.29) for behavioural interventions in comparison to usual care for adults with type 2 diabetes. Subgroup analyses suggested the largest effects in interventions which were of at least duration and interventions in diabetics with higher baseline HbA1c (≥9.0). The quality of the evidence according to GRADE for the overall estimate was moderate and the quality of evidence for the subgroup analyses was identified as low.
Summary of Meta-Analysis of Studies Investigating the Effectiveness of Behavioural Interventions on HbA1c in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
Based on one study
Conclusions
Based on moderate quality evidence, behavioural interventions as defined by the 2007 Self-management mapping guide (Government of Victoria, Australia) produce a moderate reduction in HbA1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with usual care.
Based on low quality evidence, the interventions with the largest effects are those:
- in diabetics with higher baseline HbA1c (≥9.0)
- in which the interventions were of at least 1 year in duration
PMCID: PMC3377516  PMID: 23074526
18.  Markers of Dysglycaemia and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in People without Diabetes: Reykjavik Prospective Study and Systematic Review 
PLoS Medicine  2010;7(5):e1000278.
Background
Associations between circulating markers of dysglycaemia and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in people without diabetes have not been reliably characterised. We report new data from a prospective study and a systematic review to help quantify these associations.
Methods and Findings
Fasting and post-load glucose levels were measured in 18,569 participants in the population-based Reykjavik study, yielding 4,664 incident CHD outcomes during 23.5 y of mean follow-up. In people with no known history of diabetes at the baseline survey, the hazard ratio (HR) for CHD, adjusted for several conventional risk factors, was 2.37 (95% CI 1.79–3.14) in individuals with fasting glucose ≥7.0 mmol/l compared to those <7 mmol/l. At fasting glucose values below 7 mmol/l, adjusted HRs were 0.95 (0.89–1.01) per 1 mmol/l higher fasting glucose and 1.03 (1.01–1.05) per 1 mmol/l higher post-load glucose. HRs for CHD risk were generally modest and nonsignificant across tenths of glucose values below 7 mmol/l. We did a meta-analysis of 26 additional relevant prospective studies identified in a systematic review of Western cohort studies that recorded fasting glucose, post-load glucose, or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. In this combined analysis, in which participants with a self-reported history of diabetes and/or fasting blood glucose ≥7 mmol/l at baseline were excluded, relative risks for CHD, adjusted for several conventional risk factors, were: 1.06 (1.00–1.12) per 1 mmol/l higher fasting glucose (23 cohorts, 10,808 cases, 255,171 participants); 1.05 (1.03–1.07) per 1 mmol/l higher post-load glucose (15 cohorts, 12,652 cases, 102,382 participants); and 1.20 (1.10–1.31) per 1% higher HbA1c (9 cohorts, 1639 cases, 49,099 participants).
Conclusions
In the Reykjavik Study and a meta-analysis of other Western prospective studies, fasting and post-load glucose levels were modestly associated with CHD risk in people without diabetes. The meta-analysis suggested a somewhat stronger association between HbA1c levels and CHD risk.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Among people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the commonest type of diabetes worldwide), poor management or lack of appropriate treatment can lead to long-term complications resulting from persistently high sugar levels in the blood. The long-term complications of type 2 diabetes are generally divided into two main groups: microvascular problems (such as nerve damage, kidney disease, and eye disorders), and macrovascular disease (such as heart disease, strokes, and peripheral vascular disease). A major goal of diabetes treatment is to keep glucose control as normal as possible through diet, weight control, exercise, and pharmacological treatments. However, it is unclear whether the link between high blood sugar and macrovascular disease (principally heart disease and strokes) also holds for people who have slightly higher than normal blood sugar levels, but in whom this level does not reach the diabetic threshold. Some previous research studies have suggested that a continuous relationship exists between blood sugar level and the risk of heart disease across the spectrum, i.e., below the diabetic threshold as well as above it. If such a relationship were confirmed this might have important implications for the management of high blood sugar levels even among people who would not normally meet the usual definition for a diagnosis of diabetes (the “diabetic threshold”).
Why Was This Study Done?
