Serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) level is an important biomarker for coronary artery disease (CAD). As direct LDL measurement is expensive and not cost effective, especially in a large population, it is estimated by Friedewald formula. Therefore, we decided to compare the direct LDL measurement method with LDL measured by Friedewald formula in a large general population for the first time in Iran. Furthermore, we examined the association of total cholesterol (TCh), triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) with LDL.
Subjects and Methods:
This study was conducted on the subjects, aged 11–97 years, in the third phase of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) from three cities: Isfahan, Najafabad, and Arak. A fasting blood sample was taken from all subjects and referred to Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center (ICRC) laboratory (central laboratory of IHHP) to assess TCh, TG, HDL, and LDL directly. Also, the LDL level was calculated by Friedewald formula, in addition.
The mean level of LDL by direct method was lower than that calculated by Friedewald formula. The mean difference between the two methods was significant, which was 6.6 ± 15.5 mg/dl difference (t = -42.925, P < 0.0001). There was strong correlation between direct and calculated LDL levels (adjusted R2 = 80.4%). Using regression model, a new formula was found for the estimation of LDL.
It is concluded that the Friedewald formula overestimates the LDL level compared to the direct method in general Iranian population. It is suggested that LDL measurement be carried out directly, especially in high-risk people. If a formula is necessary for LDL estimation, it is better to obtain an especial formula for each population.
Direct measurement; Friedewald formula; Iiran; low density lipoprotein
To assess the impact of gender and living area on cardiovascular risk factors in the context of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program.
Data from independent sample surveys before (2000--2001) and after (2007) a community trial, entitled the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) were used to compare differences in the intervention area (IA) and reference area (RA) by gender and living area.
The interventions targeted the population living in Isfahan and Najaf-Abad counties as IA and Arak as RA.
Overall, 12 514 individuals who were more than 19 years of age were studied at baseline, and 9570 were studied in postintervention phase.
Multiple activities were conducted in connection with each of the four main strategies of healthy nutrition, increasing physical activity, tobacco control, and coping with stress.
Comparing serum lipids levels, blood pressure, blood glucose and obesity indices changes between IA and RA based on sex and living areas during the study.
In IA, while the prevalence of hypertension declined in urban and rural females (P < 0.05). In IA, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia decreased in both females and males of urban and rural areas except for hypercholesterolemia in rural males (P < 0.01). In RA, the significant changes include both decrease in the hypercholesterolemia among rural males (P < 0.001) and hypertriglyceridemia in urban females (P < 0.01), while hypertriglyceridemia was significantly increased in rural females (P < 0.01).
This comprehensive community trial was effective in controlling many risk factors in both sexes in urban and rural areas. These findings also reflect the transitional status of rural population in adopting urban lifestyle behaviors.
Age; cardiovascular risk factor; community health program; health promotion; rural; sex; urban
Association between white rice intake and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases remained uncertain. Most of the previous published studies have been done in western countries with different lifestyles, and scant data are available from the Middle East region, including Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the structure of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) to assess the association between white rice consumption and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, 3,006 men were included from three counties of Isfahan, Najafabad, and Arak by multistage cluster random-sampling method. Dietary intake was assessed with a 49-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Laboratory assessment was done in a standardized central laboratory. Outcome variables were fasting blood glucose, serum lipid levels, and anthropometric variables. Socioeconomic and demographic data, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) were considered covariates and were adjusted in analysis. In this study, Student's t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. Means of BMI among those subjects who consumed white rice less than 7 times per week and people who consumed 7-14 times per week were almost similar—24.8±4.3 vs 24.5±4.7 kg/m2. There was no significant association between white rice consumption and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, such as fasting blood sugar and serum lipid profiles. Although whole grain consumption has undeniable effect on preventing cardiovascular disease risk, white rice consumption was not associated with cardiovascular risks among Iranian men in the present study. Further prospective studies with a semi-quantitative FFQ or dietary record questionnaire, representing type and portion-size of rice intake as well as cooking methods and other foods consumed with rice that affect glycaemic index (GI) of rice, are required to support our finding and to illustrate the probable mechanism.
Cardiovascular diseases; Diet; Risk factors; White rice; Iran
The detrimental effects of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) on apolipoproteins have been reported from several parts of the world. However, little data is available in this regard from the understudied region of the Middle East. The present study therefore tried to evaluate the association between type of vegetable oils and serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels among Iranians.
