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1.  Chiari network: A case report and brief overview 
The Chiari network is mobile, net-like structures occasionally seen in right atrium near the opening of inferior vena cava and coronary sinus. This is usually of no clinical significance and is often diagnosed incidentally. However, sometimes it may cause diagnostic confusion with right atrial pathologies, and may favour thromboembolism by causing flow obstruction. It may be associated with infective endocarditis, arrhythmias, and migraine. Sometimes, it acts as a physical barrier during invasive procedures. The Chiari network has also been described to protect from pulmonary embolism by acting as an inferior vena cava filter due to its sieve-like effect at the cavo-atrial junction. Here, the Chiari network has been described in a case of Ebstein anomaly of tricuspid valve which produced diagnostic confusion during echocardiography. A brief overview has also been presented.
doi:10.1016/j.jsha.2012.12.002
PMCID: PMC3809461  PMID: 24174864
Coronary sinus; Inferior vena cava; Ebstein anomaly
2.  Inferior Vena Cava Filter Migration to the Right Ventricle Causing Nonsustained Ventricular Tachycardia 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2013;40(3):316-319.
Inferior vena cava filters are commonly used to prevent pulmonary embolism in patients who manifest deep vein thrombosis and recurrent pulmonary embolism despite anticoagulation, or in patients with contraindications to anticoagulation. We report the case of a 69-year-old man with a structurally normal heart who experienced migration of an inferior vena cava filter to the right ventricle, which caused the abrupt onset of recurrent episodes of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia unresponsive to intravenous antiarrhythmic medication. Cardiac imaging revealed the location of the filter within the right ventricle, and the device was removed, with subsequent resolution of the arrhythmia. We anticipate that the incidence of inferior vena cava filter migration might increase in the future because of recent changes in device construction. The sudden appearance of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in a patient with an inferior vena cava filter might indicate the occurrence of this potentially life-threatening sequela and should lead to emergent cardiac imaging.
PMCID: PMC3709234  PMID: 23914030
Foreign-body migration; inferior vena cava filter; pulmonary embolism/prevention & control; tachycardia, ventricular/etiology/diagnosis; vena cava, inferior; vena cava filters/adverse effects/utilization; venous thrombosis; ventricular tachycardia
3.  Using inferior vena cava filters to prevent pulmonary embolism  
Canadian Family Physician  2008;54(1): 49 - 55 .
OBJECTIVE
To review the evidence for using inferior vena cava (IVC) filters to prevent pulmonary embolism (PE) in high-risk patients.
QUALITY OF EVIDENCE
Ovid MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to 2006 for all English-language papers on IVC filters. Evidence was graded according to the 3-level classification system. Most evidence found was level II.
MAIN MESSAGE
Inferior vena cava filters are used to prevent PE in patients with contraindications to, complications of, or failure of anticoagulation therapy and patients with extensive free-floating thrombi or residual thrombi following massive PE. Current evidence indicates that IVC filters are largely effective; breakthrough PE occurs in only 0% to 6.2% of cases. Contraindications to implantation of IVC filters include lack of venous access, caval occlusion, uncorrectable coagulopathy, and sepsis. Complications include misplacement or embolization of the filter, vascular injury or thrombosis, pneumothorax, and air emboli. Recurrent PE, IVC thrombosis, filter migration, filter fracture, or penetration of the caval wall sometimes occur with long-term use.
CONCLUSION
When used appropriately, IVC filters are a safe and effective method of preventing PE. Using retrievable filters might reduce long-term complications.
PMCID: PMC2293317  PMID: 18208955
4.  Retrieval of Gunther Tulip Vena Cava Filter with Thrombosed Hook and a Leg Incorporated into the Vena Cava Wall 
Annals of Vascular Diseases  2009;2(1):40-43.
