Previous studies have demonstrated greater functions of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) on nanophase compared with conventional metals. Nanophase metals possess a biologically inspired nanostructured surface that mimics the dimensions of constituent components in bone, including collagen and hydroxyapatite. Not only do these components possess dimensions on the nanoscale, they are aligned in a parallel manner creating a defined orientation in bone. To date, research has yet to evaluate the effect that organized nanosurface features can have on the interaction of osteoblasts with material surfaces. Therefore, to determine if surface orientation of features can mediate osteoblast adhesion and morphology, this study investigated osteoblast function on patterned titanium substrates containing alternating regions of micron rough and nano rough surfaces prepared by novel electron beam evaporation techniques. This study was also interested in determining whether or not the size of the patterned regions had an effect on osteoblast behavior and alignment. Results indicated early controlled osteoblast alignment on these patterned materials as well as greater osteoblast adhesion on the nano rough regions of these patterned substrates. Interestingly, decreasing the width of the nano rough regions (from 80 μm to 22 μm) on these patterned substrates resulted in a decreased number of osteoblasts adhering to these areas. Changes in the width of the nano rough regions also resulted in changes in osteoblast morphology, thus, suggesting there is an optimal pattern dimension that osteoblasts prefer. In summary, results of this study provided evidence that aligned nanophase metal features on the surface of titanium improved early osteoblast functions (morphology and adhesion) promising for their long term functions, criteria necessary to improve orthopedic implant efficacy.
osteoblasts; titanium; nanophase; orthopedic; alignment; surface topography
Surface roughness and surface free energy are two important factors that regulate cell responses to biomaterials. Previous studies established that titanium substrates with micron-scale and submicron scale topographies promote osteoblast differentiation and osteogenic local factor production and that there is a synergistic response to microrough Ti surfaces that have retained their high surface energy via processing that limits hydrocarbon contamination. This study tested the hypothesis that the synergistic response of osteoblasts to these modified surfaces depends on both surface microstructure and surface energy.
Ti disks were manufactured to present three different surface structures: smooth pretreatment surfaces (PT) with Ra of 0.2 µm; acid-etched surfaces (A) with a submicron roughness Ra of 0.83 µm; and sandblasted/acid-etched surfaces (SLA) with Ra of 3–4 µm. Modified acid-etched (modA) and modified sandblasted/acid-etched (modSLA) titanium substrates, which have low contamination and present a hydroxylated/hydrated surface layer to retain high surface energy, were compared with regular low surface energy A and SLA surfaces. Human osteoblast-like MG63 cells were cultured on these substrates and their responses, including cell shape, growth, differentiation (alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin), and local factor production (TGF-β1, PGE2, osteoprotegerin [OPG]) were analyzed (N=6 per variable). Data were normalized to cell number.
There were no significant differences between smooth PT and A surfaces except for a small increase in OPG. Compared to A surfaces, MG63 cells produced 30% more osteocalcin on modA, and 70% more on SLA. However, growth on modSLA increased osteocalcin by more than 250%, which exceeded the sum of independent effects of surface energy and topography. Similar effects were noted when levels of latent TGF-β1, PGE2 and OPG were measured in the conditioned media.
The results demonstrate a synergistic effect between high surface energy and topography of Ti substrates and show that both micron scale and submicron scale structural features are necessary.
Titanium; Surface energy; Microstructure; Submicron roughness; Osteoblast differentiation
Ideal outcomes in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine involve biomaterials that can enhance cell differentiation and production of local factors for natural tissue regeneration without the use of systemic drugs. Biomaterials typically used in tissue engineering applications include polymeric scaffolds that mimic the 3-D structural environment of the native tissue, but these are often functionalized with proteins or small peptides to improve their biological performance. For bone applications, titanium (Ti) implants, or more appropriately the titania (TiO2) passive oxide layer formed on their surface, have been shown to enhance osteoblast differentiation in vitro and to promote osseointegration in vivo. In this study we evaluated the effect on osteoblast differentiation of pure TiO2 nano-fiber meshes with different surface micro-roughness and nano-fiber diameters, prepared by the electrospinning method. MG63 cells were seeded on TiO2 meshes, and cell number, differentiation markers and local factor production were analyzed. The results showed that cells grew throughout the entire surfaces and with similar morphology in all groups. Cell number was sensitive to surface micro-roughness, whereas cell differentiation and local factor production was regulated by both surface roughness and nano-fiber diameter. These results indicate that scaffold structural cues alone can be used to drive cell differentiation and create an osteogenic environment without the use of exogenous factors.