In this cross-sectional study, data from 1772 people (795 men and 977 women) aged 19–81 years, who were selected with multistage cluster random sampling method from three cities of Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak in “Isfahan Healthy Heart Program” (IHHP) (Iran), was used. To assess participants' usual dietary intakes, a validated food frequency questionnaire was used. Hydrogenated vegetable oil (commonly consumed for cooking in Iran) and margarine were considered as the category of PHVOs. Soy, sunflower, corn, olive and canola oils were considered as non-HVOs. After an overnight fasting, serum cholesterol (total, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol) and triglyceride as well as apolipoproteins A and B were measured using standard methods.
Participants with the highest intakes of non-HVOs and PHVOs were younger and had lower weight than those with lowest intakes. High consumption of non-HVOs and PHVOs was associated with lower intakes of energy, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, meat, milk and grains. No overall significant differences were found in serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels across the quartiles of non-HVOs and PHVOs after controlling for potential confounding.
We did not find any significant associations between hydrogenated or nonhydrogenated vegetable oil and serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels. Thus, further studies are needed in this region to explore this association.
Vegetable Oils; Cardiovascular Risk Factors; Lipids; Apolipoproteins; Diet
This study aimed to determine the effects of the interventions of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) on the type of oil consumed at the population level. It also tried to assess how this strategy has been effective as a health policy.
The IHHP, a six-year community intervention program (2001-07), aimed at health promotion through the modification of cardiovascular disease risk factors. It was performed in Isfahan and Najafabad counties (intervention area) and Arak county (reference area), all in central Iran. This study targeted the whole population of over 2,000,000 in the intervention area. The findings of annual independent sample surveys were compared with the reference area. Dietary interventions were performed as educational, environmental, and/or legislative strategies.
From 2001 to 2007, the mean of changes for hydrogenated oil consumption was -3.2 and -3.6, and for liquid oil it was 3.6 and 2.8 times per week in the intervention and reference areas, respectively (P < 0.001). According to Commerce office record, the increase in liquid oil distribution during 2000-2007 was significantly higher in Isfahan than Arak (34% vs. 25%).
The effects of the simple, comprehensive, and integrated action-oriented interventions of our program could influence policy making and its results at the community level. It can be adopted by other developing countries.
Oil Consumption; Hydrogenated Oil; Liquid Oil; Community Trial
This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of stress management training in improving the ability of coping with stress in a large population.
Five cross-sectional studies using multistage cluster random sampling were performed on adults aged ≥ 19 years between 2000 to 2005 in Isfahan and Najafabad (Iran) as intervention cities and Arak, Iran as the control city within the context of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Stress management training was adapted according to age and education levels of the target groups. In a 45-minute home interview, demographic data, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and stress management questionnaires were collected. Data was analyzed by t-test, linear regression and general linear model.
Trends of both adaptive and maladaptive coping skills and GHQ scores from baseline to the last survey were statistically significant in both intervention and reference areas (P < 0.001). While adaptive coping skills increased significantly, maladaptive coping skills decreased significantly in the intervention areas. Furthermore, stress levels decreased significantly in the intervention compared to the reference area.
Stress management programs could improve coping strategies at the community level and can be considered in designing behavioral interventions
Stress Management; Community; Intervention; Coping Strategies
Epidemiologic studies have shown an inverse association between dietary fiber and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between MetS and consumption of legumes in adults in Isfahan, Iran.
This cross-sectional study was carried out on 2027 individuals who were a subsample of the 3rd phase of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). Basic characteristics information such as age, sex, smoking status, and physical activity were collected using a questionnaire. A validated 48-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary behaviors. Blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), glucose, triacylglycerols, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured, and MetS was defined based on Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Multiple logistic regression models examined associations of frequency consumption of legumes with MetS occurrence and its components.
All MetS components were less prevalent among subjects with regular legume intake (P < 0.01). Legume intake was inversely associated with the risk of MetS, after adjustment for confounding factors in women. Life style adjusted odds ratio of Mets between highest and lowest tertile and no consumption (as reference category) of legume intake were 0.31 (0.13, 0.70), 0.38 (0.17, 0.87), respectively, in women (P = 0.01).
This study showed that age has a crucial role in MetS incidence; therefore, after further age adjustment to lifestyle adjusted model there was no significant difference in lower and higher tertile of legume intake and MetS.
