Sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-7 (Siglec-7) is a trans-membrane receptor carrying immunoreceptor tyrosine based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) and delivering inhibitory signals upon ligation with sialylated glycans. This inhibitory function can be also targeted by several pathogens that have evolved to express sialic acids on their surface to escape host immune responses. Here, we demonstrate that cross-linking of Siglec-7 by a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) induces a remarkably high production of IL-6, IL-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α. Among the three immune cell subsets known to constitutively express Siglec-7, the production of these pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines selectively occurs in monocytes and not in Natural Killer or T lymphocytes. This Siglec-7-mediated activating function is associated with the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. The present study also shows that sialic acid-free Zymosan yeast particles are able to bind Siglec-7 on monocytes and that this interaction mimics the ability of the anti Siglec-7 mAb to induce the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Indeed, blocking or silencing Siglec-7 in primary monocytes greatly reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to Zymosan, thus confirming that Siglec-7 participates in generating a monocyte-mediated inflammatory outcome following pathogen recognition. The presence of an activating form of Siglec-7 in monocytes provides the host with a new and alternative mechanism to encounter pathogens not expressing sialylated glycans.
Receptors carrying immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIM) in their cytoplasmic tail control a vast array of cellular responses, ranging from autoimmunity, allergy, phagocytosis of red blood cells, graft versus host disease, to even neuronal plasticity in the brain. The inhibitory function of many receptors has been deduced on the basis of cytoplasmic ITIM sequences. Tight regulation of natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and cytokine production by inhibitory receptors specific for MHC class I molecules has served as a model system to study the negative signalling pathway triggered by an ITIM-containing receptor in the physiological context of NK–target cell interactions. Advances in our understanding of the molecular details of inhibitory signalling in NK cells have provided a conceptual framework to address how ITIM-mediated regulation controls cellular reactivity in diverse cell types.
inhibition; innate immunity; natural killer cell; signalling; tyrosine phosphatase
Maggots of the blowfly Lucilia sericata are used for the treatment of chronic wounds. As monocytes may contribute to the excessive inflammatory responses in such wounds, this study focussed on the effects of maggot secretions on the pro-inflammatory activities of these cells.
Freshly isolated monocytes were incubated with a range of secretions for 1 h and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (range 0–100 ng/ml) or lipoteichoic acid (range 0–5 µg/ml) for 18 h. The expression of cell surface molecules, cytokine and chemokine levels in culture supernatants, cell viability, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus were measured.
Maggot secretions dose-dependently inhibited production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-12p40 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor by lipopolysaccharides- and lipoteichoic acid-stimulated monocytes, while enhancing production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Expression of cell surface receptors involved in pathogen recognition remained unaffected by secretions. In addition, maggot secretions altered the chemokine profile of monocytes by downregulating macrophage inflammatory protein-1β and upregulating monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and IL-8. Nevertheless, chemotactic responses of monocytes were inhibited by secretions. Furthermore, maggot secretions did not affect phagocytosis and intracellular killing of S. aureus by human monocytes. Finally, secretions induced a transient rise in the intracellular cyclic AMP concentration in monocytes and Rp-cyclic AMPS inhibited the effects of secretions.
Maggot secretions inhibit the pro-inflammatory responses of human monocytes through a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism. Regulation of the inflammatory processes by maggots contributes to their beneficial effects on chronic wounds.