Studies which examine the risk of serious, but relatively common, outcomes (such as a nonfatal heart attack or fatal heart disease), often suffer from insufficient statistical power: a large number of participants need to be recruited, and followed up over a long time, to find out whether certain factors measured at baseline (e.g., fasting glucose) are indeed associated with a particular outcome (e.g., heart attack) or not during follow up. Given the inconclusive nature of some previous studies in this area, the researchers who carried out this work wanted to gather evidence from a large prospective cohort, and a reappraisal of all existing evidence, in relation to the possible link between high blood sugar and risk of heart disease in people without diabetes.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
In this study, the researchers report results from a prospective population-based study (in which participants are followed forward in time) from Reykjavik, Iceland. In the study, men and women without history of heart disease aged between 31 and 57 in 1966 were first invited to join the cohort, and were followed forward in time using national registries that recorded deaths (and causes of death), and incidence of heart disease. A total of 8,888 male and 9,681 female participants were recruited. At baseline, laboratory measurements were taken to record blood sugar levels using two different methods: fasting blood glucose and post-load glucose. Among the group of participants, 4,664 people were recorded as having either a nonfatal heart attack or fatal heart disease, during approximately 23 years of follow-up. In addition, the researchers attempted to identify from the published medical literature previous prospective studies conducted in Western populations that had looked at the association between blood sugar levels and risk of coronary heart disease. They requested, and obtained, re-analyses of data conducted in accordance with a common protocol for most of the identified studies and then analysed these, together with the results of the Reykjavik cohort, to produce a summary estimate (meta-analysis) of the association between blood sugar levels and risk of coronary heart disease in people without diabetes.
In the Reykjavik cohort, the researchers confirmed an increased risk of coronary heart disease among individuals with blood sugar above the diabetic threshold, as compared to those below it. However, when they looked at blood sugar in people below the diabetic threshold, they found no evidence that higher levels were strongly linked with greater risk of coronary heart disease. This held for both methods of measuring blood sugar levels (fasting and post-load).
In the meta-analysis, the researchers obtained data for 27 different studies, comprising 303,961 participants and 16,982 cases of heart disease. In this meta-analysis, very small increases in risk of heart disease were found with higher levels of blood sugar, when measured using fasting blood glucose or post-load glucose. However, studies using glycated haemoglobin (a measure of average sugar levels over the past 1–3 months or so) found this measure to be associated with a somewhat higher risk of heart disease.
What Do these Findings Mean?
In this prospective cohort and wider meta-analysis, the researchers did not find evidence of a strong or continuous association between blood sugar levels and risk of heart disease amongst people without diabetes. The prospective study, and analysis of other cohorts, was large, but only looked at participants of European decent, so it is not clear whether the findings will also hold for non-European groups.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000278.
Information is available from the US National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse about diabetes, heart disease, and stroke
Centers for Disease Control provides information for the public and professionals about diabetes on their diabetes minisite
Medline Plus encyclopedia has an entry about coronary heart disease
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000278
PMCID: PMC2876150  PMID: 20520805
19.  Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Total Mortality in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes: Scottish Registry Linkage Study 
PLoS Medicine  2012;9(10):e1001321.
Helen Colhoun and colleagues report findings from a Scottish registry linkage study regarding contemporary risks for cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality among individuals diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.
Background
Randomized controlled trials have shown the importance of tight glucose control in type 1 diabetes (T1DM), but few recent studies have evaluated the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality among adults with T1DM. We evaluated these risks in adults with T1DM compared with the non-diabetic population in a nationwide study from Scotland and examined control of CVD risk factors in those with T1DM.
