Facial analysis is the first step in the evaluation of patients with orthodontic, cosmetic, or reconstructive procedures of the face, and one of the most important components of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. It is a well-established fact that human faces differ from one another on the basis of race and ethnicity. The study will provide the aesthetic guidelines to assess the facial discrepancy in Bengali children to develop a proper treatment plan.
To find out the mean values for selective linear measurements on the facial soft tissue of Bengali children, to demonstrate gender differences in the measurements.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional study was done on 250 Bengali children of 6-14 years age, by measuring certain identified facial landmarks using a digital caliper.
Statistical Analysis Used:
Analytical statistical method with the help of student's t-test was used to determine mean values, standard deviation, and gender differences in the measurements using SPSS version 11.0.
In 6-8 years age group, male's average inter-endocanthion distance was significantly higher than that of females (P < 0.05), whereas in 12-14 years age group, the same parameter for females was significantly higher than that of males (P < 0.001). In 9-11 years age group, the average distance of exocanthion to exocanthion was higher for males compared to females, but the difference was not significant at 5% level (P > 0.05), though for 87% of cases, it was significant (P = 0.13). Total facial height for male subject was significantly high compared to that of females (P < 0.001) in 12-14 years age group.
The study will provide the aesthetic guidelines to assess the facial discrepancy in Bengali children and provide a proper treatment plan through a simple and economically reasonable soft tissue analysis method.
Anthropometry; face; facial analysis; soft tissue
A country such as India abounds with diverse population groups with distinct anthropometric characteristics. Among these, numerous Nepalese population groups are present in different states of India comprising one of the most common immigrant races. The aim of the study is to compare two distinct races, Indians and Nepalese on the basis of facial height proportions, arch length and palatal rugae patterns and assess their significance in racial identification.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 120 subjects comprising of 60 Indians and 60 Nepalese were selected, with each group including 30 males and 30 females. Facial heights were measured using sliding digital calipers, arch lengths with the help of a brass wire and rugae patterns were traced on dental casts obtained with alginate impressions.
Facial height measurements did not give significant results for racial or gender identification of given races. Differences between arch length parameters were found to be significant between the two population groups. Secondary and fragmentary palatal rugae forms were found to be more common in Nepalese than Indians.
The Indian and Nepalese have similar anthropometric characteristics with regard to facial height. However, arch length and palatal rugae characteristics vary between the two races.
Anthropometry; arch length; facial height; Indian; Nepalese; palatal rugae
Measurement of periocular structures is of value in several clinical specialties including ophthalmology, optometry, medical and clinical genetics, oculoplastic surgery, and traumatology. Therefore we aimed to determine the periocular anthropometric norms for Chinese young adults using a noninvasive 3D stereophotography system. Craniofacial images using the 3dMDface system were acquired for 103 Chinese subjects (51 males and 52 females) between the ages of 18 and 35 years. Anthropometric landmarks were identified on these digital images according to standard definitions, and linear distances between these landmarks were calculated. It was found that ocular measurements were significantly larger in Chinese males than females for intercanthal width, biocular width, and eye fissure lengths. No gender differences were found in the eye fissure height and the canthal index which ranged between 43 and 44. Both right and left eye fissure height-length ratios were significantly larger in females. This is the first study to employ 3D stereophotogrammetry to create a database of anthropometric normative data for periocular measurements. These data would be useful for clinical interpretation of periocular pathology and serve as reference values when planning aesthetic and posttraumatic surgical interventions.
To determine whether facial morphology is associated with fasting insulin, glucose and lipids independent of body mass index (BMI) in adolescents.
Population-based cross-sectional study.
Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), South West of England.
From the ALSPAC database of 4747 three-dimensional facial laser scans, collected during a follow-up clinic at the age of 15, 2348 white British adolescents (1127 males and 1221 females) were selected on the basis of complete data on cardiometabolic parameters, BMI and Tanner's pubertal stage.
Main outcome measures
Fasting insulin, glucose and lipids (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc)).
On the basis of the collection of 63 x, y and z coordinates of 21 anthropometric landmarks, 14 facial principal components (PCs) were identified. These components explained 82% of the variation in facial morphology and were used as exposure variables. With adjustment for age, gender and pubertal stage, seven PCs were associated with fasting insulin, none with glucose, three with triglycerides, three with HDLc and four with LDLc. After additional adjustment for BMI, four PCs remained associated with fasting insulin, one with triglycerides and two with LDLc. None of these associations withstood adjustment for multiple comparisons.