Chemokines; Chemotaxis; Chronic wounds; Cyclic AMP; Cytokines; Inflammation; Phagocytosis; Signal transduction
Osteoclasts (OC) are bone-resorbing, multinucleated cells that are generated via fusion of OC precursors (OCP). The frequency of OCP is elevated in patients with erosive inflammatory arthritis and metabolic bone diseases. Although many cytokines and cell surface receptors are known to participate in osteoclastogenesis, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of this cellular transformation are poorly understood. Herein, we focused our studies on the dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), a seven-pass-transmembrane receptor-like protein known to be essential for cell-to-cell fusion during osteoclastogenesis. We identified an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in the cytoplasmic tail of DC-STAMP, and developed an anti-DC-STAMP monoclonal antibody 1A2 that detected DC-STAMP expression on human tumor giant cells, blocked OC formation in vitro, and distinguished four patterns of human PBMC with a positive correlation to OC potential. In freshly isolated monocytes, DC-STAMPhigh cells produced a higher number of OC in culture than DC-STAMPlow cells and the surface expression of DC-STAMP gradually declined during osteoclastogenesis. Importantly, we showed that DC-STAMP is phosphorylated on its tyrosine residues and physically interacts with SHP-1 and CD16, an SH2-domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase and an ITAM-associated protein, respectively. Taken together, these data show that DC-STAMP is a potential OCP biomarker in inflammatory arthritis. Moreover, in addition to its effect on cell fusion, DC-STAMP dynamically regulates cell signaling during osteoclastogenesis.
DC-STAMP; osteoclast; signaling; ITIM; ITAM; SHP-1; OCP; biomarker; Ps; PsA; CD16
Neonatal PMN exhibit altered inflammatory responsiveness and greater longevity compared to adult PMN; however, the involved mechanisms are incompletely defined. Receptors containing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) domains promote apoptosis by activating inhibitory phosphatases, such as Src homology domain 2-containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1), that block survival signals. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-9, an immune inhibitory receptor with ITIM domains, has been shown to induce cell death in adult PMN in association with SHP-1. To test our hypothesis that neonatal PMN inflammatory function may be modulated by unique Siglec-9 and SHP-1 interactions, we compared expression of these proteins in adult and neonatal PMN. Neonatal PMN exhibited diminished cellular expression of Siglec-9, which was phosphorylated in the basal state. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) treatment decreased Siglec-9 phosphorylation levels in neonatal PMN but promoted its phosphorylation in adult PMN, observations associated with altered survival signaling. While SHP-1 expression was also diminished in neonatal PMN, GM-CSF treatment had minimal effect on phosphorylation status. Further analysis revealed that Siglec-9 and SHP-1 physically interact, as has been observed in other immune cells. Our data suggest that age-specific interactions between Siglec-9 and SHP-1 may influence the altered inflammatory responsiveness and longevity of neonatal PMN.
We describe here the first characterization of CLEC9A, a group V C-type lectin-like receptor located in the “Dectin-1 cluster” of related receptors, which are encoded within the natural killer (NK)-gene complex. Expression of human CLEC9A is highly restricted in peripheral blood, being detected only on BDCA3+ dendritic cells and on a small subset of CD14+CD16- monocytes. CLEC9A is expressed at the cell surface as a glycosylated dimer and can mediate endocytosis, but not phagocytosis. CLEC9A possesses a cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation-like motif that can recruit Syk kinase, and we demonstrate, using receptor chimeras, that this receptor can induce proinflammatory cytokine production. These data indicate that CLEC9A functions as an activation receptor.
Signaling by IL-4 and IL-13 via the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Rα) plays a critical role in the pathology of allergic diseases. The IL-4Rα is endowed with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), centered on tyrosine 709 (Y709) in the cytoplasmic domain, that binds a number of regulatory phosphatases. The function of the ITIM in the in vivo regulation of IL-4R signaling remains unknown.
To determine the in vivo function of the IL-4Rα ITIM using mice in which the ITIM was inactivated by mutagenesis of the tyrosine Y709 residue into phenylalanine (F709).
F709 ITIM mutant mice were derived by knockin mutagenesis. Activation of intracellular signaling cascades by IL-4 and IL-13 was assessed by intracellular staining of phosphorylated signaling intermediates and by gene expression analysis. In vivo responses to allergic sensitization were assessed using models of allergic airway inflammation.
The F709 mutation increased STAT6 phosphorylation by IL-4 and, disproportionately, by IL-13. This was associated with exaggerated Th2 polarization, enhanced alternative macrophage activation by IL-13, augmented basal and antigen-induced IgE responses and intensified allergen-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation and hyperreactivity.