Legumes; Metabolic Syndrome; Iran
Effects of 5-year interventions of Worksite Intervention Project from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program on cardiovascular risk factors of factories and offices employees were studied in Isfahan and Najafabad (intervention area) compared to Arak (control area).
We had especial interventions for nutrition, physical activity and smoking as well as hypertension and obesity screening systems in all offices and factories, and other risk factors screening systems whenever possible. Before and after the interventions, questionnaires containing demographic and other required data were completed for the two populations; height, weight and blood pressure (BP) were measured and a fasting and 2h blood sample was taken for the measurement of blood sugar (BS) and lipid levels.
The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and central obesity decreased, but low HDL increased in office staff (P < 0.01). Waist circumference, HDL and total cholesterol mean values decreased, and diastolic BP and fasting and 2h BS increased among the intervention group. In factory workers, the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and central obesity decreased, while low HDL prevalence increased in intervention group (P < 0.001). Mean values of waist circumference, HDL and total cholesterol, and triglyceride decreased significantly (P < 0.001), while diastolic BP and fasting BS increased.
It seems that Worksite Intervention Project has a protective effect on CVD risk factors in factories and offices employees. So, the modifiable project can be used as an applicable tool for health improvement in worksites which creates tangible changes in employees’ lifestyle.
Risk Factors; Cardiovascular Disease; Workplace; Intervention
Individuals are faced with numerous stressful life events which can negatively influence mental health. Many individuals use smoking as a means of confronting stress. Given the relatively high prevalence of smoking in central Iran, the present study was conducted to compare stress levels in smokers, non-smokers and those who had quit smoking.
This study was conducted as part of Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Program on 9752 individuals in the cities of Isfahan, Arak, and Najafabad in 2008. Sampling was performed using multi-stage cluster randomization method. Data on age, sex, demographic characteristics, and smoking status was collected through interviews. Stress level detected by General Health questionnaire.Logistic regression and chi- squere test was used for data analyzing.
In the present study, 30% of non-smokers, 32.1% ex- smoker and 36.9% of smokers had GHQ of 4 and higher (P=0.01). In regression analysis, the final model which was controlled for age, sex, socioeconomic statues (including place of residence, marital status and education level) showed that the odds ratio of stress in smokers and ex- smoker was significantly higher than in non-smokers (OR=1.66 and OR=1.12, respectively).
Since in conducted studies, mental problems and stresses have had an important role in people's smoking, it seems suitable to use the results of this study to present intervention for correct methods of coping with stress towards reducing the prevalence of smoking in the community.
Cigarette; Stress; Community-based Program.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity and overweight on diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) control in a healthy lifestyle intervention program in Iran.
Within the framework of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), a community trial that was conducted to prevent and control cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, two intervention counties (Isfahan and Najafabad) and one reference county (Arak) were selected. Demographic information, medical history, anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive medications use were asked by trained interviewers in addition to physical examination and laboratory tests for 12514 adults aged more than 19 years in 2001 and were repeated for 9572 adults in 2007.
In women, the frequency of HTN control change significantly neither in normal weight nor in those with high body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist to hip ratio (WHR). In men, the frequency of HTN control was only significant among those with high WHR, whereas the interaction between changes in intervention compared to reference area from 2001 to 2007 was significant in men with normal or high WC or WHR. In intervention area, the number of women with high BMI who controlled their DM increased significantly from 2001 to 2007 (p = 0.008), however, this figure decreased in men. In reference area, obesity indices had no significant association with DM control. The percentage of diabetic subjects with high WC who controlled their DM decreased non-significantly in intervention area compared to reference area in 2007. A non-significant increase in controlled DM among men and women with high WHR was observed between intervention and reference areas.
Our lifestyle interventions did not show any improving effect on HTN or DM control among obese subjects based on different obesity indices. Other lifestyle intervention strategies are suggested.