These initial hypotheses generating analyses provide no evidence that facial morphology is importantly related to cardiometabolic outcomes. Further examination might be warranted. Facial morphology assessment may have value in identifying other areas of disease risk.
Epidemiology; Preventive Medicine; Statistics & Research Methods
Objective: Anogenital distances are considered to be a sensitive indicator of external genitalia exposure to factors such as anti-androgens, and/or endocrine distruptors during the prenatal period. Exposure to such factors can lead to changes in the anogenital measurements (AGM) of newborn infants. These measurements can be used to predict masculinization of the external genitalia in healthy newborns. The goal of this study was to determine normal values for AGM in Turkish newborns of both genders.
Methods: One hundred fifteen female and 135 male term newborns with no congenital defects were included in this study. A well-trained observer measured the anogenital distance by using a sliding Caliper graduated in millimeters. Anogenital distance was measured from the center of the anus to the posterior convergence of the fourchette in females and from the center of the anus to the junction of the smooth perineal skin with the base of the scrotum in males.
Results: Anogenital distance in males and females was 23±0.6 mm and 10.3±0.2 mm, respectively. There were significant differences in anogenital distance values between male and female newborns (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The findings of this study provide data that can be used as reference standards with regard to AGM of the posterior genital structures in Turkish male and female newborns. These data will also serve in postnatal evaluations to determine the effects of prenatal exposures to factors affecting development of genitalia.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
Anogenital distance; newborn; measurement
Facial width-to-height ratio has received a great deal of attention in recent research. Evidence from human skulls suggests that males have a larger relative facial width than females, and that this sexual dimorphism is an honest signal of masculinity, aggression, and related traits. However, evidence that this measure is sexually dimorphic in faces, rather than skulls, is surprisingly weak. We therefore investigated facial width-to-height ratio in three White European samples using three different methods of measurement: 2D photographs, 3D scans, and anthropometry. By measuring the same individuals with multiple methods, we demonstrated high agreement across all measures. However, we found no evidence of sexual dimorphism in the face. In our third study, we also found a link between facial width-to-height ratio and body mass index for both males and females, although this relationship did not account for the lack of dimorphism in our sample. While we showed sufficient power to detect differences between male and female width-to-height ratio, our results failed to support the general hypothesis of sexual dimorphism in the face.
Proportions derived from neoclassical canons, initially described by Renaissance sculptors and painters, are still being employed as aesthetic guidelines during the clinical assessment of the facial morphology.
1. to determine the applicability of neoclassical canons for Southern Chinese faces and 2. to explore gender differences in relation to the applicability of the neoclassical canons and their variants.
3-D photographs acquired from 103 young adults (51 males and 52 females) without facial dysmorphology were used to test applicability of four neoclassical canons. Standard anthropometric measurements that determine the facial canons were made on these 3-D images. The validity of the canons as well as their different variants were quantified.
The neoclassical cannons seldom applied to these individuals, and facial three-section and orbital canons did not apply at all. The orbitonasal canon was most frequently applicable, with a frequency of 19%. Significant sexual dimorphism was found relative to the prevalence of the variants of facial three-section and orbitonasal canons.
The neoclassical canons did not appear to apply to our sample when rigorous quantitative measurements were employed. Thus, they should not be used as esthetic goals for craniofacial surgical interventions.
Walking and cycling to school provide a convenient opportunity to incorporate physical activity into an adolescent's daily routine. School proximity to residential homes has been identified as an important determinant of active commuting among children. The purpose of this study is to identify if distance is a barrier to active commuting among adolescents, and if there is a criterion distance above which adolescents choose not to walk or cycle.
Data was collected in 2003–05 from a cross-sectional cohort of 15–17 yr old adolescents in 61 post primary schools in Ireland. Participants self-reported distance, mode of transport to school and barriers to active commuting. Trained researchers took physical measurements of height and weight. The relation between mode of transport, gender and population density was examined. Distance was entered into a bivariate logistic regression model to predict mode choice, controlling for gender, population density socio-economic status and school clusters.