A Gunther tulip vena cava filter was implanted in a patient with pulmonary embolism from deep venous thrombosis. The filter became unnecessary after therapy. However, retrieval by the standard method employing a vascular sheath placed via the transjugular approach in combination with a snare device was impossible. A thrombus occupying the apical hook made it difficult to snare the hook, also one filter leg was incorporated into the inferior vena cava wall. Therefore we modified an existing method to withdraw the filter. As the first step, the filter cone was snared using the snare-over-guide wire loop technique, and the cephalad site of the filter was introduced into the sheath. Then, a 12-French sheath was advanced from the femoral vein and, using a pusher, the distal legs of the filter were pushed, which resulted the filter leg that was incorporated into the inferior vena cava wall became detached. Finally the filter was successfully retrieved.
doi:10.3400/avd.AVDht08008
PMCID: PMC3595756  PMID: 23555355
embolism; pulmonary; interventional procedures; vena cava; filters
5.  Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement during Pregnancy: An Adjuvant Option When Medical Therapy Fails 
The authors present a case of a 27-year-old multiparous woman, with multiple thrombophilia, whose pregnancy was complicated with deep venous thrombosis requiring placement of a vena cava filter. At 15th week of gestation, following an acute deep venous thrombosis of the right inferior limb, anticoagulant therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was instituted without improvement in her clinical status. Subsequently, at 18 weeks of pregnancy, LMWH was switched to warfarin. At 30th week of gestation, the maintenance of high thrombotic risk was the premise for placement of an inferior vena cava filter for prophylaxis of pulmonary embolism during childbirth and postpartum. There were no complications and a vaginal delivery was accomplished at 37 weeks of gestation. Venal placement of inferior vena cava filters is an attractive option as prophylaxis for pulmonary embolism during pregnancy.
doi:10.1155/2013/821635
PMCID: PMC3678500  PMID: 23781361
6.  Detection of atrial septal defect with left-to-right shunt by inferior vena cava contrast echocardiography. 
British Heart Journal  1982;47(5):445-453.
Contrast echocardiography was used before cardiac catheterisation in 37 patients with atrial septal defect and a left-to-right shunt and in 18 patients with a raised right atrial and ventricular pressure to assess the contrast echo effect in the inferior vena cava. Using two dimensional contrast apical echocardiography we found a negative contrast echo effect within the right atrium in many but not all patients with atrial defect. Contrast echoes entering the inferior vena cava during presystole or early to mid-diastole were detected in patients with heart disease causing raised right atrial and ventricular pressures and also in all patients with atrial septal defect. No contrast echo effect in the inferior vena cava was detected in 10 normal subjects. The sensitivity of this contrast pattern in the inferior vena cava in diagnosing atrial septal defect was 100%. When other conditions causing raised right atrial pressure were excluded, the specificity and predictive accuracy were 100% for both. The presystolic contrast echo effect in the inferior vena cava, semiquantitatively graded, correlated with the size of the shunt determined by oximetry. In 20 patients re-examined after the surgical correction of the atrial septal defect, no presystolic contrast echo effect was detected in the inferior vena cava. Contrast echocardiography of the inferior vena cava is a valuable and reliable method for diagnosing atrial septal defect with left-to-right shunt.
Images
PMCID: PMC481161  PMID: 7073905
7.  The ripped cava. 
Lacerations of the inferior vena cava are associated with a high mortality and may be difficult to repair. The majority of injuries are due to penetrating trauma. Rapid transportation to definitive surgical care with effective resuscitation may improve mortality. Surgical management includes adequate treatment of hypovolemic shock due to blood loss. Placement of intravenous infusion sites below the level of the diaphragm may be effective. Operative control of the inferior vena cava can be accomplished by directed digital compression followed by a proximal and distal control. Injuries of the inferior vena cava above the level of the renal veins are associated with an increased mortality. Retrohepatic and subdiaphragmatic injuries are highly lethal. This article discusses appropriate surgical approaches for repair of the inferior vena cava above and below the diaphragm.
PMCID: PMC2607809  PMID: 7752285
8.  Inferior Vena Cava Filters for Recurrent Thrombosis 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2007;34(2):187-194.
Inferior vena cava filters are often used as alternatives to anticoagulant therapy for the prevention of pulmonary embolism. Many of the clinical data that support the use of these devices stem from relatively limited retrospective studies.
The dual purpose of this review is to examine the incidence of thrombotic complications associated with inferior vena cava filters and to discuss the role of anticoagulant therapy concurrent with filter placement. Device-associated morbidity and overall efficacy can be considered only in the context of rates of vena cava thrombosis, insertion-site thrombosis, recurrent deep venous thrombosis, and recurrent pulmonary embolism.
