Effects of high fat diet (HFD) on obesity and, subsequently, on diabetes are highly variable and modulated by genetics in both humans and rodents. In this report, we characterized the response of Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a spontaneous polygenic model for lean diabetes and healthy Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) controls, to high fat feeding from weaning to 20 weeks of age. Animals fed either normal diet or HFD were sacrificed at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks of age and a wide array of physiological measurements were made along with gene expression profiling using Affymetrix gene array chips. Mining of the microarray data identified differentially regulated genes (involved in inflammation, metabolism, transcription regulation, and signaling) in diabetic animals, as well as the response of both strains to HFD. Functional annotation suggested that HFD increased inflammatory differences between the two strains. Chronic inflammation driven by heightened innate immune response was identified to be present in GK animals regardless of diet. In addition, compensatory mechanisms by which WKY animals on HFD resisted the development of diabetes were identified, thus illustrating the complexity of diabetes disease progression.
diabetes; high fat diet; gene expression; microarray
Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) is a lipid status responsive gene involved in muscle fuel selection. Evidence is mounting in support of the therapeutic potential of PDK4 inhibitors to treat diabetes. Factors that regulate PDK4 mRNA expression include plasma corticosterone, insulin and free fatty acids. Our objective was to determine the impact of those plasma factors on PDK4 mRNA and to develop and validate a population mathematical model to differentiate aging, diet and disease effects on muscle PDK4 expression. The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, a polygenic non-obese model of type 2 diabetes, was used as the diabetic animal model. We examined muscle PDK4 mRNA expression by real-time QRTPCR. Groups of GK rats along with controls fed with either a normal or high fat diet were sacrificed at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks of age. Plasma corticosterone, insulin and free fatty acid were measured. The proposed mechanism-based model successfully described the age, disease and diet effects and the relative contribution of these plasma regulators on PDK4 mRNA expression. Muscle growth reduced the PDK4 mRNA production rate by 14% per gram increase. High fat diet increased the initial production rate constant in GK rats by 2.19-fold. The model indicated that corticosterone had a moderate effect and PDK4 was more sensitive to free fatty acid than insulin fluxes, which was in good agreement with the literature data.
population model; type 2 diabetes; disease progression; PDK4; Goto-Kakizaki rats
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a heterogeneous group of diseases that is progressive and involves multiple tissues. Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats are a polygenic model with elevated blood glucose, peripheral insulin resistance, a non-obese phenotype, and exhibit many degenerative changes observed in human T2DM. As part of a systems analysis of disease progression in this animal model, this study characterized the contribution of adipose tissue to pathophysiology of the disease. We sacrificed subgroups of GK rats and appropriate controls at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks of age and carried out a gene array analysis of white adipose tissue. We expanded our physiological analysis of the animals that accompanied our initial gene array study on the livers from these animals. The expanded analysis included adipose tissue weights, HbA1c, additional hormonal profiles, lipid profiles, differential blood cell counts, and food consumption. HbA1c progressively increased in the GK animals. Altered corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin profiles were also documented in GK animals. Gene array analysis identified 412 genes that were differentially expressed in adipose tissue of GKs relative to controls. The GK animals exhibited an age-specific failure to accumulate body fat despite their relatively higher calorie consumption which was well supported by the altered expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis in the white adipose tissue of these animals, including Fasn, Acly, Kklf9, and Stat3. Systemic inflammation was reflected by chronically elevated white blood cell counts. Furthermore, chronic inflammation in adipose tissue was evident from the differential expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses and activation of natural immunity, including two interferon regulated genes, Ifit and Iipg, as well as MHC class II genes. This study demonstrates an age specific failure to accumulate adipose tissue in the GK rat and the presence of chronic inflammation in adipose tissue from these animals.
Based on findings obtained using two-dimensional capillary analyses on tissue cross-sections, diabetes has been shown to be associated with a high risk for microangiopathy and capillary regression in skeletal muscles. We visualized the three-dimensional architecture of the capillary networks in the soleus muscle of non-obese Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats with type 2 diabetes and compared them with those of control Wistar rats to provide novel information, e.g., capillary volume, on the capillary networks. In addition, we examined pro- and anti-angiogenic gene expression levels in the soleus muscle of GK rats using TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR. As expected, plasma glucose levels were higher and insulin levels lower in GK than control rats. The three-dimensional architecture of the capillary networks was regressed and capillary volume was smaller in the soleus muscle of GK compared to control rats. The mRNA expression levels of the pro-angiogenic factors HIF-1α, KDR, Flt-1, ANG-1, and Tie-2 were lower, whereas the level of the anti-angiogenic factor TSP-1 was higher in GK than control rats. These data suggest that a decrease in pro-angiogenic and increase in anti-angiogenic factors may play an important role in type 2 diabetes-induced muscle circulatory complications.
angiogenic factors; capillary network; skeletal muscle; three-dimensional imaging; type 2 diabetes
Recent evidence indicates that insulin resistance in skeletal muscle may be related to reduce mitochondrial number and oxidation capacity. However, it is not known whether increasing mitochondrial number and function improves insulin resistance. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a combination of nutrients on insulin resistance and mitochondrial biogenesis/function in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic Goto–Kakizaki rats.