nano structures; electrospinning; scaffold; titanium implant; tissue engineering; bone
Osseointegration depends on the implant surface, bone quality and the local and systemic host environment, which can differ in male and female patients. This study was undertaken in order to determine if male and female cells respond differently to titanium surfaces that have micron-scale roughness and if interactions of calciotropic hormones [1α,25(OH)2D3 and 17β-oestradiol (E2)] and microstructured surfaces on osteoblasts are sex dependent.
Osteoblasts from 6-week old Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) or on titanium (Ti) disks with two different surface topographies, a smooth pretreated (PT) surface and a coarse grit-blasted/acid-etched (SLA) surface, and treated with 1α,25(OH)2D3, E2, or E2 conjugated to bovine serum albumin (E2-BSA).
Male and female cells responded similarly to Ti microstructure with respect to cell number and levels of osteocalcin, transforming growth factor-β1, osteoprotegerin and prostaglandin E2 in their conditioned media, exhibiting a more differentiated phenotype on SLA than on PT or TCPS. E2 and E2-BSA increased differentiation and local factor production, an effect that was microstructure dependent and found only in female osteoblasts. 1α,25(OH)2D3 increased osteoblast differentiation and local factor production in female and male cells, but the effect was more robust in male cells.
Male and female rat osteoblasts respond similarly to surface microstructure but exhibit sexual dimorphism in substrate-dependent responses to systemic hormones. Oestrogen affected only female cells while 1α,25(OH)2D3 had a greater effect on male cells. These results suggest that successful osseointegration in males and females may depend on the implant surface design and correct levels of calciotropic hormones.
Geometrical diffuse reflection is a common optical phenomenon that occurs when a reflecting surface has roughness of order of hundreds of micrometres. Light rays thus reflect uniformly in all directions with each ray obeying Snell's law. Of interest is knowing what happens when light reflects off surfaces with roughness of nanometres. Here, by introducing nanoscaled roughness on the hexagonal faces of ZnO nanocavities, we observe luminescent profiles with flowery patterns, replacing the usual whispering gallery modes. The unique profile for these nanocavities is attributed to wave diffuse reflection, which occurs when the features on the reflecting surfaces are typically nanometre-sized. Light with wavelengths of similar scale “sees” these nano-perturbations, and undergoes scattering rather than geometrical diffuse reflection. These findings could benefit the fields of nanoscale topography and nanoscopic uniform lighting by using wave diffuse reflection.
The microstructure and wettability of titanium (Ti) surfaces directly impact osteoblast differentiation in vitro and in vivo. These surface properties are important variables that control initial interactions of an implant with the physiological environment, potentially affecting osseointegration. The objective of this study was to use polyelectrolyte thin films to investigate how surface chemistry modulates response of human MG63 osteoblast-like cells to surface microstructure. Three polyelectrolytes, chitosan, poly(l-glutamic acid), and poly(l-lysine), were used to coat Ti substrates with two different microtopographies (PT, Sa = 0.37 µm and SLA, Sa = 2.54 µm). The polyelectrolyte coatings significantly increased wettability of PT and SLA without altering micron-scale roughness or morphology of the surface. Enhanced wettability of all coated PT surfaces was correlated with increased cell numbers whereas cell number was reduced on coated SLA surfaces. Alkaline phosphatase specific activity was increased on coated SLA surfaces than on uncoated SLA whereas no differences in enzyme activity were seen on coated PT compared to uncoated PT. Culture on chitosan-coated SLA enhanced osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin production. Integrin expression on smooth surfaces was sensitive to surface chemistry, but microtexture was the dominant variable in modulating integrin expression on SLA. These results suggest that surface wettability achieved using different thin films has a major role in regulating osteoblast response to Ti, but this is dependent on the microtexture of the substrate.