PMCID: PMC1894721  PMID: 17622366
Anticoagulants/contraindications/therapeutic use; combined modality therapy; device removal; equipment design/safety/trends; evaluation studies; patient selection; prosthesis implantation; pulmonary embolism/prevention & control/therapy; recurrence; risk factors; thrombolytic therapy/methods; treatment outcome; vena cava filters/adverse effects/classification/contraindications/history/statistics & numerical data/trends/utilization; venous thrombosis/complications/prevention & control/therapy
9.  Complications related to deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in trauma: a systematic review of the literature 
Deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis is essential to the appropriate management of multisystem trauma patients. Without thromboprophylaxis, the rate of venous thrombosis and subsequent pulmonary embolism is substantial. Three prophylactic modalities are common: pharmacologic anticoagulation, mechanical compression devices, and inferior vena cava filtration. A systematic review was completed using PRISMA guidelines to evaluate the potential complications of DVT prophylactic options. Level one evidence currently supports the use of low molecular weight heparins for thromboprophylaxis in the trauma patient. Unfortunately, multiple techniques are not infrequently required for complex multisystem trauma patients. Each modality has potential complications. The risks of heparin include bleeding and heparin induced thrombocytopenia. Mechanical compression devices can result in local soft tissue injury, bleeding and patient non-compliance. Inferior vena cava filters migrate, cause inferior vena cava occlusion, and penetrate the vessel wall. While the use of these techniques can be life saving, they must be appropriately utilized.
doi:10.1186/1752-2897-4-1
PMCID: PMC2823661  PMID: 20205800
10.  A Population-Based Study of Inferior Vena Caval Filters in Patients Diagnosed With Acute Venous Thromboembolism 
Archives of internal medicine  2010;170(16):1456-1462.
Objectives
To describe the frequency, indications, and outcomes following inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement in a population-based sample of residents of the Worcester, MA, metropolitan area diagnosed with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) in 1999, 2001, and 2003.
Methods
A retrospective chart review of inpatient and outpatient medical records was conducted. Recorded indication(s) for IVC filter placement was determined among a subset of cases from three Worcester tertiary care hospitals. Three thrombosis specialists assessed the appropriateness of IVC filter placement.
Results
Among 1547 greater Worcester residents with validated acute VTE and without a prior IVC filter, 203 (13.1%) had an IVC filter placed after acute VTE. Patients with an IVC filter placed were older, had more co-morbidities, and had higher mortality during 3-year follow-up. There was unanimous agreement by panel members that use of an IVC filter was appropriate in 51% of cases, and inappropriate in 26% of cases, with no consensus in the remaining 23%.
Conclusions
In this community-based study, IVC filters were frequently utilized in the management of patients with acute VTE. Placement was deemed to be appropriate in approximately half of the patients, but was not appropriate or debatable in the remaining cases. Given increasing use of IVC filters, prospective studies are clearly needed to better define the indications for, and efficacy of, IVC filter placement.
doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2010.272
PMCID: PMC3691870  PMID: 20837832
11.  Successful removal of a Gunther tulip vena cava filter with wall-embedded hook and migration during a retrieval attempt 
Acta Radiologica Short Reports  2013;2(1):2047981613478010.
Retrieval of a Gunther tulip vena cava filter implanted in a patient with inferior vena cava and right common iliac vein thrombosis was attempted by the standard method. Because the filter was tilted, the hook became attached to the vena cava wall and could not be snared. During attempts at removal by an alternative method, the filter migrated toward the right atrium. However, it was finally successfully removed.
doi:10.1177/2047981613478010
PMCID: PMC3742064  PMID: 23986855
Embolism; pulmonary; extremities; thrombosis; interventional procedures; vena cava; filters
12.  Retrograde Tempofilter II™ Placement within the Superior Vena Cava in a Patient with Acute Upper Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis: the Filter Stands on Its Head 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2011;12(1):140-143.