We demonstrated that defect of glucose and lipid metabolism is associated with low mitochondrial content and reduced mitochondrial enzyme activity in skeletal muscle of the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. The treatment of combination of R-α-lipoic acid, acetyl-L-carnitine, nicotinamide, and biotin effectively improved glucose tolerance, decreased the basal insulin secretion and the level of circulating free fatty acid (FFA), and prevented the reduction of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The nutrients treatment also significantly increased mRNA levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism, including peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-α (Pparα), peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-δ (Pparδ), and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (Mcpt-1) and activity of mitochondrial complex I and II in skeletal muscle. All of these effects of mitochondrial nutrients are comparable to that of the antidiabetic drug, pioglitazone. In addition, the treatment with nutrients, unlike pioglitazone, did not cause body weight gain.
These data suggest that a combination of mitochondrial targeting nutrients may improve skeletal mitochondrial dysfunction and exert hypoglycemic effects, without causing weight gain.
The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is a well-studied non-obese spontaneous type 2 diabetes (T2D) animal model characterized by impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in the pancreatic beta cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short regulatory RNAs involved in many fundamental biological processes. We aim to identify miRNAs that are differentially-expressed in the pancreatic islets of the GK rats and investigate both their short- and long term glucose-dependence during glucose-stimulatory conditions.
Global profiling of 348 miRNAs in the islets of GK rats and Wistar controls (females, 60 days, N = 6 for both sets) using locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based microarrays allowed for the clear separation of the two groups. Significant analysis of microarrays (SAM) identified 30 differentially-expressed miRNAs, 24 of which are predominantly upregulated in the GK rat islets. Monitoring of qPCR-validated miRNAs during GSIS experiments on isolated islets showed disparate expression trajectories between GK and controls indicating distinct short- and long-term glucose dependence. We specifically found expression of rno-miR-130a, rno-miR-132, rno-miR-212 and rno-miR-335 to be regulated by hyperglycaemia. The putative targets of upregulated miRNAs in the GK, filtered with glucose-regulated mRNAs, were found to be enriched for insulin-secretion genes known to be downregulated in T2D patients. Finally, the binding of rno-miR-335 to a fragment of the 3′UTR of one of known down-regulated exocytotic genes in GK islets, Stxbp1 was shown by luciferase assay.
The perturbed miRNA network found in the GK rat islets is indicative of a system-wide impairment in the regulation of genes important for the normal functions of pancreatic islets, particularly in processes involving insulin secretion during glucose stimulatory conditions. Our findings suggest that the reduced insulin secretion observed in the GK rat may be partly due to upregulated miRNA expression leading to decreased production of key proteins of the insulin exocytotic machinery.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNA molecules involved in post-transcriptional control of gene expression of a wide number of genes, including those involved in glucose homeostasis. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by hyperglycaemia and defects in insulin secretion and action at target tissues. We sought to establish differences in global miRNA expression in two insulin-target tissues from inbred rats of spontaneously diabetic and normoglycaemic strains.
We used a miRNA microarray platform to measure global miRNA expression in two insulin-target tissues: liver and adipose tissue from inbred rats of spontaneously diabetic (Goto-Kakizaki [GK]) and normoglycaemic (Brown-Norway [BN]) strains which are extensively used in genetic studies of T2D. MiRNA data were integrated with gene expression data from the same rats to investigate how differentially expressed miRNAs affect the expression of predicted target gene transcripts.
The expression of 170 miRNAs was measured in liver and adipose tissue of GK and BN rats. Based on a p-value for differential expression between GK and BN, the most significant change in expression was observed for miR-125a in liver (FC = 5.61, P = 0.001, Padjusted = 0.10); this overexpression was validated using quantitative RT-PCR (FC = 13.15, P = 0.0005). MiR-125a also showed over-expression in the GK vs. BN analysis within adipose tissue (FC = 1.97, P = 0.078, Padjusted = 0.99), as did the previously reported miR-29a (FC = 1.51, P = 0.05, Padjusted = 0.99). In-silico tools assessing the biological role of predicted miR-125a target genes suggest an over-representation of genes involved in the MAPK signaling pathway. Gene expression analysis identified 1308 genes with significantly different expression between GK and BN rats (Padjusted < 0.05): 233 in liver and 1075 in adipose tissue. Pathways related to glucose and lipid metabolism were significantly over-represented among these genes. Enrichment analysis suggested that differentially expressed genes in GK compared to BN included more predicted miR-125a target genes than would be expected by chance in adipose tissue (FDR = 0.006 for up-regulated genes; FDR = 0.036 for down-regulated genes) but not in liver (FDR = 0.074 for up-regulated genes; FDR = 0.248 for down-regulated genes).