Wettability; Titanium; Surface roughness; Osteoblast
Surface structural modifications at the micrometer and nanometer scales have driven improved success rates of dental and orthopaedic implants by mimicking the hierarchical structure of bone. However, how initial osteoblast-lineage cells populating an implant surface respond to different hierarchical surface topographical cues remains to be elucidated, with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or immature osteoblasts as possible initial colonizers. Here we show that in the absence of any exogenous soluble factors, osteoblastic maturation of primary human osteoblasts (HOBs) but not osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs is strongly influenced by nanostructures superimposed onto a microrough Ti6Al4V (TiAlV) alloy. The sensitivity of osteoblasts to both surface microroughness and nanostructures led to a synergistic effect on maturation and local factor production. Osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs was sensitive to TiAlV surface microroughness with respect to production of differentiation markers, but no further enhancement was found when cultured on micro/nanostructured surfaces. Superposition of nanostructures to microroughened surfaces affected final MSC numbers and enhanced production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) but the magnitude of the response was lower than for HOB cultures. Our results suggest that the differentiation state of osteoblast-lineage cells determines the recognition of surface nanostructures and subsequent cell response, which has implications for clinical evaluation of new implant surface nanomodifications.
(4 to 6) metallic implants; osteointegration; titanium aluminum vanadium alloy; bone; nanostructures; osteoblast differentiation
The topography of an implant surface can serve as a powerful signaling cue for attached cells and can enhance the quality of osseointegration. A series of improved implant surfaces functionalized with nanoscale structures have been fabricated using various methods.
In this study, using an H2O2 process, we fabricated two size-controllable sawtooth-like nanostructures with different dimensions on a titanium surface. The effects of the two nano-sawtooth structures on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) were evaluated without the addition of osteoinductive chemical factors.
These new surface modifications did not adversely affect cell viability, and rat BMMSCs demonstrated a greater increase in proliferation ability on the surfaces of the nano-sawtooth structures than on a control plate. Furthermore, upregulated expression of osteogenic-related genes and proteins indicated that the nano-sawtooth structures promote osteoblastic differentiation of rat BMMSCs. Importantly, the large nano-sawtooth structure resulted in the greatest cell responses, including increased adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation.
The enhanced adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation abilities of rat BMMSCs on the nano-sawtooth structures suggest the potential to induce improvements in bone-titanium integration in vivo. Our study reveals the key role played by the nano-sawtooth structures on a titanium surface for the fate of rat BMMSCs and provides insights into the study of stem cell-nanostructure relationships and the related design of improved biomedical implant surfaces.
nanotechnology; surface modification; osteogenic differentiation; BMMSCs; implants; osseointegration
Implant osseointegration is a prerequisite for clinical success in orthopaedic and dental applications, many of which are restricted by loosening. Biomaterial surface modification approaches, including calcium-phosphate ceramic coatings and macro/microporosity, have had limited success in promoting integration. To improve osseointegration, titanium surfaces were coated with the GFOGER collagen-mimetic peptide, selectively promoting α2β1 integrin binding, a crucial event for osteoblastic differentiation. Titanium surfaces presenting GFOGER triggered osteoblastic differentiation and mineral deposition in bone marrow stromal cells, leading to enhanced osteoblastic function compared to unmodified titanium. Furthermore, this integrin-targeted coating significantly improved in vivo peri-implant bone regeneration and osseointegration, as characterized by bone-implant contact and mechanical fixation, compared to untreated titanium in a rat cortical bone-implant model. GFOGER-modified implants also significantly enhanced osseointegration compared to surfaces modified with full-length type I collagen, highlighting the importance of presenting specific biofunctional domains within the native ligand. In addition, this biomimetic implant coating is generated using a simple, single-step procedure that readily translates to a clinical environment with minimal processing and cytotoxicity concerns. Therefore, this study establishes a biologically active and clinically relevant implant coating strategy that enhances bone repair and orthopaedic implant integration.