Of the 4013 adolescents who participated (48.1% female, mean age 16.02 ± 0.661), one third walked or cycled to school. A higher proportion of males than females commuted actively (41.0 vs. 33.8%, χ2 (1) = 22.21, p < 0.001, r = -0.074). Adolescents living in more densely populated areas had greater odds of active commuting than those in the most sparsely populated areas (χ2 (df = 3) = 839.64, p < 0.001). In each density category, active commuters travelled shorter distances to school. After controlling for gender and population density, a 1-mile increase in distance decreased the odds of active commuting by 71% (χ2 (df = 1) = 2591.86, p < 0.001). The majority of walkers lived within 1.5 miles and cyclists within 2.5 miles. Over 90% of adolescents who perceived distance as a barrier to active commuting lived further than 2.5 miles from school.
Distance is an important perceived barrier to active commuting and a predictor of mode choice among adolescents. Distances within 2.5 miles are achievable for adolescent walkers and cyclists. Alternative strategies for increasing physical activity are required for individuals living outside of this criterion.
Low back pain origins have been a matter of great controversy. While spinal stenosis is now radiologically traceable, the alteration of intervertebral foramen is less clear. The aim of this study was to assess “secular trends” — alterations occurring from one generation to the next — in osseous intervertebral foramina of the major vertebral segments in an industrialized society, and to discuss their possible clinical implication. The macerated “maximum intervertebral foramen width” and “intervertebral foramen height” of all major vertebral levels in 71 nonpathologic Swiss adult skeletons from the nineteenth and early twentieth century, with known individual age and sex and similar geographic and socio-economic background, were measured by sliding caliper at validated landmarks. A secular trend of the increase in “maximum intervertebral foramen width” is found for most levels, with females showing a more prominent alteration. Additionally, the non-pathologic “maximum intervertebral foramen width” does not change with respect to individual age, nor is a significant side difference detectable. “Intervertebral foramen height,” hereby defined as the difference of the dorsal vertebral body height minus pedicle height, demonstrates for most levels, and either sex, an insignificant negative secular trend. Neither stature nor skeletal robustness vary significantly through time within this particular sample. The results of this study, despite obvious inadequacies of methods used, exclude secular narrowing of the “maximum intervertebral foramen width” as the only cause of radiculopathy or spinal stenosis. Furthermore, we found a mild insignificant decrease of the clinically more relevant “intervertebral foramen height.” Nevertheless, the detected short-time variability of the bony intervertebral foramen, independent of individual stature, skeletal robustness or age, argues for an enhanced focus on the understanding of clinically relevant changes of spinal morphology from generation to generation.
Backache; Bone; Pain; Paleopathology; Spinal cord
Childhood obesity is emerging as a major public health problem in developed and developing countries worldwide. The aim of this survey was to establish baseline data on the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Northern Ireland (NI).
The heights and weights of 19,617 school-going children and adolescents aged between 4 and 16 years in NI and RoI were measured using standardised and calibrated scales and measures. The participants were a representative cross-sectional sample of children randomly selected on the basis of age, gender and geographical location of the school attended. Overweight and obesity were classified according to standard IOTF criteria.
Males were taller than females, children in RoI were taller than those in NI and the more affluent were taller than the less well off. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher among females than males in both jurisdictions. Overall, almost one in four boys (23% RoI and NI) and over one in four girls (28% RoI, 25% NI) were either overweight or obese. In RoI, the highest prevalence of overweight was among 13 year old girls (32%) and obesity among 7 year old girls (11%). In NI the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity were found among 11 and 8 year old girls respectively (33% and 13%).
These figures confirm the emergence of the obesity epidemic among children in Ireland, a wealthy country with the European Union. The results serve to underpin the urgency of implementing broad intersectoral measures to reduce calorie intake and increase levels of physical activity, particularly among children.
Inner and outer canthal distances, palpebral fissure length, occipitofrontal circumference, and canthal index values were determined and compared between 252 white newborns in Cardiff and 256 black newborns in Ibadan, Nigeria. The study showed that the white and black newborns had the same inner canthal distance while the outer canthal distance and palpebral fissure length were significantly smaller in the white newborns than in their black counterparts. A simple instrument was also constructed and advocated for use. It is concluded that for facial measurements local values should be used in the evaluation of dysmorphic states.