These results point to a physiologic negative regulatory role for the Y709 ITIM in signaling via IL-4Rα, especially by IL-13.
IL-4 receptor; IL-4; IL-13; ITIM; SHP-1; IgE; Allergic Airway Inflammation; Asthma
Circulating resistin stimulates endogenous glucose production (GP). Here, we report that bi-directional changes in hypothalamic resistin action have dramatic effects on GP and proinflammatory cytokine expression in the liver. The infusion of either resistin or an active cysteine mutant in the third cerebral ventricle (icv) or in the mediobasal hypothalamus stimulated GP independent of changes in circulating levels of glucoregulatory hormones. Conversely, central antagonism of resistin action markedly diminished the ability of circulating resistin to enhance GP. We also report that centrally mediated mechanisms partially control resistin-induced expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and SOCS-3 in the liver. These results unveil what we believe to be a novel site of action of resistin on GP and inflammation and suggest that hypothalamic resistin action can contribute to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Inflammatory cytokines contribute to periapical tissue destruction. Their activity is potentially regulated by SOCS (suppressors of cytokine signaling), which downregulate signal transduction as part of an inhibitory feedback loop. We investigated the expression of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-10 and RANKL, and SOCS-1, -2 and -3 by Real Time-PCR in 57 periapical granulomas and 38 healthy periapical tissues. Periapical granulomas exhibited significant higher SOCS-1, -2 and -3, TNF-α, IL-10 and RANKL mRNA levels when compared to healthy controls. Significant positive correlations were found between SOCS1 and IL-10, and between SOCS3 and IL-10. Significant inverse correlations were observed between SOCS1 and TNF-α, SOCS1 and RANKL, and SOCS3 and TNF-α. Increased SOCS-1, -2 and -3 mRNA levels in periapical granulomas may be related to the downregulation of inflammatory cytokines in these lesions; therefore, SOCS molecules may have a role in the dynamics of periapical granulomas development.
suppressors of cytokine signaling; SOCS; cytokines; TNF-alpha; RANKL; inflammation; periapical granulomas
KIT activation, through binding of its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), is crucial for normal mast cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Furthermore, KIT may also contribute to mast cell homing and cytokine generation. Activating mutations in KIT lead to the dysregulated mast cell growth associated with the myeloproliferative disorder mastocytosis. We investigated the potential of down-regulating such responses through mast cell inhibitory receptor activation. Here, we report that the B cell-associated ITIM (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif)-containing inhibitory receptor, CD72, is expressed in human mast cells. Ligation of CD72 with the agonistic antibody, BU40, or with recombinant human CD100 (rCD100), its natural ligand, induced the phosphorylation of CD72 with a resulting increase in its association with the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 (SH2 domain containing phosphatase-1). This, in turn, resulted in an inhibition of KIT-induced phosphorylation of Src family kinases and extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). As a consequence of these effects, KIT-mediated mast cell proliferation, chemotaxis, and chemokine production were significantly reduced by BU40 and rCD100. Furthermore, BU40 and rCD100 also down-regulated the growth of the HMC1.2 human mast cell line. Thus, targeting CD72 may provide a novel approach to the suppression of mast cell disease such as mastocytosis.
IL-27 is a pleiotropic cytokine with both activating and inhibitory functions on innate and acquired immunity. IL-27 is expressed at sites of inflammation in cytokine-driven autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and sarcoidosis. However, its role in modulating disease pathogenesis is still unknown. In this study, we found that IL-27 production is induced by TNF-α in human macrophages (Mϕ) and investigated the effects of IL-27 on the responses of primary human Mϕ to the endogenous inflammatory cytokines TNF-a and IL-1. In striking contrast to IL-27–mediated augmentation of TLR-induced cytokine production, we found that IL-27 suppressed Mϕ responses to TNF-α and IL-1β, thus identifying an anti-inflammatory function of IL-27. IL-27 blocked the proximal steps of TNF-α signaling by downregulating cell-surface expression of the signaling receptors p55 and p75. The mechanism of inhibition of IL-1 signaling was downregulation of the ligand-binding IL-1RI concomitant with increased expression of the receptor antagonist IL-1Ra and the decoy receptor IL-1RII. These findings provide a mechanism for suppressive effects of IL-27 on innate immune cells and suggest that IL-27 regulates inflammation by limiting activation of Mf by inflammatory cytokines while preserving initial steps in host defense by augmenting responses to microbial products.