biomimetic material; cell adhesion; collagen; osseointegration; integrin
Efforts have been made recently to implement nanoscale surface features on magnesium, a biodegradable metal, to increase bone formation. Compared with normal magnesium, nanostructured magnesium has unique characteristics, including increased grain boundary properties, surface to volume ratio, surface roughness, and surface energy, which may influence the initial adsorption of proteins known to promote the function of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells). Previous studies have shown that one way to increase nanosurface roughness on magnesium is to soak the metal in NaOH. However, it has not been determined if degradation of magnesium is altered by creating nanoscale features on its surface to influence osteoblast density. The aim of the present in vitro study was to determine the influence of degradation of nanostructured magnesium, created by soaking in NaOH, on osteoblast density. Our results showed a less detrimental effect of magnesium degradation on osteoblast density when magnesium was treated with NaOH to create nanoscale surface features. The detrimental degradation products of magnesium are of significant concern when considering use of magnesium as an orthopedic implant material, and this study identified a surface treatment, ie, soaking in NaOH to create nanoscale features for magnesium that can improve its use in numerous orthopedic applications.
nanostructured magnesium; degradation; detrimental effects; osteoblasts
The morphology and function of endothelial cells depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of the extracellular environment. Here, we designed silicon surfaces on which topographical features and surface densities of the integrin binding peptide arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) could be independently controlled. We used these surfaces to investigate the relative importance of the surface chemistry of ligand presentation versus surface topography in endothelial cell adhesion. We compared cell adhesion, spreading and migration on surfaces with nano- to micro-scaled pyramids and average densities of 6×102–6×1011 RGD/mm2. We found that fewer cells adhered onto rough than flat surfaces and that the optimal average RGD density for cell adhesion was 6×105 RGD/mm2 on flat surfaces and substrata with nano-scaled roughness. Only on surfaces with micro-scaled pyramids did the topography hinder cell migration and a lower average RGD density was optimal for adhesion. In contrast, cell spreading was greatest on surfaces with 6×108 RGD/mm2 irrespectively of presence of feature and their size. In summary, our data suggest that the size of pyramids predominately control the number of endothelial cells that adhere to the substratum but the average RGD density governs the degree of cell spreading and length of focal adhesion within adherent cells. The data points towards a two-step model of cell adhesion: the initial contact of cells with a substratum may be guided by the topography while the engagement of cell surface receptors is predominately controlled by the surface chemistry.
We present a facile and inexpensive approach to superhydrophobic polymer coatings. The method involves the in-situ polymerization of common monomers in the presence of a porogenic solvent to afford superhydrophobic surfaces with the desired combination of micro- and nano-scale roughness. The method is applicable to a variety of substrates and is not limited to small areas or flat surfaces. The polymerized material can be ground into a superhydrophobic powder, which, once applied to a surface, renders it superhydrophobic. The morphology of the porous polymer structure can be efficiently controlled by composition of the polymerization mixture, while surface chemistry can be adjusted by photografting. Morphology control is used to reduce the globule size of the porous architecture from micro down to nanoscale thereby affording a transparent material. The influence of both surface chemistry as well as the length scale of surface roughness on the superhydrophobicity is discussed.
Porous Polymer; Superhydrophobic; Superhydrophilic; Transparency; Photografting; Surface Modification; Superhydrophobicity; Superhydrophobic surface; Polymer monolith; Porous polymer coating
Accurate mechanical characterization by the atomic force microscope at the highest spatial resolution requires that topography is deconvoluted from indentation. The measured height of nanoscale features in the atomic force microscope (AFM) is almost always smaller than the true value, which is often explained away as sample deformation, the formation of salt deposits and/or dehydration. We show that the real height of nano-objects cannot be obtained directly: a result arising as a consequence of the local probe-sample geometry.
Methods and Findings
We have modeled the tip-surface-sample interaction as the sum of the interaction between the tip and the surface and the tip and the sample. We find that the dynamics of the AFM cannot differentiate between differences in force resulting from 1) the chemical and/or mechanical characteristics of the surface or 2) a step in topography due to the size of the sample; once the size of a feature becomes smaller than the effective area of interaction between the AFM tip and sample, the measured height is compromised. This general result is a major contributor to loss of height and can amount to up to ∼90% for nanoscale features. In particular, these very large values in height loss may occur even when there is no sample deformation, and, more generally, height loss does not correlate with sample deformation. DNA and IgG antibodies have been used as model samples where experimental height measurements are shown to closely match the predicted phenomena.