Methods and Findings
The Scottish Care Information-Diabetes Collaboration database was used to identify all people registered with T1DM and aged ≥20 years in 2005–2007 and to provide risk factor data. Major CVD events and deaths were obtained from the national hospital admissions database and death register. The age-adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for CVD and mortality in T1DM (n = 21,789) versus the non-diabetic population (3.96 million) was estimated using Poisson regression. The age-adjusted IRR for first CVD event associated with T1DM versus the non-diabetic population was higher in women (3.0: 95% CI 2.4–3.8, p<0.001) than men (2.3: 2.0–2.7, p<0.001) while the IRR for all-cause mortality associated with T1DM was comparable at 2.6 (2.2–3.0, p<0.001) in men and 2.7 (2.2–3.4, p<0.001) in women. Between 2005–2007, among individuals with T1DM, 34 of 123 deaths among 10,173 who were <40 years and 37 of 907 deaths among 12,739 who were ≥40 years had an underlying cause of death of coma or diabetic ketoacidosis. Among individuals 60–69 years, approximately three extra deaths per 100 per year occurred among men with T1DM (28.51/1,000 person years at risk), and two per 100 per year for women (17.99/1,000 person years at risk). 28% of those with T1DM were current smokers, 13% achieved target HbA1c of <7% and 37% had very poor (≥9%) glycaemic control. Among those aged ≥40, 37% had blood pressures above even conservative targets (≥140/90 mmHg) and 39% of those ≥40 years were not on a statin. Although many of these risk factors were comparable to those previously reported in other developed countries, CVD and mortality rates may not be generalizable to other countries. Limitations included lack of information on the specific insulin therapy used.
Conclusions
Although the relative risks for CVD and total mortality associated with T1DM in this population have declined relative to earlier studies, T1DM continues to be associated with higher CVD and death rates than the non-diabetic population. Risk factor management should be improved to further reduce risk but better treatment approaches for achieving good glycaemic control are badly needed.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background. People with diabetes are more likely to have cardiovascular disease such as heart attacks and strokes. They also have a higher risk of dying prematurely from any cause. Controlling blood sugar (glucose), blood pressure, and cholesterol can help reduce these risks. Some people with type 1 diabetes can achieve tight blood glucose control through a strict regimen that includes a carefully calculated diet, frequent physical activity, regular blood glucose testing several times a day, and multiple daily doses of insulin. Other drugs can reduce blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Keeping one's weight in the normal range and not smoking are important ways in which all people, including those with type 1 diabetes can reduce their risks of heart disease and premature death.
Why Was This Study Done? Researchers and doctors have known for almost two decades what patients with type 1 diabetes can do to minimize the complications from the disease and thereby reduce their risks for cardiovascular disease and early death. So for some time now, patients should have been treated and counseled accordingly. This study was done to evaluate the current risks for have cardiovascular disease and premature death amongst people living with type 1 diabetes in a high-income country (Scotland).
What Did the Researchers Do and Find? From a national register of all people with type 1 diabetes in Scotland, the researchers selected those who were older than 20 years and alive at any time from January 2005 to May 2008. This included about 19,000 people who had been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 2005. Another 2,600 were diagnosed between 2005 and 2008. They also obtained data on heart attacks and strokes in these patients from hospital records and on deaths from the natural death register. To obtain a good picture of the current relative risks, they compared the patients with type 1 diabetes with the non-diabetic general Scottish population with regard to the risk of heart attacks/strokes and death from all causes. They also collected information on how well the people with diabetes controlled their blood glucose, on their weight, and whether they smoked.
They found that the current risks compared with the general Scottish population are quite a bit lower than those of people with type 1 diabetes in earlier decades. However, people with type 1 diabetes in Scotland still have much higher (more than twice) the risk of heart attacks, strokes, or premature death than the general population. Moreover, the researchers found a high number of deaths in younger people with diabetes from coma—caused by either too much blood sugar (hyperglycemia) or too little (hypoglycemia). Severe hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia happen when blood glucose control is poor. When the scientists looked at test results for HbA1c levels (a test that is done once or twice a year to see how well patients controlled their blood sugar over the previous 3 months) for all patients, they found that the majority of them did not come close to controlling their blood glucose within the recommended range.
When the researchers compared body mass index (a measure of weight that takes height into account) and smoking between the people with type 1 diabetes and the general population, they found similar proportions of smokers and overweight or obese people.