MiR-125a is over-expressed in liver in hyperglycaemic GK rats relative to normoglycaemic BN rats, and our array data also suggest miR-125a is over-expressed in adipose tissue. We demonstrate the use of in-silico tools to provide the basis for further investigation of the potential role of miR-125a in T2D. In particular, the enrichment of predicted miR-125a target genes among differentially expressed genes has identified likely target genes and indicates that integrating global miRNA and mRNA expression data may give further insights into miRNA-mediated regulation of gene expression.
The association of vascular reactivity between diabetes and periodontal disease has not been clarified. Gingival blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry for 31 weeks in Wistar rats, Wistar rats orally challenged with Porphyromonas gingivalis (Wistar rats + Porphyromonas gingivalis), Goto-Kakizaki rats, and Goto-Kakizaki rats orally challenged with Porphyromonas gingivalis (Goto-Kakizaki rats + Porphyromonas gingivalis). Effects of alveolar bone resorption on periodontal tissue was enhanced in Wistar rats + Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Goto-Kakizaki rats, with this effect being significantly enhanced by Goto-Kakizaki rats + Porphyromonas gingivalis. Using the L-band electron spin resonance technique, we succeeded in measuring oxidative stress as decay rate constant (K1 and K2) of 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidin-1-yloxy in the oral and maxillofacial region of the animal models. The decay rate constant (K1) of 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidin-1-yloxy was significantly greater in the oral and maxillofacial region of Goto-Kakizaki rats + Porphyromonas gingivalis compared to Wistar rats, Wistar rats + Porphyromonas gingivalis and Goto-Kakizaki rats groups. Gingival reactive hyperemia was attenuated by periodontal disease, and this effect was also remarkable in the diabetes mellitus model. Taken together, we found that vascular endothelial function was decreased in diabetes mellitus and/or periodontal disease animal models due to increasing oxidative stress in the gingival circulation.
gingival circulation; oxidative stress; L-band ESR; diabetes mellitus; periodontitis
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ileal interposition (IT) on glucose and insulin resistance (IR) in type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), and the role of T-cell factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), formerly known as TCF4, in the downregulation of hyperglycemia following IT. Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats subjected to IT surgery (GK-IT group), GK rats subjected to sham surgery (GK-Sham group) and Wistar (WS) rats subjected to sham surgery (WS-Sham group) were investigated in this study. Fasting plasma glucose, body weight, food intake per 1 kg body weight, insulin and a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured pre- and post-surgery. The rats were euthanized 28 days post-surgery and the pancreas of each rat was dissected. The expression levels of TCF7L2 mRNA and protein were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Our results revealed that IT improved both fasting plasma glucose levels and IR in GK rats by upregulating the expression of the TCF7L2 protein. IT provides a valuable therapeutic option for patients with T2DM. Upregulation of TCF7L2 protein expression may be a possible mechanism underlying the improvement of T2DM following IT.
ileal interposition; type 2 diabetes mellitus; T-cell factor 7-like 2; hyperglycemia
MicroRNAs regulate a broad range of biological mechanisms. To investigate the relationship between microRNA expression and type 2 diabetes, we compared global microRNA expression in insulin target tissues from three inbred rat strains that differ in diabetes susceptibility.
Using microarrays, we measured the expression of 283 microRNAs in adipose, liver and muscle tissue from hyperglycaemic (Goto–Kakizaki), intermediate glycaemic (Wistar Kyoto) and normoglycaemic (Brown Norway) rats (n = 5 for each strain). Expression was compared across strains and validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, microRNA expression variation in adipose tissue was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to hyperglycaemic conditions.
We found 29 significantly differentiated microRNAs (padjusted < 0.05): nine in adipose tissue, 18 in liver and two in muscle. Of these, five microRNAs had expression patterns that correlated with the strain-specific glycaemic phenotype. MiR-222 (padjusted = 0.0005) and miR-27a (padjusted = 0.006) were upregulated in adipose tissue; miR-195 (padjusted = 0.006) and miR-103 (padjusted = 0.04) were upregulated in liver; and miR-10b (padjusted = 0.004) was downregulated in muscle. Exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to increased glucose concentration upregulated the expression of miR-222 (p = 0.008), miR-27a (p = 0.02) and the previously reported miR-29a (p = 0.02). Predicted target genes of these differentially expressed microRNAs are involved in pathways relevant to type 2 diabetes.