Being able to measure the true height of single nanoscale features is paramount in many nanotechnology applications since phenomena and properties in the nanoscale critically depend on dimensions. Our approach allows accurate predictions for the true height of nanoscale objects and will lead to reliable mechanical characterization at the highest spatial resolution.
Many challenges exist in improving early osseointegration, one of the most critical factors in the long-term clinical success of dental implants. Recently, ultraviolet (UV) light-mediated photofunctionalization of titanium as a new potential surface treatment has aroused great interest. This study examines the bioactivity of titanium surfaces treated with UV light of different wavelengths and the underlying associated mechanism. Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) titanium samples were pretreated with UVA light (peak wavelength of 360 nm) or UVC light (peak wavelength of 250 nm) for up to 24 h. UVC treatment promoted the attachment, spread, proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells on the titanium surface, as well as the capacity for apatite formation in simulated body fluid (SBF). These biological influences were not observed after UVA treatment, apart from a weaker effect on apatite formation. The enhanced bioactivity was substantially correlated with the amount of Ti-OH groups, which play an important role in improving the hydrophilicity, along with the removal of hydrocarbons on the titanium surface. Our results showed that both UVA and UVC irradiation altered the chemical properties of the titanium surface without sacrificing its excellent physical characteristics, suggesting that this technology has extensive potential applications and merits further investigation.
Nanoscale surface manipulation technique to control the surface roughness and the wettability is a challenging field for performance enhancement in boiling heat transfer. In this study, micro-nano hybrid structures (MNHS) with hierarchical geometries that lead to maximizing of surface area, roughness, and wettability are developed for the boiling applications. MNHS structures consist of micropillars or microcavities along with nanowires having the length to diameter ratio of about 100:1. MNHS is fabricated by a two-step silicon etching process, which are dry etching for micropattern and electroless silicon wet etching for nanowire synthesis. The fabrication process is readily capable of producing MNHS covering a wafer-scale area. By controlling the removal of polymeric passivation layers deposited during silicon dry etching (Bosch process), we can control the geometries for the hierarchical structure with or without the thin hydrophobic barriers that affect surface wettability. MNHS without sidewalls exhibit superhydrophilic behavior with a contact angle under 10°, whereas those with sidewalls preserved by the passivation layer display more hydrophobic characteristics with a contact angle near 60°.
The surface properties of materials contribute to host cellular response and play a significant role in determining the overall success or failure of an implanted biomaterial. Rough titanium (Ti) surface microtopography and high surface free energy have been shown to enhance osteoblast maturation in vitro and increase bone formation in vivo. While the surface properties of Ti are known to affect osteoblast response, host bone quality also plays a significant role in determining successful osseointegration. One factor affecting host bone quality is patient age. We examined both in vitro and in vivo whether response to Ti surface features was affected by animal age. Calvarial osteoblasts isolated from 1-, 3-, and 11-month-old rats all displayed a reduction in cell number and increases in alkaline phosphatase specific activity and osteocalcin in response to increasing Ti surface microtopography and surface energy. Further, osteoblasts from the three ages examined displayed increased production of osteocalcin and local factors osteoprotegerin, VEGF-A, and active TGF-β1 in response to increasing Ti surface roughness and surface energy. Latent TGF-β1 only increased in cultures of osteoblasts from 1- and 3-month-old rats. Treatment with the systemic osteotropic hormone 1α,25(OH)2D3 further enhanced the response of osteoblasts to Ti surface features for all three age groups. However, osteoblasts derived from 11-month-old animals had a reduced response to 1α,25(OH)2D3 as compared to osteoblasts derived from 1-or 3-month-old animals. These results were confirmed in vivo. Ti implants placed in the femoral intramedullary canal of old (9-month) mice yielded lower bone-to-implant contract and neovascularization in response to Ti surface roughness and energy compared to younger (2-month) mice. These results show that rodent osteoblast maturation in vitro as well as new bone formation in vivo is reduced with age. Whether comparable age differences exist in humans needs to be determined.