What Do these Findings Mean? The results represent a snapshot of the recent situation regarding complications from type 1 diabetes in the Scottish population. The results suggest that within this population, strategies over the past two decades to reduce complications from type 1 diabetes that cause cardiovascular disease and death are working, in principle. However, there is much need for further improvement. This includes the urgent need to understand why so few people with type 1 diabetes achieve good control of their blood sugar, and what can be done to improve this situation. It is also important to put more effort into keeping people with diabetes from taking up smoking or getting them to quit, as well as preventing them from getting overweight or promoting weight reduction, because this could further reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease and premature death.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001321
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, a service of the US National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, has information on heart disease and diabetes, on general complications of diabetes, and on the HbA1c test (on this site and some others called A1C test) that measures control of blood sugar over the past 3 months
Diabetes.co.uk provides general information on type 1 diabetes, its complications, and what people with the disease can do to reduce their risks
The Canadian Diabetes Association offers a cardiovascular risk self-assessment tool and other relevant information
The American Diabetes Association has information on the benefits and challenges of tight blood sugar control and how it is tested
The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation funds research to prevent, cure, and treat type 1 diabetes
Diabetes UK provides extensive information on diabetes for patients, carers, and clinicians
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001321
PMCID: PMC3462745  PMID: 23055834
20.  Hypoglycemic Episodes and Risk of Dementia in Older Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
Context
Although acute hypoglycemia may be associated with cognitive impairment in children with type 1 diabetes, no studies to date have evaluated whether hypoglycemia is a risk factor for dementia in older patients with type 2 diabetes.
Objective
To determine if hypoglycemic episodes severe enough to require hospitalization are associated with an increased risk of dementia in a population of older patients with type 2 diabetes followed up for 27 years.
Design, Setting, and Patients
A longitudinal cohort study from 1980-2007 of 16,667 patients with a mean age of 65 years and type 2 diabetes who are members of an integrated health care delivery system in northern California.
Main Outcome Measure
Hypoglycemic events from 1980-2002 were collected and reviewed using hospital discharge and emergency department diagnoses. Cohort members with no prior diagnoses of dementia, mild cognitive impairment, or general memory complaints as of January 1, 2003, were followed up for a dementia diagnosis through January 15, 2007. Dementia risk was examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, duration of diabetes, 7-year mean glycated hemoglobin, diabetes treatment, duration of insulin use, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, transient cerebral ischemia, and end-stage renal disease.
Results
At least 1 episode of hypoglycemia was diagnosed in 1465 patients (8.8%) and dementia was diagnosed in 1822 patients (11%) during follow-up; 250 patients had both dementia and at least 1 episode of hypoglycemia (16.95%). Compared with patients with no hypoglycemia, patients with single or multiple episodes had a graded increase in risk with fully adjusted hazard ratios (HRs): for 1 episode (HR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.49); 2 episodes (HR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.37-2.36); and 3 or more episodes (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.42-2.64). The attributable risk of dementia between individuals with and without a history of hypoglycemia was 2.39% per year (95% CI, 1.72%-3.01%). Results were not attenuated when medical utilization rates, length of health plan membership, or time since initial diabetes diagnosis were added to the model. When examining emergency department admissions for hypoglycemia for association with risk of dementia (535 episodes), results were similar (compared with patients with 0 episodes) with fully adjusted HRs: for 1 episode (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.12-1.78) and for 2 or more episodes (HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.57-3.55).
Conclusions
Among older patients with type 2 diabetes, a history of severe hypoglycemic episodes was associated with a greater risk of dementia. Whether minor hypoglycemic episodes increase risk of dementia is unknown.
doi:10.1001/jama.2009.460
PMCID: PMC2782622  PMID: 19366776
21.  Treating 4,000 diabetic patients in Cambodia, a high-prevalence but resource-limited setting: a 5-year study 
BMC Medicine  2009;7:33.
Background
Despite the worldwide increasing burden of diabetes, there has been no corresponding scale-up of treatment in developing countries and limited evidence of program effectiveness. In 2002, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health of Cambodia, Médecins Sans Frontières initiated an outpatient program of subsidized diabetic care in two hospital-based chronic disease clinics in rural settings. We aimed to describe the outcomes of newly and previously diagnosed diabetic patients enrolled from 2002 to 2008.
Methods
We calculated the mean and proportion of patients who met the recommended treatment targets, and the drop from baseline values for random blood glucose (RBG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and body mass index (BMI) at regular intervals. Analysis was restricted to patients not lost to follow-up. We used the t test to compare baseline and subsequent paired values.