The expression patterns of miR-222, miR-27a, miR-195, miR-103 and miR-10b varied with hyperglycaemia, suggesting a role for these microRNAs in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, as modelled by the Gyoto–Kakizaki rat. We observed similar patterns of expression of miR-222, miR-27a and miR-29a in adipocytes as a response to increased glucose levels, which supports our hypothesis that altered expression of microRNAs accompanies primary events related to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-010-1667-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
Expression; MicroRNA; Murine diabetes model
Exercise training is highly correlated with the reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), although it enhanced insulin sensitivity, glucose uptake and glucose transporter expression to reduce severity of diabetic symptoms. This study investigated the impact of short-term swimming exercise on insulin regulation in the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat as a non-obese model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Wistar (W/S) and GK rats were trained 2 hours daily with the swimming exercise for 4 weeks, and then the changes in the metabolism of insulin and glucose were assessed. Body weight was markedly decreased in the exercised GK rats compare to their non-exercised counterpart, while W/S rats did not show any exercise-related changes. Glucose concentration was not changed by exercise, although impaired glucose tolerance was improved in GK rats 120 min after glucose injection. However, insulin concentration was decreased by swimming exercise as in the decrease of GSIS after running exercise. To identify the other cause for exercise-induced insulin down-regulation, the changes in the levels of key factors involved in insulin production (C-peptide) and clearance (insulin-degrading enzyme; IDE) were measured in W/S and GK rats. The C-peptide level was maintained while IDE expression increased markedly. Therefore, these results showed that insulin down-regulation induced by short-term swimming exercise likely attributes to enhanced insulin clearance via IDE over-expression than by altered insulin production.
Exercise; insulin; glucose; insulin-degrading enzyme; C-peptide
Hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) alters gene expression regulation in various organs and contributes to long term vascular and renal complications. We aimed to generate novel renal genome-wide gene transcription data in rat models of diabetes in order to test the responsiveness to hyperglycaemia and renal structural changes of positional candidate genes at selected diabetic nephropathy (DN) susceptibility loci.
Both Affymetrix and Illumina technologies were used to identify significant quantitative changes in the abundance of over 15,000 transcripts in kidney of models of spontaneous (genetically determined) mild hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance (Goto-Kakizaki-GK) and experimentally induced severe hyperglycaemia (Wistar-Kyoto-WKY rats injected with streptozotocin [STZ]).
Different patterns of transcription regulation in the two rat models of diabetes likely underlie the roles of genetic variants and hyperglycaemia severity. The impact of prolonged hyperglycaemia on gene expression changes was more profound in STZ-WKY rats than in GK rats and involved largely different sets of genes. These included genes already tested in genetic studies of DN and a large number of protein coding sequences of unknown function which can be considered as functional and, when they map to DN loci, positional candidates for DN. Further expression analysis of rat orthologs of human DN positional candidate genes provided functional annotations of known and novel genes that are responsive to hyperglycaemia and may contribute to renal functional and/or structural alterations.
Combining transcriptomics in animal models and comparative genomics provides important information to improve functional annotations of disease susceptibility loci in humans and experimental support for testing candidate genes in human genetics.
Complex etiology and pathogenesis of pathophysiological components of the cardio-metabolic syndrome have been demonstrated in humans and animal models.
We have generated extensive physiological, genetic and genome-wide gene expression profiles in a congenic strain of the spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat containing a large region (110 cM, 170 Mb) of rat chromosome 1 (RNO1), which covers diabetes and obesity quantitative trait loci (QTL), introgressed onto the genetic background of the normoglycaemic Brown Norway (BN) strain. This novel disease model, which by the length of the congenic region closely mirrors the situation of a chromosome substitution strain, exhibits a wide range of abnormalities directly relevant to components of the cardio-metabolic syndrome and diabetes complications, including hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, enhanced insulin secretion both in vivo and in vitro, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and altered pancreatic and renal histological structures. Gene transcription data in kidney, liver, skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue indicate that a disproportionately high number (43–83%) of genes differentially expressed between congenic and BN rats map to the GK genomic interval targeted in the congenic strain, which represents less than 5% of the total length of the rat genome. Genotype analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in strains genetically related to the GK highlights clusters of conserved and strain-specific variants in RNO1 that can assist the identification of naturally occurring variants isolated in diabetic and hypertensive strains when different phenotype selection procedures were applied.
Our results emphasize the importance of rat congenic models for defining the impact of genetic variants in well-characterised QTL regions on in vivo pathophysiological features and cis-/trans- regulation of gene expression. The congenic strain reported here provides a novel and sustainable model for investigating the pathogenesis and genetic basis of risks factors for the cardio-metabolic syndrome.
Inflammation followed by fibrosis is a component of islet dysfunction in both rodent and human type 2 diabetes. Because islet inflammation may originate from endothelial cells, we assessed the expression of selected genes involved in endothelial cell activation in islets from a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes, the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat. We also examined islet endotheliuml/oxidative stress (OS)/inflammation-related gene expression, islet vascularization and fibrosis after treatment with the interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra).
Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR on islets isolated from 10-week-old diabetic GK and control Wistar rats. Furthermore, GK rats were treated s.c twice daily with IL-1Ra (Kineret, Amgen, 100 mg/kg/day) or saline, from 4 weeks of age onwards (onset of diabetes). Four weeks later, islet gene analysis and pancreas immunochemistry were performed. Thirty-two genes were selected encoding molecules involved in endothelial cell activation, particularly fibrinolysis, vascular tone, OS, angiogenesis and also inflammation. All genes except those encoding angiotensinogen and epoxide hydrolase (that were decreased), and 12-lipoxygenase and vascular endothelial growth factor (that showed no change), were significantly up-regulated in GK islets. After IL-1Ra treatment of GK rats in vivo, most selected genes implied in endothelium/OS/immune cells/fibrosis were significantly down-regulated. IL-1Ra also improved islet vascularization, reduced fibrosis and ameliorated glycemia.
GK rat islets have increased mRNA expression of markers of early islet endothelial cell activation, possibly triggered by several metabolic factors, and also some defense mechanisms. The beneficial effect of IL-1Ra on most islet endothelial/OS/immune cells/fibrosis parameters analyzed highlights a major endothelial-related role for IL-1 in GK islet alterations. Thus, metabolically-altered islet endothelium might affect the β-cell microenvironment and contribute to progressive type 2 diabetic β-cell dysfunction in GK rats. Counteracting islet endothelial cell inflammation might be one way to ameliorate/prevent β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.
Adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3) is expressed in pancreatic islets of the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, a spontaneous animal model of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and also exerts genetic effects on the regulation of body weight in man. In addition to pancreatic islets, the central nervous system (CNS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of T2D and obesity by regulating feeding behavior, body weight and glucose metabolism. In the present study, we have investigated AC3 expression in pancreatic islets, striatum and hypothalamus of GK rats to evaluate its role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. GK and Wistar rats at the age of 2.5 mo were used. A group of GK rats were implanted with sustained insulin release chips for 15 d. Plasma glucose and serum insulin levels were measured. AC3 gene expression levels in pancreatic islets, striatum and hypothalamus were determined by using real-time RT-PCR. Results indicated that plasma glucose levels in Wistar rats were found to be similar to insulin-treated GK rats, and significantly lower compared with non-treated GK rats. AC3 expression levels in pancreatic islets, striatum and hypothalamus of GK rats were higher compared with Wistar rats, while the levels were intermediate in insulin-treated GK rats. The AC3 expression display patterns between pancreatic islets and striatum-hypothalamus were similar. The present study thus provides the first evidence that AC3 is overexpressed in the regions of striatum and hypothalamus of brain, and similarly in pancreatic islets of GK rats suggesting that AC3 plays a role in regulation of glucose homeostasis via CNS and insulin secretion.
Adenylyl cyclase 3; body weight; central nervous system; glucose; pancreatic islets; type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex systemic disease, with significant disorders of metabolism. The liver, a central energy metabolic organ, plays a critical role in the development of diabetes. Although gene expression levels are able to be measured via microarray since 1996, it is difficult to evaluate the contributions of one altered gene expression to a specific disease. One of the reasons is that a whole network picture responsible for a specific phase of diabetes is missing, while a single gene has to be put into a network picture to evaluate its importance. In the aim of identifying significant transcriptional regulatory networks in the liver contributing to diabetes, we have performed comprehensive active regulatory network survey by network screening in 4 weeks (w), 8-12 w, and 18-20 w Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat liver microarray data.
We identify active regulatory networks in GK rat by network screening in the following procedure. First, the regulatory networks are compiled by using the known binary relationships between the transcriptional factors and their regulated genes and the biological classification scheme, and second, the consistency of each regulatory network with the microarray data measured in GK rat is estimated to detect the active networks under the corresponding conditions. The comprehensive survey of the consistency between the networks and the measured data by the network screening approach in the case of non-insulin dependent diabetes in the GK rat reveals: 1. More pathways are active during inter-middle stage diabetes; 2. Inflammation, hypoxia, increased apoptosis, decreased proliferation, and altered metabolism are characteristics and display as early as 4weeks in GK strain; 3. Diabetes progression accompanies insults and compensations; 4. Nuclear receptors work in concert to maintain normal glycemic robustness system.
Notably this is the first comprehensive network screening study of non-insulin dependent diabetes in the GK rat based on high throughput data of the liver. Several important pathways have been revealed playing critical roles in the diabetes progression. Our findings also implicate that network screening is able to help us understand complex disease such as diabetes, and demonstrate the power of network systems biology approach to elucidate the essential mechanisms which would escape conventional single gene-based analysis.