The greater surface of bioactive glass nanoparticles presents an incomparable and promising feature similar to the biological apatite. Nanoparticles improve cellular adhesion, enhance osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, and increase biomineralization for periodontal regeneration and dental implants. Considering the fact that interaction between periodontal cells and bone graft materials are important for periodontal lesion regeneration, the present study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxicity of a novel synthesized nanoscale bioactive glass and compared it with Novabone bioglass in periodontal fibroblasts cells, in order to approve the biocompatibility of nano bioactive glass.
Materials and Methods:
In this in vitro experimental study, periodontal C165 fibroblasts cells were cultured in their logarithmic phase and the genotoxicity of novel synthesized bioactive glass nanoparticles and Novabone bioglass was studied in different concentrations and a control group using Comet assay test. By using Autocomet software, three parameters (Tail length, %DNA in tail, Tail moment) were analyzed; the genotoxicity of mentioned biomaterials and control group. Obtained data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software, Kruskal Wallis H and Mann Whitney tests (P = 0.05).
No statistically significant difference was observed between the concentrations of Novabone bioglass (P value = 0.085) with control group and novel nano bioactive glass (P value = 0.437) with control group in the evaluation of %DNA in tail parameter. There was significant difference between genotoxicity of novel nano bioactive glass and control, and between Novabone bioglass and control group in concentrations of 4 and 5 mg/ml. According to significance of the mean difference, novel nano bioactive glass showed higher genotoxicity compared to Novabone bioglass in the concentration of 5 mg/ml (P ≤ 0.05).
The findings of this study have demonstrated that novel nano bioactive glass had no genotoxicity in concentrations lower than 4 mg/ml. Nanoparticles have a higher surface area in comparison to microparticles and thus, the amount and rate of ion release for nanoparticles are extremely higher. This difference is the main reason for the different genotoxicity of nano bioactive glass and micro Novabone bioglass in the concentrations higher than 4 mg/ml.
Biocompatibility; comet assay; fibroblast cell; genotoxicity; nano bioactive glass
Mechanical stimulation of osteoblasts by fluid flow promotes a variety of pro-differentiation effects and improving the efficiency of these mechanical signals could encourage specific differentiation pathways. One way this could be accomplished is by altering mechanical properties of osteoblasts. In this study, murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on surfaces covered with nanometer-sized islands to examine the hypothesis that the elastic modulus of osteoblastic cells is affected by nanoscale topography. Nanoislands were produced by polymer demixing of polystyrene and poly(bromostyrene), which leads to a segregated polymer system and formation of nanometer sized topographical features. The elastic modulus of MC3T3-E1 cells was determined using atomic force microscopy in conjunction with the Hertz mathematical model. Osteoblastic cells cultured on nanotopographic surfaces (11-38 nm high islands) had a different distribution of cellular modulus values, e.g., the distribution shifted towards higher modulus values, relative to cells on flat control surfaces. There were also differences in cell modulus distribution between two flat controls as surface chemistry was changed between polystyrene and glass. Taken together, our results demonstrate that both surface nanotopography and chemistry affect the mechanical properties of cells and may provide new methods for altering the response of cells to external mechanical signals.
osteoblast; elastic modulus; nanotopography; atomic force microscopy; Hertz model
Detection of a small number of circulating tumor cells is important, especially at the early stages of cancer. The small number of CTCs is hard to detect as very few approaches are sensitive enough to differentiate these from the pool of other cells. Improving the affinity of a selective surface-functionalized molecule is important given the sparsity of CTCs in vivo. There are a number of proteins and aptamers that provide such a high affinity but using a surface nano-texturing increases this affinity even further.
This work reports an approach to improve affinity of tumor cell capture by using novel aptamers against cell-membrane over-expressed Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (EGFR) on a nano-textured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. Surface immobilized aptamers are used to specifically capture tumor cells from physiological samples.
The nano-texturing of PDMS increased surface roughness at the nanoscale. This increased the effective surface area and resulted in a significantly higher degree of surface functionalization. The phenomenon resulted in increased density of immobilized EGFR specific RNA aptamer molecules and provided significantly higher efficiency to capture cancer cells from a mixture. The data showed that CTCs could be captured and enriched leading to higher yield, yet higher background.