Hypertension; Diabetes; Obesity; Control; Prevention; Iran
Considering the main effect of obesity on chronic non-communicable diseases, this study was performed to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), cardiometabolic risk factors and to corroborate whether either or both BMI and WC are independently associated with the risk factors in a sample of Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study was performed on data from baseline survey of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). The study was done on 12,514 randomly-selected adults in Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak counties in 2000-2001. Ages of the subjects were recorded. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-hour post-load glucose (2hpp), serum lipids, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), BMI, WC, smoking status, and total daily physical activity were determined. Increase in BMI and WC had a significant positive relation with the mean of FBG, 2hpp, SBP, DBP, serum lipids, except for HDL-C (p<0.001 for all). After adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, socioeconomic status (SES), and BMI, the highest odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) for diabetes mellitus (DM) according to WC was 3.13 (1.93-5.08) and 1.99 (1.15-3.44) in women and men respectively. Moreover, the highest ORs based on BMI with adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, SES, and WC were for dyslipidaemia (DLP) [1.97 (1.58-2.45) in women and 2.96 (2.41-3.63) in men]. The use of BMI or WC alone in the models caused to enhance all ORs. When both BMI and WC were entered in the model, the ORs for all risk factors, in men, according to BMI, were more compared to WC. However, in women, ORs for DM and hypertension (HTN) in WC quartiles were more than in BMI quartiles. BMI is the better predictor of DM, HTN, and DLP in men compared to WC. Conversely, in women, WC is a superior predictor than BMI, particularly for DM and HTN. Furthermore, the measurement of both WC and BMI in Iranian adults may be a better predictor of traditional risk factors of CVDs compared to BMI or WC alone.
Body mass index; Diabetes mellitus; Dyslipidaemia; Hypertension; Obesity; Risk Factor; Waist-circumference; Iran
Primary prevention of chronic diseases has been suggested to initiate health promotion activities from childhoods. The impact of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), a comprehensive community trial, on unhealthy snacks and fast food intake changes was evaluated in Iranian adolescents between 2001 and 2007.
Healthy Heart Promotion from Childhood (HHPC) as one of the IHHP interventional projects was conducted in adolescents aged 11-18 years, selected randomly by multistage random sampling. Isfahan and Najafabad districts were intervention areas (IA) and Arak district was reference area (RA). The baseline and post-intervention surveys were conducted on 1941 and 1997 adolescents, respectively. Healthy lifestyle interventions were performed during the 2nd phase of the study targeting about 410000 students in urban and rural areas of the IA via education, environmental and legislation activities. Dietary intake was assessed annually using a fifty-item food frequency questionnaire in both communities.
The interaction of year×area demonstrated that the consumption of unhealthy snacks decreased significantly in middle school boys of RA compared to IA (P for interaction=0.01). However, middle school girls (P for interaction = 0.002) and both sexes of high school students in IA showed a significant reduction in fast food consumption against RA (P for interaction < 0.001).
The HHPC interventions made some improvement in fast food consumption. It did not show significant decrease regarding unhealthy snacks in adolescents. Proper and higher dose of interventions may be effective in achieving this goal.
Nutrition; Dietary Behaviour; Adolescent; Lifestyle; Community Trial
Lack of heart rate increase proportionate to exercise causes poor prognosis. Moreover, inflammatory factors such as C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with atherosclerosis. The current study compared these two indices in individuals with and without metabolic syndrome in Isfahan, Iran.
This study was performed on 203 people without and 123 patients with metabolic syndrome who were randomly selected from the participants of the Isfahan Cohort Study. The demographic data, waist circumference, blood pressure, height, and weight of the participants were recorded. Moreover, serum tr`viglyceride (TG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) levels were measured. Exercise test was carried out according to the Bruce standard protocol and heart rate reserve (HRR) was determined and recorded. The age-adjusted data was analyzed using generalized linear regression and student's t-test in SPSS15.
The mean ages of participants without and with metabolic syndrome were 54.16 ± 8.61 and 54.29 ± 7.6 years, respectively. The corresponding values for mean LDL levels were 116.17 ± 24.04 and 120.12 ± 29.55 mg/dl. TG levels were 140.38 ± 61.65 and 259.99 ± 184.49 mg/dl for subjects without and with the metabolic syndrome, respectively. The mean FBS levels were 81.81 ± 9.90 mg/dl in the participants without the syndrome and 107.13 ± 48.46 mg/dl in those with metabolic syndrome. The mean systolic blood pressure was 116.06 ± 13.69 mmHg in persons without metabolic syndrome and 130.73 ± 15.15 mmHg in patients with the syndrome. The values for mean diastolic levels in the two groups were 76.52 ± 6.69 and 82.84 ± 8.7 mmHg, respectively. While the two groups were not significantly different in terms of HRR (P = 0.27), hs-CRP levels in the metabolic syndrome group was significantly higher than the other group (P = 0.02).
We failed to establish a relationship between HRR and the metabolic syndrome. However, the observed relationship between metabolic syndrome and hs-CRP level, which is an inflammatory factor, indicates elevated levels of hs-CRP in patients with metabolic syndrome.