Diabetes is a pro-inflammatory state. We have previously shown increased monocyte pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. High glucose induces pro-inflammatory cytokines via epigenetic changes. Curcumin, a polyphenol responsible for the yellow color of the spice turmeric, is known to exert potent anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. Recent studies indicate that it may regulate chromatin remodeling by inhibiting histone acetylation. In this study, we aimed to test the effect of curcumin on histone acetylation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion under high-glucose conditions in human monocytes. Human monocytic (THP-1) cells were cultured in presence of mannitol (osmolar control, mannitol) or normoglycemic (NG, 5.5 mmol/L glucose) or hyperglycemic (HG, 25 mmol/L glucose) conditions in absence or presence of curcumin (1.5-12.5μM) for 72 h. Cytokine level, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transactivation, histone deacetylases (HDACs) activity, histone acetylases (HATs) activity were measured by western blots, qRT-PCR, ELISA, Immunofluorescence (IF) staining. HG significantly induced histone acetylation, NF-κB activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1) release from THP-1 cells. Curcumin suppressed NF-κB binding and cytokine release in THP-1 cells. Also, since p300 histone acetyltransferase is a coactivator of NF-κB, we examined its acetylation. Curcumin treatment also significantly reduced HAT activity, level of p300 and acetylated CBP/p300 gene expression, and induced histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression by curcumin. These results indicate that curcumin decreases HG-induced cytokine production in monocytes via epigenetic changes involving NF-κB. In conclusion, curcumin supplementation by reducing vascular inflammation may prevent diabetic complications.
Acetylation; Deacetylation; p300; HDAC2; NF-κB
OBJECTIVE—Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is an inflammatory disorder characterised by granulomatous inflammation, vasculitis, and necrotising vasculitis and is strongly associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). Activated monocytes/macrophages are present in renal biopsy specimens and participate in granuloma formation by synthesising and secreting a variety of chemoattractants, growth factors, and cytokines. In view of these findings, in vivo monocyte activation was evaluated in patients with WG and the findings related to parameters of clinical disease activity.
METHODS—Monocyte activation was analysed by measuring plasma concentrations of soluble products of monocyte activation, that is neopterin and interleukin 6 (IL6), by ELISA, and by quantitating the surface expression of activation markers on circulating monocytes by flow cytometry.
RESULTS—Twenty four patients with active WG were included in this study. Ten of these patients were also analysed at the time of remission. Twelve patients with sepsis served as positive controls, and 10 healthy volunteers as negative controls for monocyte activation. Patients with active disease had increased monocyte activation compared with healthy controls as shown by increased concentrations of neopterin (p <0.0001) and increased surface expression of CD11b (p < 0.05) and CD64 (p < 0.05). In those patients with increased concentrations of IL6 during active disease plasma concentrations of IL6 decreased during follow up when patients went into remission (p < 0.0001). In addition, neopterin (r = 0.37, r = 0.44), IL6 (r = 0.37, r = 0.60) and CD63 expression (r = 0.39, r = 0.45) correlated significantly with disease activity as measured by the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score and C reactive protein values, respectively. Compared with patients with sepsis, all markers of monocyte activation in patients with vasculitis were lower.
CONCLUSION—It is concluded that disease activity in WG correlates with the extent of activation of monocytes, compatible with their role in the pathophysiology of this disease.