The Tempofilter II is a widely used temporary vena cava filter. Its unique design, which includes a long tethering catheter with a subcutaneous anchor, facilitates the deployment and retrieval of the device. Despite this, the Tempofilter II has been used only in the inferior vena cava of patients with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. In this article, we present a case of superior vena cava filtering using the Tempofilter II in patients with upper extremity deep venous thrombosis.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2011.12.1.140
PMCID: PMC3017879  PMID: 21228951
Embolism, pulmonary; Veins, extremities; Veins, thrombosis; Vena cavae, filter; Vena cavae, interventional procedure
13.  Pseudo interruption of the inferior vena cava complicating the device closure of patent ductus arteriosus: Case report and short review of venous system embryology 
A nineteen-month-old girl was taken up for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) device closure. A diagnostic catheter from the right femoral venous access entered the superior vena cava (SVC), through the azygos vein suggesting interruption of inferior vena caval with azygos continuity. Therefore, the PDA device was closed from the right jugular venous access. However, a postprocedure echocardiogram (echo) showed a patent inferior vena caval connection into the right atrium. An angiogram from femoral veins showed communication between the iliac veins and the azygos system, in addition to normal drainage into the inferior vena cava (IVC). Congenital communication between the iliac veins and the azygos system can mimic IVC interruption. An attempt to theoretically explain the embryological origin of the communication has been made.
doi:10.4103/0974-2069.126567
PMCID: PMC3959068
Azygos vein; jugular; iliac veins
14.  Improving the Tracking and Removal of Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters 
Therapeutic and prophylactic inferior vena cava (IVC) filters should be placed based on currently accepted indications to prevent a fatal pulmonary embolism (PE). The protective effect of filters is offset by the potential for lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT), caval thrombosis, and possible otherwise unnecessary life-long anticoagulation (AC). The duration of treatment for most DVTs or PEs is 3 to 6 months of AC/filter. Filters should be retrieved when duration of treatment for a DVT/PE has been met, the risk of a PE is no longer high, and/or there is no longer a contraindication to AC. An effective system that leads to improving the retrieval rate of filters must include education of the patient, a tracking system to minimize patient lost to follow-up, and dedicated personnel to oversee the process. If these goals are accomplished, interventionalists can help decrease the incidence of a fatal PE during the high-risk period, and also decrease the risk of a DVT or the use of otherwise unnecessary life-long AC in subsequent years. Currently, there is much room for improvement in the frequency that IVCF patients are systematically followed and filters are retrieved. The principles discussed in this report will be helpful in this process.
doi:10.1055/s-0031-1273946
PMCID: PMC3140247  PMID: 22379282
Retrievable inferior vena cava filters; tracking inferior vena cava filter patients; improving retrieval of inferior vena cava filters
15.  Retrospective analysis of the use of inferior vena cava filters in routine hospital practice 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2006;82(964):150-153.
Introduction
Characteristics and outcomes of patients undergoing inferior vena cava (IVC) filter insertion are not well reported. Particularly, the role of long term anticoagulation in these patients is unclear.
Aims
(1) To describe in a cohort of patients undergoing IVC filter insertion, underlying diseases, indications for filter insertion, complications, and survival. (2) To determine the effect of long term anticoagulant treatment on thromboembolism and patient survival.
Study design
A retrospective analysis of 109 consecutive patients undergoing IVC filter insertion in two university hospitals.
Results
Average age was 67.4 years. Median duration of follow up was two years. Indications for IVC filter insertion were: contraindication to anticoagulation (n = 61, 56%), prophylactic insertion (n = 29, 27%), thromboembolism while receiving adequate anticoagulation (n = 17, 15%), and non‐compliance with anticoagulation (n = 2, 2%). Insertion related complications were groin haematoma in four patients (3.5%) and localised infection at the puncture site in one patient (0.9%). Fifty six patients (51.4%) died during the study period. Of these, 22 received long term anticoagulants and 34 did not. Overall and thrombosis free survival was greater in the anticoagulant treated group (median survival not reached) than in the untreated group (median survival = 12 months). Patients not receiving long term anticoagulation after IVC filter insertion were nearly 2.5‐fold more likely to die or experience venous thromboembolism.
Conclusion
IVC filter insertion was a safe procedure and was performed for appropriate indications in the patients studied. In patients surviving for longer than 30 days, prolonged administration of oral anticoagulants was associated with improved survival with no significant increase in haemorrhagic complications.
doi:10.1136/pgmj.2005.037911
PMCID: PMC2596700  PMID: 16461480
vena cava filter; anticoagulation
16.  The Mid-Term Efficacy and Safety of a Permanent Nitinol IVC Filter (TrapEase) 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2005;6(2):110-116.
Objective
1) To evaluate the mid-term efficacy and safety of a permanent nitinol inferior vena cava (IVC) filter; 2) to evaluate filter effectiveness, filter stability and caval occlusion.