Insulin resistance and altered endocrine pancreas function are central pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is a model of spontaneous T2DM characterised by reduced beta cell mass and genetically determined glucose intolerance and altered insulin secretion. To identify genetic determinants of endocrine pancreas histopathology, we carried out quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of histological phenotypes (beta cell mass -BCM and insulin-positive cell area -IPCA) and plasma concentration of hormones and growth factors in a F2 cohort derived from GK and normoglycemic Brown Norway rats. Although IPCA and BCM in the duodenal region of the pancreas were highly positively correlated (P < 10−6), and similarly in the splenic region, both measures were poorly correlated when comparing duodenal and splenic phenotypes. Strongest evidence of linkage to pancreas morphological traits was obtained between BCM and chromosome 10 (LOD 3.2). Evidence of significant linkage (LOD 4.2) to plasma corticosterone was detected in a region of chromosome 1 distal to other QTLs previously identified in the GK. Male-specific genetic effects were detected, including linkages (LOD > 4) to growth hormome (GH) on chromosome 6 and prolactin on chromosome 17. These data suggest independent genetic control of the structure and function of ontologically different regions of the endocrine pancreas. Novel QTLs for corticosterone, prolactin and GH may contribute to diabetes in the GK. The QTLs that we have identified in this, and previous genetic studies collectively underline the complex and multiple mechanisms involved in diabetes in the GK strain.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00335-010-9285-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The aim of this study was to examine the hypoglycemic effect of chlorella in 6 week-old type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK, n=30) rats and 6 week-old normal Wistar (n=30) rats. Animals were randomly assigned to 3 groups respectively, and were fed three different experimental diets containing 0%, 3% or 5% (w/w) chlorella for 8 weeks. In diabetic GK rats, the insulinogenic-indices were not significantly different among the groups. The concentrations of fasting plasma glucagon and hepatic triglyceride, and the insulin/glucagon ratios of the GK-3% chlorella and GK-5% chlorella groups were significantly lower than those of the GK-control group. The HOMA-index and the concentrations of fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin of the GK-3% chlorella and GK-5% chlorella groups were slightly lower than those of the GK-control group. In normal Wistar rats, the insulinogenic-indices were not significantly different among the normal groups, but that of the Wistar-5% chlorella group was slightly higher than the other groups. The concentrations of fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin, and the HOMA-index of the Wistar-5% chlorella group were a little higher, and the fasting plasma glucagon concentration and the insulin/glucagon ratio of the Wistar-5% chlorella group were significantly higher than those of the Wistar-control and Wistar-3% chlorella groups. In conclusion, this study shows that the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was not affected by the intake of chlorella, which could be beneficial, however, in improving insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic GK and normal Wistar rats.
Chlorella; glucagon; Goto-kakizaki rat; insulin; insulin sensitivity
It has been demonstrated that biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) and ileal transposition (IT) effectively induce weight loss and long-term control of type 2 diabetes in morbidly obese individuals. It is unknown whether the control of diabetes is better after IT or after BPD. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of IT and BPD on the control of diabetes in an animal model.
We performed IT and BPD on 10- to 12-week-old Goto–Kakizaki rats with a spontaneous nonobese model of type 2 diabetes, and we performed a series of detection. The rats were observed for 24 weeks after surgery.
Animals who underwent IT and BPD demonstrated improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 compared with the sham-operated animals. Furthermore, IT resulted in a shorter duration of surgery and better postoperative recovery than BPD.
This study provides strong evidence for the crucial role of the hindgut in the resolution of diabetes after duodenum-jejunum bypass or IT. We confirmed that IT was associated with better postoperative recovery than BPD and had a similar control of diabetes as BPD in nonobese animals with type 2 diabetes.
Hyperglycemia-induced changes in vascular wall structure contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), a family of proteolytic enzymes that degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, are essential for vascular remodeling. We have shown that endothelin-1 (ET-1) mediates increased MMP activity and associated vascular remodeling in Type 2 diabetes. However, the effect of Type 2 diabetes and/or ET-1 on the regulation of ECM and MMP gene expression in different vascular beds remains unknown.
Aorta and mesenteric artery samples were isolated from control, Type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and GK rats treated with ETA antagonist ABT-627. Gene expression profile of MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, fibronectin, procollagen type 1, c-fos and c-jun, were determined by quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR. In addition, aortic gene expression profile was evaluated by an ECM & Adhesion Molecules pathway specific microarray approach.
Analysis of the qRT-PCR data demonstrated a significant increase in mRNA levels of MMPs and ECM proteins as compared to control animals after 6 weeks of mild diabetes. Futhermore, these changes were comparable in aorta and mesentery samples. In contrast, treatment with ETA antagonist prevented diabetes-induced changes in expression of MMPs and procollagen type 1 in mesenteric arteries but not in aorta. Microaarray analysis provided evidence that 27 extracellular matrix genes were differentially regulated in diabetes. Further qRT-PCR with selected 7 genes confirmed the microarray data.