The human face provides a wealth of information pertaining to the internal state and life-stage history of an individual. Facial width-to-height ratio is a size-independent sexually dimorphic trait, and estimates of aggression made by untrained adults judging own-race faces were positively associated with both facial width-to-height ratio and actual aggressive behavior. Given the significant adaptive value of accurately detecting aggressiveness based on facial appearance, we hypothesized that aggression estimates made by adults and 8-year-olds would be highly correlated with male facial width-to-height ratio even for a face category with which they had minimal experience—other-race faces. For each of the four race and age groups, estimates of aggression were positively correlated with facial width-to-height ratio irrespective of rating own-or other-race faces. Overall, the correlations between facial width-to-height ratio and ratings of aggression were stronger for adults than for children. Sensitivity to facial width-to-height ratio appears to be part of an evolved mechanism designed to detect threats in the external environment. This mechanism is likely broadly tuned and functions independently of experience.
Tumors of the hypothalamic-pituitary unit have been linked to genetic syndromes that are associated with midfacial abnormalities.
We hypothesized that mutations of genes that affect the development of the face (and consequently of the anterior pituitary) may be present in children with ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas, and if this is true then facial measurements would be different from those predicted by parental features.
We studied 20 children with cortico-tropinomas and a control group and their parents. All facial measurements were expressed according to standard deviation scores.
Significant differences were seen between the children with pituitary adenomas and their parents for vertical facial height measures: nasal length (p <0.001), lower facial height (p <0.03) and overall facial height (p <0.01).
We conclude that some of the indices of midline craniofacial development, in particular those affecting the vertical axis, are different in children with corticotroph adenomas producing ACTH.
Cushing’s disease; anthropometrics; middle face; pituitary gland; development
Previous studies have found both support and lack of support for a positive relationship between masculinity and symmetry, two putative signs of mate quality, in male faces. We re-examined this relationship using an explicit measure of facial fluctuating asymmetry, as well as other measures of asymmetry, and measures of facial masculinity/femininity. We also used ratings of these traits for faces. Further, we examined the relationship between facial sexual dimorphism and body asymmetry. We found no significant correlations between facial masculinity and any of our measures of asymmetry or ratings of symmetry in males. Facial femininity was not consistently associated with facial symmetry in females, but was associated with body symmetry. Therefore, for females, but not males, facial femininity and body symmetry may reflect similar aspects of mate quality. We also examined the relationships between trait ratings and measurements. Our results provide validation of our ability to measure aspects of asymmetry that are perceived to be symmetrical, and aspects of sexual dimorphism that are perceived as feminine in females and masculine in males.
Dysmorphology is more concentrated in the craniofacial region of Schizophrenic Patients. So, an early anthropometric assessment of the physical dimensions of the cranium and the face may indicate a potential clue of Schizophrenia.
To study the craniofacial dysmorphology in schizophrenic patients and in healthy controls of the Agra region and to find out whether its evaluation could be used as a tool in the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Setting and Design
This was a case-control, cross-sectional study.
Subjects and Methods
Schizophrenic Patients well diagnosed by consultant psychiatrists on the basis of the DSM IV criteria of the S.N. Medical College Agra and the Institute of Mental health, Agra and healthy controls of Agra were selected for the study. The total facial height (trichion to gnathion), the upper facial height (trichion to subnasale) and the lower facial height (subnasale to gnathion) were measured among the various groups of patients and the controls. The mean data were statistically correlated by using the t test for the independent variables.
The total facial height (trichion to gnathion) was elongated in the Schizophrenic male patients as compared to the controls. When we compared the schizophrenic patients on the basis of the family history of schizophrenia, it was found that there was an elongation of the total facial height in the patients with a positive family history of schizophrenia as compared to the patients without a family history of schizophrenia. There was also a significant elongation of the upper facial height (trichion to subnasale ) in the schizophrenic male and female patients.
There was total facial elongation and upper facial region elongation in the schizophrenia patients as compared to the controls.
Craniofacial dysmorphology; Anthropometry; Psychiatry; Schizophrenia
Anthropometric data describing the palpebral fissure and its position is available for various populations. Unfortunately there is no data available for Malaysian South Indian.
The present study was undertaken to determine the normative values for Malaysian South Indian according to gender.
Materials and Methods:
Anthropometric measurement was done on standardized photographs taken from 300 MSI aged 18-26 years. The parameters were measured using computerized software.