Keywords: anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody; monocyte activation; vasculitis; flow cytometry
Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, enters human monocytes through αvβ3 integrin and survives inside host cells. In addition, C. burnetii stimulates the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by monocytes. We studied the role of the interaction of C. burnetii with THP-1 monocytes in TNF production. TNF transcripts and TNF release reached maximum values within 4 h. Almost all monocytes bound C. burnetii after 4 h, while the percentage of phagocytosing monocytes did not exceed 20%. Cytochalasin D, which prevented the uptake of C. burnetii without interfering with its binding, did not affect the expression of TNF mRNA. Thus, bacterial adherence, but not phagocytosis, is necessary for TNF production by monocytes. The monocyte αvβ3 integrin was involved in TNF synthesis since peptides containing RGD sequences and blocking antibodies against αvβ3 integrin inhibited TNF transcripts induced by C. burnetii. Nevertheless, the cross-linking of αvβ3 integrin by specific antibodies was not sufficient to induce TNF synthesis. The signal delivered by C. burnetii was triggered by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Polymyxin B inhibited the TNF production stimulated by C. burnetii, and soluble LPS isolated from C. burnetii largely mimicked viable bacteria. On the other hand, avirulent variants of C. burnetii induced TNF production through an increased binding to monocytes rather than through the potency of their LPS. We suggest that the adherence of C. burnetii to monocytes via αvβ3 integrin enables surface LPS to stimulate TNF production in THP-1 monocytes.
In inflammatory processes, the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction route regulates production and expression of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is a pivotal cytokine in rheumatoid arthritis and its production in macrophages is under control of the p38 MAPK route. Inhibition of the p38 MAPK route may inhibit production not only of TNF-α, but also of other inflammatory mediators produced by macrophages, and indirectly of inflammatory mediators by other cells induced by TNF-α stimulation. Here we investigate the effects of RWJ 67657, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, on mRNA expression and protein production of TNF-α and other inflammatory mediators, in monocyte-derived macrophages. A strong inhibition of TNF-α was seen at pharmacologically relevant concentrations of RWJ 67657, but also inhibition of mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-8, and cyclooxygenase-2 was shown. Furthermore, it was shown that monocyte-derived macrophages have a high constitutive production of matrix metalloproteinase 9, which is not affected by p38 MAPK inhibition. The results presented here may have important implications for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
COX-2; matrix metalloproteinase; monocyte-derived macrophage; p38 MAPK inhibitor; TNF-α
Insulin resistance is associated with a proinflammatory state that promotes the development of complications such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and atherosclerosis. The metabolic stimuli that initiate and propagate proinflammatory cytokine production and the cellular origin of proinflammatory cytokines in insulin resistance have not been fully elucidated. Circulating proinflammatory monocytes show signs of enhanced inflammation in obese, insulin resistant subjects and are thus a potential source of proinflammatory cytokine production. The specific, circulating metabolic factors that might stimulate monocyte inflammation in insulin resistant subjects are poorly characterized. We have examined whether saturated nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin, which increase in concentration with developing insulin resistance, can trigger the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in human monocytes.
Messenger RNA and protein levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Luminex bioassays. Student's t-test was used with a significance level of p < 0.05 to determine significance between treatment groups.
Esterification of palmitate with coenzyme A (CoA) was necessary, while β-oxidation and ceramide biosynthesis were not required, for the induction of IL-6 and TNF-α in THP-1 monocytes. Monocytes incubated with insulin and palmitate together produced more IL-6 mRNA and protein, and more TNF-α protein, compared to monocytes incubated with palmitate alone. Incubation of monocytes with insulin alone did not affect the production of IL-6 or TNF-α. Both PI3K-Akt and MEK/ERK signalling pathways are important for cytokine induction by palmitate. MEK/ERK signalling is necessary for synergistic induction of IL-6 by palmitate and insulin.