These results suggest that the expression of both matrix scaffold protein and matrix degrading MMP genes are altered in macro and microvascular beds in Type 2 diabetes. ETA antagonism restores the changes in gene expression in the mesenteric bed but not in aorta suggesting that ET-1 differentially regulates microvascular gene expression in Type 2 diabetes.
The dynamics of aging and type 2 diabetes (T2D) disease progression were investigated in normal [Wistar-Kyoto (WKY)] and diabetic [Goto-Kakizaki (GK)] rats and a mechanistic disease progression model was developed for glucose, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) changes over time. The study included 30 WKY and 30 GK rats. Plasma glucose and insulin, blood glucose and HbA1c concentrations and hematological measurements were taken at ages 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks. A mathematical model described the development of insulin resistance (IR) and β-cell function with age/growth and diabetes progression. The model utilized transit compartments and an indirect response model to quantitate biomarker changes over time. Glucose, insulin and HbA1c concentrations in WKY rats increased to a steady-state at 8 weeks due to developmental changes. Glucose concentrations at 4 weeks in GK rats were almost twice those of controls, and increased to a steady-state after 8 weeks. Insulin concentrations at 4 weeks in GK rats were similar to controls, and then hyperinsulinemia occurred until 12–16 weeks of age indicating IR. Subsequently, insulin concentrations in GK rats declined to slightly below WKY controls due to β-cell failure. HbA1c showed a delayed increase relative to glucose. Modeling of HbA1c was complicated by age-related changes in hematology in rats. The diabetes model quantitatively described the glucose/insulin inter-regulation and HbA1c production and reflected the underlying pathogenic factors of T2D—IR and β-cell dysfunction. The model could be extended to incorporate other biomarkers and effects of various anti-diabetic drugs.
Type 2 diabetes; Disease progression modeling; Insulin resistance; β-cell function
Diabetic retinopathy (DR), in which inflammation has been implicated playing important roles, is one of the most common diabetes complications. Dang Gui Bu Xue Tang (DBT), an aqueous extract of Radix Astragali and Radix Angelica sinensis, is a classical prescription in Traditional Chinese Medicine for treating inflammation and ischemic diseases. Here, we investigated the effects of a modified recipe of DBT, with addition of Panax notoginseng, in treating diabetic retinopathy. An aqueous extract of Radix Astragali, Radix Angelica sinensis, and Panax notoginseng (RRP) was given to Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and streptozotocin-induced Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Leukostasis, vascular leakage, and acellular capillaries in retinal vasculature of animals were determined. Expression of retinal inflammatory biomarkers was assessed. We found that RRP reduced leukostasis, acellular capillaries, and vascular leakage compared to diabetic control rats. We also found that RRP decreased the expression of inflammatory factors including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NF-κB, MCP-1, ICAM-1, or VCAM-1 in the retinas of GK rats and reversed high glucose-induced inhibition of endothelial cell migration and proliferation in vitro. We conclude that RRP has a potent effect in preventing the pathogenesis and/or progression of DR and thus may serve as a promising nontoxic therapeutic approach of DR.
AIM: To study the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on the expression of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) and pancreatic β-cell regeneration/ neogenesis, and their possible mechanisms in diabetics.
METHODS: Three groups of randomly selected non-obese diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were subjected to RYGB, sham-RYGB and sham-operation (sham-op) surgery, respectively. The rats were euthanized at post-operative 1, 2, 4 and 12 wk. Their pancreases were resected and analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to detect the mRNA of PDX-1. Anti-PDX-1 immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and Western blotting were used to detect the protein of PDX-1. Double IHC staining of anti-Brdu and -insulin was performed to detect regenerated β-cells. The index of double Brdu and insulin positive cells was calculated.