Materials and Methods
A prospective evaluation of the TrapEase IVC filter was performed on 42 patients (eight men, 34 women) ranging in age from 22 to 78 years (mean age 66 years). All patients were ill with a high risk of pulmonary embolism (PE). Indications for filter placement were: 1) deep vein thrombosis with recurrent thromboembolism; 2) and/or free-floating thrombus with contraindication to anticoagulation; and 3) complications in achieving adequate anticoagulation. Follow-up evaluations (mean: 15.4 months, range: 2 to 28 months) were performed at 6- and 12-month intervals after the procedure and included clinical histories, chart reviews, plain film, Doppler ultrasounds, and contrasted abdominal CT scans.
Results
In follow-up evaluations, the data analysis revealed no cases of symptomatic PE. There were no cases of filter migration, insertion site thrombosis, filter fracture, or vessel wall perforation. During the study, there was one case of filter thrombosis; early symptomatic thrombosis that was successfully treated in the hospital. Of the 42 subjects, eight died. These deaths were not related to the filter device or the implantation procedure, but to the underlying disease.
Conclusion
This study demonstrates that the TrapEase permanent IVC filter is a safe and an effective device with low complication rates and is best used in patients with thromboembolic disease with a high risk of PE.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2005.6.2.110
PMCID: PMC2686418  PMID: 15968150
Pulmonary thromboembolism; IVC Filter; IVC thrombosis
17.  Septic Pulmonary Embolism Case Report: Optimal Outcome after Insertion of an Inferior Vena Cava Filter in a Patient with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia 
A 14-year-old patient presented with bilateral pneumonia and pleural effusions, septic arthritis of the hip, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary thromboembolism. Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) containing the Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes was isolated. Contraindication to anticoagulation prompted inferior vena cava filter placement. He completed 4 weeks of treatment with flucloxacillin, with good clinical outcome. S. aureus containing PVL genes should be sought in cases of necrotizing pneumonia as it seems to increase the risk of severe multifocal infection and thrombotic complications. There are few reports of placement of filters during S. aureus sepsis and bacteraemia. This case highlights that when anticoagulation is not feasible, an inferior vena cava filter can be inserted safely, even in patients with active sepsis and high risk for seeding of the filter. Long-term follow-up confirmed a successful outcome with sterilization of the septic thrombosis with no further pulmonary embolism or additional sepsis episodes.
doi:10.1155/2010/651023
PMCID: PMC2902050  PMID: 20628514
18.  Limitations of using synthetic blood clots for measuring in vitro clot capture efficiency of inferior vena cava filters 
The purpose of this study was first to evaluate the clot capture efficiency and capture location of six currently-marketed vena cava filters in a physiological venous flow loop, using synthetic polyacrylamide hydrogel clots, which were intended to simulate actual blood clots. After observing a measured anomaly for one of the test filters, we redirected the focus of the study to identify the cause of poor clot capture performance for large synthetic hydrogel clots. We hypothesized that the uncharacteristic low clot capture efficiency observed when testing the outlying filter can be attributed to the inadvertent use of dense, stiff synthetic hydrogel clots, and not as a result of the filter design or filter orientation. To study this issue, sheep blood clots and polyacrylamide (PA) synthetic clots were injected into a mock venous flow loop containing a clinical inferior vena cava (IVC) filter, and their captures were observed. Testing was performed with clots of various diameters (3.2, 4.8, and 6.4 mm), length-to-diameter ratios (1:1, 3:1, 10:1), and stiffness. By adjusting the chemical formulation, PA clots were fabricated to be soft, moderately stiff, or stiff with elastic moduli of 805 ± 2, 1696 ± 10 and 3295 ± 37 Pa, respectively. In comparison, the elastic moduli for freshly prepared sheep blood clots were 1690 ± 360 Pa. The outlying filter had a design that was characterized by peripheral gaps (up to 14 mm) between its wire struts. While a low clot capture rate was observed using large, stiff synthetic clots, the filter effectively captured similarly sized sheep blood clots and soft PA clots. Because the stiffer synthetic clots remained straight when approaching the filter in the IVC model flow loop, they were more likely to pass between the peripheral filter struts, while the softer, physiological clots tended to fold and were captured by the filter. These experiments demonstrated that if synthetic clots are used as a surrogate for animal or human blood clots for in vitro evaluation of vena cava filters, the material properties (eg, elastic modulus) and dynamic behavior of the surrogate should first be assessed to ensure that they accurately mimic an actual blood clot within the body.