Metabolic Syndrome; Exercise Test; Heart Rate Reserve; High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein
Considering rapid global increase in children obesity and high prevalence of dyslipidemia in obese and overweight children, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of an educational course on changes of lipid profile in children.
This non-pharmacological clinical trial study was performed on 4-18 year-old children attending outpatient clinics of Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center (Iran). Anthropometric measurements were conducted for all children. Fasting blood samples were taken from right hand of the participants at the first laboratory visit. Biochemical tests including measurement of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were also carried out. Children took part in one educational session in which they were taught about ways and benefits of having regular physical activity once a day and having healthy foods. All children were followed up for about four months and anthropometrics and biochemical tests were repeated. Data was analyzed using SPSS16.
A total number of 412 children (245 girls and 167 boys) were divided into four age groups of under 6, 6-9, 10-13, and 14-18 years old. Baseline anthropometric measures were significantly higher in boys. However, there was no difference between boys and girls in baseline lipid profile. Children's body mass index (BMI) z-score increased in all age groups except for 14-18 year-old boys. In boys older than 10 years, there were significant reductions in LDL-C and TC. In girls over 10 years of age, there was a significant increase in HDL-C. Although anthropometric measurements did not change in children (except for 14-18 year-old-boys), there was a significant reduction in children's lipid profile after the study.
Our study showed that although one session of interventional education had no significant effects on children's anthropometric measurements, it could change their lipid profile. Moreover, the intervention was more effective on improving lipid profile in children over 10 years of age. Therefore, effective interventional strategies must be invented and implemented on children based on their age group.
Children Obesity; Education; Anthropometry; Lipid Profile; Lifestyle
Some studies showed that smoking follows an upward trend in Asian countries as compared with other countries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cigarette smoking on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors of atherosclerosis in patients with hypertension.
This study was conducted on 6123 men residing in central Iran (Isfahan and Markazi Provinces) that participated in Isfahan Healthy Heart Project (IHHP). Subjects were randomly selected using cluster sampling method. All the subjects were studied in terms of their history of cardiovascular disease, demographic characteristics, smoking, blood pressure, physical examination, pulse rate, respiratory rate, weight, height, waist circumference, and blood measurements including LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood sugar and 2-hour post prandial test.
While 893 subjects suffered from hypertension, 5230 subjects were healthy. The hypertension prevalence was 2.5 times more in urban areas compared to rural areas that showed a significant difference as it increased to 3.5 times smoking factor was considered. The prevalence of risk factors of atherosclerosis and also cardiovascular complications in patients with hypertension were significantly higher than healthy people. Furthermore, they were higher in smokers with hypertension and those exposed to the cigarette smoke than nonsmokers.
Smoking and passive smoking had an increasing effect on the prevalence of risk factors of atherosclerosis and consequently the incidence of cardiovascular diseases in patients with hypertension.
Hypertension; Cigarette Smoking; Cardiovascular Disease; Risk Factor
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. It affects approximately 18.0% of Iranian adults. This study aimed to estimate age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension and its control among Iranian persons older 19 years of age. It also tried to find and socioeconomic factors associated with hypertension control in Iranian population.
In Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) subjects were selected by multistage random sampling. The participants completed questionnaires containing demographic information, lifestyle habits, medical history, and consumption of relevant medications, especially antihypertensive agents. Income, marital status, and educational level were considered as socioeconomic factors. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medications. Controlled hypertension was considered as systolic blood pressure < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg among hypertensive subjects.
The prevalence of hypertension and controlled hypertension was 18.9% and 20.9%, respectively. We found significant relationships between hypertension and marital status, education, and income. At age ≥ 65 years old, odds ratio (OR) was 19.09 [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.01-24.28] for hypertension. Middle family income (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.58-0.87) and education level of 6-12 years (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.25-0.35) were significantly associated with increased risk of hypertension (P = 0.001). Among subjects aging 65 years old or higher, the OR of controlled hypertension was 2.64 (95% CI: 1.61-4.33). Married subjects had a higher OR for controlled hypertension (OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.36-3.52). Obesity had no significant relationships with controlled hypertension.
The IHHP data showed significant relationships between some socioeconomic factors and controlled hypertension. Therefore, as current control rates for hypertension in Iran are clearly unacceptable, we recommend preventive measures to control hypertension in all social strata of the Iranian population.