Significant sexual difference was observed in all parameters except canthal index, which includes palpebral fissure width (male, 30.9 mm; female, 29.62 mm), palpebral fissure height (male, 11.06 mm; female, 11.48 mm), palpebral fissure inclination (male, 4.72°; female, 7.04°), outercanthal distance (male, 97.15 mm; female, 91.78 mm), interpupillary distance (male, 68.09 mm; female, 63.6 mm), intercanthal distance (male, 34.1 mm; female, 32.77 mm), and canthal index (male, 35.22 mm; female, 35.86±4.44 mm).
Sexual dimorphism was found in all parameters. Comparison of our results with other studies revealed the variation and similarities in key parameters. Establishing normative values and understanding the facial morphology of different ethnic groups is important in designing the treatment planning for an aesthetic oculoplastic procedure.
Anthropometry; Averageness; Palpebral fissure; Sexual dimorphism; Variation
During face identification in humans, facial information is sampled (seeing) and handled (processing) in ways that are influenced by the kind of facial image type, such as a self-image or an image of another face. However, the relationship between seeing and information processing is seldom considered. In this study, we aimed to reveal this relationship using simultaneous eye-tracking measurements and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in face identification tasks.
22 healthy adult subjects (8 males and 14 females) were shown facial morphing movies in which an initial facial image gradually changed into another facial image (that is, the subject's own face was changed to a familiar face). The fixation patterns on facial features were recorded, along with changes in oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) levels in the frontal lobe, while the subjects identified several faces. In the self-face condition (self-face as the initial image), hemodynamic activity around the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was significantly greater than in the familiar-face condition. On the other hand, the scanning strategy was similar in almost all conditions with more fixations on the eyes and nose than on other areas. Fixation time on the eye area did not correlate with changes in oxyHb levels, and none of the scanning strategy indices could estimate the hemodynamic changes.
We conclude that hemodynamic activity, i.e., the means of processing facial information, is not always modulated by the face-scanning strategy, i.e., the way of seeing, and that the right IFG plays important roles in both self-other facial discrimination and self-evaluation.
In this study, we performed anatomic and computed tomography (CT) measurements of C2 lamina in Chinese people in order to provide the anatomic and radiographic data, and to verify the clinical applicability of trans-lamina screws to this population.
The anatomic and radiographic measurement was conducted on two separate groups, group A and group B. In group A, a total of 96 human adult (male 51, female 45) cadaver spines were included. The minimal height (H1), thickness (T), length (L1) of C2 lamina, height of the root of lamina (H2), distance from the entry point to the lateral rim of lamina (L2) and to the lateral rim of lateral mass (L3) were bilaterally measured using high precision calipers. The spino-laminar angles (angle A) were also included. In group B, a total of 112 volunteers (male 58, female 54) without upper cervical abnormality were enrolled. Angle A, H1, T, L1, H2, L2 and L3 were bilaterally measured using plain X-rays and reconstruction CT. All measurements were taken at the thinnest part of the lamina in the axial and coronal plane.
All the measurements (except angle A) in males were significantly higher than those in females (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the values of bilateral laminae between group A and group B (P > 0.05). The thickness of 45% specimens was less than 6 mm. The length of lamina in all specimens was less than 2.5 cm, while only 5% of the specimens had a length of >3 cm from the entry point to the rim of lamina. The length from the entry point to the lateral rim of lateral mass was between 2.5 and 4.6 cm. In contrast, the length of only 5% specimens was longer than 4 cm.
The preoperative radiographic evaluation is very important to determine the suitable size of screws. The diameter of screws is mainly restricted by the thickness of C2 lamina. It is safe to use screws with a length of 2.5–3.0 cm for Chinese people. The radiographic measurement method we used is simple, accurate and reliable for preoperative measurement.
C2 lamina; Anatomic measurement; Radiographic measurement
The “golden ratio” is considered as a universal facial aesthetical standard. Researcher's opinion that deviation from golden ratio can result in development of facial abnormalities.
This study was designed to study the facial morphology and to identify individuals with normal, short, and long face.
Materials and Methods:
We studied 300 Malaysian nationality subjects aged 18-28 years of Chinese, Indian, and Malay extraction. The parameters measured were physiognomical facial height and width of face, and physiognomical facial index was calculated. Face shape was classified based on golden ratio. Independent t test was done to test the difference between sexes and among the races.
The mean values of the measurements and index showed significant sexual and interracial differences. Out of 300 subjects, the face shape was normal in 60 subjects, short in 224 subjects, and long in 16 subjects.