Results
Of 4404 patients enrolled, 2,872 (65%) were still in care at the time of the study, 24 (0.5%) had died, and 1,508 (34%) were lost tofollow-up. Median age was 53 years, 2,905 (66%) were female and 4,350 (99%) had type 2 diabetes. Median (interquartile range (IQR)) follow-up was 20 months (5 to 39.5 months). A total of 24% (51/210) of patients had a HbA1c concentration of <7% and 35% (709/1,995) had a RBG <145 mg/dl within 1 year. There was a significant drop of 109 mg/dl (95% confidence interval (CI) 103.1 to 114.3) in mean RBG (P < 0.001) and a drop of 2.7% (95% CI 2.3 to 3.0) in mean HbA1c (P < 0.001) between baseline and month 6. In all, 45% (327/723) and 62% (373/605) of patients with systolic or diastolic hypertension at baseline, respectively, reached = 130/80 mm Hg within 1 year. There was a drop of 13.5 mm Hg (95% CI 12.1 to 14.9) in mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) (P < 0.001), and a drop of 11.7 mm Hg (95% CI 10.8 to 12.6) in mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P < 0.001) between baseline and month 6. Only 22% (90/401) patients with obesity at baseline lowered their BMI <27.5 kg/m2 after 1 year. Factors associated with loss to follow-up were male sex, age >60 years, living outside the province, normal BMI on admission, high RBG on last visit, and coming late for the last consultation.
Conclusion
Significant and clinically important improvements in glycemia and BP were observed, but a relatively low proportion of diabetic patients reached treatment targets. These results and the high loss to follow-up rate highlight the challenges of delivering diabetic care in rural, resource-limited settings.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-7-33
PMCID: PMC2721844  PMID: 19602220
22.  Population PK/PD analysis of metformin using the signal transduction model 
AIMS
To develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) model for metformin (500 mg) using the signal transduction model in healthy humans and to predict the PK/PD profile in patients with type 2 diabetes.
METHODS
Following the oral administration of 500 mg metformin to healthy humans, plasma concentrations of metformin were measured using LC-MS/MS. A sequential modelling approach using NONMEM VI was used to facilitate data analysis. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to predict the antihyperglycaemic effect in patients with type 2 diabetes.
RESULTS
Forty-two healthy humans were included in the study. Population mean estimates (relative standard error, RSE) of apparent clearance, apparent volume of distribution and the absorption rate constant were 52.6 l h−1 (4.18%), 113 l (56.6%) and 0.41 h−1, respectively. Covariate analyses revealed that creatinine clearance (CLCR) significantly influenced metformin: CL/F= 52.6 × (CLcr/106.5)0.782. The signal transduction model was applied to describe the antihyperglycaemic effect of metformin. The population means for efficacy, potency, transit time and the Hill coefficient were estimated to be 19.8 (3.17%), 3.68 µg ml−1 (3.89%), 0.5 h (2.89%) and 0.547 (9.05%), respectively. The developed model was used to predict the antihyperglycaemic effect in patients with type 2 diabetes. The predicted plasma glucose concentration value was similar to previous values.
CONCLUSIONS
The population signal transduction model was developed and evaluated for metformin use in healthy volunteers. Model evaluation by non-parametric bootstrap analysis suggested that the proposed model was robust and parameter values were estimated with good precision.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04260.x
PMCID: PMC3495146  PMID: 22380769
antihyperglycaemic effect; metformin; PK/PD; signal transduction model; simulation
23.  Association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and all cause mortality in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: retrospective cohort study 
Objective To examine the effect of systolic and diastolic blood pressure achieved in the first year of treatment on all cause mortality in patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, with and without established cardiovascular disease.
Design Retrospective cohort study.
Setting United Kingdom General Practice Research Database, between 1990 and 2005.
Participants 126 092 adult patients (age ≥18 years) with a new diagnosis of type 2 diabetes who had been registered with participating practices for at least 12 months.
Main outcome measure All cause mortality.