doi:10.2147/MDER.S42555
PMCID: PMC3656916  PMID: 23690701
blood clot; elastic modulus; polyacrylamide hydrogel; in vitro testing of vena cava filters
19.  Iliofemoral-popliteal deep vein thrombosis at 35th week of pregnancy: treated with cesarean section and vena cava blockage plus thrombectomy 
Pregnancy, due to its adaptive physiological changes, is a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis. Incidence of thromboembolic complications during pregnancy ranges from 0.76 to 1.72 per 1000 births. We present in this case report a pregnant woman with iliofemoral-popliteal deep vein thrombosis diagnosed at the 35th week of her pregnancy, who was treated with vena cava blockage and thrombectomy followed by cesarean section. Unfortunately, a rethrombosis developed in the patient after three days. We determined that the a-v fistula was blocked and not working. We found additionally that the deep vein thrombosis was closing the iliac vein completely on the left side and the blockage descending down through the inferior vena cava inlet with MRI. The patient underwent insertion of a retrievable vena cava filter, two stent implantation to the venous narrowings and surgical iliofemoral venous thrombectomy with concomitant re-creation of a temporary femoral arterio-venous fistula. Anticoagulation therapy with enoxaparine was started after the operation. The patient was discharged with warfarin under control of the INR value, and also with additional compression therapy (compression stockings) from the clinic. Without jeopardizing the mother and the baby, planning a combined surgical procedure, with a multidisciplinary approach is the best way to eliminate the risks of serious complications such as pulmonary embolism and mortality.
doi:10.5152/jtgga.2012.16
PMCID: PMC3939137  PMID: 24592024
Deep vein thrombosis; pregnancy; complications; thrombectomy; inferior vena cava
20.  Inferior Vena Cava Index in Edematous Patients 
Introduction
To find a relation between extracellular over fluid and inferior vena cava index as a noninvasive, cost effective and accessible method.
Methods
In a cross sectional study 54 cases (no edema 30, mild and moderate 13 and significant edema 11 cases) entered to study. Inferior vena cava index (IVCi) measured by difference of inspiration to expiration divided to maximum size multiply by 100, we also find delta ratio as difference of maximum to minimum size of inferior vena cava. All data expressed by rate and ratio, relation of edema severity to IVCi or delta ratio performed by mann whitney and regression test, P less than 0.05 was significant.
Results
IVCi in 30 cases with no edema ,13 cases with mild to moderate and 11 cases with significant edema were %46±16 , %42±16 , %38±17, there is a reverse relation of IVCi and edema severity but these relations were not significant (P>0.05 ).Averaged Delta ratio(millimeter) decreased in severe edema but it was not significant(3.7mm±2 vs. 2.8mm±1.6).
Conclusion
In edematous conditions IVCi and delta ratio decrease but these changes are not significant for edema severity estimation.
doi:10.5681/jcvtr.2012.017
PMCID: PMC3825360  PMID: 24250988
Inferior Vena Cava Index; Edema; Children
21.  Vena Cava Filters in Spinal Cord Injuries: Evolving Technology 
Background:
Asymptomatic deep venous thrombosis (DVT) has been reported in 60% to 100% of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Several guidelines have been published detailing recommended venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after acute SCI. Low-molecular-weight heparin, intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) devices, and/or graduated compression stockings are recommended. Vena cava filters (VCFs) are recommended for secondary prophylaxis in certain situations.
Objective:
To clarify the use of vena cava filters in patients with SCI.
Methods:
Literature review.
Results:
Prophylactic use of vena cava filters has expanded in trauma patients, including individuals with SCI. Filter placement effectively prevents pulmonary emboli and has a low complication rate. Indications include pulmonary embolus while on anticoagulant therapy, presence of pulmonary embolus and contraindication for anticoagulation, and documented free-floating ileofemoral thrombus. VCFs should be considered in patients with complete motor paralysis caused by lesions in the high cervical cord (C2 and C3), with poor cardiopulmonary reserve, or with thrombus in the inferior vena cava despite anticoagulant prophylaxis. Three optional retrievable filters that are approved for use are discussed.