As anticipated, the measurements showed variations according to gender and race. Only 60 subjects had a regular face shape, and remaining 240 subjects had irregular face shape (short and long). Since the short and long shape individuals may be at risk of developing various disorders, the knowledge of facial shapes in the given population is important for early diagnostic and treatment procedures.
Anthropometry; Facial shape; Golden ratio; Racial differences
Both children and adults are subject to similar types of injuries but fractures of facial bones in children are relatively uncommon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of facial bone fractures among children of <12 years, their management and outcome in an Indian city.
Material and methods
This retrospective study included children of <12 years of age with facial bone fractures admitted over a span of 3 years. In order to compare our results we reviewed the existing literature related to pediatric facial bone fractures.
A total of 45 children were admitted for facial bone fractures. Forty (89%) of them were above 5 years of age and male to female ratio was 2:1. About 53.33% of these injuries were because of fall from height. Mandible fracture was the most common facial bone fracture among admitted patients. Symphysis and para-symphysis was the commonest site of mandibular fractures, seen in 49% cases. Majority of these fractures were managed by Inter-maxillary fixation and inter-osseous wiring. Mini-plates were used for widely displaced compound fractures. For un-displaced fractures observation alone was sufficient.
Mandible is the commonest facial bone fracture in children, more often caused by accidental fall from height. The high osteogenic potential of pediatric mandible allows non-surgical management to be successful in an increased proportion of younger patients.
Pediatric facial trauma; Inter-maxillary fixation; Fracture fixation methods
The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation ratios between the sagittal back contour (flèche cervicale and lombaire, trunk inclination) and selected parameters of craniofacial morphology in children. The patient sample consisted of 66 healthy children with a mean age of 11.2 years (SD 1.6 years), of which 34 were male (mean age 11.5 years, SD 1.3 years) and 32 were females (mean age 10.9 years, SD 1.9 years). The children were recruited during the preparation of the initial orthodontic treatment records. Craniofacial morphology was analyzed by six angular measurements: facial axis, mandibular plane angle, inner gonial angle, lower facial height, facial depth and maxilla position. Rasterstereography was used for reconstruction of the spinal back sagittal profile. From the profile flèche cervicale, flèche lombaire and trunk inclination were determined and the correlations with the craniofacial morphology were calculated (Pearson and Mann–Whitney U test). Significant correlations were found with respect to the inner gonial angle and the flèche cervicale, the mandibular plane angle and the flèche lombaire, the inner gonial angle and the flèche lombaire, and the angular lower facial height and the flèche lombaire, as well as the inner gonial angle and the trunk inclination. The craniofacial vertical growth pattern, presented by mandibular plane angle, inner gonial angle and the angular lower facial height, and the correlation to flèche cervicale and lombaire as well as trunk inclination reveal correlations between growth pattern and sagittal back contour.
Body posture; Rasterstereography; Craniofacial morphology; Cephalometry
Anogenital distance (AGD), a sexually dimorphic measure of genital development, is a marker for endocrine disruption in animal studies and may be shorter in infant males with genital anomalies. Given the correlation between anogenital distance and genital development, we sought to determine if anogenital distance varied in fertile compared to infertile adult men.
A cross sectional study of consecutive men being evaluated for infertility and men with proven fertility was recruited from an andrology clinic. Anogenital distance (the distance from the posterior aspect of the scrotum to the anal verge) and penile length (PL) were measured using digital calipers. ANOVA and linear regression were used to determine correlations between AGD, fatherhood status, and semen analysis parameters (sperm density, motility, and total motile sperm count).
A total of 117 infertile men (mean age: 35.3±17.4) and 56 fertile men (mean age: 44.8±9.7) were recruited. The infertile men possessed significantly shorter mean AGD and PL compared to the fertile controls (AGD: 31.8 vs 44.6 mm, PL: 107.1 vs 119.5 mm, p<0.01). The difference in AGD persisted even after accounting for ethnic and anthropomorphic differences. In addition to fatherhood, on both unadjusted and adjusted linear regression, AGD was significantly correlated with sperm density and total motile sperm count. After adjusting for demographic and reproductive variables, for each 1 cm increase in a man's AGD, the sperm density increases by 4.3 million sperm per mL (95% CI 0.53, 8.09, p = 0.03) and the total motile sperm count increases by 6.0 million sperm (95% CI 1.34, 10.58, p = 0.01). On adjusted analyses, no correlation was seen between penile length and semen parameters.