Socioeconomic Factor; High Blood Pressure; Control
The purpose of the present study was to investigate physical activity by socioeconomic status (SES) and sex in an Iranian adult population.
In a cross-sectional study, 6622 adults, who participated in the Isfahan Healthy Heart program (IHHP) surveys in 2004 and 2005 and were living in urban areas, were studied. Daily leisure time, household, occupational, and transportation physical activity, and total physical activity were calculated and compared in 3 socioeconomic status groups classified by the two-step cluster analysis procedure.
Statistically significant variations were found in all physical activity levels, except transportation, by sex. Men were more active than women in all fields, except household physical activity. Leisure time physical activity of men and women were significantly higher in higher SES levels. There was an opposite correlation between SES and total physical activity in men.
Considering the importance of physical activity as a component of a healthy lifestyle, differences among varying socioeconomic status and sex must be considered while planning for healthy lifestyle programs. Women with low SES, in particular, may need more attention.
Physical Activity; Socioeconomic Status; Leisure Time; Gender; Cluster Analysis
Serum paraoxonase is known to prevent low-density lipoprotein oxidation and atherogenesis. Association of paraoxonase with the oxidative status and lipid profile in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on conservative management and those on chronic maintenance hemodialysis was analyzed in the present study. Serum paraoxonase, protein thiols, lipid hydroperoxides, lipid profile, creatinine and albumin levels were estimated by spectrophotometric methods in CRF patients on conservative management, those on hemodialysis and in healthy controls. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipid hydroperoxides and creatinine levels were higher and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, protein thiols, albumin levels and paraoxonase activity were lower in patients than in healthy controls. Paraoxonase activity correlated positively with protein thiols and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and negatively with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipid hydroperoxides. In conclusion, paraoxonase activity is decreased in CRF patients particularly on chronic maintenance hemodialysis and correlates well with the oxidative stress markers.
Chronic renal failure; lipid hydroperoxides; lipid profile; oxidative stress; paraoxonase; protein thiols
Background. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and psychological distress are hypothesized to have a bidirectional relationship. According to their high prevalence in most populations, appraisal of this theory would be of great clinical and research interest. Methods. Data were available as part of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). A total of 9553 men and women aged ≥19 years from three counties in central Iran were selected. Measurements consisted of serologic tests, anthropometrics, and self-reported 12-item general health questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to find the association between MetS, MetS components, and distress level. Results. The mean age of 9553 participants (50% male) was 38.7 ± 15.8 years. After adjusting for demographic factors, MetS (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01–1.37), central obesity (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.15–1.49), and hypertension (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.42–1.70) were associated with high distress level. However, after adding smoking status and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to the adjustment factors, hypertension (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.53–1.98) and central obesity (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.17–1.55), but not the MetS, remained significantly associated with distress level. Conclusion. The presence of association between the MetS as well as its key components and high distress level signifies the importance of integrating psychological assessment and intervention in the standard management of MetS patients.
One of the modifiable risk factors associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) is hypercholesterolemia. This paper reviews the major plasma lipids and how they relate to coronary heart disease. Among blacks, CHD is the leading cause of death and disability. Blacks, in general, have been found to have lower low density lipoprotein (LDL), lower very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and higher high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels than whites, but there is some evidence to suggest that lipid and lipoprotein profiles may differ in middle and upper socioeconomic subgroups of the black population from those reported for lower socioeconomic groups.
The results of the Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Type II Coronary Intervention Study have shown that lowering cholesterol levels in persons with high blood cholesterol will decrease the rate of coronary heart disease events.
Diet therapy is the mainstay of treatment, and may lower blood cholesterol levels by 10 to 15 percent. For those unresponsive to diet therapy alone, a number of hypolipidemic drugs are available; some drugs (cholestyramine and colestipol) work by increasing the clearance of lipoprotein and others (clofibrate, nicotinic acid, and probucol) decrease the production of lipoproteins. The combination of diet and drugs may result in a decrease in cholesterol levels of 30 percent or more. For each 1 percent that cholesterol is decreased, there is a 2 percent decrease in coronary heart disease events.
Increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors, markers of oxidative stress and lipid profiles are known to be associated with several complications. The aim of this study was to determine the association of markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid profiles with insulin resistance in pregnant women in Kashan, Iran.
In a cross-sectional study, serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum insulin, 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-G), total cholesterol, triglyceride, High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured among 89 primigravida singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to assess their relationships with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).