High levels of saturated NEFA, such as palmitate, when combined with hyperinsulinemia, may activate human monocytes to produce proinflammatory cytokines and support the development and propagation of the subacute, chronic inflammatory state that is characteristic of insulin resistance. Results with inhibitors of β-oxidation and ceramide biosynthesis pathways suggest that increased fatty acid flux through the glycerolipid biosynthesis pathway may be involved in promoting proinflammatory cytokine production in monocytes.
Elimination of extracellular aggregates and apoptotic neural membranes without inflammation is crucial for brain tissue homeostasis. In the mammalian central nervous system, essential molecules in this process are the Fc receptors and the DAP12-associated receptors which both trigger the microglial immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif- (ITAM-) Syk-signaling cascade. Microglial triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2), signal regulatory protein-β1, and complement receptor-3 (CD11b/CD18) signal via the adaptor protein DAP12 and activate phagocytic activity of microglia. Microglial ITAM-signaling receptors are counter-regulated by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif- (ITIM-) signaling molecules such as sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin superfamily lectins (Siglecs). Siglecs can suppress the proinflammatory and phagocytic activity of microglia via ITIM signaling. Moreover, microglial neurotoxicity is alleviated via interaction of Siglec-11 with sialic acids on the neuronal glycocalyx. Thus, ITAM- and ITIM-signaling receptors modulate microglial phagocytosis and cytokine expression during neuroinflammatory processes. Their dysfunction could lead to impaired phagocytic clearance and neurodegeneration triggered by chronic inflammation.
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step of tryptophan catabolism in a specific pathway, resulting in a series of extracellular messengers collectively known as kynurenines. IDO has been recognized as an authentic regulator of immunity not only in mammalian pregnancy, but also in infection, autoimmunity, inflammation, allergy, transplantation, and neoplasia. Its suppressive effects are mostly mediated by dendritic cells (DCs) and involve tryptophan deprivation and/or production of kynurenines, which act on IDO-negative DCs as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We have found that mouse IDO contains two tyrosine residues within two distinct putative immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, VPY115CEL and LLY253EGV. We have also found that Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 (SOCS3)—known to interact with phosphotyrosine-containing peptides and be selectively induced by interleukin 6 (IL-6)—binds mouse IDO, recruits the ECS (Elongin-Cullin-SOCS) E3 ligase, and targets the IDO/SOCS3 complex for proteasomal degradation. This event underlies the ability of IL-6 to convert otherwise tolerogenic, IDO-competent DCs into immunogenic cells. Thus onset of immunity in response to antigen within an early inflammatory context demands that IDO be degraded in tolerogenic DCs. These studies support the finding that IDO is regulated by proteasomal degradation in response to immunogenic and inflammatory stimuli.
IL-6; SOCS proteins; tryptophan catabolism; dendritic cells
To achieve an adequate response, cells of the immune system must be tightly regulated to avoid hypo- or hyper-responsiveness. One of the mechanisms used by the immune system to avoid excessive inflammation is the modulation of the response through inhibitory receptors containing immunoreceptor tyrosine based inhibitory motifs (ITIM). Here, we show that human neutrophils from peripheral blood express the ITIM containing CD300a (also known as IRp60 and CMRF-35H) receptor. By using the HL-60 differentiation model, we show that the expression of CD300a receptor is developmentally regulated. Stimulation of human neutrophils with LPS and GM-CSF increased the cell surface expression of CD300a as a result of the rapid translocation of an intracellular pool of the receptor to the cell surface. Co-ligation of CD300a with the immunoreceptor tyrosine based activating motif (ITAM) containing CD32a (FcγRIIa) activation receptor inhibited CD32a mediated signaling, whereas it did not inhibit Toll like receptor (TLR)-4 mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Therefore, at least for human neutrophils, the inhibitory signals mediated by the CD300a receptor may be selective in their action.