The comparison of glass slides, plain PDMS and nano-textured PDMS functionalized with aptamers show that a two-fold approach of using aptamers on nano-textured PDMS can be an important factor for cancer cytology devices especially for the idea of lab-on-chip towards higher yield in capture efficiency.
RNA Aptamers; CTC; Human Glioblastoma; Polydimethylsiloxane; Lab-on-Chip; Nano-textured Materials; Microscopy; Basement Membrane
Our study was designed to evaluate osseointegration among implants with three surface treatments: plasma-sprayed titanium (P), plasma-sprayed titanium with hydroxyapatite (PHA), and chemical-textured titanium with hydroxyapatite (CHA). Average surface roughness (Ra) was 27 microns for the P group, 17 microns for the PHA group, and 26 microns for the CHA group. Bilateral distal intramedullary implants were placed in the femora of thirty rabbits. Histomorphometry of scanning electron microscopy images was used to analyze the amount of bone around the implants at 6 and 12 weeks after implantation. Greater amounts of osseointegration were observed in the hydroxyapatite-coated groups than in the noncoated group. For all implant surfaces, osseointegration was greater at the diaphyseal level compared to the metaphyseal level. No significant differences were seen in osseointegration between the 6 and 12 week time points. Although the average surface roughness of the P and the CHA groups was similar, osseointegration of the CHA implants was significantly greater. The results of this in vivo lapine study suggest that the presence of an hydroxyapatite coating enhances osseointegration despite similarities in average surface roughness.
Multiple biomaterials are clinically available to spine surgeons for performing interbody fusion. Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) is used frequently for lumbar spine interbody fusion, but alternative materials are also used, including titanium (Ti) alloys. Previously, we showed that osteoblasts exhibit a more differentiated phenotype when grown on machined or grit-blasted titanium aluminum vanadium (Ti6Al4V) alloys with micron-scale roughened surfaces than when grown on smoother Ti6Al4V surfaces or on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). We hypothesized that osteoblasts cultured on rough Ti alloy substrates would present a more mature osteoblast phenotype than cells cultured on PEEK, suggesting that textured Ti6Al4V implants may provide a more osteogenic surface for interbody fusion devices.
The aim of the present study was to compare osteoblast response to smooth Ti6Al4V (sTiAlV) and roughened Ti6Al4V (rTiAlV) with their response to PEEK with respect to differentiation and production of factors associated with osteogenesis.
This in vitro study compared the phenotype of human MG63 osteoblast-like cells cultured on PEEK, sTiAlV, or rTiAlV surfaces and their production of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs).
Surface properties of PEEK, sTiAlV, and rTiAlV discs were determined. Human MG63 cells were grown on TCPS and the discs. Confluent cultures were harvested, and cell number, alkaline phosphatase–specific activity, and osteocalcin were measured as indicators of osteoblast maturation. Expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) for BMP2 and BMP4 was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Levels of BMP2, BMP4, and BMP7 proteins were also measured in the conditioned media of the cell cultures.
Although roughness measurements for sTiAlV (Sa=0.09±0.01), PEEK (Sa=0.43±0.07), and rTiAlV (Sa= 1.81±0.51) varied, substrates had similar contact angles, indicating comparable wettability. Cell morphology differed depending on the surface. Cells cultured on Ti6Al4V had lower cell number and increased alkaline phosphatase specific activity, osteocalcin, BMP2, BMP4, and BMP7 levels in comparison to PEEK. In particular, roughness significantly increased the mRNA levels of BMP2 and BMP4 and secreted levels of BMP4.
These data demonstrate that rTiAlV substrates increase osteoblast maturation and produce an osteogenic environment that contains BMP2, BMP4, and BMP7. The results show that modifying surface structure is sufficient to create an osteogenic environment without addition of exogenous factors, which may induce better and faster bone during interbody fusion.
Ti6Al4V; PEEK; Osteoblast; BMP; Roughness
Protein adsorption is the first of a complex series of events that regulates many phenomena at the nano-bio interface, e.g. cell adhesion and differentiation, in vivo inflammatory responses and protein crystallization. A quantitative understanding of how nanoscale morphology influences protein adsorption is strategic for providing insight into all of these processes, however this understanding has been lacking until now.