We found that among biochemical indicators of pregnant women, serum hs-CRP and total cholesterol levels were positively correlated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.05, P = 0.006 for hs-CRP and β = 0.006, P = 0.006 for total cholesterol). These associations remained significant even after mutual effect of other biochemical indicators were controlled (β = 0.04, P = 0.01 for hs-CRP and β = 0.007, P = 0.02 for total cholesterol). Further adjustment for body mass index made the association of hs-CRP and HOMA-IR disappeared; however, the relationship for total cholesterol remained statistically significant.
Our findings showed that serum total cholesterol is independently correlated with HOMA-IR score. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Inflammation; Oxidative Stress; Insulin Resistance; Pregnancy
Recent epidemiologic studies have found that self-reported sleep duration is associated with components of metabolic syndrome (MS) such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension. This relation may be under influence of regional factors in different regions of the world. The association of sleep duration and MS in a sample of Iranian people in the central region of Iran was investigated in this study.
This cross-sectional study was conducted as a part of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). A total of 12492 individuals aged over 19 years, 6110 men and 6382 women entered the study. Definition of National Cholesterol Education Program was used to define MS. Sleep duration was reported by participants. Relation between sleep duration with MS was examined using categorical logistic regression in two models; unadjusted and adjusted for age and sex.
In our study, 23.5 % of participants had MS. Compared with sleep duration of 7-8 hours per night; sleep duration of less than 5 hours was associated with a higher odds ratio for MS. This association remained significant even after adjustment for age and sex (OR: 1.52; 95%CI: 1.33-1.74). However, sleep duration of 9 hours or more showed a protective association with MS (OR: 0.79; 95%CI: 0.68-0.94).
There was a positive relation between sleep deprivation and MS and its components. This relation was slightly affected by sex and age.
Sleep; Metabolic Syndrome; Heart; Population
Lipid abnormalities in hypothyroidism contribute to the disproportionate increase in cardiovascular risk. A possible relationship between serum level of magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) and cardiovascular disease was recorded. In this work, the possible correlation between lipid profile components and serum cations Ca and Mg was investigated. Matched healthy women were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. All parameters were measured spectrophotometrically. The results showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), total and ionized Mg in hypothyroid patients in comparing with control group. There was a significant increase (P <0.05) in serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and (LDL-C)/(HDL-C) ratio in hypothyroid patients as compared with control group. However, no correlation was found between the cation levels and lipid profile of the studied groups. It can be concluded that patients with hypothyroidism exhibited elevated atherogenic parameters (TC and LDL-C) and high risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Calcium; cholesterol; hypothyroidism; lipid; magnesium
Objective: Disturbances in lipid and lipoprotein profiles in patients after kidney transplantation (Tx) are still not understood. Methods: Serum levels of lipids, lipoprotein, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles were determined, lipid and lipoprotein ratios were calculated, and their relationships in Tx patients with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) and lower apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) concentration were examined. Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels were measured in 109 Tx patients and 89 healthy subjects. HDL particle levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Tx patients had disturbed concentration, composition, and metabolism of TRLs and HDL particles. Multivariance analysis showed significant and positive correlation between HDL cholesterol/apoAI (HDL-C/apoAI) and HDL-C/HDL ratios, which indicates that both ratios could sensitively reflect changes in the HDL subclasses and their distribution into smaller size particles. In Tx patients, the decreased HDL-C/apoAI ratio indicates that, along with the decreased apoAI concentration, the HDL-C level is decreased. However, a low HDL-C/HDL ratio indicates that HDL particles in Tx patients transport lesser content of HDL-C but more triglyceride (TG) (high TG/HDL ratio), and thus are hypercatabolized and removed; therefore, concentration of HDL particles in serum was decreased. Conclusion: The decrease of HDL-C/apoAI ratio seems to be a good marker of HDL subclass distribution into smaller size particles.
Lipid; Lipoprotein; High-density lipoprotein particle; Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein; Renal transplantation
Effects of three drugs, Gemfibrozil, Diltiazem and lsosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) on various lipid parameters were studied in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) with positive treadmill stress response. Gemfibrozil and diltiazem significantly lowered the levels of serum total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and incroased the levels of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) significantly. However, patients administered with ISDN showed a significant increase in all the lipid parameters except HDL-C, which showed a significant decrease.
Ischemic heart disease; Lipid profile; Gemfibrozil; Diltiazem; Isosorbide dinitrate