A longer anogenital distance is associated with fatherhood and may predict normal male reproductive potential. Thus, AGD may provide a novel metric to assess reproductive potential in men.
AIM—To examine the relation between
a child's height and grade progression in primary school.
METHODS—Height was measured in a
representative cross sectional sample of children from 24 primary
schools in Victoria in late 1997.Height measurements were transformed
to standardised scores using Cole's "LMS" method to allow for
comparison across ages and genders. Children within each grade were
divided into three equal groups based on age (youngest third, middle
third, oldest third), again to allow for cross age comparison.
RESULTS—A total of 2848 children
aged 5-12 years (51% male) were included, with approximately 400 children in each of the seven grades from preparatory to grade 6. Analysis of variance showed a significant relation overall between age
and height, with a sequential decrease in height from the youngest to
the oldest third. When genders were considered separately, the relation
remained significant for boys but not for girls. A total of 133 children (66% male) repeated a grade in primary school. When this
group of grade repeaters was removed from the sample, analysis of
variance showed no significant relation between standardised height
score and age tertile for boys. Although birth weight category and
maternal education were independent predictors of height scores
overall, they did not appear to influence decisions to retain pupils in grades.
CONCLUSIONS—Older boys within
grades, notably those who have repeated a grade, are shorter than their
peers. Decisions to retain pupils, particularly boys who are
experiencing school difficulties, may be influenced by their height.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) femoral insertion site with femoral bony landmarks and develop a new method of location. Sixteen unpaired normal Chinese human cadaveric knees were used. Femoral insertion sites of the ACL were marked with metal wires. Four pairs of bony landmarks were selected: anatomical axis of distal femur (A) and parallel tangent of posterior condyles (B); tangent of anterior condyles parallel to landmark A (C) and landmark B; Blumensaat’s line (D) and parallel tangent of distal condyles (E); and tangent of posterior condyles (F) and parallel tangent of anterior condyles (G). The X-Caliper was used to measure the distance between the centre of the insertion site and each pair of bony landmarks. The ratio of distances to each pair of bony landmark was calculated. Clock position of the ACL femoral footprint was measured on anteroposterior (AP) roentgenograms at 90 degree flexion. The centre of the ACL footprint was found at 65.3% ± 1.1% between A and B, 78.1% ± 1.0% between B and C, 38.3% ± 2.7% between D and E, and 43.1% ± 4.6% between F and G. The distances to bony landmarks A, B, D, and E have smaller variations. Blumensaat’s line and the anatomical axis of the distal femur were regarded as more useful and made location of the insertion site more precise. A parallelogram made up of these two bony landmarks can be used. On AP roentgenograms, the centre of the femoral footprint should be moved to lower than the 10:00 o’clock (2:00) position.
Validity of self-reported height and weight has not been adequately evaluated in diverse adolescent populations. In fact there are no reported validity studies conducted in Asian children and adolescents. This study aims to examine the accuracy of self-reported weight, height, and resultant BMI values in Chinese adolescents, and of the adolescents' subsequent classification into overweight categories.
Weight and height were self-reported and measured in 1761 adolescents aged 12-16 years in a cross-sectional survey in Xi'an city, China. BMI was calculated from both reported values and measured values. Bland-Altman plots with 95% limits of agreement, Pearson's correlation and Kappa statistics were calculated to assess the agreement.
The 95% limits of agreement were -11.16 and 6.46 kg for weight, -4.73 and 7.45 cm for height, and -4.93 and 2.47 kg/m2 for BMI. Pearson correlation between measured and self-reported values was 0.912 for weight, 0.935 for height and 0.809 for BMI. Weighted Kappa was 0.859 for weight, 0.906 for height and 0.754 for BMI. Sensitivity for detecting overweight (includes obese) in adolescents was 56.1%, and specificity was 98.6%. Subjects' area of residence, age and BMI were significant factors associated with the errors in self-reporting weight, height and relative BMI.
Reported weight and height does not have an acceptable agreement with measured data. Therefore, we do not recommend the application of self-reported weight and height to screen for overweight adolescents in China. Alternatively, self-reported data could be considered for use, with caution, in surveillance systems and epidemiology studies.