Results Before diagnosis, 12 379 (9.8%) patients had established cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction or stroke). During a median follow-up of 3.5 years, we recorded 25 495 (20.2%) deaths. In people with cardiovascular disease, tight control of systolic (<130 mm Hg) and diastolic (<80 mm Hg) blood pressure was not associated with improved survival, after adjustment for baseline characteristics (age at diagnosis, sex, practice level clustering, deprivation score, body mass index, smoking, HbA1c and cholesterol levels, and blood pressure). Low blood pressure was also associated with an increased risk of all cause mortality. Compared with patients who received usual control of systolic blood pressure (130-139 mm Hg), the hazard ratio of all cause mortality was 2.79 (95% confidence interval 1.74 to 4.48, P<0.001) for systolic blood pressure at 110 mm Hg. Compared with patients who received usual control of diastolic blood pressure (80-84 mm Hg), the hazard ratios were 1.32 (1.02 to 1.78, P=0.04) and 1.89 (1.40 to 2.56, P<0.001) for diastolic blood pressures at 70-74 mm Hg and lower than 70 mm Hg, respectively. Similar associations were found in people without cardiovascular disease. Subgroup analyses of people diagnosed with hypertension and who received treatment for hypertension confirmed initial findings.
Conclusion Blood pressure below 130/80 mm Hg was not associated with reduced risk of all cause mortality in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes, with or without known cardiovascular disease. Low blood pressure, particularly below 110/75 mm Hg, was associated with an increased risk for poor outcomes.
doi:10.1136/bmj.e5567
PMCID: PMC3431284  PMID: 22936794
24.  Eudragit-Based Nanosuspension of Poorly Water-Soluble Drug: Formulation and In Vitro–In Vivo Evaluation 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2012;13(4):1031-1044.
The present study was performed to investigate potential of Eudragit RLPO-based nanosuspension of glimepiride (Biopharmaceutical Classification System class II drug), for the improvement of its solubility and overall therapeutic efficacy, suitable for peroral administration. Nanoprecipitation method being simple and less sophisticated was optimized for the preparation of nanosuspension. Physicochemical characteristics of nanosuspension in terms of size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, entrapment efficiency (% EE) and in vitro drug release were found within their acceptable ranges. The size of the nanoparticles was most strongly affected by agitation time while % EE was more influenced by the drug/polymer ratio. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies provided evidence that enhancement in solubility of drug resulted due to change in crystallinity of drug within the formulation. Stability study revealed that nanosuspension was more stable at refrigerated condition with no significant changes in particle size distribution, % EE, and release characteristics for 3 months. In vivo studies were performed on nicotinamide–streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat models for pharmacokinetic and antihyperglycaemic activity. Nanosuspension increased maximum plasma concentration, area under the curve, and mean residence time values significantly as compared to aqueous suspension. Oral glucose tolerance test and antihyperglycaemic studies demonstrated plasma glucose levels were efficiently controlled in case of nanosuspension than glimepiride suspension. Briefly, sustained and prolonged activity of nanosuspensions could reduce dose frequency, decrease drug side effects, and improve patient compliance. Therefore, glimepiride nanosuspensions can be expected to gain considerable attention in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus due to its improved therapeutic activity.
doi:10.1208/s12249-012-9833-0
PMCID: PMC3513456  PMID: 22893314
diabetes mellitus; glimepiride; nanoprecipitation; poloxamer; sustained release
25.  Update on long-term efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus 
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a novel class of antihyperglycaemic agents with an insulin-independent mode of action. Dapagliflozin is a member of the SGLT2 inhibitors class that has received marketing authorization in Europe and the US for use in patients with type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes current evidence from clinical trials assessing the clinical efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin, and presents data regarding its cost-effectiveness. Treatment with dapagliflozin results in similar reduction in haemoglobin A1c with other oral antihyperglycaemic drugs, which is preserved over 4 years of treatment. However, compared with most antidiabetic agents, dapagliflozin provides additional clinical benefits including body weight loss and blood pressure reduction. Moreover, treatment with dapagliflozin does not increase risk for hypoglycaemia, but is associated with increased incidence of mild to moderate urinary and genital tract infections. A pivotal outcomes trial of dapagliflozin is expected to clarify its effect on cardiovascular endpoints, whilst a causative relationship between dapagliflozin and select malignancies is unlikely. Finally, based on recent economic evaluations dapagliflozin seems to be a cost-effective option for type 2 diabetes in some settings.
doi:10.1177/2042018814560735
PMCID: PMC4406879  PMID: 25941564
BMS512148; cost-effectiveness; dapagliflozin; Farxiga®; Forxiga®; sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2); type 2 diabetes mellitus; Xigduo®

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