neutrophils; CD300a; inhibitory receptor; reactive oxygen species; ITAM; ITIM
TNF-α is a major cytokine involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, water extract of Grifola frondosa (GFW) was evaluated for its protective effects against colon inflammation through the modulation of TNF-α action. In coculture of HT-29 human colon cancer cells with U937 human monocytic cells, TNF-α-induced monocyte adhesion to HT-29 cells was significantly suppressed by GFW (10, 50, 100 µg/ml). The reduced adhesion by GFW correlated with the suppressed expression of MCP-1 and IL-8, the major IBD-associated chemokines. In addition, treatment with GFW significantly suppressed TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species production and NF-κB transcriptional activity in HT-29 cells. In differentiated U937 monocytic cells, LPS-induced TNF-α production, which is known to be mediated through NF-κB activation, was significantly suppressed by GFW. In an in vivo rat model of IBD, oral administration of GFW for 5 days (1 g/kg per day) significantly inhibited the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced weight loss, colon ulceration, myeloperoxidase activity, and TNF-α expression in the colon tissue. Moreover, the effect of GFW was similar to that of intra-peritoneal injection of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), an active metabolite of sulfasalazine, commonly used drug for the treatment of IBD. The results suggest that GFW ameliorates colon inflammation by suppressing production of TNF-α as well as its signaling through NF-κB leading to the expression of inflammatory chemokines, MCP-1 and IL-8. Taken together, the results strongly suggest GFW is a valuable medicinal food for IBD treatment, and thus may be used as an alternative medicine for IBD.
complementary therapies; Grifola; inflammatory bowel diseases; NF-κB; trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid; tumor necrosis factor-α
Ebola virus initially targets monocytes and macrophages, which can lead to the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These inflammatory cytokines are thought to contribute to the development of circulatory shock seen in fatal Ebola virus infections. Here we report that host Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a sensor for Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) on virus-like particles (VLPs) and that resultant TLR4 signaling pathways lead to the production of proinflammatory cytokines and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) in a human monocytic cell line and in HEK293-TLR4/MD2 cells stably expressing the TLR4/MD2 complex. Ebola virus GP was found to interact with TLR4 by immunoprecipitation/Western blot analyses, and Ebola virus GP on VLPs was able to stimulate expression of NF-κB in a TLR4-dependent manner. Interestingly, we found that budding of Ebola virus VLPs was more pronounced in TLR4-stimulated cells than in unstimulated control cells. In sum, these findings identify the host innate immune protein TLR4 as a sensor for Ebola virus GP which may play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of Ebola virus infection.
Obesity is associated with inflammation and increased expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins, which inhibit cytokine and insulin signaling. Thus, reducing SOCS expression could prevent the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance. Using SOCS-1 knockout mice, we investigated the contribution of SOCS-1 in the development of insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet (HFD). SOCS-1 knockout mice on HFD gained 70% more weight, displayed a 2.3-fold increase in epididymal fat pads mass and increased hepatic lipid content. This was accompanied by increased mRNA expression of leptin and the macrophage marker CD68 in white adipose tissue and of SREBP1c and FAS in liver. HFD also induced hyperglycemia in SOCS-1 deficient mice with impairment of glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Thus, despite the role of SOCS proteins in obesity-related insulin resistance, SOCS-1 deficiency alone is not able to prevent insulin resistance induced by a diet rich in fat.