RESULTS: In comparison with sham-RYGB and sham-op groups, a significant increase in the expressions of PDX-1 mRNA in RYGB group was observed at all experimental time points (1 wk: 0.378 ± 0.013 vs 0.120 ± 0.010, 0.100 ± 0.010, F = 727.717, P < 0.001; 2 wk: 0.318 ± 0.013 vs 0.110 ± 0.010, 0.143 ± 0.015, F = 301.509, P < 0.001; 4 wk: 0.172 ± 0.011 vs 0.107 ± 0.012, 0.090 ± 0.010, F = 64.297, P < 0.001; 12 wk: 0.140 ± 0.007 vs 0.120 ± 0.010, 0.097 ± 0.015, F = 16.392, P < 0.001); PDX-1 protein in RYGB group was also increased significantly (1 wk: 0.61 ± 0.01 vs 0.21 ± 0.01, 0.15 ± 0.01, F = 3031.127, P < 0.001; 2 wk: 0.55 ± 0.00 vs 0.15 ± 0.01, 0.17 ± 0.01, F = 3426.455, P < 0.001; 4 wk: 0.39 ± 0.01 vs 0.18 ± 0.01, 0.22 ± 0.01, F = 882.909, P < 0.001; 12 wk: 0.41 ± 0.01 vs 0.20 ± 0.01, 0.18 ± 0.01, F = 515.833, P < 0.001). PDX-1 mRNA and PDX-1 protein production showed no statistical significance between the two sham groups. Many PDX-1 positive cells could be found in the pancreatic islets of the rats in RYGB group at all time points. In addition, the percentage of Brdu-insulin double staining positive cells was higher in RYGB group than in the other two groups (1 wk: 0.22 ± 0.13 vs 0.03 ± 0.06, 0.03 ± 0.06, P < 0.05; 2 wk: 0.28 ± 0.08 vs 0.00 ± 0.00, 0.03 ± 0.06, P < 0.05; 4 wk: 0.24 ± 0.11 vs 0.07 ± 0.06, 0.00 ± 0.00, P < 0.001; 12 wk: 0.20 ± 0.07 vs 0.03 ± 0.06, 0.00 ± 0.00, P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: RYGB can increase the expression of pancreatic PDX-1 and induce the regeneration of β-cells in GK rats. The associated regeneration of islet cells may be a possible mechanism that how RYGB could improve type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Gastric bypass; Diabetes mellitus; Regeneration; β-Cells; Animals; Pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1
There has been an increasing body of epidemiologic and biochemical evidence implying the role of cerebral insulin resistance in Alzheimer-type dementia. For a better understanding of the insulin effect on the central nervous system, we performed microarray-based global gene expression profiling in the hippocampus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of streptozotocin-induced and spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats as model animals for type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
Following pathway analysis and validation of gene lists by real-time polymerase chain reaction, 30 genes from the hippocampus, such as the inhibitory neuropeptide galanin, synuclein gamma and uncoupling protein 2, and 22 genes from the prefrontal cortex, e.g. galanin receptor 2, protein kinase C gamma and epsilon, ABCA1 (ATP-Binding Cassette A1), CD47 (Cluster of Differentiation 47) and the RET (Rearranged During Transfection) protooncogene, were found to exhibit altered expression levels in type 2 diabetic model animals in comparison to non-diabetic control animals. These gene lists proved to be partly overlapping and encompassed genes related to neurotransmission, lipid metabolism, neuronal development, insulin secretion, oxidative damage and DNA repair. On the other hand, no significant alterations were found in the transcriptomes of the corpus striatum in the same animals. Changes in the cerebral gene expression profiles seemed to be specific for the type 2 diabetic model, as no such alterations were found in streptozotocin-treated animals.
According to our knowledge this is the first characterization of the whole-genome expression changes of specific brain regions in a diabetic model. Our findings shed light on the complex role of insulin signaling in fine-tuning brain functions, and provide further experimental evidence in support of the recently elaborated theory of type 3 diabetes.
Although cardiac autonomic neuropathy is one of major complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), anatomical data on cardiac innervation of diabetic animal models is scant and controversial. We performed this study to check whether long-term diabetic state impacts the anatomy of intracardiac ganglia in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a genetic model of type 2 DM.
Twelve GK rats (276 ± 17 days of age; mean ± standard error) and 13 metabolically healthy Wistar rats (262 ± 5 days of age) as controls were used for this study. Blood glucose was determined using test strips, plasma insulin by radioimmunoassay. Intrinsic ganglia and nerves were visualized by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry on whole hearts. Ganglion area was measured, and the neuronal number was assessed according to ganglion area.
The GK rats had significantly elevated blood glucose level compared to controls (11.0 ± 0.6 vs. 5.9 ± 0.1 mmol/l, p < 0.001), but concentration of plasma insulin did not differ significantly between the two groups (84.0 ± 9.8 vs. 67.4 ± 10.9 pmol/l, p = 0.17). The GK rats contained significantly fewer intracardiac ganglia, decreased total area of intracardiac ganglia (1.4 ± 0.1 vs. 2.2 ± 0.1 mm2, p < 0.001) and smaller somata of ganglionic neurons. Mean total number of intracardiac neurons in GK rats was 1461 ± 62, while this number in control rats was higher by 39% and reached 2395 ± 110 (p < 0.001).
Results of our study demonstrate the decreased number of intracardiac neurons in GK rats compared to metabolically healthy Wistar rats of similar age. It is likely that the observed structural remodelling of intracardiac ganglia in GK rats is caused by a long-term diabetic state.
Heart; Diabetes; Cardiac ganglia; Nerve; Autonomic nervous system; Neuropathy