Here we introduce novel methods for quantitative high-throughput characterization of protein-surface interaction and we apply them in an integrated experimental strategy, to study the adsorption of a panel of proteins on nanostructured surfaces. We show that the increase of nanoscale roughness (from 15 nm to 30 nm) induces a decrease of protein binding affinity (≤90%) and a relevant increase in adsorbed proteins (≤500%) beyond the corresponding increase of specific area. We demonstrate that these effects are caused by protein nucleation on the surface, which is promoted by surface nanoscale pores.
These results show that the adsorption of proteins depends significantly on surface nanostructure and that the relevant morphological parameter regulating the protein adsorption process is the nanometric pore shape. These new findings improve our understanding of the role of nanostructures as a biomaterial design parameter and they have important implications for the general understanding of cell behavior on nanostructured surfaces.
The interactions of C2C12 myoblasts and human bone marrow stem cells (hMSCs) with silk-tropoelastin biomaterials, and the capacity of each to promote attachment, proliferation, and either myogenic- or osteogenic-differentiation were investigated. Temperature-controlled water vapor annealing was used to control beta-sheet crystal formation to generate insoluble silk-tropoelastin biomaterial matrices at defined ratios of the two proteins. These ratios controlled surface roughness and micro/nano-scale topological patterns, and elastic modulus, stiffness, yield stress, and tensile strength. A combination of low surface roughness and high stiffness in the silk-tropoelastin materials promoted proliferation and myogenic-differentiation of C2C12 cells. In contrast, high surface roughness with micro/nano-scale surface patterns was favored by hMSCs. Increasing the content of human tropoelastin in the silk-tropoelastin materials enhanced the proliferation and osteogenic-differentiation of hMSCs. We conclude that the silk-tropoelastin composition facilitates fine tuning of the growth and differentiation of these cells.
Rough titanium (Ti) surface microarchitecture and high surface energy have been shown to increase osteoblast differentiation, and this response occurs through signaling via the α2β1 integrin. However, clinical success of implanted materials is dependent not only upon osseointegration but also on neovascularization in the peri-implant bone. Here we tested the hypothesis that Ti surface microtopography and energy interact via α2β1 signaling to regulate the expression of angiogenic growth factors. Primary human osteoblasts (HOB), MG63 cells and MG63 cells silenced for α2 integrin were cultured on Ti disks with different surface microtopographies and energies. Secreted levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) were measured. VEGF-A increased 170% and 250% in MG63 cultures, and 178% and 435% in HOB cultures on SLA and modSLA substrates, respectively. In MG63 cultures, FGF-2 levels increased 20 and 40-fold while EGF increased 4 and 6-fold on SLA and modSLA surfaces. These factors were undetectable in HOB cultures. Ang-1 levels were unchanged on all surfaces. Media from modSLA MG63 cultures induced more rapid differentiation of endothelial cells and this effect was inhibited by anti-VEGF-A antibodies. Treatment of MG63 cells with 1α,25(OH)2D3 enhanced levels of VEGF-A on SLA and modSLA. Silencing the α2 integrin subunit increased VEGF-A levels and decreased FGF-2 levels. These results show that Ti surface microtopography and energy modulate secretion of angiogenic growth factors by osteoblasts and that this regulation is mediated at least partially via α2β1 integrin signaling.
Titanium; microstructure; surface energy; osteoblast; angiogenesis; VEGF
Implant surface topography influences osteoblastic proliferation, differentiation and extracellular matrix protein expressions. Previous researches proved that chemical surface modification of titanium implants could be used to improve Bone-to-implant contact. In this study, the surface topography, chemistry and biocompatibility of polished titanium surfaces treated with mixed solution of three acids containing HCl, HF and H3PO4 with different etched conditions for example concentration, time and addition of calcium chloride were studied. Osteoblast cells (MG-63) were cultured on different groups of titanium surfaces. In order to investigate titanium surfaces, SEM, AFM and EDS analyses were carried out. The results showed that surfaces treated with HCl–HF–H3PO4 had higher roughness, lower cytotoxicity level and better biocompatibility than controls. Moreover, addition of calcium chloride into mixed solution of three acids containing HCl, HF and H3PO4 is an important, predominant and new technique for obtaining biofunction in metals for biomedical use including dentistry.