Insulin resistance; diabetes; obesity; cytokines; SOCS
Src family tyrosine kinases (SFKs) phosphorylate immunotyrosine activation motifs in the cytoplasmic tail of multiple immunoreceptors, leading to the initiation of cellular effector functions, such as phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, and cytokine production. SFKs also play important roles in regulating these responses through the activation of immunotyrosine inhibitory motif-containing inhibitory receptors. As myeloid cells preferentially express the SFKs Hck, Fgr, and Lyn, we questioned the role of these kinases in innate immune responses to Pneumocystis murina. Increased phosphorylation of Hck was readily detectable in alveolar macrophages after stimulation with P. murina. We further observed decreased phosphorylation of Lyn on its C-terminal inhibitory tyrosine in P. murina-stimulated alveolar macrophages, indicating that SFKs were activated in alveolar macrophages in response to P. murina. Mice deficient in Hck, Fgr, and Lyn exhibited augmented clearance 3 and 7 days after intratracheal administration of P. murina, which correlated with elevated levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, CXCL1/KC, CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in lung homogenates and a dramatic increase in macrophage and neutrophil recruitment. Augmented P. murina clearance was also observed in Lyn−/− mice 3 days postchallenge, although the level was less than that observed in Hck−/− Fgr−/− Lyn−/− mice. A correlate to augmented clearance of P. murina in Hck−/− Fgr−/− Lyn−/− mice was a greater ability of alveolar macrophages from these mice to kill P. murina in vitro, suggesting that SFKs regulate the alveolar macrophage effector function against P. murina. Mice deficient in paired immunoglobulin receptor B (PIR-B), an inhibitory receptor activated by SFKs, did not exhibit enhanced inflammatory responsiveness to or clearance of P. murina. Our results suggest that SFKs regulate innate lung responses to P. murina in a PIR-B-independent manner.
Siglecs (sialic acid-binding, immunoglobulin [Ig]-like lectins) are a family of single-pass transmembrane cell surface proteins found predominantly on leukocytes. Their unique structural characteristics include an N-terminal carbohydrate-binding (“lectin”) domain that binds sialic acid, followed by a variable number of Ig-like domains, hence these structures are a subset of the Ig gene superfamily. Another unique feature of Siglecs is that most, but not all, possess so-called immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (“ITIMs”) in their cytoplasmic domains, suggesting that these molecules function in an inhibitory capacity. Siglec-8, the eighth member identified at the time, was discovered as part of an effort initiated almost a decade ago to identify novel human eosinophil and mast cell proteins. Since that time, its selective expression on human eosinophils and mast cells has been confirmed. On eosinophils, Siglec-8 engagement results in apoptosis, whereas on mast cells, inhibition of FcεRI-dependent mediator release, without apoptosis, is seen. It has subsequently been determined that the closest functional paralog in the mouse is Siglec-F, selectively expressed by eosinophils but not expressed on mast cells. Despite only modest homology, both Siglec-8 and Siglec-F preferentially recognize a sulfated glycan ligand closely related to sialyl Lewis X, a common ligand for the selectin family of adhesion molecules. Murine experiments in normal, Siglec-F-deficient mice and hypereosinophilic mice have resulted in similar conclusions that Siglec-F, like Siglec-8, plays a distinctive and important role in regulating eosinophil accumulation and survival in vivo. Given the resurgent interest in eosinophil-directed therapies for a variety of disorders, plus its unique additional ability to also target the mast cell, therapies focusing on Siglec-8 could some day prove to be a useful adjunct to our current armamentarium for the treatment of asthma, allergies and related disorders where overproduction and overactivity of eosinophils and mast cells is occurring.
Resistin and the proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, produced by adipocytes, and macrophages, are considered to be important modulators of chronic inflammation contributing to the development of obesity and atherosclerosis. Human monocyte-enriched mononuclear cells, from ten healthy individuals, were exposed to high concentrations of insulin, leptin, and glucose (alone or in combination) for 24 hours in vitro. Resistin, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production was examined and compared to that in untreated cells. High insulin and leptin concentrations significantly upregulated resistin and the cytokines. The subsequent addition of high glucose significantly upregulated resistin and TNF-α mRNA and protein secretion, while it did not have any effect on IL-6 or IL-1β production. By comparison, exposure to dexamethasone reduced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production, while at this time point it increased resistin protein secretion. These data suggest that the expression of resistin, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β from human mononuclear cells, might be enhanced by the hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and possibly by the hyperglycemia in metabolic diseases as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Therefore, the above increased production may contribute to detrimental effects of their increased adipocyte-derived circulating levels on systemic inflammation, insulin sensitivity, and endothelial function of these patients.