Conclusion:
Retrievable VCFs are a safe, feasible option for secondary prophylaxis of VTE in patients with SCI. Objective criteria for temporary and permanent placement need to be defined.
PMCID: PMC1864806  PMID: 16859222
Spinal cord injuries; Deep vein thrombosis; Venous thromboembolism; Pulmonary embolism; Trauma; Thromboprophylaxis; Vena cava filters; Greenfield filters; Recovery; OptEase; TrapEase
22.  Management of the Thrombosed Filter-Bearing Inferior Vena Cava 
Inferior vena cava (IVC) filter thrombosis is a complex problem. Thrombus within an IVC filter may range from an asymptomatic small thrombus to critical IVC occlusion that affects both lower extremities. The published experience of IVC thrombosis management in relation to filters is either anecdotal or limited to a small group of patients; however, endovascular treatment methods appear to be safe and effective in patients with IVC thrombosis. This review focuses on filter-related IVC thrombosis and its endovascular management.
doi:10.1055/s-0032-1302453
PMCID: PMC3348765  PMID: 23449290
vena cava filters; vena cava inferior; venous thrombosis/therapy; thrombectomy/methods
23.  Balloon-trapped Technique for Successful OptEaseFilter Retrieval 
Annals of Vascular Diseases  2011;4(1):40-42.
Purpose: To describe a case of successful retrieval of OptEase filter, using the balloon-trapped technique, after failure of its retrieval by the standard techniques.
Case report: An 82-year-old man had an inferior vena cava filter placed for deep venous thrombosis prophylactically. Seven days after successful catheter-directed thrombolysis, the filter was retrieved after changing the position to caudal, using a standard angioplasty balloon. The patient was discharged on warfarin anticoagulant.
Conclusion: Balloon-trapped removal of the OptEase filter that failed standard retrieval attempt is an effective and safe technique that can be performed using commonly available tools and familiar to most interventionalists.
doi:10.3400/avd.cr.10.01041
PMCID: PMC3595779  PMID: 23555426
deep venous thrombosis; pulmonary embolism; permanent/retrieval filter; catheter-directed thrombolysis
24.  Symptomatic inferior vena cava perforation by a retrievable filter: Report of two cases and a literature review 
Inferior vena cava filters have been used frequently for decades to prevent pulmonary embolism in medical, surgical and trauma patients. With the advent of temporary or retrievable filters, the use of these filters has increased substantially. However, the enhanced design and attributes that make these devices attractive for short-term benefit and retrieval are not without risk. Two cases of symptomatic inferior vena cava wall penetration are reported – one of which required surgical intervention.
PMCID: PMC2903035  PMID: 22477554
Inferior vena cava filter; Inferior vena cava filter complications; Inferior vena cava wall penetration; Retrievable filter
25.  Venous Thromboembolism After Removal of Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters 
The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of new or recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) after retrieval of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters and risk factors associated with such recurrence. Between March 2001 and September 2008, at our institution, implanted retrievable vena cava filters were retrieved in 76 patients. The incidence of new or recurrent VTE after retrieval was reviewed and numerous variables were analyzed to assess risk factors for redevelopment of VTE after filter retrieval. In 5 (6.6%) of the 76 patients, redevelopment or worsening of VTE was seen after retrieval of the filter. Three patients (4.0%) had recurrent deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities and 2 (2.6%) had development of pulmonary embolism, resulting in death. Although there was no significant difference in the incidence of new or recurrent VTE related to any risk factor investigated, a tendency for development of VTE after filter retrieval was higher in patients in whom DVT in the lower extremities had been so severe during filter implantation that interventional radiological therapies in addition to traditional anticoagulation therapies were required (40% in patients with recurrent VTE vs. 23% in those without VTE; p = 0.5866 according to Fisher’s exact probability test) and in patients in whom DVT remained at the time of filter retrieval (60% in patients with recurrent VTE vs. 37% in those without VTE; p = 0.3637). In conclusion, new or recurrent VTE was rare after retrieval of IVC filters but was most likely to occur in patients who had severe DVT during filter implantation and/or in patients with a DVT that remained at the time of filter retrieval. We must point out that the fatality rate from PE after filter removal was high (2.6%).
doi:10.1007/s00270-009-9682-8
PMCID: PMC2816805  PMID: 19768501
Pulmonary embolism; Thrombosis of extremities; Interventional procedures; Vena cava filters

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